WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon-contaminated great lakes

  1. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  2. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  3. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  4. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Dendooven, L

    2006-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil restoration. Soil of Texcoco and an agricultural Acolman soil, which served as a control, were spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, added with or without biosolid or inorganic fertilizer (N, P), and dynamics of PAHs, N and P were monitored in a 112-day incubation. Concentrations of phenanthrene did not change significantly in sterilized Acolman soil, but decreased 2-times in unsterilized soil and >25-times in soil amended with biosolid and NP. The concentration of phenanthrene in unsterilized soil of Texcoco was 1.3-times lower compared to the sterilized soil, 1.7-times in soil amended with NP and 2.9-times in soil amended with biosolid. In unsterilized Acolman soil, degradation of BaP was faster in soil amended with biosolid than in unamended soil and soil amended with NP. In unsterilized soil of Texcoco, degradation of BaP was similar in soil amended with biosolid and NP but faster than in the unamended soil. It was found that application of biosolid and NP increased degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, but to a different degree in alkaline-saline soil of Texcoco compared to an agricultural Acolman soil.

  5. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  6. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  7. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  8. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  9. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  10. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  11. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  12. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  13. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  14. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  15. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  16. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  17. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  19. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  20. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bray Hedworth, Angela; Smith, Cassidy S

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death among adults in the United States and in the Great Lakes states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network was created to enhance collaboration and coordination among the Great Lakes states to reduce the burden of stroke and stroke-related disparities associated with race, sex, and geography. Three priorities were identified for reducing the effects of stro...

  1. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  2. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  3. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  4. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  5. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catch 1929-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  6. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catches 1929-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  7. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  8. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  9. Rights in the Great Lakes Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-11-08

    Nov 8, 1997 ... Great Lakes region was host to some 1,253,000 refugees or about ..... North East. ..... voluntary repatriation, integration into the local community in .... Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persans in Asia, I IHL, San Renamo,.

  10. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the great lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A. (ed.) [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    2006-07-01

    The environment around the Laurentian Great Lakes region has been adversely affected by agricultural runoff, urban waste, industrial discharge, landfill leachate, and atmospheric deposition. Although there have been some improvements over the last 20 years, persistent toxic organic pollutants are now a serious problem. This book brings together what is known about the major classes of these pollutants in the Great Lakes. Each chapter reviews our knowledge of the extent of contamination of the various parts of the Great Lakes ecosystem (air, water, sediment, fishes, birds, etc.), what is known about the trends over time of this contamination, and knowledge about the mechanisms by which these pollutants are mobilized in the lakes. Detailed information is presented on polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pesticides, toxaphene, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl acids. These reviews make this volume an invaluable resource for all those involved in environmental research, measurements, and decision making. (orig.)

  12. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  13. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  14. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  15. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  16. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  17. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  18. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  19. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    UTILIZATION OF A MARKETING STRATEGY AToNAVAL REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER GREAT LAKES NGREAT LAKES, ILLINOIS I DTIC S1 ELECTE I A Graduate Research...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. rCCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (bw* u S.wufty asification) Utilization of A Marketing Strategy At Naval Regional Medical Center...Applied Research Question. ........ 37 Summary of the Steps of a Marketing Strategy .. ..... 38 Applicability to the Military Health Care System

  20. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  1. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  2. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  3. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  4. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  5. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  6. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  7. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  8. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  9. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  10. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory..., 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers ] are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  11. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... comment period will be held during the meeting on October 18, 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers...

  12. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... completes its work on the agenda given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit...

  13. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  14. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears indicates a gradual increase from Alaska east to Svalbard, except PCB levels are significantly higher in eastern Greenland and Svalbard. Information on temporal trends is somewhat contradictory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  16. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Anticosti Island. (40 CFR 1043.20). EPA believes that the goal of repowering the fleet of Great Lakes... program is 14.0 hours annually. This is based on two steamship owners repowering two steamships in each...

  17. GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1966-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the winters of 1965/66 through 1976/77, NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) collected weekly ice thickness and stratigraphy data at up...

  18. Snowy plover survey: Great Salt Lake, UT: Summary report 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The snowy plover survey was conducted in the Great Salt Lake ecosystem from 7 May - 7 June 2007. A total of 274 clusters were surveyed and 659 birds counted. The...

  19. Spiders of the Great Dismal Swamp: Lake Drummond 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of a study of spiders that was conducted along the shores of Lake Drummond, in the Great Dismal Swamp. The purpose of the study was...

  20. 2015 RFA for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue monitoring and assessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  1. The future of salmonid communities in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of human population growth, industrialization, and the introduction of marine fishes have reduced the suitability of each of the Great Lakes for oligotrophic fish communities. The ultimate consequence has been a reduction of fishery productivity that has ranged from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior. If measures are not taken to alleviate the adverse effects of marine invaders and trends in environmental quality, a major reduction in fishery productivity can eventually be expected throughout the Great Lakes.Prospects for the next century will be improved if the lakes can be intensively managed. More stringent control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and subsequent reduction of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), by the reestablishment of populations of large piscivores, should permit the recovery of some of the previous predator and prey species, or the development of populations of new species that are more compatible with a reduced number of lampreys. Even if marine species can be reduced greatly, the full restoration of the former fishery productivity remains uncertain and will require a high degree of coordination among all management and research agencies that have responsibilities on the Great Lakes.Unfavorable trends toward progressive degradation of water quality pose the greatest threat to restoration of the fishery resources of the Great Lakes. Where changes in water quality have been the greatest, oligotrophic species have become scarce or absent, and in the deepwater regions no other species have reoccupied the vacated niches.

  2. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  3. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  4. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  5. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation... Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, located in Coventry Rhode Island with the settling parties...-1216. Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, Coventry,...

  6. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  7. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  9. Microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries (2014-15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset describes the quantity and morphology of floating microplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in 6 states. Samples were collected in spring 2014 – spring 2015. Each tributary was sampled three to four times, capturing low-flow and runoff-event conditions. Sampling and analysis methods are described in the .xml metadata file.These data are interpreted in a journal article: Baldwin, A.K., Corsi, S.R., and Mason, S.A., 2016, Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 50, no. 19, p. 10377–10385, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02917.

  10. First evidence of microplastics in the African Great Lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares John; Mayoma, Bahati Sosthenes; Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic contamination in the African Great Lakes is currently unreported, and compared to other regions of the world little is known about the occurrence of microplastics in African waters and their fauna. The present study was conducted in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, located......-FTIR) spectroscopy. A variety of polymer types were identified with likely sources being urban waste and consumer use. Although further research is required to fully assess the impact of plastic pollution in this region, our study is the first to report the presence of microplastics in Africa's Great Lakes...

  11. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  12. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinic, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Adults of the cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi, native to Australia, Africa, and parts of Asia, were first collected in August 1999 in Lake Erie. Individuals were collected near East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio from vertical plankton net tows. The average number of D. lumholtzi that were found (0.03/L) indicate that D. lumholtzi is beginning to establish itself in Lake Erie. The morphology of this Daphnia differs greatly from native species because of its elongated head and tail spine. This sighting is important because it acknowledges yet another exotic invader into the Great Lakes basin and it also shows that this, normally, warm water species continues to expand its range northward.

  13. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  14. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  15. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  16. Satellite Regional Cloud Climatology over the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Ackerman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one years of imager data from polar orbiting satellites are composited to produce a satellite climate data set of cloud amount for the Great Lakes region. A trend analysis indicates a slight decreasing trend in cloud cover over the region during this time period. The trend is significant and largest (~2% per decade over the water bodies. A strong seasonal cycle of cloud cover is observed over both land and water surfaces. Winter cloud amounts are greater over the water bodies than land due to heat and moisture flux into the atmosphere. Late spring through early autumn cloud amounts are lower over the water bodies than land due to stabilization of the boundary layer by relatively cooler lake waters. The influence of the lakes on cloud cover also extends beyond their shores, affecting cloud cover and properties far down wind. Cloud amount composited by wind direction demonstrate that the increasing cloud amounts downwind of the lakes is greatest during autumn and winter. Cold air flows over relatively warm lakes in autumn and winter generate wind parallel convective cloud bands. The cloud properties of these wind parallel cloud bands over the lakes during winter are presented.

  17. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  18. Microwave emissivity of freshwater ice, Part II: Modelling the Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Lake ice within three Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) pixels over the Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes have been simulated with the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo). The resulting thicknesses and temperatures were fed to a radiative transfer-based ice emissivity model and compared to the satellite measurements at three frequencies---6.925 GHz, 10.65 GHz and 18.7 GHz. Excluding the melt season, the model was found to have strong predictive power, returning a correlation of 0.926 and a residual of 0.78 Kelvin at 18 GHz, vertical polarization. Discrepencies at melt season are thought to be caused by the presence of dirt in the snow cover which makes the microwave signature more like soil rather than ice. Except at 18 GHz, all results showed significant bias compared to measured values. Further work needs to be done to determine the source of this bias.

  19. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  20. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    in either vertical or horizontal rotary kilns . Most states have limestone deposits, but much of that used by the steel industry comes from Michigan...Others Amoco 3 National Gypsum 6 Cement Transit Company 7 Erie Sand 3 Subtotal 19 TOTAL 140 * I Source: Lake Carriers Association. I I III-21 I

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  2. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  3. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  4. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant to Central Michigan University to Monitor Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHICAGO -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced that Central Michigan University in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, has received a $10 million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grant to monitor coastal wetlands around the Great Lakes basin over

  5. GLERL Great Lakes Air Temperature/Degree Day Climatology, 1897-1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily maximum and minimum temperatures for 25 stations around the Great Lakes, 1897 to 1983, were given to NSIDC by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research...

  6. Taking Teachers from the River to the Coast: a COSEE Great Lakes and Lake Superior NERR Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshop provides 15 formal and informal educators of G5-10 an opportunity to spend a week aboard the US EPA’s 180’ R/V Lake Guardian working side-by-side with Great Lakes scien...

  7. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY... locations to maximize stakeholder participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study will... promote the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet and Ports. Stakeholder input is an essential part of the...

  8. 78 FR 21937 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability System... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Great Lakes Accountability... Accountability System, Attn: Rita Cestaric, EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson, Chicago,...

  9. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These safety zones will... Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. The comment period for this NPRM... that the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration and the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 may...

  10. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  11. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  12. Great Lakes Offshore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Sajadi, Amir; D' Aquila, Robert; Clark, Kara; Waligorski, Joseph; Baker, Scott

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  13. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  14. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  15. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  16. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  17. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  18. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  19. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  20. Appreciating Your Great Lakes. A Guide for Developing Educational Projects. 4-H Marine Education Series - 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Christine; Goettel, Robin, Ed.

    The Great Lakes are the largest series of fresh water bodies in the world. They are used for a wide variety of purposes by the 37 million citizens of the United States and Canada who live near the lakes and share this resource. This guide is intended to guide youth in acquiring training and field experience related to the Great Lakes in areas such…

  1. Bioinformatic Approaches Including Predictive Metagenomic Profiling Reveal Characteristics of Bacterial Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Diverse Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Basak, Pijush; Prasad, Aravind; Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2017-04-24

    Microbial remediation of oil polluted habitats remains one of the foremost methods for restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environments. The development of effective bioremediation strategies however, require an extensive understanding of the resident microbiome of these habitats. Recent developments such as high-throughput sequencing has greatly facilitated the advancement of microbial ecological studies in oil polluted habitats. However, effective interpretation of biological characteristics from these large datasets remain a considerable challenge. In this study, we have implemented recently developed bioinformatic tools for analyzing 65 16S rRNA datasets from 12 diverse hydrocarbon polluted habitats to decipher metagenomic characteristics of the resident bacterial communities. Using metagenomes predicted from 16S rRNA gene sequences through PICRUSt, we have comprehensively described phylogenetic and functional compositions of these habitats and additionally inferred a multitude of metagenomic features including 255 taxa and 414 functional modules which can be used as biomarkers for effective distinction between the 12 oil polluted sites. Additionally, we show that significantly over-represented taxa often contribute to either or both, hydrocarbon degradation and additional important functions. Our findings reveal significant differences between hydrocarbon contaminated sites and establishes the importance of endemic factors in addition to petroleum hydrocarbons as driving factors for sculpting hydrocarbon contaminated bacteriomes.

  2. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  3. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.

  4. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  5. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  7. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  8. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region ...caused instability and chaos in the eastern provinces of the Congo, known as the Great Lakes Region . The DRC holds a strategic geographical position

  9. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  10. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-09-06

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  11. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  12. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  13. The Lake Drummond Cypress Tree Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that outlines a correlation between the number of rings of a Cypress tree on Lake Drummond and lake levels. The author researched information dating...

  14. Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes. Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Biological Services Program OBS-82i51 SEPTEMBER 1982 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EXTENDED WINTER ’It NAVIGATION UPON MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE UPPER N"j U.S...Security Classification) Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation Upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Davis...PAGE Unclassified Potential Impacts of Extended Winter Navigation upon Migratory Birds of the Upper U.S. Great Lakes ERRATA SHEET Page XVII, item F6

  15. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  16. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  17. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... in the Tall Ships Challenge Great Lakes 2013 and the War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration. These... Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes. (a) Locations. The following are... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  18. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  19. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  20. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  1. Brine Shrimp Ecology In The Great Salt Lake, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersaline lakes are noted for their simple communities which facilitate understanding ecological interactions (Williams et al. 1990; Wurtsbaugh 1992; Jellison and Melack 1988). Nevertheless, we still cannot easily predict how environmental changes will effect the population dynamics in these lakes, at least in part because even these simple ecosystems may be more complex than we .realize. Many hypersaline lakes are dominated by the brine shrimp Artemia spp. The production of brine shrimp is...

  2. Phylogenetic and ecological characteristics associated with thiaminase activity in Laurentian Great Lakes fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency complex (TDC) causes mortality and sublethal effects in Great Lakes salmonines and results from low concentrations of egg thiamine that are thought to be caused by thiaminolytic enzymes (i.e., thiaminase) present in the diet. This complex has the potential to undermine efforts to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and severely restrict salmonid production in the Great Lakes. Although thiaminase has been found in a variety of Great Lakes fishes, the ultimate source of thiaminase in Great Lakes fishes is currently unknown. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between thiaminase activity and phylogenetic or ecological characteristics of 39 Great Lakes fish species. The taxonomically more ancestral species were more likely to show thiaminase activity than the more derived species. Species that feed at lower trophic levels and occupy benthic habitats also appeared to be more likely to show thiaminase activity; these variables were correlated with taxonomy, which was the most important predictor of thiaminase activity. Further analyses of the relationship between quantitative measures of thiaminase activity and ecological characteristics of Great Lakes fish species would provide greater insight into potential sources and pathways of thiaminase in Great Lakes food webs. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change.

  4. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  5. Nitrogen deposition to lakes in national parks of the western Great Lakes region: Isotopic signatures, watershed retention, and algal shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, William O.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Stottlemyer, Robert; Toczydlowski, David; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Edlund, Mark B.; Almendinger, James E.; Strock, Kristin E.; VanderMeulen, David; Elias, Joan E.; Saros, Jasmine E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a primary source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to undisturbed watersheds of the Great Lakes region of the U.S., raising concerns over whether enhanced delivery over recent decades has affected lake ecosystems. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) has been measuring Nr deposition in this region for over 35 years. Here we explore the relationships among NADP-measured Nr deposition, nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in lake sediments, and the response of algal communities in 28 lakes situated in national parks of the western Great Lakes region of the U.S. We find that 36% of the lakes preserve a sediment δ15N record that is statistically correlated with some form of Nr deposition (total dissolved inorganic N, nitrate, or ammonium). Furthermore, measured long-term (since 1982) nitrogen biogeochemistry and inferred critical nitrogen loads suggest that watershed nitrogen retention and climate strongly affect whether sediment δ15N is related to Nr deposition in lake sediment records. Measurements of algal change over the last ~ 150 years suggest that Nr deposition, in-lake nutrient cycling, and watershed inputs are important factors affecting diatom community composition, in addition to direct climatic effects on lake physical limnology. The findings suggest that bulk sediment δ15N does reflect Nr deposition in some instances. In addition, this study highlights the interactive effects of Nr deposition and climate variability.

  6. Northern goshawk monitoring in the western Great Lakes bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Andersen, David E.; Woodford, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainties about factors affecting Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) ecology and the status of populations have added to the challenge of managing this species. To address data needs for determining the status of goshawk populations, Hargis and Woodbridge (2006) developed a bioregional monitoring protocol based on estimating occupancy. The goal of our study was to implement this protocol and collect data to determine goshawk population status in the western Great Lakes (WGL) bioregion, which encompasses portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, and is a mixture of private and public property. We used 366 goshawk nest locations obtained between 1979 and 2006 throughout the WGL bioregion to develop a model of landscape use consisting of forest canopy cover and land-cover covariates. We then used the model to develop a stratified sampling design for selecting 600-ha Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) to survey for goshawks. Project collaborators surveyed 86 PSUs for goshawk presence using broadcasted calls twice between mid-May and mid-August 2008, and recorded 30 goshawk detections in 21 different PSUs. Seventy-four percent of detections occurred at call stations with canopy closure >75%. Goshawk detection probabilities were 0.549 ± 0.118 (standard error) for the first visit to PSUs and 0.750 ± 0.126 for the second visit. We estimated the proportion of PSUs occupied by goshawks as 0.266 ± 0.047, which corresponded to 5184 ± 914 PSUs occupied by goshawks in our study area and suggested that goshawks are widely, but sparsely, distributed throughout the WGL bioregion.

  7. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    Oligotrophic fish communities of the Great Lakes have undergone successive disruptions since the mid-1800s. Major contributing factors have been intensive selective fisheries, extreme modification of the drainage, invasion of marine species, and progressive physical–chemical changes of the lake environments. Lake Ontario was the first to be affected as its basin was settled and industrialized earliest, and it was the first to be connected by canals to the mid-Atlantic where the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which ultimately became established in the Great Lakes were abundant. Oligotrophic fish communities were successively disrupted in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior as the affects of population growth, industrialization, and marine invaders spread upward in the Laurentian drainage.The degree and sequence of response of families offish and species within families differed for each factor, but the sequence of change among families and species has been the same in response to each factor as it affected various lakes at different times. The ultimate result of the disruption of fish communities has been a reduction of productivity of oligotrophic species that ranges from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior, and which has reached a state of instability and rapid change in the upper three Great Lakes by the rnid-1900s similar to the situation in Lake Ontario in the mid-1800s. Since oligotrophic species (primarily salmonines, coregonines, and deepwater cottids) are the only kinds of fish that fully occupied the entire volume of the deepwater Great Lakes (Ontario, Huron, Michigan, and Superior), the fish biomass of these lakes has been reduced as various species declined or disappeared. In Lake Erie, which is shallow, and in the shallow bays of the deep lakes, oligotrophic species were replaced by mesotrophic species, primarily percids, which have successively increased and declined. All oligotrophic

  8. Estimating ice phenology on large northern lakes from AMSR-E: algorithm development and application to Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-K. Kang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series of brightness temperatures (TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E are examined to determine ice phenological parameters on the two largest lakes of northern Canada: Great Bear Lake (GBL and Great Slave Lake (GSL. TB measurements from the 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz channels (H- and V- polarization are compared to assess their potential for detecting freeze-onset/melt-onset and ice-on/ice-off dates on both lakes. The 18.7 GHz (H-pol channel is found to be the most suitable for estimating these ice dates as well as the duration of the ice cover and ice-free seasons. A new algorithm is proposed using this channel and applied to map all ice phenological parameters on GBL and GSL over seven ice seasons (2002–2009. Analysis of the spatio-temporal patterns of each parameter at the pixel level reveals that: (1 both freeze-onset and ice-on dates occur on average about one week earlier on GBL than on GSL (Day of Year (DY 318 and 333 for GBL; DY 328 and 343 for GSL; (2 the freeze-up process or freeze duration (freeze-onset to ice-on takes a slightly longer amount of time on GBL than on GSL (about 1 week on average; (3 melt-onset and ice-off dates occur on average one week and approximately four weeks later, respectively, on GBL (DY 143 and 183 for GBL; DY 135 and 157 for GSL; (4 the break-up process or melt duration (melt-onset to ice-off lasts on average about three weeks longer on GBL; and (5 ice cover duration estimated from each individual pixel is on average about three weeks longer on GBL compared to its more southern counterpart, GSL. A cross-comparison of dates for several ice phenological parameters derived from other satellite remote sensing products (e.g. NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, QuikSCAT, and Canadian Ice Service Database show that, despite its relatively coarse spatial resolution, AMSR-E 18.7 GHz provides a

  9. Estimating ice phenology on large northern lakes from AMSR-E: algorithm development and application to Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-K. Kang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series of brightness temperatures (TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E are examined to determine ice phenology variables on the two largest lakes of northern Canada: Great Bear Lake (GBL and Great Slave Lake (GSL. TB measurements from the 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz channels (H- and V- polarization are compared to assess their potential for detecting freeze-onset/melt-onset and ice-on/ice-off dates on both lakes. The 18.7 GHz (H-pol channel is found to be the most suitable for estimating these ice dates as well as the duration of the ice cover and ice-free seasons. A new algorithm is proposed using this channel and applied to map all ice phenology variables on GBL and GSL over seven ice seasons (2002–2009. Analysis of the spatio-temporal patterns of each variable at the pixel level reveals that: (1 both freeze-onset and ice-on dates occur on average about one week earlier on GBL than on GSL (Day of Year (DY 318 and 333 for GBL; DY 328 and 343 for GSL; (2 the freeze-up process or freeze duration (freeze-onset to ice-on takes a slightly longer amount of time on GBL than on GSL (about 1 week on average; (3 melt-onset and ice-off dates occur on average one week and approximately four weeks later, respectively, on GBL (DY 143 and 183 for GBL; DY 135 and 157 for GSL; (4 the break-up process or melt duration (melt-onset to ice-off lasts on average about three weeks longer on GBL; and (5 ice cover duration estimated from each individual pixel is on average about three weeks longer on GBL compared to its more southern counterpart, GSL. A comparison of dates for several ice phenology variables derived from other satellite remote sensing products (e.g. NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, QuikSCAT, and Canadian Ice Service Database show that, despite its relatively coarse spatial resolution, AMSR-E 18.7 GHz provides a viable means for

  10. Water Protects Graphitic Surface from Airborne Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiting; Kozbial, Andrew; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh Jagadeesh; Salim, Muhammad; Amemiya, Shigeru; Li, Lei; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-26

    The intrinsic wettability of graphitic materials, such as graphene and graphite, can be readily obscured by airborne hydrocarbon within 5-20 min of ambient air exposure. We report a convenient method to effectively preserve a freshly prepared graphitic surface simply through a water treatment technique. This approach significantly inhibits the hydrocarbon adsorption rate by a factor of ca. 20×, thus maintaining the intrinsic wetting behavior for many hours upon air exposure. Follow-up characterization shows that a nanometer-thick ice-like water forms on the graphitic surface, which remains stabilized at room temperature for at least 2-3 h and thus significantly decreases the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbon on the graphitic surface. This method has potential implications in minimizing hydrocarbon contamination during manufacturing, characterization, processing, and storage of graphene/graphite-based devices. As an example, we show that a water-treated graphite electrode maintains a high level of electrochemical activity in air for up to 1 day.

  11. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  12. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  13. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  14. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional impacts of ultrafine particle emissions from the surface of the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Chung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impacts of aerosols on climate requires a detailed knowledge of both the anthropogenic and the natural contributions to the aerosol population. Recent work has suggested a previously unrecognized natural source of ultrafine particles resulting from breaking waves at the surface of large freshwater lakes. This work is the first modeling study to investigate the potential for this newly discovered source to affect the aerosol number concentrations on regional scales. Using the WRF-Chem modeling framework, the impacts of wind-driven aerosol production from the surface of the Great Lakes were studied for a July 2004 test case. Simulations were performed for a base case with no lake surface emissions, a case with lake surface emissions included, and a default case wherein large freshwater lakes emit marine particles as if they were oceans. Results indicate that the lake surface emissions can enhance the surface level aerosol number concentration by ∼20 % over the remote northern Great Lakes and by ∼5 % over other parts of the Great Lakes. These results were highly sensitive the nucleation parameterization within WRF-Chem; when the nucleation process was deactivated, surface-layer enhancements from the lake emissions increased to as much as 200 %. The results reported here have significant uncertainties associated with the lake emission parameterization and the way ultrafine particles are modeled within WRF-Chem. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the impacts found in this study suggest that further study of this phenomena is merited.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  18. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  19. Great Lakes restoration success through science: U.S. Geological Survey accomplishments 2010 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth and serve as an important source of drinking water, transportation, power, and recreational opportunities for the United States and Canada. They also support an abundant commercial and recreational fishery, are crucial for agriculture, and are essential to the economic vitality of the region. The Great Lakes support a wealth of biological diversity, including over 200 globally rare plants and animals and more than 40 species that are found nowhere else in the world. However, more than a century of environmental degradation has taken a substantial toll on the Great Lakes. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. The GLRI is an interagency collaboration that seeks to address the most significant environmental problems in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI is composed of five focus areas that address these issues: Cleaning up toxic substances and Areas of Concern,

  20. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from the Valley of the Great Lakes in Western Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Edlund

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available T he Valley of the Great Lakes (VOGL in western Mongolia is dominated by two main (Uvs, Khyargas and many minor closed basin lake systems. In 2004 and 2005, we sampled diatom communities from the surfi cial sediment of 64 lakes in the western Mongolian provinces of Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, and Bayan-Ulgii. Lakes ranged in water chemistry from fresh to hypersaline, oligotrophic to hypertrophic, and from low elevation VOGL lakes to high elevation lakes in the Altai Mountains. Over 300 diatom species were identifi ed in the sediment samples including a diverse fl ora limited to saline lakes, many widespread taxa, many new reports for the Mongolian diatom fl ora, and several new and possibly endemic species. We also review recent diatom literature from Mongolia including fl oristic surveys, paleo-ecology, and water quality studies.

  1. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  2. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  3. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  4. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $800,000 to four cities in Wisconsin to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water quality in

  5. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Illinois, Indiana and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $430,000 to four cities in Illinois, Indiana and Michigan to fund green infrastructure projects that will impr

  6. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Northern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    EUCLID, OHIO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $500,000 to three cities in northern Ohio to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water q

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Great Lakes, 1995-1998 (NODC Accession 0013820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in .PDF format for the following Great Lakes and associated waterways: north, east, and west...

  8. Great Lakes Surface Ice Reports from U.S. Coast Guard

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data consist of ice observations from U.S. Coast Guard vessels operating on the Great Lakes, and from Coast Guard shore stations reported via teletype messages and...

  9. An Electronic Atlas of Great Lakes Ice Cover, Winters 1973-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is distributed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). The atlas contains...

  10. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  11. Modelling of atmospheric transport and deposition of toxaphene into the great lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldner, E. C.; Schroeder, W. H.

    Toxaphene, not extensively used in the Great Lakes basin, has been found in fish, lake water, ambient air and precipitation in this region. It has been suggested that the atmosphere constitutes a primary transport route of toxaphene to the Great Lakes from the major source regions in the southern U.S. Environmental measurements are too few to estimate the input of toxaphene to the Great Lakes basins. The ASTRAP model, used in acid rain research, was modified for simulation of the atmospheric pathway of toxaphene. Based on emission inventories, derived from use patterns in North America for 1976 and 1980, air concentration and deposition of toxaphene to the Great Lakes were estimated. The results confirm that the atmosphere is a major transport route of toxaphene to the Great Lakes region. They also show that toxaphene can be transported to the North Atlantic. Total deposition to the Lakes in 1980 was 3-10 t and annual average air concentrations about 0.5ngm -3. Although the information on physical/chemical properties and emissions is incomplete and air quality and precipitation chemistry measurements of toxaphene are few and uncertain, model predictions show good agreement with the measurements.

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Basin Region 16 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Regional impacts of ultrafine particle emissions from the surface of the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Chung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impacts of aerosols on climate requires a detailed knowledge of both the anthropogenic and the natural contributions to the aerosol population. Recent work has suggested a previously unrecognized natural source of ultrafine particles resulting from breaking waves at the surface of large freshwater lakes. This work is the first modeling study to investigate the potential for this newly discovered source to affect the aerosol number concentrations on regional scales. Using the WRF-Chem modeling framework, the impacts of wind-driven aerosol production from the surface of the Great Lakes were studied for a July 2004 test case. Simulations were performed for a base case with no lake surface emissions, a case with lake surface emissions included, and a default case wherein large freshwater lakes emit marine particles as if they were oceans. Results indicate that the lake surface emissions can enhance the surface-level aerosol number concentration by ~20% over the remote northern Great Lakes and by ~5% over other parts of the Great Lakes. These results were highly sensitive to the new particle formation (i.e., nucleation parameterization within WRF-Chem; when the new particle formation process was deactivated, surface-layer enhancements from the lake emissions increased to as much as 200%. The results reported here have significant uncertainties associated with the lake emission parameterization and the way ultrafine particles are modeled within WRF-Chem. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of the impacts found in this study suggest that further study to quantify the emissions of ultrafine particles from the surface of the Great Lakes is merited.

  14. Application of theory and research in fishery management of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1973-01-01

    The Great Lakes have a high potential for the conduct of research and useful application of research findings, but the history of the Great Lakes indicates that extensive research and intensive management have failed to prevent deterioration of the fisheries. At times the research was not done before a loss occurred, or did not provide the information needed to solve a problem, or was not interpreted to indicate a need for corrective action.

  15. Ruhizu Boroio From the shores of the Great Lakes:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Monday 23 ]uly 1962, in the late hours of the morning, a young woman, 25 years .... She decided to end her journey there and took the next pick-up heading back towards Bukavu. ... "How could you expect me to receive news of an accident ... southern end of Lake Kivu; the surrounding villages are all in the upper hills.

  16. HYDROGEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES ON MACROPHYTES AS HABITAT IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used rapid survey techniques to map saubmergerd, floating and emergent vegetation in 10 coastal wetlands of Lake Superior. Density and structure of plant beds in "bay," "main channel," and "side channel" areas was evaluated from cover indices and presence/dominance by growth f...

  17. Genetic Origins of Mercury Resistance in Great Salt Lake Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ashtyn; Wood, Austin; Lam, Chelsea; Butler, Jaimi; Baxter, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Extremophiles are a diverse group of organisms, typically Bacteria and Archaea, that can inhabit extreme environments, such as geysers, deserts, and saline lakes. Their abilities to withstand extremely dry, hot, salinic, acidic, and mercuric conditions have made these microorganisms admirable astrobiological models for life on other planets1.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  19. Asynchrony in the inter-annual recruitment of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischke, Mitchell K.; Bunnell, David; Troy, Cary D.; Berglund, Eric K.; Caroffino, David C.; Ebener, Mark P.; He, Ji X.; Sitar, Shawn P.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2017-01-01

    Spatially separated fish populations may display synchrony in annual recruitment if the factors that drive recruitment success, particularly abiotic factors such as temperature, are synchronised across broad spatial scales. We examined inter-annual variation in recruitment among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations in lakes Huron, Michigan and Superior using fishery-dependent and -independent data from 1971 to 2014. Relative year-class strength (RYCS) was calculated from catch-curve residuals for each year class across multiple sampling years. Pairwise comparison of RYCS among datasets revealed no significant associations either within or between lakes, suggesting that recruitment of lake whitefish is spatially asynchronous. There was no consistent correlation between pairwise agreement and the distance between datasets, and models to estimate the spatial scale of recruitment synchrony did not fit well to these data. This suggests that inter-annual recruitment variation of lake whitefish is asynchronous across broad spatial scales in the Great Lakes. While our method primarily evaluated year-to-year recruitment variation, it is plausible that recruitment of lake whitefish varies at coarser temporal scales (e.g. decadal). Nonetheless, our findings differ from research on some other Coregonus species and suggest that local biotic or density-dependent factors may contribute strongly to lake whitefish recruitment rather than inter-annual variability in broad-scale abiotic factors.

  20. EPA Awards $10 Million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, SUNY Brockport Among the Project Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced it has awarded a $10 million five-year grant to Central Michigan University to continue implementation of EPA's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program. Central Michigan Univer

  1. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  2. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  3. Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Lin, Weiyun; Cao, Tong

    2014-09-15

    An overview of literature about isolating biosurfactant producers from marine sources indicated no such producers have been reported form North Atlantic Canada. Water and sediment samples were taken from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal and offshore areas in this region. Either n-hexadecane or diesel was used as the sole carbon source for the screening. A modified colony-based oil drop collapsing test was used to cover sessile biosurfactant producers. Fifty-five biosurfactant producers belong to genera of Alcanivorax, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces were isolated. The first three genera were established after 1980s with interesting characteristics and limited relevant publications. Some of the 55 isolated strains were found with properties such as greatly reducing surface tension, stabilizing emulsion and producing flocculant. Isolates P6-4P and P1-5P were selected to demonstrate the performance of biosurfactant production, and were found to reduce the surface tension of water to as low as 28 dynes/cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Gerstenberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Biosciences; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, MI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

  5. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  6. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  7. Surficial substrates and bathymetry of five historical lake trout spawning reefs in near-shore waters of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; French, John R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The reestablishment of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes has been substantially impeded because planted fish do not produce enough progeny that survive and reproduce. The causes for this failure are unknown, but many historical spawning sites of lake trout have been degraded by human activities and can no longer produce viable swim-up fry. In this study, we used side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera to survey, map, and evaluate the sustainability of one reef in each of the five Great Lakes for lake trout spawning and fry production. At four of the reef sites, we found good-to-excellent substrate for spawning and fry production by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are now being planted. These substrates were in water 6-22 m deep and were composed largely of rounded or angular rubble and cobble. Interstitial spaces in these substrates were 20 cm or deeper and would protect naturally spawned eggs and fry from predators, ice scour, and buffeting by waves and currents. Subsequent studies of egg survival by other researchers confirmed our evaluation that the best substrates at two of these sites still have the potential to produce viable swim-up fry.

  8. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinke, Anthony D; Kendall, Scott T; Kroll, Daniel J; Strickler, Eric A; Weinert, Maggie E; Holcomb, Thomas M; Defore, Angela A; Dila, Deborah K; Snider, Michael J; Gereaux, Leon C; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2014-11-01

    During the summers of 2002-2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L(-1) day(-1), respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and -33 ± 15 µg C L(-1)day(-1), respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles.

  9. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinke, Anthony D.; Kendall, Scott T.; Kroll, Daniel J.; Strickler, Eric A.; Weinert, Maggie E.; Holcomb, Thomas M.; Defore, Angela A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Snider, Michael J.; Gereaux, Leon C.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2014-01-01

    During the summers of 2002–2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L−1 day−1, respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and −33 ± 15 µg C L−1day−1, respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles. PMID:25954055

  10. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  11. Phylogenies of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes suggest extensive genetic connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W Davis

    Full Text Available Lake St. Clair is the smallest lake in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. MODIS satellite imagery suggests that high algal biomass events have occurred annually along the southern shore during late summer. In this study, we evaluated these events and tested the hypothesis that summer bloom material derived from Lake St. Clair may enter Lake Erie via the Detroit River and represent an overlooked source of potentially toxic Microcystis biomass to the western basin of Lake Erie. We conducted a seasonally and spatially resolved study carried out in the summer of 2013. Our goals were to: 1 track the development of the 2013 summer south-east shore bloom 2 conduct a spatial survey to characterize the extent of toxicity, taxonomic diversity of the total phytoplankton population and the phylogenetic diversity of potential MC-producing cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena during a high biomass event, and 3 compare the strains of potential MC-producers in Lake St. Clair with strains from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Our results demonstrated a clear predominance of cyanobacteria during a late August bloom event, primarily dominated by Microcystis, which we traced along the Lake St. Clair coastline downstream to the Detroit River's outflow at Lake Erie. Microcystin levels exceeded the Province of Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard (1.5 µg L(-1 for safe drinking water at most sites, reaching up to five times this level in some areas. Microcystis was the predominant microcystin producer, and all toxic Microcystis strains found in Lake St. Clair were genetically similar to toxic Microcystis strains found in lakes Erie and Ontario. These findings suggest extensive genetic connectivity among the three systems.

  12. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  13. Great Salt Lake, and precursors, Utah: The last 30,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.J.; Baedecker, M.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Forester, R.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Jones, B.F.; Kelts, K.; McKenzie, J.; Madsen, D.B.; Rettig, S.L.; Rubin, M.; Bowser, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sediment cores up to 6.5 m in length from the South Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, have been correlated. Radiocarbon ages and volcanic tephra layers indicate a record of greater than 30,000 years. A variety of approaches have been employed to collect data used in stratigraphic correlation and lake elevation interpretation; these include acoustic stratigraphy, sedimentologic analyses, mineralogy, geochemistry (major element, C, O and S isotopes, and organics), paleontology and pollen. The results indicate that prior to 32,000 year B.P. an ephemeral saline lake-playa system was present in the basin. The perennial lake, which has occupied the basin since this time, rose in a series of three major steps; the freshest water conditions and presumably highest altitude was reached at about 17,000 year B.P. The lake remained fresh for a brief period, followed by a rapid increase in salinity and sharp lowering in elevation to levels below that of the present Great Salt Lake. The lake remained at low elevations, and divided at times into a north and south Basin, until about 8,000 year B.P. Since that time, with the exception of two short rises to about 1290 m, the lake level has remained near the present elevation of 1280 m. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Modeling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Cohen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes continues to have important public health and wildlife ecotoxicology impacts, and atmospheric deposition is a significant ongoing loading pathway. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount and source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition to each lake, information needed to prioritize amelioration efforts. A new global, Eulerian version of the HYSPLIT-Hg model was used to simulate the 2005 global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes. In addition to the base case, 10 alternative model configurations were used to examine sensitivity to uncertainties in atmospheric mercury chemistry and surface exchange. A novel atmospheric lifetime analysis was used to characterize fate and transport processes within the model. Model-estimated wet deposition and atmospheric concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 were generally within ∼10% of measurements in the Great Lakes region. The model overestimated non-Hg(0 concentrations by a factor of 2–3, similar to other modeling studies. Potential reasons for this disagreement include model inaccuracies, differences in atmospheric Hg fractions being compared, and the measurements being biased low. Lake Erie, downwind of significant local/regional emissions sources, was estimated by the model to be the most impacted by direct anthropogenic emissions (58% of the base case total deposition, while Lake Superior, with the fewest upwind local/regional sources, was the least impacted (27%. The U.S. was the largest national contributor, followed by China, contributing 25% and 6%, respectively, on average, for the Great Lakes. The contribution of U.S. direct anthropogenic emissions to total mercury deposition varied between 46% for the base case (with a range of 24–51% over all model configurations for Lake Erie and 11% (range 6–13% for Lake Superior. These results illustrate the importance of atmospheric

  15. The Rising Level of the Great Salt Lake: Impacts and Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisette, Peter M.

    1988-09-01

    Societal responses to climatic fluctuations can be difficult and costly. The recent case of the rising level of the Great Salt Lake indicates that resource managers are often unprepared to respond to climate related impacts, except in an ad hoe and costly fashion. Precipitation in the Great Salt Lake drainage basin between 1982 and 1986 averaged 134 percent of normal, resulting in a rise in the level of the Great Salt Lake of 3.66 m (12 ft) to a new historic record high level of 1283.77 m (4211.85 ft). This rise in the level of the take has had widespread adverse impacts, forcing resource managers to implement costly emergency flood mitigation measures. Policymakers, however, have been unwilling to implement long-term policies aimed at adapting to fluctuating lake levels, relying instead on crisis management while hoping that the lake will soon recede. The water level of the Great Salt Lake, its impacts and adjustments, and an assessment of the long-term adjustment options are discussed.

  16. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Freshwater Wind I, LLC; White, Stanley M [Stanley White Engineering LLC

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project. • Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE • Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie • Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs • Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations • Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging • Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System • Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt” • Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower • Developed Turbine, Plant

  17. Functional values of Great Lakes coastal wetlands: What we know and what we can be working towards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality improvement, shoreline protection, carbon sequestration, and lake productivity subsidy are among the functional values commonly attributed to Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCWs). There is much less information concerning these than there is concerning habitat and f...

  18. Renegotiation of the 1987 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: From Confusion to Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the Great Lakes regime has invoked the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement as the mechanism for binational cooperation on programs and policies. Many advances in water quality have led to unquestionable improvements in ecosystem quality, habitat and biodiversity, and water infrastructure. Still, Great Lakes scientists have issued compelling evidence that the ecological health of the basin ecosystem is at significant risk. In 2012, the Agreement will be revised for the first time in 25 years. The degree of engagement in a future Agreement, including scope, issues of significant importance, governance and collaboration will hinge on a thorough analytical process, so far seemingly absent, coupled with real consultation, so far marginally evident. Renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, and that inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process. Many of these steps are still absent, and the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the constituents of the Great Lakes regime voice their views critically, emphatically, and often. If the negotiators listen, we can collectively make the Lakes Great.

  19. Postglacial Development and Geological Structure of the Great Lake Ladoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Amantova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the key intriguing regions for constraining the glacial rebound model. It is located close to the margin of expansion of the last glaciation. The majority of data of its post-glacial development, rebound and drainage are disputable in spite of huge amount of data collected by different researchers. The modern basin is located on the slope of the Baltic shield sloping under the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic cover of the Russian platform, and in spatial links with the shape of Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) basin. Because of this position and contrast topography, several papers report on strong neotectonics with differentiated movements and unclear role of the isostatic rebound. We want to highlight the following points: 1. Lake Ladoga basin is clearly a product of Cenozoic erosion, with the dominant role in glacial time. Different resistance of Mesoproterozoic formations causes the contrast relief. We consider the deepest northwestern part as the world largest glacial cirque. 2. Sub-Upper Vendian peneplain (base of the "proper" sedimentary cover) and other major Upper Vendian-Cambrian reference horizons show gentle tilt across the area of distribution, as seen in shallow seismic profiling. They continue offshore in the same way, showing clear absence of noticable neotectonic movements that could change the overall rebound pattern. 3. Modeling, which includes sediment redistribution, shows it's potentially significant role in landscape changes. Widespread thick Ice Lake sediments should be deposited north of the highland of Karelic peninsula, and their later erosion contributed to minor additional uplift. 4. Water level fluctuations are well known for the Ladoga post-glacial history. In hydroisostatic response Ladoga appeared as a circle with the center of additional uplift (or subsidence) migrating southwards. This caused deviations of pure glacial isobases. 5. Peat autocompaction / compaction changed topography over time, especially in oldest sedge

  20. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has focused on the distribution in rivers and small lakes, but data regarding their occurrence and effects in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, are sparse. Wastewater treatment processes have not been optimized to remove influent PPCPs and are a major source of PPCPs in the environment. Furthermore, PPCPs are not currently regulated in wastewater effluent. In this experiment we evaluated the concentration, and corresponding risk, of PPCPs from a wastewater effluent source at varying distances in Lake Michigan. Fifty-four PPCPs and hormones were assessed on six different dates over a two-year period from surface water and sediment samples up to 3.2 km from a wastewater treatment plant and at two sites within a harbor. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in Lake Michigan and 30 were detected in the sediment, with numerous PPCPs being detected up to 3.2 km away from the shoreline. The most frequently detected PPCPs in Lake Michigan were metformin, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan. To determine the ecological risk, the maximum measured environmental concentrations were compared to the predicted no-effect concentration and 14 PPCPs were found to be of medium or high ecological risk. The environmental risk of PPCPs in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, has been questioned due to high dilution; however, the concentrations found in this study, and their corresponding risk quotient, indicate a significant threat by PPCPs to the health of the Great Lakes, particularly near shore organisms. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  2. Distribution and Drivers of a Widespread, Invasive Wetland Grass, Phragmites australis, in Great Salt Lake Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arin Lexine

    2014-01-01

    Non-native invasive plant species can often have negative effects on native ecosystems, such as altered nutrient cycling, decreased habitat for wildlife, and outcompeting native plants. Around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, the invasive wetland grass Phragmites australis has become abundant in wetlands around the lake. Phragmites is replacing many native wetland plants provide important waterfowl habitat around the GSL. For successful management of Phragmites in GSL wetlands, it is importan...

  3. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  4. Sensitivity of fish density estimates to standard analytical procedures applied to Great Lakes hydroacoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Yule, Daniel L.; Warner, David M.; Schaner, Ted; Pientka, Bernie; Deller, John W.; Waterfield, Holly A.; Witzel, Larry D.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized methods of data collection and analysis ensure quality and facilitate comparisons among systems. We evaluated the importance of three recommendations from the Standard Operating Procedure for hydroacoustics in the Laurentian Great Lakes (GLSOP) on density estimates of target species: noise subtraction; setting volume backscattering strength (Sv) thresholds from user-defined minimum target strength (TS) of interest (TS-based Sv threshold); and calculations of an index for multiple targets (Nv index) to identify and remove biased TS values. Eliminating noise had the predictable effect of decreasing density estimates in most lakes. Using the TS-based Sv threshold decreased fish densities in the middle and lower layers in the deepest lakes with abundant invertebrates (e.g., Mysis diluviana). Correcting for biased in situ TS increased measured density up to 86% in the shallower lakes, which had the highest fish densities. The current recommendations by the GLSOP significantly influence acoustic density estimates, but the degree of importance is lake dependent. Applying GLSOP recommendations, whether in the Laurentian Great Lakes or elsewhere, will improve our ability to compare results among lakes. We recommend further development of standards, including minimum TS and analytical cell size, for reducing the effect of biased in situ TS on density estimates.

  5. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  6. 2008 USACE Great Lakes Topo/Bathy Lidar: Lake Huron, Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These files contain topographic and bathymetric lidar data collected by the Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) system along the Lake Huron...

  7. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.J.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Myers, H.K.; Zeigel, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.

  8. Probabilistic projections of regional climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Baetz, Brian W.; Zhao, Shan

    2016-11-01

    As the largest surface fresh water system on earth, the Great Lakes is facing the threat of climate change. Understanding how the hydrologic cycle in the Great Lakes region would be affected by human-induced global warming is important for developing informed adaptation strategies. In this study, high-resolution regional climate ensemble simulations based upon the PRECIS modeling system are conducted to project future climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin. The results show that the Great Lakes Basin is very likely to experience a continuous warming-up throughout the 21st century. Particularly, mean air temperatures will rise by 2.6 °C in the forthcoming decades (i.e., 2030s), 3.8 °C in the middle of the century (i.e., 2050s), and 5.6 °C to the end of the century (i.e., 2080s), respectively. The warming air temperatures are very likely to result in more precipitation over the entire basin. The annual total precipitation over the Great Lakes Basin is projected to increase by 8.9% in the 2030s and 12.2% in the 2050s, while the magnitude of precipitation increase would decline to 7.1% in the 2080s. The slow-down of the precipitation increase from the 2050s to the 2080s indicates a shift from the aggressive increase of precipitation before and in the middle of this century to the eventual decrease by the end of this century, suggesting that a nonlinear response relationship between precipitation and temperature may exist in the Great Lakes Basin and such a relationship is also likely to vary in response to global warming.

  9. Collaborations, research, and adaptive management to address nonnative Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-06-30

    Phragmites australis, also known as common reed, is a native North American wetland grass that has grown in North America for thousands of years. More recently, a nonnative, invasive variety of Phragmites from Eurasia is rapidly invading wetlands across the continental United States and other parts of North America, where it negatively impacts humans and the environment. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, are leading innovative efforts to improve management of nonnative Phragmites in the Great Lakes Basin.

  10. Air-Water Exchange of Legacy and Emerging Organic Pollutants across the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, R.; Ruge, Z.; Khairy, M.; Muir, D.; Helm, P.

    2014-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transported to great water bodies via long-range atmospheric transport and released from the surface water as air concentrations continue to diminish. As the largest fresh water bodies in North America, the Great Lakes have both the potential to accumulate and serve as a secondary source of persistent bioaccumulative toxins. OCP and PCB concentrations were sampled at 30+ sites across Lake Superior, Ontario and Erie in the summer of 2011. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were simultaneously deployed in surface water and near surface atmosphere to determine air-water gaseous exchange of OCPs and PCBs. In Lake Superior, surface water and atmospheric concentrations were dominated by α-HCH (average 250 pg/L and 4.2 pg/m3, respectively), followed by HCB (average 17 pg/L and 89 pg/m3, respectively). Air-water exchange varied greatly between sites and individual OCPs, however α-endosulfan was consistently deposited into the surface water (average 19 pg/m2/day). PCBs in the air and water were characterized by penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls with distribution along the coast correlated with proximity to developed areas. Air-water exchange gradients generally yielded net volatilization of PCBs out of Lake Superior. Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin and chlordanes were significantly higher (p population data was used to explain variability in the atmospheric concentrations. Results indicated that landuse (urban and/or cropland) greatly explained the variability in the data. Freely dissolved concentrations of OCPs (human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in Lakes Erie and Ontario were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Air-water exchange calculations indicated that the majority of OCPs were volatilizing from the water; therefore the lower Great Lakes were acting as a secondary source to

  11. Eurytemora carolleeae in the Laurentian Great Lakes revealed by phylogenetic and morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Adrian A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Keeler, Kevin M.; Armenio, Patricia M.; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, specimens of Eurytemora have been reported asEurytemora affinis since its invasion in the late 1950s. During an intensive collection of aquatic invertebrates for morphological and molecular identification in Western Lake Erie in 2012-2013, several specimens of Eurytemora were collected. Analysis of these specimens identified them as the recently described species Eurytemora carolleeaeAlekseev and Souissi 2011. This result led us to assess E. carolleeae’s identifying features, geographic distribution and historical presence in the Laurentian Great Lakes in view of its recent description in 2011. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequences ofEurytemora specimens were identified as closer (2 - 4% different) to recently describedE. carolleeae than to most E. affinis sequences (14% different). Eurytemora from other areas of the Great Lakes and from North American rivers as far west as South Dakota (Missouri River) and east to Delaware (Christina River) also keyed to E. carolleeae. Morphological analysis of archival specimens from 1962 and from all the Great Lakes was identified as E. carolleeae. Additionally, Eurytemora drawings in previous publications were reassessed to determine if the species was E. carolleeae and are reported here. Additional morphological characters that may distinguish North AmericanE. carolleeae from other taxa are also described. We conclude that E. carolleeae is the correct name for the species of Eurytemora that has inhabited the Great Lakes since its invasion, as established by both morphological and COI sequence comparisons to reference keys and sequence databases in present and archival specimens.

  12. Nutrient inputs to the Laurentian Great Lakes by source and watershed estimated using SPARROW watershed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient input to the Laurentian Great Lakes continues to cause problems with eutrophication. To reduce the extent and severity of these problems, target nutrient loads were established and Total Maximum Daily Loads are being developed for many tributaries. Without detailed loading information it is difficult to determine if the targets are being met and how to prioritize rehabilitation efforts. To help address these issues, SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were developed for estimating loads and sources of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from the United States (U.S.) portion of the Great Lakes, Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Red River Basins. Results indicated that recent U.S. loadings to Lakes Michigan and Ontario are similar to those in the 1980s, whereas loadings to Lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie decreased. Highest loads were from tributaries with the largest watersheds, whereas highest yields were from areas with intense agriculture and large point sources of nutrients. Tributaries were ranked based on their relative loads and yields to each lake. Input from agricultural areas was a significant source of nutrients, contributing ∼33-44% of the P and ∼33-58% of the N, except for areas around Superior with little agriculture. Point sources were also significant, contributing ∼14-44% of the P and 13-34% of the N. Watersheds around Lake Erie contributed nutrients at the highest rate (similar to intensively farmed areas in the Midwest) because they have the largest nutrient inputs and highest delivery ratio.

  13. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  14. Modeling stakeholder-defined climate risk on the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Paul; Brown, Casey

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is believed to pose potential risks to the stakeholders of the Great Lakes due to changes in lake levels. This paper presents a model of stakeholder-defined risk as a function of climate change. It describes the development of a statistical model that links water resources system performance and climate changes developed for the Great Lakes of North America. The function is used in a process that links bottom-up water system vulnerability assessment to top-down climate change information. Vulnerabilities are defined based on input from stakeholders and resource experts and are used to determine system performance thresholds. These thresholds are used to measure performance over a wide range of climate changes mined from a large (55,590 year) stochastic data set. The performance and climate conditions are used to create a climate response function, a statistical model to predict lake performance based on climate statistics. This function facilitates exploration and analysis of performance over a wide range of climate conditions. It can also be used to estimate risk associated with change in climate mean and variability resulting from climate change. Problematic changes in climate can be identified and the probability of those conditions estimated using climate projections or other sources of climate information. The function can also be used to evaluate the robustness of a regulation plan and to compare performance of alternate plans. This paper demonstrates the utility of the climate response function as applied within the context of the International Upper Great Lakes Study.

  15. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake

  16. Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Band of Ojibwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Adams, Michelle M.; Langston, Nancy E.; Mladenoff, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The harvest of the Great Lakes primary forest stands (ca. 1860-1925) transformed the region's ecological, cultural, and political landscapes. Although logging affected both Indian and white communities, the Ojibwe experienced the lumber era in ways that differed from many of their white neighbors. When the 125,000-acre Bad River Reservation was…

  17. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  18. Assessing Sediment Yield for Selected Watersheds in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Under Future Agricultural Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB), corn acreage has been expanding since 2005 in response to high demand for corn as an ethanol feedstock. This study integrated remote sensing-derived products and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) withing a GIS modeling environme...

  19. 77 FR 44528 - Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... requesting information about the then-current status of dry cargo operations in the Great Lakes (69 FR 77147... shoreside facilities can stop their conveyor belts while a vessel repositions itself during loading... procedures described in the DCR management plan reflect current industry standard practices for vessels with...

  20. Epifaunal Community Development on Great Lakes Breakwaters: An Engineering with Nature Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    the Great Lakes have typically been constructed using timber cribs, sheet piling, rubble mound stone, stacked stone, or concrete. ERDC TN-EWN-14...into sample jars for preservation with a 70% denatured ethanol solution. In the laboratory, the invertebrates present in each sample were sorted by

  1. 77 FR 58204 - International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via Teleconference and Extends Public Comment Period The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced that it is holding a... below: U.S. Section Secretary, International Joint Commission, 2000 L Street NW., Suite 615,...

  2. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Underwater plants are a valuable part of the Great Lakes ecosystem, providing food and shelter for aquatic animals. Aquatic plants also help stabilize sediments, thereby reducing shoreline erosion. Annual fall die-offs of underwater plants provide food and shelter for overwintering small aquatic animals such as insects, snails, and freshwater shrimp.

  3. Fringe benefit: Value of restoring coastal wetlands for Great Lakes fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Great Lakes coastal wetlands, but it is challenging to quantify because multiple species and habitats are involved. Recent studies indicate that coastal wetland area is proportional to fishery harvest among...

  4. Mapping ecosystem service indicators in a Great Lakes estuarine Area of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries provide multiple ecosystem services from which humans benefit. Currently, thirty-six Great Lakes estuaries in the United States and Canada are designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) due to a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitat, and non-point-source polluti...

  5. LANDSCAPE-SCALE MONITORING OF AN OPPORTUNIST: PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV) STEUDEL IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented ecosystems in the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbances, primarily as a result of agricultural conversions and hydrologic changes. A substantial number of remnant LGL coastal wet...

  6. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Th...

  7. Mapping Cropland and Major Crop Types Across the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research evaluated the potential for using the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250-m time-series data to develop a cropland mapping capability throughout the 480 000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Cropland mapping was conducted usi...

  8. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  9. Evaluation of regional climate simulations over the Great Lakes region driven by three global data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan Zhong; Xiuping Li; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; L. Ruby Leung; William I. Jr. Gustafson

    2012-01-01

    The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990-1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-...

  10. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  11. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  12. Great Lakes Ice Cover Classification and Mapping Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S.; Leshkevich, G.; Kwok, R.

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the size and extent of the Great Lakes and the variety of ice types features found there, the timely and objective qualities inherent in computer processing of satellite data make it well suited for monitoring and mapping ice cover.

  13. The role of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, F. Eugene

    1973-01-01

    Ecological blunders of man, such as timber exploitation, draining of wetlands, construction of canals and dams, and pollution have been mainly responsible for serious environmental degradation and catastrophic losses of fish and wildlife values in the Great Lakes Basin. Consequently, the major emphasis of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife must be on the protection and enhancement of the Great Lakes habitat -- primarily as a single large ecosystem, rather than as a number of political units separated by ecologically meaningless boundaries. By authority of Congress, the Bureau has long been concerned in the Great Lakes region with such diverse activities as establishing refuges for migratory waterfowl, conducting fishery research, evaluating the effects of federally sponsored water resource development projects on fish and wildlife, rearing and stocking of game fish, and assisting the states in fish and wildlife management by giving technical advice and financial assistance. Thus, the Bureau shares a strong common interest with other federal administrative units, as well as with state, interstate, and international agencies, in protecting, enhancing, and ensuring the wise use of fish and wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin.

  14. Great Lake beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected bloom of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose a potential health risk to beachgoers. We conducted a prospective study of weekend beachgoers at a public Great Lake site during July – September 2003. We recorded each person’s health status and activity during their beach visit. We measured...

  15. The Fox River PCB transport study: Stepping stone to a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    1996-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Great Lakes Despite being banned since the 1970's, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to pose a threat to the environment because of their persistence and toxicity to organisms ranging from minute algae to fish, waterfowl, and human beings. PCBs, a set of 209 related chlorinated organic compounds, had various industrial uses such as in hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, sealants, and pesticides. Despite the manufacturing ban in the mid-1970's, PCBs remain ubiquitous in the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes of the Midwest. PCBs and other toxic compounds contaminate bottom sediments at almost all designated "areas of concern" (AOC)(figure 1, upper left inset). The International Joint Commission, a binational group from Canada and the United States, has identified these AOCs in their efforts to restore and protect Great Lakes ecosystems. One such area, the Fox River which flows into Green Bay, has been the focus of much scientific study in an effort to improve not only that river but to apply lessons learned to other AOCs. The final goal is a healthy Great Lakes food chain with fish and waterfowl that are safe to consume.

  16. Great Lake beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected bloom of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose a potential health risk to beachgoers. We conducted a prospective study of weekend beachgoers at a public Great Lake site during July – September 2003. We recorded each person’s health status and activity during their beach visit. We measured...

  17. The context for great lakes silviculture in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Reed

    2004-01-01

    Great Lakes forests were subject to a severe pulse of disturbance from the mid-19th century through the early 20th century that resulted from extensive harvesting and subsequent fires following European settlement. Today?s forest, in many ways, is exhibiting changes in area and demography that reflect recovery from this pulse of disturbance, as well as response to...

  18. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  19. Coastal wetland support of Great Lakes fisheries: progress from concept to quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by aquatic systems but is harder to quantify than to describe conceptually. In this paper, we intersect data on fish inhabiting Great Lakes coastal wetlands with information on commercial and recreational har...

  20. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; Van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T.S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with t

  1. Influences on Bythotrephes longimanus life-history characteristics in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Warner, David M.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Nalepa, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    We compared Bythotrephes population demographics and dynamics to predator (planktivorous fish) and prey (small-bodied crustacean zooplankton) densities at a site sampled through the growing season in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. Although seasonal average densities of Bythotrephes were similar across lakes (222/m2 Erie, 247/m2 Huron, 162/m2 Michigan), temporal trends in abundance differed among lakes. In central Lake Erie where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by small individuals (60%), where planktivorous fish densities were high (14,317/ha), and where a shallow water column limited availability of a deepwater refuge, the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a small mean body size, large broods with small neonates, allocation of length increases mainly to the spine rather than to the body, and a late summer population decline. By contrast, in Lake Michigan where Bythotrephes' prey assemblage was dominated by large individuals (72%) and planktivorous fish densities were lower (5052/ha), the Bythotrephes population was characterized by a large mean body size (i.e., 37–55% higher than in Erie), small broods with large neonates, nearly all growth in body length occurring between instars 1 and 2, and population persistence into fall. Life-history characteristics in Lake Huron tended to be intermediate to those found in Lakes Michigan and Erie, reflecting lower overall prey and predator densities (1224/ha) relative to the other lakes. Because plasticity in life history can affect interactions with other species, our findings point to the need to understand life-history variation among Great Lakes populations to improve our ability to model the dynamics of these ecosystems.

  2. Landscape-scale modeling of water quality in Lake Superior and Lake Michigan watersheds: How useful are forest-based indicators? Journal of Great Lakes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus S. Seilheimer; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Kirk M. Stueve; Charles H. Perry

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes watersheds have an important influence on the water quality of the nearshore environment, therefore, watershed characteristics can be used to predict what will be observed in the streams. We used novel landscape information describing the forest cover change, along with forest census data and established land cover data to predict total phosphorus and...

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Tourism-Dependent Communities in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, N.; Day, J.; Sydnor, S.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Tourism is an essential element of the Laurentian Great Lakes economy as well as one of the sectors expected to be affected most by climate change, particularly through extreme weather events. While studies looking at climate change impacts on the Great Lakes tourism, specifically, are limited, the results of other studies suggest that both summer tourism activities, such as beach-going, and winter tourism activities, such as skiing and snowboarding, could feel the effects of a changing climate. The purpose of this study was to determine how existing data and models might be used to predict the potential impacts of climate change on tourism-dependent communities at the local scale. Future climate projections and variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model simulations based on historical climate data were used to quantify trends in environmental metrics with a potential influence on tourism for several tourism-dependent Great Lakes communities. The results of this research show that the potential impacts of climate change vary at the local scale and could require different adaptation strategies for different communities and for different sectors of the tourism industry. For example, communities in the northern parts of the Great Lakes may find benefit in a greater diversification of their tourism industries, given that warming temperatures could be beneficial for summer tourism activities, while communities in the southern parts of the Great Lakes may have to find other ways to cope with climate conditions that are less conducive to summer tourism activities. Stakeholder input could also help inform the process of producing scientific information that is useful to policymakers when it comes to tourism sector-related decision making.

  4. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  5. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV isolate from USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakharia Vikram N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a highly contagious viral disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. VHSV caused several large scale fish kills in the Great Lakes area and has been found in 28 different host species. The emergence of VHS in the Great Lakes began with the isolation of VHSV from a diseased muskellunge (Esox masquinongy caught from Lake St. Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae. It has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11 kbp, with six genes. VHSV replicates in the cytoplasm and produces six monocistronic mRNAs. The gene order of VHSV is 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. This study describes molecular characterization of the Great Lakes VHSV strain (MI03GL, and its phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates. Results The complete genomic sequences of VHSV-MI03GL strain was determined from cloned cDNA of six overlapping fragments, obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of MI03GL comprises 11,184 nucleotides (GenBank GQ385941 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 4 nucleotides at the termini of the VHSV genome are complementary and identical to other novirhadoviruses genomic termini. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis show that the Great Lakes virus is closely related to the Japanese strains JF00Ehi1 (96% and KRRV9822 (95%. Among other novirhabdoviruses, VHSV shares highest sequence homology (62% with snakehead rhabdovirus. Conclusion Phylogenetic tree obtained by comparing 48 glycoprotein gene sequences of different VHSV strains demonstrate that the Great Lakes VHSV is closely related to the North American and Japanese genotype IVa, but forms a distinct genotype IVb, which is clearly different from the three European genotypes. Molecular

  6. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  7. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Great Blue Heron Rookeries on Shad Island, Vermont and Valcour Island, New York in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 2002 breeding season the status of the two largest Great Blue Heron rookeries on Lake Champlain: one on Valcour Island, New York and the other on Shad Island,...

  8. Stakeholder views of management and decision support tools to integrate climate change into Great Lakes Lake Whitefish management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; McCright, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Decision support tools can aid decision making by systematically incorporating information, accounting for uncertainties, and facilitating evaluation between alternatives. Without user buy-in, however, decision support tools can fail to influence decision-making processes. We surveyed fishery researchers, managers, and fishers affiliated with the Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis fishery in the 1836 Treaty Waters of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior to assess opinions of current and future management needs to identify barriers to, and opportunities for, developing a decision support tool based on Lake Whitefish recruitment projections with climate change. Approximately 64% of 39 respondents were satisfied with current management, and nearly 85% agreed that science was well integrated into management programs. Though decision support tools can facilitate science integration into management, respondents suggest that they face significant implementation barriers, including lack of political will to change management and perceived uncertainty in decision support outputs. Recommendations from this survey can inform development of decision support tools for fishery management in the Great Lakes and other regions.

  9. 78 FR 16287 - Great Lakes Islands Refuges, MI and WI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    .../GreatLakesIslands/index.html . A limited number of hard copies and CD-ROMs are available. You may... evaluate management goals and objectives that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant... final CCP may be found at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/GreatLakesIslands/index.html . The final...

  10. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  11. Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J; Hittinger, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Plastic pollution in the world's oceans has received much attention, but there has been increasing concern about the high concentrations of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Using census data and methodologies used to study ocean debris we derive a first estimate of 9887 metric tonnes per year of plastic debris entering the Great Lakes. These estimates are translated into population-dependent particle inputs which are advected using currents from a hydrodynamic model to map the spatial distribution of plastic debris in the Great Lakes. Model results compare favorably with previously published sampling data. The samples are used to calibrate the model to derive surface microplastic mass estimates of 0.0211 metric tonnes in Lake Superior, 1.44 metric tonnes in Huron, and 4.41 metric tonnes in Erie. These results have many applications, including informing cleanup efforts, helping target pollution prevention, and understanding the inter-state or international flows of plastic pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of the United States Great Lakes on the maintenance of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Sparks, J.; Graham, R.

    2003-04-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the United States Great Lakes on the intensity of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). One of the greatest nowcast challenges during the warm season is anticipating the impact of the Great Lakes on severe convection, particularly MCSs capable of producing damaging widespread windstorms known as derechos. Since a major derecho activity corridor lies over the Great Lakes region, it is important to understand the effects of the Lakes on the intensity and propagation of severe wind producing MCSs. Specific objectives of the research include: 1) The development of a short-term climatology of MCS events that have impacted the Great Lakes region over the past seven years; 2) An analysis of radar, satellite, surface (including buoy and lighthouse observations), and lake surface temperature data to determine the environmental conditions impacting the evolution of MCSs passing over a Great Lake; 3) An examination of MCS initiation times and seasonal frequencies of occurrence to delineate temporal consistencies in MCS evolution due to changing lake surface temperatures; and 4) The development of conceptual and forecast models to help anticipate MCS intensity and morphology as these systems interact with the Great Lakes environment.

  13. Potential Effects of Climate Changes on Aquatic Systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, J. J.; Webster, K. E.; Assel, R. A.; Bowser, C. J.; Dillon, P. J.; Eaton, J. G.; Evans, H. E.; Fee, E. J.; Hall, R. I.; Mortsch, L. R.; Schindler, D. W.; Quinn, F. H.

    1997-06-01

    The region studied includes the Laurentian Great Lakes and a diversity of smaller glacial lakes, streams and wetlands south of permanent permafrost and towards the southern extent of Wisconsin glaciation. We emphasize lakes and quantitative implications. The region is warmer and wetter than it has been over most of the last 12000 years. Since 1911 observed air temperatures have increased by about 0·11°C per decade in spring and 0·06°C in winter; annual precipitation has increased by about 2·1% per decade. Ice thaw phenologies since the 1850s indicate a late winter warming of about 2·5°C. In future scenarios for a doubled CO2 climate, air temperature increases in summer and winter and precipitation decreases (summer) in western Ontario but increases (winter) in western Ontario, northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Such changes in climate have altered and would further alter hydrological and other physical features of lakes. Warmer climates, i.e. 2 × CO2 climates, would lower net basin water supplies, stream flows and water levels owing to increased evaporation in excess of precipitation. Water levels have been responsive to drought and future scenarios for the Great Lakes simulate levels 0·2 to 2·5 m lower. Human adaptation to such changes is expensive. Warmer climates would decrease the spatial extent of ice cover on the Great Lakes; small lakes, especially to the south, would no longer freeze over every year. Temperature simulations for stratified lakes are 1-7°C warmer for surface waters, and 6°C cooler to 8°C warmer for deep waters. Thermocline depth would change (4 m shallower to 3·5 m deeper) with warmer climates alone; deepening owing to increases in light penetration would occur with reduced input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from dryer catchments. Dissolved oxygen would decrease below the thermocline. These physical changes would in turn affect the phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fishes. Annual phytoplankton production may

  14. Biological effects-based tools for monitoring impacted surface waters in the Great Lakes: a multiagency program in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Blazer, Vicki; Collette, Timothy W.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jorgensen, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Mazik, Pat M.; Miller, David H.; Perkins, Edward J.; Smith, Edwin T.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.

  15. Bioacoustic monitoring of nocturnal songbird migration in a southern great lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Claire Elizabeth

    Many species of birds produce short vocalizations during nocturnal migration. My thesis uses bioacoustic monitoring of these night flight calls to study bird migration through a southern Great Lakes ecosystem. I deployed recording devices around western Lake Erie during spring and fall migrations. Analysis of thousands of hours of recordings revealed that night flight calls accurately predicted both the magnitude of migration, as well as the timing of migrant passage, as assessed by banding. The first arrival dates for 48 species of migratory birds were significantly earlier on Pelee Island than on mainland Ontario in the spring. More flight calls were detected over Pelee Island than over mainland comparison sites. These results suggest that many birds cross Lake Erie in spring and fall, and that islands are important for migratory birds. This research provides insight into the use of acoustics for monitoring birds in active migration.

  16. Postglacial Recession of Niagara Falls in Relation to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Keith J.; Pengelly, James W.; Asselin, Gary; Parkins, William G.

    1994-07-01

    The recessional history of Niagara Falls in the present Niagara Gorge during the postglacial period has been a focus of study throughout this century. Radiocarbon ages of clam shells suggest that Niagara Falls migrated very slowly around the narrowed gorge section at Niagara Glen from 10,500 to 5500 yr B.P., when upper Great Lakes water bypassed Lake Erie and flowed to the Ottawa River via the outlet at North Bay, Ontario. Prior to that interval, river discharge and recession rates were similar to those at present, and similar rates resumed after 5200 yr B.P. By about 4500 yr B.P., the present gorge had intersected a buried gorge of the pre-late Wisconsinan Niagara River (St. Davids Gorge). The sediment derived from the excavated buried valley fill may be present as a distinct marker horizon in the sediments in southwestern Lake Ontario.

  17. Climate change as a long-term stressor for the fisheries of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingsworth, Paris D.; Bunnell, David B.; Murray, Michael W.; Kao, Yu-Chun; Feiner, Zachary S.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Höök, Tomas O.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America provide valuable ecosystem services, including fisheries, to the surrounding population. Given the prevalence of other anthropogenic stressors that have historically affected the fisheries of the Great Lakes (e.g., eutrophication, invasive species, overfishing), climate change is often viewed as a long-term stressor and, subsequently, may not always be prioritized by managers and researchers. However, climate change has the potential to negatively affect fish and fisheries in the Great Lakes through its influence on habitat. In this paper, we (1) summarize projected changes in climate and fish habitat in the Great Lakes; (2) summarize fish responses to climate change in the Great Lakes; (3) describe key interactions between climate change and other stressors relevant to Great Lakes fish, and (4) summarize how climate change can be incorporated into fisheries management. In general, fish habitat is projected to be characterized by warmer temperatures throughout the water column, less ice cover, longer periods of stratification, and more frequent and widespread periods of bottom hypoxia in productive areas of the Great Lakes. Based solely on thermal habitat, fish populations theoretically could experience prolonged optimal growth environment within a changing climate, however, models that assess physical habitat influences at specific life stages convey a more complex picture. Looking at specific interactions with other stressors, climate change may exacerbate the negative impacts of both eutrophication and invasive species for fish habitat in the Great Lakes. Although expanding monitoring and research to consider climate change interactions with currently studied stressors, may offer managers the best opportunity to keep the valuable Great Lakes fisheries sustainable, this expansion is globally applicable for large lake ecosystem dealing with multiple stressors in the face of continued human-driven changes.

  18. Acute bioassays and hazard evaluation of representative contaminants detected in Great Lakes fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R. May; Smith, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    We have provided a hazard ranking for 19 classes of compounds representing many of the nearly 500 organic compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair. We initially made a provisional hazard ranking based on available published and unpublished information on aquatic toxicity, bioaccumulation, occurrence and sources. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex at 17A°C in reconstituted hard water were performed with 30 compounds representative of the 19 classes that were highest in the provisional ranking. The resulting toxicity data, along with information on the compounds' occurrence in Great Lakes fish and their sources, were ranked and weighted and then used in calculating the revised hazard ranking. The 10 most hazardous classes, in descending order, are as follows (values shown are mean 48-h EC50s, in μ/ml): arene halides (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT), 0.0011; phthalate esters, 0.133; chlorinated camphenes (toxaphene), 0.0082; polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., dimethylnaphthalene) and reduced derivatives, 1.01; chlorinated fused polycyclics (e.g., trans-nonachlor), 0.022; nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., O-methylhydroxyl-amine), 1.35; alkyl halides (e.g., (bromomethyl)cyclohexene), 10.1; cyclic alkanes (e.g., cyclododecane), 20.9; silicon-containing compounds (e.g., dimethyldiethoxy silane), 1.25; and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds (e.g., nicotine), 2.48. We recommend that chronic bioassays be conducted with fish and invertebrates to determine the sublethal effects of the following classes of compounds, for which few toxicity data are available: PAHs, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, other nitrogen-containing compounds, alkyl halides, cyclic alkanes and silicon-containing compounds. Information from these types of studies will aid researchers in determining the possible causal role these contaminants play in

  19. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  20. Managing the financial risk of low water levels in Great Lakes with index-based contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Characklis, G. W.; Brown, C. M.; Moody, P.

    2014-12-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, responsible for transporting millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Low lake levels can significantly affect shipping firms, as cargo capacity is a function of draft, or the distance between water level and the ship's bottom. Draft increases with weight, and lower lake levels force ships to reduce cargo to prevent running aground in shallow harbors, directly impacting the finances of shipping companies. Risk transfer instruments may provide adaptable, yet unexplored, alternatives for managing these financial risks, at significantly less expense than more traditional solutions (e.g., dredging). Index-based financial instruments can be particularly attractive as contract payouts are directly linked to well-defined transparent metrics (e.g., lake levels), eliminating the need for subjective adjustors, as well as concerns over moral hazard. In developing such instruments, a major challenge is identifying an index that is well correlated with financial losses, and thus a contract that reliably pays out when losses are experienced (low basis risk). In this work, a relationship between lake levels and shipping revenues is developed, and actuarial analyses of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses is completed using this relationship and synthetic water level data. This analysis is used to develop several types of index-based contracts. A standardized suite of binary contracts is developed, with each indexed to lake levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These are combined to form portfolios with different objectives (e.g. options, collars), with optimal portfolio structure and length of coverage determined by limiting basis risk and contract cost, using simulations over the historic dataset. Results suggest that portfolios of these binary contracts can substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during periods of

  1. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  2. Restoring piscivorous fish populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes causes seabird dietary change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, C.E.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Idrissi, A.; Arts, M.T.; O'Gorman, R.; Gorman, O.T.; Locke, B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Roseman, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem change often affects the structure of aquatic communities thereby regulating how much and by what pathways energy and critical nutrients flow through food webs. The availability of energy and essential nutrients to top predators such as seabirds that rely on resources near the water's surface will be affected by changes in pelagic prey abundance. Here, we present results from analysis of a 25-year data set documenting dietary change in a predatory seabird from the Laurentian Great Lakes. We reveal significant declines in trophic position and alterations in energy and nutrient flow over time. Temporal changes in seabird diet tracked decreases in pelagic prey fish abundance. As pelagic prey abundance declined, birds consumed less aquatic prey and more terrestrial food. This pattern was consistent across all five large lake ecosystems. Declines in prey fish abundance may have primarily been the result of predation by stocked piscivorous fishes, but other lake-specific factors were likely also important. Natural resource management activities can have unintended consequences for nontarget ecosystem components. Reductions in pelagic prey abundance have reduced the capacity of the Great Lakes to support the energetic requirements of surface-feeding seabirds. In an environment characterized by increasingly limited pelagic fish resources, they are being offered a Hobsonian choice: switch to less nutritious terrestrial prey or go hungry. ?? 2008 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Evaluating financial risk management strategies under climate change for hydropower producers on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eliot S.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Brown, Casey

    2017-03-01

    Hydropower on the Great Lakes makes up a substantial fraction of regional electricity generation capacity. Hydropower producers on the Niagara River (flowing between lakes Erie and Ontario) operate as run-of-river, and changing lake levels alter interlake flows reducing both generation and revenues. Index-based insurance contracts, wherein contract payouts are linked to lake levels, offer a tool for mitigating this risk. As a potentially useful tool, pricing of financial insurance is typically based on historical behavior of the index. However, uncertainty with respect to the impacts of climate change on lake level behavior and how this might translate to increased (or decreased) risk for those selling or buying the insurance remains unexplored. Portfolios of binary index-insurance contracts are developed for hydropower producers on the Niagara River, and their performance is evaluated under a range of climate scenarios. Climate Informed Decision Analysis is used to inform the sensitivity of these portfolios to potential shifts in long-term, climatological variations in water level behavior. Under historical conditions, hydropower producers can use portfolios costing 0.5% of mean revenues to increase their minimum revenue threshold by approximately 18%. However, a one standard deviation decrease in the 50 year mean water level potentially doubles the frequency with which these portfolios would underperform from the perspective of a potential insurer. Trade-offs between portfolio cost and the frequency of underperformance are investigated over a range of climate futures.

  4. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Orem, William H.; Eugster, Hans P.

    1989-11-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO 3-Cl-SO 4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies ( 13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  5. The Effect of Hydrocarbon Contamination on the Volta Potential of Second Phase Particles in Beryllium

    OpenAIRE

    Mallinson, Christopher; Watts, John

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the Volta potential, measured from second phase particles in beryllium, by the thin layer of hydrocarbon contamination pyrolised onto the surface under the action of an electron beam during secondary electron imaging has been investigated. Despite being only a few nanometres thick, this contamination has a significant influence on the Volta potential of second phase particles of interest. This work shows that such contamination can have a substantial effect on the measured poten...

  6. Low salinity residual ballast discharge and exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Arthur J; Reid, Donald M

    2003-10-01

    Exotic species introductions to the North American Great Lakes have continued even though ballast water management strategies were implemented in the early 1990s. Overseas vessels that arrive with little or no exchangeable ballast on board have been suspected to be an important source for discharging low salinity ballast containing low salinity tolerant organisms in this region. Residual ballast averaged 18.1+/-13.4 per thousand salinity among 62 samples taken primarily from bottom tanks on 26 vessels that entered the Great Lakes in 1999 and 2000. Sampling of 2-4 tanks each on nine vessels indicated all carried at least one tank of residual ballast of

  7. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  8. Quantitative assessment of hydrocarbon contamination in soil using reflectance spectroscopy: a "multipath" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Guy; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Eshel, Gil

    2013-11-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are contaminants of great significance. The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil samples is based on extraction with 1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), a substance prohibited to use by the Environmental Protection Agency. During the past 20 years, a new quantitative methodology that uses the reflected radiation of solids has been widely adopted. By using this approach, the reflectance radiation across the visible, near infrared-shortwave infrared region (400-2500 nm) is modeled against constituents determined using traditional analytic chemistry methods and then used to predict unknown samples. This technology is environmentally friendly and permits rapid and cost-effective measurements of large numbers of samples. Thus, this method dramatically reduces chemical analytical costs and secondary pollution, enabling a new dimension of environmental monitoring. In this study we adapted this approach and developed effective steps in which hydrocarbon contamination in soils can be determined rapidly, accurately, and cost effectively solely from reflectance spectroscopy. Artificial contaminated samples were analyzed chemically and spectrally to form a database of five soils contaminated with three types of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), creating 15 datasets of 48 samples each at contamination levels of 50-5000 wt% ppm (parts per million). A brute force preprocessing approach was used by combining eight different preprocessing techniques with all possible datasets, resulting in 120 different mutations for each dataset. The brute force was done based on an innovative computing system developed for this study. A new parameter for evaluating model performance scoring (MPS) is proposed based on a combination of several common statistical parameters. The effect of dividing the data into training validation and test sets on modeling accuracy is also discussed. The results of this study clearly show

  9. Ex-Combatant Reintegration in the Great Lakes Region: Processes & Mechanisms, Trajectories & Paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea, Randolph Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1990’s, the Great Lakes Region (GLR) has been devastated by a wave of interconnected interstate, intrastate, and local conflicts involving hundreds of thousands of soldiers in dozens of armed groups. An important part of the international community’s approach to peacebuilding in the region has involved the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of armed groups. Because of the transnational nature of many armed groups in the GLR, a regional approach to DDR has bee...

  10. The Great Lakes of the United States, National Security and the Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Great Lakes is literally falling apart or is woefully inadequate to meet the demands of the 21st Century global business environment. The lack of...literally falling apart or is woefully inadequate to meet the demands of the 21 st Century global business environment. Specific examples include...to be competitive in the global business environment. The price paid for this is that previously known cottage industries and suppliers for goods and

  11. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J.

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, ...

  12. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications.

  13. Application of a comprehensive extraction technique for the determination of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Great Lakes Region sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Megson, David; Myers, Anne L; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris; Crozier, Patrick; Mabury, Scott; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Tomy, Gregg; Simcik, Matt; McCarry, Brian; Reiner, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs) and perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs) from sediment and analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and applied to sediment cores from three small isolated lakes (Plastic Lake, Lake 442, Lake Tettegouche) and Lake Ontario in the Great Lakes Region. Recoveries of the target compounds using the optimized acetonitrile/sodium hydroxide extraction ranged from 73% to 120%. The greatest concentrations of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were recorded in sediment from Lake Ontario (ΣPFASs 13.1 ng/g), where perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) contributed over 80% of the total. Concentrations in Lake Ontario were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the more remote lakes subject to primarily atmospheric inputs. Whilst the PFAS contribution in Lake Ontario was dominated by PFOS, the more remote lakes contained sediment with higher proportions of PFCAs. Trace amounts of emerging PFASs (diPAPs and PFPiAs) were found in very recent surface Lake Ontario and remote lake sediments.

  14. Organochlorine, Trace Element, and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants Investigation of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, 1985-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine, trace element, and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants were examined in sediment and biota from the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. The study was...

  15. Developing fish trophic interaction indicators of climate change for the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Knight, Carey T.; Gorman, Ann Marie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This project addressed regional climate change effects on aquatic food webs in the Great Lakes. We sought insights by examining Lake Erie as a representative system with a high level of anthropogenic impacts, strong nutrient gradients, seasonal hypoxia, and spatial overlap of cold- and cool-water fish guilds. In Lake Erie and in large embayments throughout the Great Lakes basin, this situation is a concern for fishery managers, as climate change may exacerbate hypoxia and reduce habitat volume for some species. We examined fish community composition, fine-scale distribution, prey availability, diets, and biochemical tracers for dominant fishes from study areas with medium-high nutrient levels (mesotrophic, Fairport study area), and low nutrient levels (oligotrophic, Erie study area). This multi-year database (2011-2013) provides the ability to contrast years with wide variation in rainfall, winter ice-cover, and thermal stratification. In addition, multiple indicators of dietary and distributional responses to environmental variability will allow resource managers to select the most informative approach for addressing specific climate change questions. Our results support the incorporation of some relatively simple and cost-efficient approaches into existing agency monitoring programs to track the near-term condition status of fish and fish community composition by functional groupings. Other metrics appear better suited for understanding longer-term changes, and may take more resources to implement on an ongoing basis. Although we hypothesized that dietary overlap and similarity in selected species would be sharply different during thermal stratification and hypoxic episodes, we found little evidence of this. Instead, to our surprise, this study found that fish tended to aggregate at the edges of hypoxia, highlighting potential spatial changes in catch efficiency of the fishery. This work has had several positive impacts on a wide range of resource management and

  16. Using scenarios to assess possible future impacts of invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Stedman, Richard C.; Connelly, Nancy A; Rudstam, Lars G.; Ready, Richard C; Poe, Gregory L; Bunnell, David; Hook, Tomas O.; Koops, Marten A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Rutherford, Edward S; Wittmann, Marion E.

    2016-01-01

    The expected impacts of invasive species are key considerations in selecting policy responses to potential invasions. But predicting the impacts of invasive species is daunting, particularly in large systems threatened by multiple invasive species, such as North America’s Laurentian Great Lakes. We developed and evaluated a scenario-building process that relied on an expert panel to assess possible future impacts of aquatic invasive species on recreational fishing in the Great Lakes. To maximize its usefulness to policy makers, this process was designed to be implemented relatively rapidly and consider a range of species. The expert panel developed plausible, internally-consistent invasion scenarios for 5 aquatic invasive species, along with subjective probabilities of those scenarios. We describe these scenarios and evaluate this approach for assessing future invasive species impacts. The panel held diverse opinions about the likelihood of the scenarios, and only one scenario with impacts on sportfish species was considered likely by most of the experts. These outcomes are consistent with the literature on scenario building, which advocates for developing a range of plausible scenarios in decision making because the uncertainty of future conditions makes the likelihood of any particular scenario low. We believe that this scenario-building approach could contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to address the possible impacts of invasive species. In this case, scenarios could allow policy makers to narrow the range of possible impacts on Great Lakes fisheries they consider and help set a research agenda for further refining invasive species predictions.

  17. A needs assessment for climate change education in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, S.; Schneider, L. B.; Walters, H.

    2011-12-01

    The National Science Foundation funded Great Lakes Climate Change Science and Education Systemic Network project is implementing a two year planning effort to create innovative education programs to benefit the public, formal and informal educators, scientists, and journalists in the region. The current partners include Eastern Michigan University, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Knight Center for Environmental Journalism, Ashland University, Ann Arbor Hands-On Museum, and the College of Exploration. To create a network we are planning to bring together different stakeholders to write two white papers, one from the scientists' perspective and the other from the educators'(both formal and informal) perspective. The current partners' key personnel have produced a list of possible people/institutions to include in a stakeholder survey. Some of the key personnel developed their databases from scratch. Some used listserves, and others tried a snowball email. To identify the best strategy that will inform these various stakeholders and the public regarding the science of climate change in the Great Lakes Region, a survey was developed for each of the different stakeholders. The survey is divided into three parts: 1) questions which convey some understanding of climate science and climate change 2) demographic questions, and finally 3) questions that pertain to the professional concerns or perspectives of the various stakeholders. This survey is being used to provide the project team with a "needs assessment" from the interested members of those stakeholders. The results from this process will be summarized.

  18. Environmental and genetic contributions to morphological differentiation in ciscoes (Coregoninae) of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.; Cable, Louella E.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory-produced progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. zenithicus, C. hoyi, and C. kiyi and their wild parents were used to examine the contributions of genotype and environment to morphology. Morphological differences between parents and offspring were generally greater than those between species, indicating strong environmental effects. The phenotypic effects on most characters can probably be attributed to different developmental temperatures and perhaps to stresses in the hatchery not encountered in the Great Lakes. Genetic differences were inferred from morphological differences between offspring of different species raised under identical conditions. Genetic differences were demonstrated between C. hoyi and C. kiyi but not betweenC. alpenae and C. zenithicus which suggested that our samples of C. alpenae and C. zenithicusrepresented only a single species. The presence of unique stocks of coregonines in the Great Lakes, as well as of several species, suggests that management strategies should focus on both levels of diversity.Key words: Salmonidae, Coregoninae, Coregonus, morphology, Great Lakes, development, stocks

  19. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin.

  20. Spatially-explicit modelling of nutrient loading to the landscape in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Q. F.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Whitenack, H. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to the landscape has resulted in dangerous algal blooms, contaminated drinking water, and decreased biodiversity. Here, we developed a GIS model to estimate spatially explicit nutrient loading across the Great Lakes Basin. The model expands on previous work in the lower peninsula of Michigan by Luscz et al. (2015). Inputs to the model include point source loads to streams along with five non-point source landscape loads: atmospheric deposition, chemical agricultural fertilizer, chemical non-agricultural fertilizer, manure application, and septic tanks. Scaling up from Michigan to the eight U.S. states and two Canadian provinces in the Great Lakes Basin provided unique challenges. In the case of the septic tank inputs, we compiled a multistate database of drinking water wells for use in an automated Python script to delineate wastewater treatment plant service areas and to estimate placement of septic tanks appropriately within the landscape. Using a model with individual nutrient inputs showed that even within a single land use class, there is high variability in loading rates. This variability suggests that simply prescribing loading estimates based on land use class is insufficient. Modelling high resolution and source specific landscape nutrient loading will be valuable to target strategies to decrease excessive anthropogenic nutrient loading in the Great Lakes Basin.

  1. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S White

    Full Text Available Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses.

  2. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: Implications for future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret; Douglas, Christine; Cole, K.L.; Winkler, Marge; Flaknes, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    We reconstruct Holocene climate history (last 10,000 years) for each of the U.S. National Park Service units in the western Great Lakes region in order to evaluate their sensitivity to global warming. Annual precipitation, annual temperature, and July and January temperatures were reconstructed by comparing fossil pollen in lake sediment with pollen in surface samples, assuming that ancient climates were similar to modern climate near analogous surface samples. In the early Holocene, most of the parks experienced colder winters, warmer summers, and lower precipitation than today. An exception is Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota where, by 8000 years ago, January temperatures were higher than today. The combination of high mean annual temperature and lower precipitation at Voyageurs resulted in a dry period between 8000 and 5000 years ago, similar to the Prairie Period in regions to the south and west. A mid-Holocene warm-dry period also occurred at other northern and central parks but was much less strongly developed. In southern parks there was no clear evidence of a mid-Holocene warm-dry period. These differences suggest that global model predictions of a warm, dry climate in the northern Great Plains under doubled atmospheric CO2 may be more applicable to Voyageurs than to the other parks. The contrast in reconstructed temperatures at Voyageurs and Isle Royale indicates that the ameliorating effect of the Great Lakes on temperatures has been in effect throughout the Holocene and presumably will continue in the future, thus reducing the potential for species loss caused by future temperature extremes. Increased numbers of mesic trees at all of the parks in the late Holocene reflect increasing annual precipitation. This trend toward more mesic conditions began 6000 years ago in the south and 4000 years ago in the north and increased sharply in recent millennia at parks located today in lake-effect snow belts. This suggests that lake-effect snowfall is

  3. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  4. [Book review] A guide to integrated fish health management in the Great Lakes basin, edited by F. P. Meyer, J. W. Warren, and T. G. Carey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Review of: A guide to integrated fish health management in the Great Lakes basin, Special Publication 83-2. F. P. Meyer, J. W. Warren, and T. G. Carey, eds. 1983. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

  5. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  6. Application of LANDSAT to the Surveillance and Control of Lake Eutrophication in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Computer techniques developed for mapping water quality parameters from LANDSAT data were demonstrated, using ground truth collected in an ongoing survey of water quality in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), Michigan. Regression correlation coefficients varied from 0.99 for total phosphorus to 0.72 for chlorophyll-a corrected. Five water quality parameters are best correlated with LANDSAT band 6 alone. Temperature relates to band 5 alone and only two bands are justified for mapping the remaining six parameters. LANDSAT CCTs were used as a basis for inventorying land use within each of the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana regional commissions, 225 drainage areas, and nine counties. Sixteen categories were merged into ten categories and mapped at a scale of 1 in. = 5,000 ft, with detail to 0.44 hectares for the 2,700 sq mi region. These products were produced in less than 90 days at a cost of one cent an acre. LANDSAT CCTS were also used as a basis for inventorying land cover within the Triangle J council of governments 1,750 sq mi study area. The complete inventory was accomplished within a period of 60 days at a cost of about one half cent per acre.

  7. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Winters, Andrew D

    2011-01-06

    The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences (737 base pairs) of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  8. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequences (737 base pairs of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  9. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  10. Predictive models in hazard assessment of Great Lakes contaminants for fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R. May

    1986-01-01

    A hazard assessment scheme was developed and applied to predict potential harm to aquatic biota of nearly 500 organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in Great Lakes fish. The frequency of occurrence and estimated concentrations of compounds found in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) were compared with available manufacturing and discharge information. Bioconcentration potential of the compounds was estimated from available data or from calculations of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Investigators at the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes also measured the acute toxicity (48-h EC50's) of 35 representative compounds to Daphnia pulex and compared the results with acute toxicity values generated by QSAR. The QSAR-derived toxicities for several chemicals underestimated the actual acute toxicity by one or more orders of magnitude. A multiple regression of log EC50 on log water solubility and molecular volume proved to be a useful predictive model. Additional models providing insight into toxicity incorporate solvatochromic parameters that measure dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond acceptor basicity, and hydrogen bond donor acidity of the solute (toxicant).

  11. Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Bruce A; Staples, David F; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Holsen, Thomas M; Schrank, Candy S; Moses, Sara K; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Backus, Sean M; Williams, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    The risk of mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife from fish consumption has driven extensive mercury analysis throughout the Great Lakes Region since the 1970s. This study compiled fish-Hg data from multiple sources in the region and assessed spatiotemporal trends of Hg concentrations in two representative top predator fish species. Walleye (Sander vitreus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were chosen for the trend analysis because they had more Hg records (63,872) than other fish species that had been sampled from waters throughout the region. Waterbody types were inland lakes (70%), the Great Lakes, impoundments, and rivers. The compiled datasets were analyzed with a mixed effects statistical model having random effects of station, year, and fish length; and fixed effects of year, tissue type, fish length, habitat, and season. The results showed a generally declining temporal trend in fish-Hg for the region (1970-2009), with spatial trends of increasing Hg concentration from south to north and from west to east across the region. Nonlinearity was evident in the general downward trends of Ontario walleye, with a shift to an upward trend beginning in the 1990s. Only ongoing monitoring can reveal if this upward shift is an oscillation in a long-term decline, a statistical anomaly, or a sustained declining temporal trend in regional fish-Hg concentrations.

  12. Decadal trends and common dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal characteristics of the African Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Loiselle

    Full Text Available The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world's most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0° to 8° south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Niño Southern Oscillation. Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

  13. Modeling enterococcus densities measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and membrane filtration using environmental conditions at four Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the summer months of 2003 and 2004 at four US Great Lakes beaches were analyzed using regression analysis to identify relationships between meteorological, physical water characteristics, and beach characterist...

  14. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, North Atlantic and Great Lakes Region, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Undersea Research Center for the NOAA's Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes region (NAGL) explores and studies the waters off the...

  15. Coastal Cover Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Great Lakes 2001-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0038694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is the 2001 era or late-date classification of the Great Lakes. This data set consists of about 74 partial Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper scenes which were...

  16. Hybridization Dynamics of Invasive Cattail (Typhaceae) Stands in the Western Great Lakes Region of North America: A Molecular Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steven E. Travis; Joy E. Marburger; Steve Windels; Barbora Kubátová

    2010-01-01

    ... angustifolia occur together in the Western Great Lakes Region of North America. 4. Based on microsatellite markers, we documented F1 hybrids as the most common class at five intensively sampled sites, constituting up to 90...

  17. Hydrography, Great Salt Lake Meander, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Great Salt Lake...

  18. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Correction Notice....

  19. 77 FR 73646 - Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take... Act, 15 U.S.C. 717(a), Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against...

  20. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  1. Halotolerant extremophile bacteria from the Great Salt Lake for recycling pollutants in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Suvira, Milomir; Hasan, Kamrul; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewater (approximately 5% of the wastewater worldwide) cannot be performed by classical biological techniques. Herein the halotolerant extremophile bacteria obtained from the Great Salt Lake (Utah) were explored in single chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes for more than 18 days. The bacteria samples collected in two different locations of the lake (Stansbury Bay and Antelope Island) showed different electrochemical performances. The maximum achieved power output of 36 mW m-2 was from the microbial fuel cell based on the sample originated from Stansbury Bay, at a current density of 820 mA m-2. The performances throughout the long-term operation are discussed and a bioelectrochemical mechanism is proposed.

  2. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    Nevada, Utah, and California east of the Sierra Nevada are in the Great Basin physiographic province of western North America. During periods of the Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan covered valleys in Utah and Nevada, respectively, and other lakes such as Lake Russell in east-central California did likewise (Feth, 1964). Now dry except for its remnant, Mono Lake, Lake Russell provides an opportunity to study behavior of Earth's past magnetic field in lacustrine sediments that are exposed in natural outcrops. The sediments record at least 30,000 years of paleomagnetic secular variation (Liddicoat, 1976; Zimmerman et al., 2006) and have been of particular interest since the discovery of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) by Denham and Cox (1971) because the field behavior can be documented at numerous sites around Mono Lake (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979, Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and on Paoha Island in the lake. Moreover, there have been recent attempts to date the excursion (Kent et al., 2002, Benson et al., 2003) more accurately and use the age and relative field intensity in paleoclimate research (Zimmerman et al., 2006). It has been proposed that the excursion in the Mono Basin might be older than originally believed (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and instead be the Laschamp Excursion (LE), ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004), on the basis of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the excursion in the Mono Basin. On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the excursion, ~ 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity at the Mono and Lahontan basins and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2003). The age of ~ 32,000 yrs B.P. is in accord with the age (32,000-34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the MLE at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an

  3. Quantifying Water Level Change Through Time in the North American Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Smigelski, J. R.; Barton, C. C.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic and natural fluctuations including precipitation, runoff, snowmelt, water retention time, evaporation, and outflow all contribute to changes in water levels recorded in the North American Great Lakes. Changes in water levels and tides have been used as an index for physical parameters such as temperature, density, and circulation (Keeling and Whorf, 1997; Denny and Paine, 1998). In this study, NOAA verified hourly water level data ranging from 20 to 30 years in duration for five stations in Lake Michigan and four stations in Lake Superior were analyzed. Power Spectral Density calculated from a Fourier transform of the time series were found to exhibit power law scaling. The power-scaling exponent (β) was determined by fitting a power function to a log-log plot of frequency (f) or period (1/f) versus power in the frequency domain. Four distinct regions of scaling are observed with inflection points at approximately 1 day, 5 days, and 30 - 60 days. For time scales of less than one day, the power-scaling exponent (β) ranges from 0.1 to 0.5, indicating a white noise. From 1 day to 5 - 7 days, β ranges from 1.5 to 2.6, indicating moderate to strong persistence which we propose is due to frontal movements of weather systems. On timescales between 5 days and 30 - 60 days, β ranges from 0.1 to 0.4, again indicating a white noise which we propose is due to monthly and seasonal weather variations within the Great Lakes System. Beyond 30 - 60 days, all stations exhibit persistence, with β-values between 1.6 and 2.7.

  4. Ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife in the Great Lakes: Food web interactions and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Thomas J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    This article chronicles the ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Great Lakes and tracks the gradual accumulation of knowledge on the fish's effect on the aquatic community. Changes in management strategies for alewife are followed, and the current management dilemma is framed in light of the alewife's effect on inidigenous fishes and the changing biota and trophic status of the Great Lakes.

  5. Bode Analysis and Modeling of Water Level Change in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Smigelski, J. R.; Barton, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Power Spectral Density calculated from a fast Fourier transform expresses a time series in terms of power in the corresponding frequency domain. The power-scaling exponent ( β ) is determined by fitting a power function to a log-log plot of frequency ( f ) or period ( 1/f ) versus power in the frequency domain. Anthropogenic and natural fluctuations including precipitation, runoff, snowmelt, water retention time, evaporation, and outflow all contribute to changes in water levels recorded in the Great Lakes. In this study, NOAA verified hourly water level data ranging from 20 to 30 years in duration for five stations in Lake Michigan and four stations in Lake Superior were analyzed. Water level time series in the Great Lakes are found to exhibit power law scaling and are thus self-affine over four distinct period ranges, each with a different beta value. With this information, a model of the original time series may be generated using an approach which draws from concepts in control theory and feedback systems. Bode Analysis can be applied in the frequency domain to explain variations in the scaling behavior ( β ) of water level data by examining the patterns of change in amplitude and phase across frequencies. A Bode magnitude plot of the system is created from the data of power versus frequency converting the amplitude to 20log dB magnitude. A transfer function representing the output of the system divided by the input is then derived based on the data using Laplace transforms and solved for magnitude and phase. Bode analysis results in a series of two transfer function equations, one for magnitude and one for phase, for each distinct beta value over the specified period range. The type of differential equation controls the slope ( β ) while the constant (k) in the differential equation controls the position (period) of transitions in scaling behavior (i.e., corner frequencies or inflection points) and are characteristics of the system. Combining the transfer

  6. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  7. Factors related to northern goshawk landscape use in the western Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Andersen, David E.; Woodford, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) are a species of special conservation concern in the western Great Lakes bioregion and elsewhere in North America, and exhibit landscape-scale spatial use patterns. However, little information exists about Northern Goshawk habitat relations at broad spatial extents, as most existing published information comes from a few locations of relatively small spatial extent and, in some cases, short durations. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate competing hypotheses regarding factors (forest canopy cover, successional stage, and heights of the canopy top and base) related to odds of Northern Goshawk landscape use throughout the western Great Lakes bioregion based on an occupancy survey completed in 2008 (Bruggeman et al. 2011). We also combined these data with historical data of Northern Goshawk nest locations in the bioregion from 1979–2006 to evaluate the same competing hypotheses to elucidate long-term trends in use. The odds of Northern Goshawk use in 2008, and from 1979–2008, were positively correlated with average percent canopy cover. In the best-approximating models developed using 1979–2008 data, the odds of landscape use were positively correlated with the percentages of the landscape having canopy heights between 10 m and 25 m, and 25 m and 50 m, and the amount of variability in canopy base height. Also, the odds of landscape use were negatively correlated with the average height at the canopy base. Our results suggest multiple habitat factors were related to Northern Goshawk landscape-scale habitat use, similar to habitat use described at smaller spatial scales in the western Great Lakes bioregion and in western North America and Europe.

  8. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  10. Association of Microbial Community Composition and Activity with Lead, Chromium, and Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, W.; Becker, J; Bischoff, M.; Turco, R. F.; Konopka, A. E

    2002-01-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil−1, 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil−1, and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil−1. Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil sam...

  11. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  12. Visualization of a drifting buoy deployment on Lake St. Clair within the Great Lakes Waterway from August 12-15, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.; Syed, Atiq U.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2002-01-01

    Lake St. Clair is a 430 square mile lake between the state of Michigan and the province of Ontario, which forms part of the international boundary between the United States and Canada in the Great Lakes Basin. Lake St. Clair receives most of its inflow from Lake Huron through St. Clair River, which has an average flow of 182,000 cubic feet per second. The lake discharges to Detroit River, where it flows 32 miles to Lake Erie. Twelve drifting buoys were deployed on Lake St. Clair for 74 hours between August 12-15, 2002 to help investigate flow circulation patterns as part of a source water assessment study of the susceptibility of public water intakes. The buoys contained global positioning system (GPS) receivers to track their movements. Buoys were released in a transect between tethered buoys marking an 800-foot wide navigational channel in the north-central part of the lake just downstream of St. Clair River, and about 15.5 miles northeast of Detroit River. In addition, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure velocity profiles in a grid of 41 points that spanned the area through which the buoys drifted. Computer animations, which can be viewed through the Internet, were developed to help visualize the results of the buoy deployments and ADCP measurements.

  13. A spatial classification and database for management, research, and policy making: The Great Lakes aquatic habitat framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Riseng, Catherine M.; Mason, Lacey; Werhrly, Kevin; Rutherford, Edward; McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Infante, Dana M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Robertson, Mike; Schaeffer, Jeff; Khoury, Mary; Gaiot, John; Hollenhurst, Tom; Brooks, Colin N.; Coscarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Managing the world's largest and most complex freshwater ecosystem, the Laurentian Great Lakes, requires a spatially hierarchical basin-wide database of ecological and socioeconomic information that is comparable across the region. To meet such a need, we developed a spatial classification framework and database — Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework (GLAHF). GLAHF consists of catchments, coastal terrestrial, coastal margin, nearshore, and offshore zones that encompass the entire Great Lakes Basin. The catchments captured in the database as river pour points or coastline segments are attributed with data known to influence physicochemical and biological characteristics of the lakes from the catchments. The coastal terrestrial zone consists of 30-m grid cells attributed with data from the terrestrial region that has direct connection with the lakes. The coastal margin and nearshore zones consist of 30-m grid cells attributed with data describing the coastline conditions, coastal human disturbances, and moderately to highly variable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The offshore zone consists of 1.8-km grid cells attributed with data that are spatially less variable compared with the other aquatic zones. These spatial classification zones and their associated data are nested within lake sub-basins and political boundaries and allow the synthesis of information from grid cells to classification zones, within and among political boundaries, lake sub-basins, Great Lakes, or within the entire Great Lakes Basin. This spatially structured database could help the development of basin-wide management plans, prioritize locations for funding and specific management actions, track protection and restoration progress, and conduct research for science-based decision making.

  14. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  15. Review of fish species introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1985-01-01

    This review is based on an extensive literature search, combined with updated information obtained from biologists, and unpublished reports from private, state, and federal organizations throughout the Great Lakes basin. The chronological review lists 34 species of fishes in 13 families that were introduced into the basin from 1819 to 1974. The Salmonidae and Cyprinidae are best represented, contributing 14 and 5 of the species, respectively. The list is divided into successful and unsuccessful introductions; each species is briefly described and information about its entry into the basin and present status is given. About half of the introductions have been successful (i.e., the fish have reproduced and created viable, self-sustaining populations). Some of the successful introductions were disastrous in terms of damage inflicted on native populations (e.g., the effect of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, on populations of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis), but others yielded highly favorable results (e.g., the extraordinary sport fisheries created by introductions of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

  16. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Freeman, III, Richard F.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  17. Molecular enumeration of an ecologically important cyanophage in a Laurentian Great Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Audrey R; Loar, Star N; Bourbonniere, Richard A; Wilhelm, Steven W

    2011-10-01

    Considerable research has shown that cyanobacteria and the viruses that infect them (cyanophage) are pervasive and diverse in global lake populations. Few studies have seasonally analyzed freshwater systems, and little is known about the bacterial and viral communities that coexist during the harsh winters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Here, we employed quantitative PCR to estimate the abundance of cyanomyoviruses in this system, using the portal vertex g20 gene as a proxy for cyanophage abundance and to determine the potential ecological relevance of these viruses. Cyanomyoviruses were abundant in both the summer and the winter observations, with up to 3.1 × 10(6) copies of g20 genes ml(-1) found at several stations and depths in both seasons, representing up to 4.6% of the total virus community. Lake Erie was productive during both our observations, with high chlorophyll a concentrations in the summer (up to 10.3 μg liter(-1)) and winter (up to 5.2 μg liter(-1)). Both bacterial and viral abundances were significantly higher during the summer than during the winter (P < 0.05). Summer bacterial abundances ranged from 3.3 × 10(6) to 1.6 × 10(7) ml(-1) while winter abundances ranged between ∼3.4 × 10(5) and 1.2 × 10(6) ml(-1). Total virus abundances were high during both months, with summer abundances significantly higher at most stations, ranging from 6.5 × 10(7) to 8.8 × 10(7) ml(-1), and with winter abundances ranging from 3.4 × 10(7) to 6.6 × 10(7) ml(-1). This work confirms that putative cyanomyoviruses are ubiquitous in both summer and winter months in this large freshwater lake system and that they are an abundant component of the virioplankton group.

  18. Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Ochsner, Urs; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Tepp, William H; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A; Peller, Julie; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2013-03-19

    Avian botulism, a paralytic disease of birds, often occurs on a yearly cycle and is increasingly becoming more common in the Great Lakes. Outbreaks are caused by bird ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming, gram-positive, anaerobe. The nuisance, macrophytic, green alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta; mostly Cladophora glomerata L.) is a potential habitat for the growth of C. botulinum. A high incidence of botulism in shoreline birds at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) in Lake Michigan coincides with increasingly massive accumulations of Cladophora in nearshore waters. In this study, free-floating algal mats were collected from SLBE and other shorelines of the Great Lakes between June and October 2011. The abundance of C. botulinum in algal mats was quantified and the type of botulism neurotoxin (bont) genes associated with this organism were determined by using most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR) and five distinct bont gene-specific primers (A, B, C, E, and F). The MPN-PCR results showed that 16 of 22 (73%) algal mats from the SLBE and 23 of 31(74%) algal mats from other shorelines of the Great Lakes contained the bont type E (bont/E) gene. C. botulinum was present up to 15000 MPN per gram dried algae based on gene copies of bont/E. In addition, genes for bont/A and bont/B, which are commonly associated with human diseases, were detected in a few algal samples. Moreover, C. botulinum was present as vegetative cells rather than as dormant spores in Cladophora mats. Mouse toxin assays done using supernatants from enrichment of Cladophora containing high densities of C. botulinum (>1000 MPN/g dried algae) showed that Cladophora-borne C. botulinum were toxin-producing species (BoNT/E). Our results indicate that Cladophora provides a habitat for C. botulinum, warranting additional studies to better understand the relationship between this bacterium and the alga, and how this interaction potentially contributes to botulism

  19. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  20. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  1. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduc-stertion in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  2. Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations over the Great Lakes Region Driven by Three Global Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shiyuan (Sharon); Li, Xiuping; Bian, Xindi; Heilman, Warren E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Gustafson, William I.

    2012-06-27

    The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990–1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-surface temperatures derived from the NCEP Global Reanalysis and output from the CCSM3 and GISS general circulation models (GCMs). The simulation results are compared to the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The three RCM simulations appeared to be more accurate in winter and least accurate in summer, and more accurate aloft than near the surface. The reanalysis-constrained simulation adequately captured the spatial distribution and seasonal cycle of the observed surface-air temperature and precipitation, but it produced consistently across all seasons a cold bias that is generally larger over the lakes than over land and a wet bias due to an overestimation of nonconvective precipitation. The simulated seasonal cycle of moisture–flux convergence over the region was in very good agreement with NARR. The two GCM-driven runs adequately simulated the spatial and seasonal variation of temperature, but overestimated cold-season precipitation and underestimated summer precipitation, reversing the observed annual precipitation cycle. The GISS-driven run failed to simulate the prevailing low-level flow and moisture convergence patterns. All three RCM simulations successfully captured the impact of the Great Lakes on the region's climate, especially on winter precipitation, a significant improvement over coarse-resolution GCM simulations over the region.

  3. Bacterial pathogen gene abundance and relation to recreational water quality at seven Great Lakes beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Ryan J; Wijesinghe, Rasanthi U; Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Tucker, Taaja R; Riley, Stephen C

    2014-12-16

    Quantitative assessment of bacterial pathogens, their geographic variability, and distribution in various matrices at Great Lakes beaches are limited. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to test for genes from E. coli O157:H7 (eaeO157), shiga-toxin producing E. coli (stx2), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), Shigella spp. (ipaH), and a Salmonella enterica-specific (SE) DNA sequence at seven Great Lakes beaches, in algae, water, and sediment. Overall, detection frequencies were mapA>stx2>ipaH>SE>eaeO157. Results were highly variable among beaches and matrices; some correlations with environmental conditions were observed for mapA, stx2, and ipaH detections. Beach seasonal mean mapA abundance in water was correlated with beach seasonal mean log10 E. coli concentration. At one beach, stx2 gene abundance was positively correlated with concurrent daily E. coli concentrations. Concentration distributions for stx2, ipaH, and mapA within algae, sediment, and water were statistically different (Non-Detect and Data Analysis in R). Assuming 10, 50, or 100% of gene copies represented viable and presumably infective cells, a quantitative microbial risk assessment tool developed by Michigan State University indicated a moderate probability of illness for Campylobacter jejuni at the study beaches, especially where recreational water quality criteria were exceeded. Pathogen gene quantification may be useful for beach water quality management.

  4. Virulence and biodegradation potential of dynamic microbial communities associated with decaying Cladophora in Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Peller, Julie R; Shively, Dawn; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Staley, Christopher; Zhang, Qian; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities. In this study, we used 16S-rDNA-based-amplicon sequencing and microfluidic-based quantitative PCR approaches to characterize the bacterial community structure and the abundances of human pathogens associated with Cladophora at different stages (up to 90days) of algal decay in laboratory microcosms. Oxygen levels were largely depleted after a few hours of incubation. As Cladophora decayed, the algal microbial biodiversity decreased within 24h, and the mat transitioned from an aerobic to anaerobic environment. There were increasing abundances of enteric and pathogenic bacteria during decomposition of Cladophora, including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Cedecea, and others. In contrast, there were no or very few sequences (Great Lakes shorelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential distribution of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, L E; Kurath, G; Escobar-Dodero, J; Craft, M E; Phelps, N B D

    2017-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has been responsible for large-scale fish mortality events in the Great Lakes of North America. Anticipating the areas of potential VHSV occurrence is key to designing epidemiological surveillance and disease prevention strategies in the Great Lakes basin. We explored the environmental features that could shape the distribution of VHSV, based on remote sensing and climate data via ecological niche modelling. Variables included temperature measured during the day and night, precipitation, vegetation, bathymetry, solar radiation and topographic wetness. VHSV occurrences were obtained from available reports of virus confirmation in laboratory facilities. We fit a Maxent model using VHSV-IVb reports and environmental variables under different parameterizations to identify the best model to determine potential VHSV occurrence based on environmental suitability. VHSV reports were generated from both passive and active surveillance. VHSV occurrences were most abundant near shore sites. We were, however, able to capture the environmental signature of VHSV based on the environmental variables employed in our model, allowing us to identify patterns of VHSV potential occurrence. Our findings suggest that VHSV is not at an ecological equilibrium and more areas could be affected, including areas not in close geographic proximity to past VHSV reports. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Potential distribution of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Kurath, Gael; Escobar-Dodero, Joaquim; Craft, Meggan E.; Phelps, Nicholas B.D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has been responsible for large-scale fish mortality events in the Great Lakes of North America. Anticipating the areas of potential VHSV occurrence is key to designing epidemiological surveillance and disease prevention strategies in the Great Lakes basin. We explored the environmental features that could shape the distribution of VHSV, based on remote sensing and climate data via ecological niche modelling. Variables included temperature measured during the day and night, precipitation, vegetation, bathymetry, solar radiation and topographic wetness. VHSV occurrences were obtained from available reports of virus confirmation in laboratory facilities. We fit a Maxent model using VHSV-IVb reports and environmental variables under different parameterizations to identify the best model to determine potential VHSV occurrence based on environmental suitability. VHSV reports were generated from both passive and active surveillance. VHSV occurrences were most abundant near shore sites. We were, however, able to capture the environmental signature of VHSV based on the environmental variables employed in our model, allowing us to identify patterns of VHSV potential occurrence. Our findings suggest that VHSV is not at an ecological equilibrium and more areas could be affected, including areas not in close geographic proximity to past VHSV reports.

  7. Population synchrony of a native fish across three Laurentian Great Lakes: Evaluating the effects of dispersal and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Madenjian, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate and dispersal are the two most commonly cited mechanisms to explain spatial synchrony among time series of animal populations, and climate is typically most important for fishes. Using data from 1978-2006, we quantified the spatial synchrony in recruitment and population catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for bloater (Coregonus hoyi) populations across lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. In this natural field experiment, climate was highly synchronous across lakes but the likelihood of dispersal between lakes differed. When data from all lakes were pooled, modified correlograms revealed spatial synchrony to occur up to 800 km for long-term (data not detrended) trends and up to 600 km for short-term (data detrended by the annual rate of change) trends. This large spatial synchrony more than doubles the scale previously observed in freshwater fish populations, and exceeds the scale found in most marine or estuarine populations. When analyzing the data separately for within- and between-lake pairs, spatial synchrony was always observed within lakes, up to 400 or 600 km. Conversely, between-lake synchrony did not occur among short-term trends, and for long-term trends, the scale of synchrony was highly variable. For recruit CPUE, synchrony occurred up to 600 km between both lakes Michigan and Huron (where dispersal was most likely) and lakes Michigan and Superior (where dispersal was least likely), but failed to occur between lakes Huron and Superior (where dispersal likelihood was intermediate). When considering the scale of putative bloater dispersal and genetic information from previous studies, we concluded that dispersal was likely underlying within-lake synchrony but climate was more likely underlying between-lake synchrony. The broad scale of synchrony in Great Lakes bloater populations increases their probability of extirpation, a timely message for fishery managers given current low levels of bloater abundance. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  8. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-05-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there.

  9. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC, Respondents; Notice of Complaint March 29, 2010. Take notice that on March 26.... 803 and 825(e), FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Great...

  10. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Tomás; Vosáhlová, Simona; Matejů, Vít; Kovácová, Nora; Novotný, Cenek

    2007-01-01

    The ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. The initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. An amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 L of the bacterial preparation GEM-100 containing Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) CFU.mL(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. The concentration of TPHs in the soil decreased by 65.5% after bioremediation. Different organisms such as the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, terrestrial plants Sinapis alba, Lactuca sativa, and Hordeum vulgare, the water plant Lemna minor, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and the crustacean Heterocypris incongruens were used for ecotoxicity evaluation. The highest toxicity was detected in the first period of bioremediation. However, certain toxic effects were detectable during the whole bioremediation process. The contact tests with plants, earthworms, and crustaceans were the most sensitive of all of the bioassays. Therefore, the contact tests performed directly on soil samples were shown to be a better tool for ecotoxicity evaluation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than the tests performed on soil elutriates. The ecotoxicity measured by the responses of the tests did not always correlate with the decrease in TPH concentrations in the soil during bioremediation.

  11. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  12. Structure of bacterial communities along a hydrocarbon contamination gradient in a coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissé, Sandrine; Coulon, Frédéric; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Peperzak, Louis; McGenity, Terry J; Duran, Robert

    2008-11-01

    The bacterial diversity of a chronically oil-polluted retention basin sediment located in the Berre lagoon (Etang-de-Berre, France) was investigated. This study combines chemical and molecular approaches in order to define how the in situ petroleum hydrocarbon contamination level affects the bacterial community structure of a subsurface sediment. Hydrocarbon content analysis clearly revealed a gradient of hydrocarbon contamination in both the water and the sediment following the basin periphery from the pollution input to the lagoon water. The nC17 and pristane concentrations suggested alkane biodegradation in the sediments. These results, combined with those of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, indicated that bacterial community structure was obviously associated with the gradient of oil contamination. The analysis of bacterial community composition revealed dominance of bacteria related to the Proteobacteria phylum (Gamma-, Delta-, Alpha-, Epsilon- and Betaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobium groups and Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria phyla. The adaptation of the bacterial community to oil contamination was not characterized by dominance of known oil-degrading bacteria, because a predominance of populations associated to the sulphur cycle was observed. The input station presented particular bacterial community composition associated with a low oil concentration in the sediment, indicating the adaptation of this community to the oil contamination.

  13. XPS study of the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon) exposed to atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon contamination on the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) markedly affects the oxygen uptake, and hence the wettability, of this polymer when exposed to an oxygen plasma. As revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) for such a polymer can increase sharply, and correspondingly the fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) can decrease sharply, at very short exposure times; at longer times, however, such changes in the O/C and F/C ratios reverse direction, and these ratios then assume values similar to those of the unexposed PTFE. The greater the extent of hydrocarbon contamination in the PTFE, the larger are the amplitudes of the 'spikes' in the O/C- and F/C-exposure time plots. In contrast, a pristine PTFE experiences a very small, monotonic increase of surface oxidation or O/C ratio with time of exposure to oxygen atoms, while the F/C ratio is virtually unchanged from that of the unexposed polymer (2.0). Unless the presence of adventitious hydrocarbon is taken into account, anomalous surface properties relating to polymer adhesion may be improperly ascribed to PTFE exposed to an oxygen plasma.

  14. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  15. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  16. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  17. Studies on the analysis of pesticide residues in foods (XL) PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) residues in imported smelt fished from the Canadian Great Lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekita, H; Sasaki, K; Kawamura, Y; Takeda, M; Uchiyama, M

    1987-01-01

    The inspection of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) residues in pond smelt samples imported from Canada in June, 1983, fished from Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes, was performed by gas chromatography with ECD...

  18. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  19. Comparison of Radiocarbon Ages for Multiproxy Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K. E.; Bowen, G. J.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2008-12-01

    Multiproxy paleoclimate reconstructions from high sedimentation-rate systems offer promising opportunities to deconvolve multiple aspects climate system response to past forcing. However, the time-equivalence of proxies must be established before such reconstructions can be usefully interpreted. Differences in source ages, transport pathways, and surface residence times for substrates may lead to differences in lag times between proxy formation and deposition, compromising comparative analysis of data from multiple proxies. We used multi-substrate radiocarbon dating to investigate the potential for multi-proxy reconstruction of Holocene changes in the volume of the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, based on the stable isotope composition of organic and inorganic substrates in lake sediment cores. Among potential substrates for this work are normal alkanes of vascular higher plant and algal origin, fossil cysts of lake-dwelling brine shrimp (Artemia), and micritic aragonite. Radiocarbon ages for all organic substrates (alkanes, cysts) sampled at any given core depth are concordant within analytical uncertainty and are similar to ages determined on land-plant debris and filamentous algae isolated from the sediment. Inorganic carbonate, in contrast, is depleted in 14C compare to the organic proxies, giving ages that were apparently 2000 to 3000 years older, likely due to winnowing and re-deposition of carbonate at the core site. These results suggest that the maximum temporal resolution achievable through analysis of mineral substrates is on the order of several millennia. Although the limited precision of the radiocarbon analysis precludes precise determination of the maximum potential resolution of organic-proxy based climate reconstructions, the relatively high sedimentation rates (50--150 cm/kyr) and age-equivalence of the substrates analyzed implies that sub- centennial scale resolution should be achievable throughout much of the Holocene portion of the GSL

  20. Enhanced development of lacustrine microbialites on gravity flow deposits, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Mulder, Thierry; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Goslar, Tomasz; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Désaubliaux, Guy; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-07-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA is a shallow, hypersaline, intracontinental lake hosting extensive microbial deposits. At a large spatial scale, the distribution of these deposits is driven by environmental and geodynamical factors (i.e. water-level fluctuations and a fault-related framework). A detailed mapping of the Buffalo Point area, in the north-western part of Antelope Island, indicates the presence of an anomalous concentration of microbial deposits dated ca. 5.8 ka BP and distributed along a lobe-shaped geometry. This uncommon microbial deposit geometry results from an extensive colonization of a conglomerate substrate exhibiting an accumulation of m-sized rounded Cambrian quartzite boulders. We suggest that this conglomerate substrate provides a stable nucleation point that promotes the development and preservation of the lobe-shaped microbial deposits. Microbial deposits may also have protected the conglomerate substrate from erosional processes and thereby increased the preservation potential of the lobe-shaped structure. Based on the characteristics of the conglomerate (e.g. grain size, texture) and its location (i.e. 200 m beyond the average shoreline), this lobe-shaped structure likely results from subaqueous debris or a hyperconcentrated density flow that transports sedimentary material from the Buffalo Point slopes downward to the shore. We estimate the age of the conglomerate deposition to be between 21 and 12 ka BP. The initiation of the flow may have been triggered by various mechanisms, but the existence of a major active normal fault in the vicinity of these deposits suggests that an earthquake could have destabilized the accumulated sediments and resulted in conglomerate emplacement. The catastrophic 15 ka BP Bonneville Flood, which led to a drop in the lake level (approximately 110 m), may also provide an explanation for the initiation of the flow.

  1. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  2. Modeling of temporal patterns and sources of atmospherically transported and deposited pesticides in ecosystems of concern: A case study of toxaphene in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Jin, Jiming

    2013-10-01

    have adverse effects on human health and the environment and can be transported through the atmosphere from application sites and deposited to sensitive ecosystems. This study applies a comprehensive multimedia regional pesticide fate and chemical transport modeling system that we developed to investigate the atmospheric transport and deposition of toxaphene to the Great Lakes. Simulated results predict a significant amount of toxaphene (~350 kg) being transported through the atmosphere and deposited into the Great Lakes in the simulation year. Results also show that U.S. residues and global background are major sources to toxaphene deposition into the Great Lakes and atmospheric concentrations in the region. While the U.S. residues are the dominant source in warm months, the background dominates during winter months. In addition, different sources have different influences on the individual Great Lakes due to their proximity and relative geographical positions to the sources; U.S. residues are the dominant source to Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Michigan, but they are a much less important source to Lake Superior. These results shed light on the mystery that observed toxaphene concentrations in Great Lakes' lake trout and smelt declined between 1982 and 1992 in four of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior. While monthly total depositions to Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Michigan have clear seasonal variability with much greater values in April, May, and June, monthly total depositions to Lake Superior are more uniformly distributed over the year with comparatively greater levels in cold months.

  3. Using Scenario Development to Encourage Tourism Business Resilience in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, N.; Day, J.; Sydnor, S.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tourism is an economic sector anticipated to be greatly affected by climate change, but the potential impacts of climate change on tourism have rarely been examined in detail in existing research. Past research has shown, however, that the small and medium businesses that dominate the tourism sector could be greatly impacted by climate change. We have presented global climate and hydrologic model research results to pre-selected coastal tourism business owners in the Great Lakes region to determine the best methods for delivering user-friendly future climate scenarios, given that existing research suggests that climate change adaptive behaviors and resilience increase with information (message) clarity. Model output analyses completed for this work have focused on temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events due to their economic impact on tourism activities. We have also experimented with the development and use of infographics because of their ability to present information quickly and clearly. Initial findings of this work will be presented as well as lessons learned from stakeholder interactions. Two main results include that (1) extreme weather events may have more meaning to tourism business owners than general trends in climate and (2) long-term planning for climate is extremely difficult for tourism business owners because they operate on a much shorter planning timeline than those generally used for climate change analyses.

  4. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  5. Real-time assessments of water quality: expanding nowcasting throughout the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Nowcasts are systems that inform the public of current bacterial water-quality conditions at beaches on the basis of predictive models. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked with 23 local and State agencies to improve existing operational beach nowcast systems at 4 beaches and expand the use of predictive models in nowcasts at an additional 45 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. The predictive models were specific to each beach, and the best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables. The variables used most often in models to predict Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations or the probability of exceeding a State recreational water-quality standard included turbidity, day of the year, wave height, wind direction and speed, antecedent rainfall for various time periods, and change in lake level over 24 hours. During validation of 42 beach models during 2012, the models performed better than the current method to assess recreational water quality (previous day's E. coli concentration). The USGS will continue to work with local agencies to improve nowcast predictions, enable technology transfer of predictive model development procedures, and implement more operational systems during 2013 and beyond.

  6. Hedging the financial risk from water scarcity for Great Lakes shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eliot S.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Brown, Casey; Moody, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, which transports hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Cargo capacity is a function of a ship's draft, the distance between water level and the ship's bottom, and lower water levels force ships to reduce cargo loads to prevent running aground in shallow harbors and locks. Financial risk transfer instruments, such as index-based insurance contracts, may provide an adaptable method for managing these financial risks. In this work, a relationship between water levels and shipping revenues is developed and used in an actuarial analysis of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses. This analysis is used to develop a standardized suite of binary financial contracts, which are indexed to water levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These contracts are then combined to form hedging portfolios with different objectives for the shippers. Results suggest that binary contracts could substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during low lake level periods and at a relatively low cost of only one to three percent of total revenues, depending on coverage level.

  7. Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A

    2016-10-04

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m(3) and a median of 1.9 particles/m(3). Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  8. Toxicological investigations of pollutant-related effects in Great Lakes gulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peakall, D.B.; Fox, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Reproductive failure of a number of fish-eating birds was observed on the Great Lakes in the mid-1960s to mid-1970s. The herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as the primary monitoring species. The low hatching success observed in this species on Lake Ontario in the mid-1970s was due to loss of eggs and failure of eggs to hatch. Egg exchange experiments demonstrated that this was due both to the incubation behavior of adults and to direct embryotoxic effects. Decrease of nest attentiveness was demonstrated using telemetered eggs, but attempts to reproduce the embryonic effects by injection of pollutant mixtures into eggs were not successful. Reproductive success improved rapidly during the late 1970s and was normal by the end of the decade. Recent studies have focused on cytogenetic and biochemical changes and detailed analytic chemistry of residues. No changes in the rate of sister chromatid exchange over values determined in coastal colonies were observed. Elevation of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, levels of highly carboxylated porphyrins, and changes of thyroid function have been found. The geographic pattern of these changes indicates that they are caused by xenobiotics, but it has been possible to relate the changes to a specific chemical.

  9. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  10. Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.S.; Toolin, L.J.; Forester, R.M.; Spencer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin typically contain little organic carbon, and thus are difficult to date reliably by conventional radioccarbon methods. Paleoenvironmental data are abundant in these sediments, but are of limited value without adequate age controls. With the advent of accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating, it is now possible to date these paleolacustrine sediments. AMS dates were obtained on sediment cores from the Bonneville, Franklin, and Lahontan Basins. In the Bonneville Basin, the AMS-based chronology compares well with other chronologies constructed from dated shore-zone features. In the Bonneville and Franklin basins, AMS dates delimit unconformities not apparent by other means. We found that dispersed organic carbon from sediments deposited during relatively freshwater intervals provided apparently reliable AMS radiocarbon dates. Carbonate microfossils from the Lahontan Basin also produced results that appear reasonable, while bulk carbonate yielded erroneous results. ?? 1990.

  11. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Sediments From the Great Salt Lake via FFF-ICP- MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. W.; Diaz, X.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation may be the major effective mechanism of selenium removal from the water column of the Great Salt Lake if there is a permanent sequestration of selenium in deposited sediment. However, re-suspension and re-solubilization of selenium into the water column may also release deposited selenium back to the water column. To quantify these processes the settling phase must be characterized in terms of makeup (e.g. biological versus mineral), size (molecular to particulate), and the selenium burden must be apportioned among these various molecular to particulate fractions in the settling phase. Water column samples were fractionated among dissolved, molecular and particulate sizes using centrifugation and fluid flow fractionation (FFF) and the associated selenium was measured using ICP-MS. This talk presents the results of characterization of the water column via these techniques, and relates these results to results from characterization of deposited sediment.

  12. Report of the International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Hubert R.; Huntsman, A.G.; Taylor, D.J.; Van Oosten, John

    1943-01-01

    This is the report of the International Board of Inquiry relative to the preservation and development of the Great Lakes fisheries as provided by an exchange of notes between Canada and the United States on February 29, 1940. The report aims to present in a very brief manner the background of the establishment of the Board, its program, and the fishery problems that confronted it with particular reference to the international point of view. These problems relate to the following subjects: statistics, the take of fish, fluctuations in the take, development and decline of particular fisheries, extinction and introduction of species, migration and local stock of fish, variety and changes in water conditions, fishing gear, overfishing, sport fishing versus food fish, fish culture and investigations. There is also a supplemental report prepared by the United States members of the Board (see Contribution #101).

  13. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. -K. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mrozowski, T. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Harrell-Seyburn, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Ehrlich, N. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Hembroff, L. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Lieburn, B. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mazor, M. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); McIntyre, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mutton, C. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Parsons, G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Syal, M. G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Wilkinson, R. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the "Market Characterization" project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University, and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within the Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as "archetypes" by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market.

  14. Virulence and biodegradation potential of dynamic microbial communities associated with decaying Cladophora in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Peller, Julie R.; Shively, Dawn; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Staley, Christopher; Zhang, Qian; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities. In this study, we used 16S-rDNA-based-amplicon sequencing and microfluidic-based quantitative PCR approaches to characterize the bacterial community structure and the abundances of human pathogens associated with Cladophora at different stages (up to 90 days) of algal decay in laboratory microcosms. Oxygen levels were largely depleted after a few hours of incubation. As Cladophora decayed, the algal microbial biodiversity decreased within 24 h, and the mat transitioned from an aerobic to anaerobic environment. There were increasing abundances of enteric and pathogenic bacteria during decomposition of Cladophora, including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Cedecea, and others. In contrast, there were no or very few sequences (< 0.07%) assigned to such groups in fresh Cladophora samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the bacterial community structure was dynamic and changed significantly with decay time. Knowledge of microbial communities and chemical composition of decaying algal mats is critical to our further understanding of the role that Cladophora plays in a beach ecosystem's structure and function, including the algal role in trophic interactions. Based on these findings, public and environmental health concerns should be considered when decaying Cladophora mats accumulate Great Lakes shorelines.

  15. COMPARISON OF SIMPLE AND MULTIMETRIC DIATOM-BASED INDICES FOR GREAT LAKES COASTLINE DISTURBANCE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavie, Euan D; Kireta, Amy R; Kingston, John C; Sgro, Gerald V; Danz, Nicholas P; Axler, Richard P; Hollenhorst, Thomas P

    2008-06-01

    Because diatom communities are subject to the prevailing water quality in the Great Lakes coastal environment, diatom-based indices can be used to support coastal-monitoring programs and paleoecological studies. Diatom samples were collected from Great Lakes coastal wetlands, embayments, and high-energy sites (155 sites), and assemblages were characterized to the species level. We defined 42 metrics on the basis of autecological and functional properties of species assemblages, including species diversity, motile species, planktonic species, proportion dominant taxon, taxonomic metrics (e.g., proportion Stephanodiscoid taxa), and diatom-inferred (DI) water quality (e.g., DI chloride [Cl]). Redundant metrics were eliminated, and a diatom-based multimetric index (MMDI) to infer coastline disturbance was developed. Anthropogenic stresses in adjacent coastal watersheds were characterized using geographic information system (GIS) data related to agricultural and urban land cover and atmospheric deposition. Fourteen independent diatom metrics had significant regressions with watershed stressor data; these metrics were selected for inclusion in the MMDI. The final MMDI was developed as the weighted sum of the selected metric scores with weights based on a metric's ability to reflect anthropogenic stressors in the adjacent watersheds. Despite careful development of the multimetric approach, verification using a test set of sites indicated that the MMDI was not able to predict watershed stressors better than some of the component metrics. From this investigation, it was determined that simpler, more traditional diatom-based metrics (e.g., DI Cl, proportion Cl-tolerant species, and DI total phosphorus [TP]) provide superior prediction of overall stressor influence at coastal locales.

  16. DDT and HCH, two discontinued organochlorine insecticides in the Great Lakes region: isomer trends and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-08-01

    The uses of the insecticides 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (p,p'-DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) have been discontinued for several years, but they are still consistently detected in air samples collected on the shores of the Great Lakes. Although the agricultural uses of DDT have been restricted in the United States since 1972, DDT continued to be used to manufacture the miticide, dicofol, up until 2011. The use of the technical HCH mixture in North America was restricted in the 1970s, when it was replaced by one of its purified conformers, γ-HCH, also known as lindane. In this study, we have focused on isomer-specific data to gain insights on the temporal trends and possible sources of these compounds. In particular, we calculated ratios of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE+p,p'-DDD versus the sum of the concentrations of the three p,p' isomers. These ratios are about the same at all five of our sampling sites and are about the same as observed globally. We also calculated the ratio of the concentrations of o,p'-DDT versus the sum of concentrations of o,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDT. This ratio has increased significantly at all five sites over the last 15-20 years. We suggest that dicofol, which contained about 11% o,p'-DDT, may now be a significant, additional source of DDT to the Great Lakes. The average ratio of the concentration of γ-HCH (lindane) versus the sum of the concentrations of γ-HCH+α-HCH did not vary significantly with time, but it did show an urban signature, suggesting that cities may be more important sources of these compounds than previously suspected.

  17. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  18. Mysis diluviana and Hemimysis anomala: reviewing the roles of a native and invasive mysid in the Laurentian Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Marty, Jérôme; Johannsson, Ora E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana and Hemimysis anomala are the only two species of mysid shrimps in the order Mysidacea that are present in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. M. diluviana has inhabited the deep, cold waters of this region since Pleistocene-era glacial retreat and is widely considered to have a central role in the functioning of offshore food webs in systems they inhabit. More recently, the Great Lakes were invaded by the Ponto-Caspian native Hemimysis, a species that inhabits warmer water and shallower depths relative to M. diluviana. Hemimysis has rapidly expanded throughout the Great Lakes region and has become integrated into nearshore food webs as both food for planktivorous fish and predators and competitors of zooplankton. This special issue is composed of 14 papers that represent the most recent advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of both species of mysids to lake and river ecosystems in the Great Lakes region of North America. Topics discussed in this special issue will inform future research in all systems influenced by mysid ecology.

  19. Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments: Connecting Users and Generators of Scientific Information to Inform Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, W. J.; Briley, L.; Brown, D.; Gibbons, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) is one of eleven NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) and is a co-hosted by the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. The Great Lakes region falls between areas that are typically defined as the Midwest and Northeast in the United States and also includes portions of Ontario in Canada. This unique and complex region holds approximately 21% of global surface fresh water and is home to 23 million people on the United States side of the basin alone. GLISA functions as a bridge between climate science researchers and boundary organizations in the Great Lakes region, with the goals of contributing to the long-term sustainability of the region in face of a changing climate and to facilitate smart decision-making backed by sound scientific knowledge. Faculty and staff associated with GLISA implement physical and social science practices in daily operations, which includes but is not limited to: activating the boundary chain model to facilitate the transfer of knowledge through the community, integrating local and historical climate data into decision-making processes, addressing uncertainty and the downscaling of climate information, and implementing network analyses to find key access points to information networks across the Great Lakes region. GLISA also provides funding for projects related to climate and climate change adaptation in the Great Lakes region, as well as expertise to partner organizations through collaborations. Information from boundary organizations, stakeholders, and collaborators also flows back to GLISA to aid in the determination of the physical and social science needs of the region. Recent findings point to GLISA playing a crucial role in the scaling information across scales of government and ensuring that federal agencies and local stakeholders are able to learn from one another and share experiences and knowledge to continue building climate ready

  20. Prediction of water surface elevation of Great Salt Lake using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, N. K.; Urroz, G.

    2009-12-01

    Record breaking rises of Great Salt Lake (GSL) water levels that were observed in the period 1982-1987 resulted in severe economic impact to the State of Utah. Rising lake levels caused flooding that damaged highways, railways, recreation facilities and industries located in exposed lake bed. Prediction of GSL water levels necessitates the development of a model for accurate predictions of such levels in order to reduce or prevent economic loss due to flooding as happened in the past. A data-driven model, whose intent is to determine the relationship between inputs and outputs without knowing underlying physical process, was used in this project. A data-driven model can bridge the gap between classical regression-based and physically-based hydrological models. A Support Vector Machines (SVM) was used to predict water surface elevation of the GSL. The SVM-based reconstruction was used to develop time series forecast for multiple lead times. The model is able to extract the dynamics of the system by using only a few observed data points for training. The reliability of the algorithm in learning and forecasting the dynamics of the system was tested by changing two parameters: the integer time lag and the dimension (d) of the system. Parameter tau models the delay in which the dynamics unfolds by creating vectors of dimension d out of single measurements. For a given set of parameters tau and d, the discrepancy between observation and prediction is reduced by changing the cost parameter and a parameter called epsilon that controls the width of the SVM insensitive zone. All the data points within the epsilon insensitive zone are neglected in the SVM analysis. The analysis was performed for two time periods. The period of 1982 to 1987 was used to test the model performance in predicting the corresponding dramatic rise of GSL elevation. The period of 1987 to 2008 was used to test the performance of model for the normal water level rise and fall of the GSL. This analysis

  1. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    From March through October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen gene markers and densities of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in 22 tributaries to the Great Lakes. This project was funded as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and included sampling at 22 locations throughout 6 states that border the Great Lakes.

  2. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites by DNA diagnosis-based bioslurping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-11-01

    The application of effective remediation technologies can benefit from adequate preliminary testing, such as in lab-scale and Pilot-scale systems. Bioremediation technologies have demonstrated tremendous potential with regards to cost, but they cannot be used for all contaminated sites due to limitations in biological activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a DNA diagnostic method that reduces the time to select contaminated sites that are good candidates for bioremediation. We applied an oligonucleotide microarray method to detect and monitor genes that lead to aliphatic and aromatic degradation. Further, the bioremediation of a contaminated site, selected based on the results of the genetic diagnostic method, was achieved successfully by applying bioslurping in field tests. This gene-based diagnostic technique is a powerful tool to evaluate the potential for bioremediation in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

  3. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  4. Biodegradation of anthracene by a novel actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Oluwafemi S; Olatoye, Nojeem O

    2014-01-01

    A novel anthracene-degrading Gram-positive actinomycete, Microbacterium sp. strain SL10 was isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a mechanical engineering workshop in Lagos, Nigeria. The polluted soil had an unusually high total hydrocarbon content of 157 g/kg and presence of various heavy metals. The isolate tolerated salt concentration of more than 4%. It resisted cefotaxime, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, but susceptible to meropenem, linezolid and vancomycin. The isolate exhibited growth rate and doubling time of 0.82 days(-1) and 0.84 days, respectively on anthracene. It degraded 57.5 and 90.12% of anthracene within 12 and 21 days, respectively while the rate of anthracene utilization by the isolate was 4.79 mg l(-1) d(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of anthracene-degrading Microbacterium sp.

  5. Climate inferences between paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical proxies in Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from Summer Lake, Oregon, western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Eric; Thompson, Greg; Negrini, Rob; Wigand, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical data from western Great Basin pluvial Summer Lake, Oregon have established a high resolution paleoclimate record during the late Pleistocene Mono Lake Excursion (~34.75 ka), Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials 6-8, and the end of Heinrich Even 4 (~38 ka). Proxies of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, carbon/nitrogen ratio, ostracode analysis and palynology from a depocenter core show new results with improved age control regarding high amplitude, high frequency changes in lake level, lake temperature, and regional precipitation and temperature which correspond directly with colder/warmer and respectively drier/wetter climates as documented with Northern Atlantic Greenland ice core data. Results from geophysical and geochemical analysis, and the presence of ostracode Cytherissa lacustris consistently demonstrate the correspondence of low lake conditions and colder water temperatures during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. The opposite holds true during interstadials. Smaller grain size, increases in carbon/nitrogen ratio and consistent absence of C. lacustris suggest periods of increased discharge into the lake, increased lake level, and warmer water temperatures. Warmer/wetter climate conditions are confirmed during interstadials 7 and 8 from pollen analysis. Existence of Atriplex, Rosaceae, Chrysothamnus and Ambrosia, and pollen ratios of Juniperus/Dip Pinus and (Rosaceae+Atriplex+Poaceae+Chrysothamnus+Ambrosia)/(Pinus+Picea+T. mertensiana+Sarcobatus) suggest warmer/wetter semi-arid woodland conditions during interstadials 7 and 8. This contrasts with absences in these pollens and pollen ratios indicating colder/drier continental montane woodland conditions during stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. Increases in Juniper/Dip Pinus ratio suggest a warmer/wetter climate during interstadial 6 however additional proxies do not demonstrate comparative warmer/wetter climate, deeper lake level or

  6. Temporal biogeophysical signatures at hydrocarbon contaminated sites associated with long-term remediation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekwana, E.; Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E.; Werkema, D. D.

    2009-05-01

    Biogeophysical signatures of hydrocarbon contaminated sites provide ideal laboratories for investigating microbial-geophysical relationships as the excess organic carbon present at these sites stimulates microbial activity. As such geophysical investigations have documented characteristic changes associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation in both field and laboratory experiments. The conceptual model that results from almost a decade of studies from these environments is one in which over time, the geophysical signatures due to bio-physicochemical changes imparted on the aquifer by the microbial activity reach some maximum or minimum related to the availability of terminal electron acceptors, the organic carbon source concentration, and microbial activity. However, with continuous removal of the contaminant mass either by natural attenuation (e.g., intrinsic bioremediation) or engineered (bio) remediation, a decrease in the microbial activity is predicted to cause associated changes in the geophysical properties (i.e., geophysical signatures revert to original conditions). This paper will present the results of repeated geophysical investigations at a hydrocarbon contaminated site acquired over an eleven-year period documenting changes in geophysical signatures associated with removal of hydrocarbon mass in the contaminated zone. Initial investigations at the site showed that relative to background, the contaminated area was characterized by higher bulk electrical conductivity, positive SP anomaly, and attenuated GPR reflections. Over time, the contaminated zone bulk electrical conductivity had reverted to near background conditions, the positive SP anomaly became more negative, and the zone of attenuated GPR reflections showed increased signal strength. The removal of hydrocarbon mass in the vadose zone over the plume by a soil vapor extraction system decreased the level of biological activity and therefore the magnitude of the geophysical signatures. We conclude

  7. Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

    2007-12-01

    Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy

  8. Shoreline vegetation distribution in relation to wave exposure and bay characteristics in a tropical great lake, Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Van de Koppel, J.; Denny, P.; Kansiime, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the presumption that wind-wave exposure is a major regulator of vegetation distribution within lakes. Along a 675-km stretch of shore in northern Lake Victoria (Uganda), the pattern of vegetation distribution in relation to shoreline features, and the variation of shoreline swamp are

  9. High-resolution sedimentary record of hydrocarbon contaminants in a core from the major reaches of the Pearl River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbon contaminants, and molecularmarker indices in modern sediments from a core in the major reaches of the Pearl River were investigated. The sedimentary record of hydrocarbons in the core, in combination with 210pb-dating,was used to reconstruct the pollution history of hydrocarbon pollutants in the Pearl River in the past 100 years.

  10. Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Zhao, Yingming; Stockwell, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Future changes to climate in the Great Lakes may have important consequences for fisheries. Evidence suggests that Great Lakes air and water temperatures have risen and the duration of ice cover has lessened during the past century. Global circulation models (GCMs) suggest future warming and increases in precipitation in the region. We present new evidence that water temperatures have risen in Lake Erie, particularly during summer and winter in the period 1965–2000. GCM forecasts coupled with physical models suggest lower annual runoff, less ice cover, and lower lake levels in the future, but the certainty of these forecasts is low. Assessment of the likely effects of climate change on fish stocks will require an integrative approach that considers several components of habitat rather than water temperature alone. We recommend using mechanistic models that couple habitat conditions to population demographics to explore integrated effects of climate-caused habitat change and illustrate this approach with a model for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreum). We show that the combined effect on walleye populations of plausible changes in temperature, river hydrology, lake levels, and light penetration can be quite different from that which would be expected based on consideration of only a single factor.

  11. Inputs and internal cycling of nitrogen to a causeway influenced, hypersaline lake, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen inputs to Great Salt Lake (GSL), located in the western USA, were quantified relative to the resident nitrogen mass in order to better determine numeric nutrient criteria that may be considered at some point in the future. Total dissolved nitrogen inputs from four surface-water sources entering GSL were modeled during the 5-year study period (2010–2014) and ranged from 1.90 × 106 to 5.56 × 106 kg/year. The railroad causeway breach was a significant conduit for the export of dissolved nitrogen from Gilbert to Gunnison Bay, and in 2011 and 2012, net losses of total nitrogen mass from Gilbert Bay via the Causeway breach were 9.59 × 105 and 1.51 × 106 kg. Atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) was a significant source of nitrogen to Gilbert Bay, exceeding the dissolved nitrogen load contributed via the Farmington Bay causeway surface-water input by >100,000 kg during 2 years of the study. Closure of two railroad causeway culverts in 2012 and 2013 likely initiated a decreasing trend in the volume of the higher density Deep Brine Layer and associated declines in total dissolved nitrogen mass contained in this layer. The large dissolved nitrogen pool in Gilbert Bay relative to the amount of nitrogen contributed by surface-water inflow sources is consistent with the terminal nature of GSL and the predominance of internal nutrient cycling. The opening of the new railroad causeway breach in 2016 will likely facilitate more efficient bidirectional flow between Gilbert and Gunnison Bays, resulting in potentially substantial changes in nutrient pools within GSL.

  12. Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources: a long term analysis of the Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. McBean

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the threshold of the appearance of global warming from theory to reality, extensive research has focused on predicting the impact of potential climate change on water resources using results from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. This research carries this further by statistical analyses of long term meteorological and hydrological data. Seventy years of historical trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes of North America are developed using long term regression analyses and Mann-Kendall statistics. The results generated by the two statistical procedures are in agreement and demonstrate that many of these variables are experiencing statistically significant increases over a seven-decade period. The trend lines of streamflows in the three rivers of St. Clair, Niagara and St. Lawrence, and precipitation levels over four of the five Great Lakes, show statistically significant increases in flows and precipitation. Further, precipitation rates as predicted using fitted regression lines are compared with scenarios from GCMs and demonstrate similar forecast predictions for Lake Superior. Trend projections from historical data are higher than GCM predictions for Lakes Michigan/Huron. Significant variability in predictions, as developed from alternative GCMs, is noted.

    Given the general agreement as derived from very different procedures, predictions extrapolated from historical trends and from GCMs, there is evidence that hydrologic changes particularly for the precipitation in the Great Lakes Basin may be demonstrating influences arising from global warming and climate change.

  13. Towards a National Hydrological Forecasting system for Canada : Lessons Learned from the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, V.; Durnford, D.; Gaborit, E.; Davison, B.; Dimitrijevic, M.; Matte, P.

    2016-12-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has recently deployed a water cycle prediction system for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. The model domain includes both the Canadian and US portions of the watershed. It provides 84-h forecasts of weather elements, lake level, lake ice cover and surface currents based on two-way coupling of the GEM numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with the NEMO ocean model. Streamflow of all the major tributaries of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River are estimated by the WATROUTE routing model, which routes the surface runoff forecasted by GEM's land-surface scheme and assimilates streamflow observations where available. Streamflow forecasts are updated twice daily and are disseminated through an OGC compliant web map service (WMS) and a web feature service (WFS). In this presentation, in addition to describing the system and documenting its forecast skill, we show how it is being used by clients for various environmental prediction applications. We then discuss the importance of two-way coupling, land-surface and hillslope modelling and the impact of horizontal resolution on hydrological prediction skill. In the second portion of the talk, we discuss plans for implementing a similar system at the national scale, using what we have learned in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence watershed. Early results obtained for the headwaters of the Saskatchewan River as well as for the whole Nelson-Churchill watershed are presented.

  14. Can migration mitigate the effects of ecosystem change? Patterns of dispersal, energy acquisition and allocation in Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Ebener, Mark P.; Wagner, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Migration can be a behavioural response to poor or declining home range habitat quality and can occur when the costs of migration are overcome by the benefi ts of encountering higher-quality resources elsewhere. Despite dramatic ecosystem-level changes in the benthic food web of the Laurentian Great Lakes since the colonization of dreissenid mussels, coincident changes in condition and growth rates among benthivorous lake whitefi sh populations have been variable. We hypothesized that this variation could be in part mitigated by differences in migratory habits among populations, where increased migration distance can result in an increased probability of encountering high-quality habitat (relative to the home range). Results from four Great Lakes populations support this hypothesis; relative growth rates increased regularly with migration distance. The population with the largest average migration distance also had the least reduction in size-at-age during a period of signifi cant ecosystem change and among the highest estimated consumption and activity rates. In comparison, the population with the greatest declines in size-at-age was among the least mobile, demonstrating only moderate rates of consumption and activity. The least mobile population of lake whitefi sh was supported by a remnant Diporeia population and has experienced only moderate temporal growth declines. Our study provides evidence for the potential role of migration in mitigating the effects of ecosystem change on lake whitefi sh populations.

  15. On the rate of decline of persistent organic contaminants in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes, 1970-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel L; De Vault, David S; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2010-03-15

    Thirty-four years of data from the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP) show significant changes in the behavior of most contaminants in lake trout over time consistent with changes in contaminant inputs following regulation and remediation. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) show positive apparent first-order rate constants falling to near zero. Dieldrin shows relatively unchanging half-lives of around 10 years except in Lake Superior (approximately 25 years). Mirex, consistently detected only in Lake Ontario fish, shows a slow decrease until the 1990s, when remediation of a source site occurred, after which half-lives are 2-3 years. Half-lives of oxychlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT) and its metabolites were typically 3-6 years until the mid 1980s; since then, the newest data confirm half-lives are usually around 15-30 years. For PCBs, an increasing half-life is found in other media as well. Changes in food web structure, fishery dynamics, and climate undoubtedly affect concentrations but cannot explain observed long-term trends across several media. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in the Great Lakes are likely to continue to decline only slowly and pose a health concern for decades without identifying and containing remaining sources.

  16. Occurrence of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda) in fishes of the Great Lakes with emphasis on its occurrence in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) from Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Muzzall, Patrick M.; Adams, Jean V.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Flores, Angela E.; Winkel, Andrea M.

    2005-01-01

    Cyathocephalus truncatus is a pathogenic cestode that is common in many Laurentian Great Lakes fish species, but the depth distribution of this cestode has not been studied. Cyathocephalus truncatus has been reported from 21 fish species and one hybrid representing seven orders and nine families in Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario. We examined the intestinal contents of six species of fish collected in Michigan waters of Lake Huron, from DeTour to Harbor Beach, in 2001 to 2003 for the presence of this cestode species. Cyathocephalus truncatus was found in five native fish species and the exotic round goby. Prevalence (52%) and mean intensity (4.6 cestodes per infected fish) were highest in bloaters. This is the first reported occurrence of this cestode in round gobies from the Great Lakes. None of the gobies trawled from Lake Huron at depths of 27 to 46 m were infected, but prevalence and intensity of infection in round gobies increased significantly with depth from 55 to 73 m. Our diet study of round gobies indicated that they preyed heavily on amphipods (Diporeia hoyi) at depths of 55 to 73 m. Cyathocephalus truncatus was found in eight of 605 D. hoyi obtained by Ponar grab sampling. This suggests that C. truncatus eggs may be released from infected gobies and sink to deep basins with silt bottoms where D. hoyi occur.

  17. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1982. Part 3. Waterways and Harbors, Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    34. ?~~~~.....:-.:.... . ....... . .. .. ..- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETROIT, MI, DISTRICT 21 MNEEA WATERWAY. NICK. SCTIO IMNMLUS0S FOM PORTAGE ENTRY. NEEENAN GAY TO* POUGH PORTAGE RIVER, TORCH LAKE, PORTAGE LAKE

  18. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  19. Selecting Great Lakes streams for lampricide treatment based on larval sea lamprey surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gavin C.; Adams, Jean V.; Steeves, Todd B.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Young, Robert J.; Kuc, Miroslaw; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    The Empiric Stream Treatment Ranking (ESTR) system is a data-driven, model-based, decision tool for selecting Great Lakes streams for treatment with lampricide, based on estimates from larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) surveys conducted throughout the basin. The 2000 ESTR system was described and applied to larval assessment surveys conducted from 1996 to 1999. A comparative analysis of stream survey and selection data was conducted and improvements to the stream selection process were recommended. Streams were selected for treatment based on treatment cost, predicted treatment effectiveness, and the projected number of juvenile sea lampreys produced. On average, lampricide treatments were applied annually to 49 streams with 1,075 ha of larval habitat, killing 15 million larval and 514,000 juvenile sea lampreys at a total cost of $5.3 million, and marginal and mean costs of $85 and $10 per juvenile killed. The numbers of juvenile sea lampreys killed for given treatment costs showed a pattern of diminishing returns with increasing investment. Of the streams selected for treatment, those with > 14 ha of larval habitat targeted 73% of the juvenile sea lampreys for 60% of the treatment cost. Suggested improvements to the ESTR system were to improve accuracy and precision of model estimates, account for uncertainty in estimates, include all potentially productive streams in the process (not just those surveyed in the current year), consider the value of all larvae killed during treatment (not just those predicted to metamorphose the following year), use lake-specific estimates of damage, and establish formal suppression targets.

  20. Bioadvection of mercury from the Great Salt Lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F.; Goodman, J.; Collins, J.; Saxton, H.; Mansfield, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, is a hypersaline terminal lake that is home to some of the highest concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) ever measured in natural waters. While terrestrial organisms typically have very low concentrations of MeHg because it is produced almost exclusively in sub-oxic aquatic environments, we documented elevated concentrations of MeHg in brine flies (Ephydra spp.) and spiders along the shores of the GSL. We hypothesized that brine flies, with their larval and pupal stages in the GSL, act as vectors that transfer Hg from the lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems as flying adults where they are eaten by spiders and other organisms. The GSL is visited annually by millions of migratory birds, and a major food source for both resident and migratory birds at the GSL are brine flies, so brine flies may represent an important source of Hg to birds here. We conducted a spatial and temporal study of HgT and MeHg in surface waters, brine flies, spiders, and Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) a predatory terrestrial songbird of conservation concern, and investigated sublethal effects due to Hg exposure on Antelope Island in the GSL. Samples were also analyzed for their stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios. While HgT and MeHg concentrations in surface waters were elevated, they varied relatively little throughout the year and exhibited no clear seasonal trends. However, seasonal maxima in concentrations of HgT and MeHg in brine flies and spiders occurred in spring and fall, periods of peak migratory bird numbers at the GSL. Approximately 20% of adult/juvenile shrikes had blood HgT concentrations above thresholds previously shown to reduce breeding success in other songbirds, with these concentrations increasing after the annual appearance of orb weaving spiders. HgT concentrations of shrikes decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline and decreasing brine fly abundance, again suggesting the GSL is the ultimate

  1. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  2. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  3. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  4. Transcending the Majority Rights and Minority Protection Dichotomy through Multicultural Reflective Citizenship in the African Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndura, Elavie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author examines how colonial racist policies and western-bound post-colonial educational practices have contributed to the recurring ethnic conflicts in the Great Lakes region of Africa. After defining democracy and reflective citizenship within the African context, she discusses how teachers' roles should be redefined and…

  5. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  6. Applying the collective impact approach to address non-native species: A case study of the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H. B.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Hollins, K.

    2016-01-01

    To address the invasion of non-native Phragmites in the Great Lakes, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey—Great Lakes Science Center partnered with the Great Lakes Commission in 2012 to establish the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative (GLPC). The GLPC is a regional-scale partnership established to improve collaboration among stakeholders and increase the effectiveness of non-native Phragmites management and research. Rather than forming a traditional partnership with a narrowly defined goal, the GLPC follows the principles of collective impact to engage stakeholders, guide progress, and align resources to address this complex, regional challenge. In this paper, the concept and tenets of collective impact are described, the GLPC is offered as a model for other natural resource-focused collective impact efforts, and steps for establishing collaboratives are presented. Capitalizing on the interactive collective impact approach, the GLPC is moving toward a broadly accepted common agenda around which agencies and individuals will be able to better align their actions and generate measureable progress in the regional campaign to protect healthy, diverse ecosystems from damage caused by non-native Phragmites.

  7. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  8. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  9. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrating that the alternative values will protect the aquatic life uses of the water. Appropriate... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and Values A Appendix A to Part 132 Protection of...

  11. Marinimicrobium haloxylanilyticum sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh Møller, Mette; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A new moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain SX15T, was isolated from hypersaline surface sediment of the southern arm of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). The strain grew on a number of carbohydrates and carbohydrate polymers such as xylan, starch, carboxymethyl...

  12. An Evaluation of the Great Lakes Apprenticeship Center: Some Insights Into Educational Programming for Disadvantaged Adults. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. M.; De Vries, Jim

    This research was aimed at determining the success of the program approach of a rather unique prevocational training program designed to meet the needs of young adult American Indians from low income backgrounds. The Great Lakes Apprenticeship Center (GLAC) approach utilizes some education principles which have wide support in adult education…

  13. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  14. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  15. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  16. Interactive 3D Visualization of the Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) as a Tool to Facilitate Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikilmaz, M.; Harwood, C. L.; Hsi, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; McDermott, J.; Pellett, B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H. M.; Yalowitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a powerful research tool that has been used to investigate complex scientific problems in various fields. It allows researchers to explore and understand processes and features that are not directly observable and help with building of new models. It has been shown that 3D visualization creates a more engaging environment for public audiences. Interactive 3D visualization can allow individuals to explore scientific concepts on their own. We present an NSF funded project developed in collaboration with UC Davis KeckCAVES, UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center, ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center, and Lawrence Hall of Science. The Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) project aims to build interactive 3D visualization of some of the major lakes and reservoirs of the world to enhance public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems, habitats, and earth science processes. The project includes a collection of publicly available satellite imagery and digital elevation models at various resolutions for the 20 major lakes of the world as well as the bathymetry data for the 12 lakes. It also includes the vector based 'Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)' by the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and the Center for Environmental System Research University of Kassel, Germany and the CIA World DataBank II data sets to show wetlands and water reservoirs at global scale. We use a custom virtual globe (Crusta) developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Crusta is designed to specifically allow for visualization and mapping of features in very high spatial resolution (learn about the lake and watershed processes as well as geologic processes (e.g. faulting, landslide, glacial, volcanic) that have shaped these lakes. With the advances in 3D imaging technology, the hardware is becoming more affordable and accessible. Affordable 3D projectors, monitors and TVs will allow schools and informal science centers

  17. A sensor-based energy balance method for the distributed estimation of evaporation over the North American Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.; Gronewold, A.; Lenters, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a novel energy balance method to estimate evaporation across large lakes using real-time data from moored buoys and mobile, satellite-tracked drifters. Our work is motivated by the need to improve our understanding of the water balance of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, a complex hydrologic system that comprises 90% of the United States' and 20% of the world's fresh surface water. Recently, the lakes experienced record-setting water level drops despite above-average precipitation, and given that lake surface area comprises nearly one third of the entire basin, evaporation is suspected to be the primary driver behind the decrease in water levels. There has historically been a need to measure evaporation over the Great Lakes, and recent hydrological phenomena (including not only record low levels, but also extreme changes in ice cover and surface water temperatures) underscore the urgency of addressing that need. Our method tracks the energy fluxes of the lake system - namely net radiation, heat storage and advection, and Bowen ratio. By measuring each of these energy budget terms and combining the results with mass-transfer based estimates, we can calculate real-time evaporation rates on sub-hourly timescales. To mitigate the cost prohibitive nature of large-scale, distributed energy flux measurements, we present a novel approach in which we leverage existing investments in seasonal buoys (which, while providing intensive, high quality data, are costly and sparsely distributed across the surface of the Great Lakes) and then integrate data from less costly satellite-tracked drifter data. The result is an unprecedented, hierarchical sensor and modeling architecture that can be used to derive estimates of evaporation in real-time through cloud-based computing. We discuss recent deployments of sensor-equipped buoys and drifters, which are beginning to provide us with some of the first in situ measurements of overlake evaporation from Earth's largest lake

  18. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaker, Peter L.; Corsi, Steven; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120–1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km2 than those with less than 50 cattle/km2. In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  19. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaker, P L; Corsi, S R; Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K; Baldwin, A K; Lutz, M A

    2017-04-15

    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120-1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km(2) than those with less than 50 cattle/km(2). In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  20. Atmospheric Transference of the Toxic Burden of Atmosphere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants to the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Perlinger, J. A.; Giang, A.; Zhang, H.; Selin, N. E.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic pollutants that share certain chemical properties undergo repeated emission and deposition between Earth's surfaces and the atmosphere. Following their emission through anthropogenic activities, they are transported locally, regionally or globally through the atmosphere, are deposited, and impact local ecosystems, in some cases as a result of bioaccumulation in food webs. We call them atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or "ASEPs", wherein this group is comprised of thousands of chemicals. We are studying potential future contamination in the Great Lakes region by modeling scenarios of the future for three compounds/compound classes, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this presentation we focus on mercury and future scenarios of contamination of the Great Lake region. The atmospheric transport of mercury under specific scenarios will be discussed. The global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem has been applied to estimate future atmospheric concentrations and deposition rates of mercury in the Great Lakes region for selected future scenarios of emissions and climate. We find that, assuming no changes in climate, annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region may increase by approximately 50% over 2005 levels by 2050, without global or regional policies addressing mercury, air pollution, and climate. In contrast, we project that the combination of global and North American action on mercury could lead to a 21% reduction in deposition from 2005 levels by 2050. US action alone results in a projected 18% reduction over 2005 levels by 2050. We also find that, assuming no changes in anthropogenic emissions, climate change and biomass burning emissions would, respectively, cause annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region to increase by approximately 5% and decrease by approximately 2% over 2000 levels by 2050.

  1. Use of physiological knowledge to control the invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefkes, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America is an example of using physiological knowledge to successfully control an invasive species and rehabilitate an ecosystem and valuable fishery. The parasitic sea lamprey contributed to the devastating collapse of native fish communities after invading the Great Lakes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Economic tragedy ensued with the loss of the fishery and severe impacts to property values and tourism resulting from sea lamprey-induced ecological changes. To control the sea lamprey and rehabilitate the once vibrant Great Lakes ecosystem and economy, the Great Lakes Fishery Commission (Commission) was formed by treaty between Canada and the United States in 1955. The Commission has developed a sea lamprey control programme based on their physiological vulnerabilities, which includes (i) the application of selective pesticides (lampricides), which successfully kill sedentary sea lamprey larvae in their natal streams; (ii) barriers to spawning migrations and associated traps to prevent infestations of upstream habitats and remove adult sea lamprey before they reproduce; and (iii) the release of sterilized males to reduce the reproductive potential of spawning populations in select streams. Since 1958, the application of the sea lamprey control programme has suppressed sea lamprey populations by ~90% from peak abundance. Great Lakes fish populations have rebounded and the economy is now thriving. In hopes of further enhancing the efficacy and selectivity of the sea lamprey control programme, the Commission is exploring the use of (i) sea lamprey chemosensory cues (pheromones and alarm cues) to manipulate behaviours and physiologies, and (ii) genetics to identify and manipulate genes associated with key physiological functions, for control purposes. Overall, the Commission capitalizes on the unique physiology of the sea lamprey and strives to develop a diverse integrated programme to

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Great Slave Lake are very low but vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined both in the somatic tissue and in the gonads for a randomly selected subset of five females and five males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males were 30 % greater in ΣPCB than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18 % and increase by 6 %, respectively, immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males were 28 and 71 % greater in ΣPCB than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13) and older (ages 14-17) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie were about 50 times greater in ΣPCB than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a “hot spot” effect operating on older burbot, as Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30 % greater than that of females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish.

  3. Polycyclic Musks in the Air and Water of the Lower Great Lakes: Spatial Distribution and Volatilization from Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Puggioni, Gavino; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) are synthetic fragrance compounds used in personal care products and household cleaners. Previous studies have indicated that PCMs are introduced to aquatic environments via wastewater and river discharge. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed in air and water during winter 2011 and summer 2012 to investigate the role of population centers as sources of these contaminants to the Great Lakes and determine whether the lakes were acting as sources of PCMs via volatilization. Average gaseous Σ5PCM ranged from below detection limits (Lake Erie in Toledo. Average dissolved Σ5PCM ranged from Lake Ontario near the mouth of the Oswego River. Significant correlations were observed between population density and Σ5PCM in both air and water, with strongest correlations within a 25 and 40 km radius, respectively. At sites where HHCB was detected it was generally volatilizing, while the direction of AHTN air-water exchange was variable. Volatilization fluxes of HHCB ranged from 11 ± 6 to 341 ± 127 ng/m(2)/day, while air-water exchange fluxes of AHTN ranged from -3 ± 2 to 28 ± 10 ng/m(2)/day. Extrapolation of average air-water exchange flux values over the surface area of the lakes' coastal boundary zone suggested volatilization may be responsible for the loss of 64-213 kg/year of dissolved Σ5PCM from the lakes.

  4. 46 CFR 11.444 - Service requirements for mate of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not more than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service requirements for mate of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not more than 1600 gross tons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.444 Service requirements for mate of Great Lakes and...

  5. Laurentian Great Lakes phytoplankton and their water quality characteristics, including a diatom-based model for paleoreconstruction of phosphorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan D Reavie

    Full Text Available Recent shifts in water quality and food web characteristics driven by anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes warranted an examination of pelagic primary producers as tracers of environmental change. The distributions of the 263 common phytoplankton taxa were related to water quality variables to determine taxon-specific responses that may be useful in indicator models. A detailed checklist of taxa and their environmental optima are provided. Multivariate analyses indicated a strong relationship between total phosphorus (TP and patterns in the diatom assemblages across the Great Lakes. Of the 118 common diatom taxa, 90 (76% had a directional response along the TP gradient. We further evaluated a diatom-based transfer function for TP based on the weighted-average abundance of taxa, assuming unimodal distributions along the TP gradient. The r(2 between observed and inferred TP in the training dataset was 0.79. Substantial spatial and environmental autocorrelation within the training set of samples justified the need for further model validation. A randomization procedure indicated that the actual transfer function consistently performed better than functions based on reshuffled environmental data. Further, TP was minimally confounded by other environmental variables, as indicated by the relatively large amount of unique variance in the diatoms explained by TP. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the transfer function by hindcasting TP concentrations using fossil diatom assemblages in a Lake Superior sediment core. Passive, multivariate analysis of the fossil samples against the training set indicated that phosphorus was a strong determinant of historical diatom assemblages, verifying that the transfer function was suited to reconstruct past TP in Lake Superior. Collectively, these results showed that phytoplankton coefficients for water quality can be robust indicators of Great Lakes pelagic condition. The diatom-based transfer

  6. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T O Neil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2 of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  7. Microbial and diagenetic steps leading to the mineralisation of Great Salt Lake microbialites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Galaup, Serge; Bundeleva, Irina; Patrier, Patricia; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Sansjofre, Pierre; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Franceschi, Michel; Anguy, Yannick; Pigot, Léa; Virgone, Aurélien; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-08-01

    Microbialites are widespread in modern and fossil hypersaline environments, where they provide a unique sedimentary archive. Authigenic mineral precipitation in modern microbialites results from a complex interplay between microbial metabolisms, organic matrices and environmental parameters. Here, we combined mineralogical and microscopic analyses with measurements of metabolic activity in order to characterise the mineralisation of microbial mats forming microbialites in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). Our results show that the mineralisation process takes place in three steps progressing along geochemical gradients produced through microbial activity. First, a poorly crystallized Mg-Si phase precipitates on alveolar extracellular organic matrix due to a rise of the pH in the zone of active oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, aragonite patches nucleate in close proximity to sulfate reduction hotspots, as a result of the degradation of cyanobacteria and extracellular organic matrix mediated by, among others, sulfate reducing bacteria. A final step consists of partial replacement of aragonite by dolomite, possibly in neutral to slightly acidic porewater. This might occur due to dissolution-precipitation reactions when the most recalcitrant part of the organic matrix is degraded. The mineralisation pathways proposed here provide pivotal insight for the interpretation of microbial processes in past hypersaline environments.

  8. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting.

  9. Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on beach water quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhougstraete, M.P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

  10. Occurrence of alkylphenolic substances in a Great Lakes coastal marsh, Cootes Paradise, ON, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: tanya.mayer@ec.gc.ca; Bennie, D. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Rosa, F. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Rekas, G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Palabrica, V. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Schachtschneider, J. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols (APs), known endocrine disruptors, were investigated in a Great Lakes coastal wetland, Cootes Paradise, ON. The wetland, which receives discharges from a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) and several Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs), is an important spawning ground for fish and crucial habitat for other fauna. Elevated concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) and their degradation product nonylphenol (NP) were found in water and sediment samples near the sources. Since transfer of APs through the food chain is of concern, we compared their concentrations in invertebrates from clean and contaminated sites. The results reveal transfer of alkylphenolics from sediments to biota and their accumulation in the invertebrate tissue, particularly the highly hydrophobic 4-NP, whose concentrations ranged from 1.9 to 6.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate AP concentrations in tissue of benthic invertebrates under real environmental conditions. - Concentrations of alkylphenolic compounds in water, sediments and benthic invertebrates in a large coastal wetland and implications for trophic transfer.

  11. Best Practices for Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Hummer, John; Haven, Celia

    2011-07-19

    This report offers a menu of 18 different, yet complementary, preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. Each best practice describes the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, academia, and federal, state and local government regulators. The practices were identified through a year-long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors. Optimally, a suite of these best practices would be applied in an appropriate combination to fit the conditions of a particular wind project or a set of wind projects within a given locality or region.

  12. Growth-climate relationships across topographic gradients in the northern Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.F.; D'Amato, A.W.; Kolka, R.K.; Bolstad, P.V.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Bradford, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Climatic conditions exert important control over the growth, productivity, and distribution of forests, and characterizing these relationships is essential for understanding how forest ecosystems will respond to climate change. We used dendrochronological methods to develop climate–growth relationships for two dominant species, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Pinus resinosa (red pine), in the upper Great Lakes region to understand how climate and water availability influence annual forest productivity. Trees were sampled along a topographic gradient at the Marcell Experimental Forest (Minnesota, USA) to assess growth response to variations in temperature and different water availability metrics (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), cumulative moisture index (CMI), and soil water storage). Climatic variables were able to explain 33–58% of the variation in annual growth (as measured by ring-width increment) for quaking aspen and 37–74% of the variation for red pine. Climate–growth relationships were influenced by topography for quaking aspen but not for red pine. Annual ring growth for quaking aspen decreased with June CMI on ridges, decreased with temperature in the November prior to the growing season on sideslopes, and decreased with June PET on toeslopes. Red pine growth increased with increasing July PET across all topographic positions. These results indicate the sensitivity of both quaking aspen and red pine to local climate and show several vulnerabilities of these species to shifts in water supply and temperature because of climate change.

  13. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  14. 350 Years of Fire-Climate-Human Interactions in a Great Lakes Sandy Outwash Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Guyette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of eastern North America, quantitative records of historical fire regimes and interactions with humans are absent. Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data on fire frequency, extent, and severity, but also can be used to understand fire-climate-human interactions. This study used tree-ring dated fire scars from red pines (Pinus resinosa at four sites in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin to quantify the interactions among fire occurrence and seasonality, drought, and humans. New methods for assessing the influence of human ignitions on fire regimes were developed. A temporal and spatial index of wildland fire was significantly correlated (r = 0.48 with drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI. Fire intervals varied through time with human activities that included early French Jesuit missions, European trade (fur, diseases, war, and land use. Comparisons of historical fire records suggest that annual climate in this region has a broad influence on the occurrence of fire years in the Great Lakes region.

  15. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Bassil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  16. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of neighbor relatedness on multilevel selection in the Great Lakes sea rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Natural selection can operate at the individual and group level in natural populations. This study investigates the ecological factors that determine the relative importance of individual versus group selection. In particular, it determines how the relatedness of interacting neighbors influences multilevel natural selection in a population of the Great Lakes sea rocket. Focal plants were grown in groups of siblings, groups of plants that were themselves siblings but unrelated to the focal plants, and groups of plants with mixed genotypes. Significant group selection on plant size was observed only when the neighbors were siblings but not when they were unrelated. In sibling groups, individuals with heavier stems had higher fitness, and individuals growing with heavier but shorter neighbors also had higher fitness. Thus, individual and group selection on stem weight operated in the same direction. The detection of group selection in sibling groups can be attributed in part to an increased opportunity for group selection in these groups since sibling groups differed more from one another than the other group types. In addition, the quality of the selective environment in sibling groups may have differed from that for the other group types. Group selection was therefore more prevalent in the most genetically structured sample, in which responses to group selection are also most likely to occur.

  18. Comparative embryology of five species of lampreys of the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allen J.; Howell, John H.; Piavis, George W.

    1968-01-01

    The four species of lampreys native to the upper Great Lakes (American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamotteni; chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus; northern brook lamprey, I. fossor; and silver lamprey, I. unicuspis) were collected in various stages of their life cycle and maintained in the laboratory until sexually mature. Secondary sex characters of the four native species are compared. Several batches of eggs of each species were reared at 18.4A?C and their development was compared to that of the exotic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The temperature of 18.4A?C was previously determined to be optimum for development of the sea lamprey. The high percentage survival of many batches of eggs of native species to prolarvae indicated that 18.4A?C was near the optimum for them. Survival to the burrowing stage varied considerably among different batches of eggs from the same species; some batches failed to produce prolarvae. The staging characteristics used for the sea lamprey were applicable to the native species, except for the end point of the burrowing stage. Embryos of the native species in each stage of development appeared according to the time sequence established for the sea lamprey.

  19. The role of agency goals and local context in Great Lakes water resources public involvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre, Betsy Kiernan; Knuth, Barbara A.

    1993-03-01

    As complex social phenomena, public involvement processes are influenced by contextual factors. This study examined agency goals for public involvement and assessed the importance of local context in remedial action planning, a community-based water resources program aimed at the cleanup of the 42 most polluted locations in the Great Lakes Basin. Agency goals for public involvement in remedial action plans (RAPs) were agency-oriented and focused on public acceptance of the plan, support for implementation, and positive agency-public relations. Corresponding to these goals, citizen advisory committees were created in 75% of the RAP sites as a primary means for public input into the planning process. Factors that influenced the implementation of public involvement programs in remedial action planning included public orientation toward the remediation issue, local economic conditions, the interaction of diverse interests in the process, agency and process credibility, experience of local leadership, and jurisdictional complexity. A formative assessment of “community readiness” appeared critical to appropriate public involvement program design. Careful program design may also include citizen education and training components, thoughtful management of ongoing agency-public relations and conflict among disparate interests in the process, overcoming logistical difficulties that threaten program continuity, using local expertise and communication channels, and circumventing interjurisdictional complexities.

  20. Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Great Lakes Commission; Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

    2011-07-19

    This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices include those that have been previously tested and proven effective, as well as new practices that were identified by experts in the field as needed for future wind developments. Each best practice includes information about the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, and federal, state and local government regulators. They were identified through a year long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors.

  1. On-line Education Initiatives to Galvanize Climate Mitigation in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) is supporting two different on-line education initiatives that teach about climate change while emphasizing informed and effective responses. The first is an on-line introductory level course for undergraduate students (http://c3.ssec.wisc.edu/) offered through the University of Wisconsin-Madison Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (AOS) department. Along with a lighter carbon footprint and the convenience of web-based access, students interact via Drupal forums, Google hangouts and twitter. Activities include several pedagogical tools with sustainability-related content and a final project requiring a discussion of regionally relevant mitigation responses to achieve low emission scenarios for assigned locations. The other initiative is a MOOC (massive open online course) focusing on the changing weather and climate in the Great Lakes Region. This 4-week course is set to launch February 23 2015. One of the primary goals of this MOOC will be having participants change four habits, one per week. Each behavior change will provide a personal benefit to participating individuals while also helping to mitigate the collective impacts of climate change. This presentation will share strategies and insights from both projects.

  2. Estimating ecological water stress caused by anthropogenic uses in the US Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, S.; Mayer, A. S.; Maclean, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Gyawali, R.; Mirchi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropocentric water resources management that prioritizes socio-economic growth can cause harmful ecological water stress by depriving aquatic ecosystems of the water needed to sustain habitats. It is important to better understand the impacts of water withdrawal by different economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, power utilities, manufacturing, etc.), withdrawal sources, and extent of return flow (i.e., return of water to river system) at different spatial and temporal scales in order to characterize potentially harmful streamflow disturbances, and to inform water management. Herein, GIS technology is used to characterize and map ecological water stress in the Great Lakes region by compiling and analyzing water withdrawal data for different use categories. An integrative geospatial method is developed to quantify catchment scale streamflow disturbance as the sum of flow depletion and return flow, and propagate it along the stream network in order to calculate water stress index as function of consumptive use and impacted streamflow. Results for the Kalamazoo River Watershed, Michigan, illustrate that although average annual and July water stress is generally relatively low, protective management actions may be necessary in a significant number of catchments, especially in urban catchments with very high water stress. Water stress is significantly higher under low flow conditions, indicating the need to adjust withdrawals to reduce adverse resource impacts on sensitive streams.

  3. High precision topographic data on Lop Nor basin's Lake "Great Ear" and the timing of its becoming a dry salt lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI BaoGuo; MA LiChun; JIANG PingAn; DUAN ZengQiang; SUN DanFeng; QIU HongLie; ZHONG JunPing; WU HongQi

    2008-01-01

    High precision elevation measurements using DGPS were carried out along three representative tran-sects for the "Great Ear" area, a dry salt lake within the Lop Nor basin. Results indicate that the Lop Nor basin is only 5.2 m deep and its lowest point occurs at the center of the "Great Ear". In addition, the basin is asymmetric - steeper in the southwest (0.19%.) and gentler in the northeast (0.09%.). Points along the same "Great Ear" ring were found to have an identical elevation value, but different when from different ones (lower towards the center). The spacing of the "Great Ear" rings was found to be closely related with the surface steepness. The closer the "Great Ear" rings are spaced, the steeper the ground surface, and vice versa. These findings support the argument that the "Great Ear" rings are the former shoreline trails left behind by Lop Nor water during the last few episodes of recession towards its total dry up. A comprehensive analysis of the high precision elevation data, historical accounts, aerial and satellite photographs and imagery, and official topographic maps of the study area suggests that the "Great Ear" area in the Lop Nor basin was incorrectly mapped as being covered by a great body of water on the 1963 topographic maps. A re-interpretation of the 1958 aerial photographs and newer remote sensing imagery indicated that the "Great Ear" ring structure was already in place in 1958 and it continued to appear on the subsequent remote sensing data without any major changes. It is estimated that lake water in the "Great Ear" area of the Lop Nor basin disappeared between the late 1930s and early 1940s.

  4. Risk of herbicide mixtures as a key parameter to explain phytoplankton fluctuation in a great lake: the case of Lake Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Vincent; Büchi, Lucie; Anneville, Orlane; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2012-11-01

    Mixture risk assessment predictions have rarely been confronted with biological changes observed in the environment. In this study, long-term monitoring of a European great lake, Lake Geneva, provides the opportunity to assess to what extent the predicted toxicity of herbicide mixtures explains the changes in the composition of the phytoplankton community next to other classical limnology parameters such as nutrients. To reach this goal, the gradient of the mixture toxicity of 14 herbicides regularly detected in the lake was calculated using concentration addition and response addition models. A temporal gradient of toxicity was observed which decreased from 2004 to 2009. Redundancy analysis and partial redundancy analysis showed that this gradient explains a significant portion of the variation in phytoplankton community composition with and without having removed the effect of all other co-variables. Moreover, species that are significantly influenced, positively or negatively, by the decrease of toxicity in the lake over time are highlighted. It can be concluded that the herbicide mixture toxicity is one of the key parameters to explain phytoplankton changes in Lake Geneva.

  5. Activity and diversity of methanogens in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleikemper, Jutta; Pombo, Silvina A; Schroth, Martin H; Sigler, William V; Pesaro, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Methanogenic activity was investigated in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer by using a series of four push-pull tests with acetate, formate, H(2) plus CO(2), or methanol to target different groups of methanogenic Archaea. Furthermore, the community composition of methanogens in water and aquifer material was explored by molecular analyses, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes amplified with the Archaea-specific primer set ARCH915 and UNI-b-rev, and sequencing of DNA from dominant DGGE bands. Molecular analyses were subsequently compared with push-pull test data. Methane was produced in all tests except for a separate test where 2-bromoethanesulfonate, a specific inhibitor of methanogens, was added. Substrate consumption rates were 0.11 mM day(-1) for methanol, 0.38 mM day(-1) for acetate, 0.90 mM day(-1) for H(2), and 1.85 mM day(-1) for formate. Substrate consumption and CH(4) production during all tests suggested that at least three different physiologic types of methanogens were present: H(2) plus CO(2) or formate, acetate, and methanol utilizers. The presence of 15 to 20 bands in DGGE profiles indicated a diverse archaeal population. High H(2) and formate consumption rates agreed with a high diversity of methanogenic Archaea consuming these substrates (16S rRNA gene sequences related to several members of the Methanomicrobiaceae) and the detection of Methanomicrobiaceae by using FISH (1.4% of total DAPI [4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole]-stained microorganisms in one water sample; probe MG1200). Considerable acetate consumption agreed with the presence of sequences related to the obligate acetate degrader Methanosaeata concilii and the detection of this species by FISH (5 to 22% of total microorganisms; probe Rotcl1). The results suggest that both aceticlastic and CO(2)-type substrate-consuming methanogens are likely involved in the terminal step of hydrocarbon degradation

  6. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theresa

    (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, and nickel) in the southern Tucson metropolitan area. A Tucson company that uses beryllium oxide to manufacture thermally conductive ceramics has prompted strong citizen concern. This study found that the study area has good air quality with respect to PM10 and metals, with ambient concentrations meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization standards. Beryllium was detected only once (during a dust storm) and was ascribed to naturally-occurring beryllium in the suspended soil. The third paper (to be submitted to the Journal of Great Lakes Research) studies nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Numerous studies have shown that wet and dry deposition of nitrogen has contributed to the eutrophication of coastal waters and declining productivity of marine fisheries. Nitrogen dry deposition over the Great Lakes themselves, as opposed to the shorelines, has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper calculates nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, using aircraft measurements from the LADCO Aircraft Study, and finds that over-water, nitrogen dry deposition is a significant source of nitrogen to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

  7. The Holocene Great Belt connection to the southern Kattegat, Scandinavia: Ancylus Lake drainage and Early Littorina Sea transgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Jensen, Jørn B.; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    Late- and postglacial geological evolution of the southern Kattegat connection to the Great Belt was investigated from high-resolution seismic data and radiocarbon-dated sediment cores in order to elucidate the Ancylus Lake drainage/Littorina Sea transgression. It was found that glacial deposits...... (PG II; subdivided into three parasequences) and finally a highstand systems tract (PG III). PG I sand deposits (11.7–10.8 cal. ka BP) are found in a major western channel and in a secondary eastern channel. PG II (10.8–9.8 cal. ka BP) consists of estuarine and coastal deposits linked to an estuary...... shows no evidence of major erosion or delta deposition linked to the emptying of the Ancylus Lake, which suggests that continuous water flow from the south characterized the area, without any major drainage event of the Ancylus Lake impacting the southwestern Kattegat....

  8. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  9. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  10. Reduction of hydrocarbon contamination on viability of Acartia pacifica benthic resting eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaodong; WANG Guizhong; LIN Qiongwu

    2008-01-01

    The potential effect of hydrocarbon contamination on the hatching success of benthic resting eggs of Acartia pacifica in Xiamen Bay was investigated experimentally.The number of nauplii emerging from the sediment samples decreased with increasing Fuel Oil #0 concentration.The estimated rate of mortality increased markedly with the increase of Fuel Oil #0 concentration.Successive fuel Oil #0 concentrations from 50 mg/kg to 5000 mg/kg reduced the number of hatched nauplii by 3.8%-100%.The mortality of A.pacifica resting eggs due to Fuel Oil #0 contamination did not significantly increase as time progressed at each concentration level.The LC50 values of resting eggs,changing from 237.12 to 279.59 mg/kg,remained at an almost stable level in two months.The number of A.pacifica nauplii that hatched from the sediment at 10℃ was higher than those from the sediment at 30℃,which indicates that the toxicity of Fuel Oil #0 on A.pacifica resting eggs increases with increasing temperature.

  11. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  12. Microbial communities along biogeochemical gradients in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Karolin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Fetzer, Ingo; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Florian; Lohse, Ute; Franz, Janett; Neumann, Franziska; Gerling, Sarah; Schmidt, Christian; Hasselwander, Eyk; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2013-09-01

    Micro-organisms are known to degrade a wide range of toxic substances. How the environment shapes microbial communities in polluted ecosystems and thus influences degradation capabilities is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a highly complex environment: the capillary fringe and subjacent sediments in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Sixty sediment sections were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, complemented by chemical analyses of petroleum hydrocarbons, methane, oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors. Multivariate statistics revealed concentrations of contaminants and the position of the water table as significant factors shaping the microbial community composition. Micro-organisms with highest T-RFLP abundances were related to sulphate reducers belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus, fermenting bacteria of the genera Sedimentibacter and Smithella, and aerobic hydrocarbon degraders of the genus Acidovorax. Furthermore, the acetoclastic methanogens Methanosaeta, and hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanocella and Methanoregula were detected. Whereas sulphate and sulphate reducers prevail at the contamination source, the detection of methane, fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea further downstream points towards syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Soil Science, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  15. Selection of biosurfactan/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Viramontes-Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons are among the most persistent soil contaminants, and some hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms can produce biosurfactants to increase bioavailability and degradation. The aim of this work was to identify biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, and to evaluate their biosurfactant properties. The drop-collapse method and minimal agar added with a layer of combustoleo were used for screening, and positive strains were grown in liquid medium, and surface tension and emulsification index were determined in cell-free supernantant and cell suspension. A total of 324 bacterial strains were tested, and 17 were positive for the drop-collapse and hydrocarbon-layer agar methods. Most of the strains were Pseudomonas, except for three strains (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus. Surface tension was similar in cell-free and cell suspension measurements, with values in the range of 58 to 26 (mN/m, and all formed stable emulsions with motor oil (76-93% E24. Considering the variety of molecular structures among microbial biosurfactants, they have different chemical properties that can be exploited commercially, for applications as diverse as bioremediation or degradable detergents.

  16. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil by wild ornamental Iridaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijuan; Wang, Yanan; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Binbin; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-03-04

    As a green remediation technology, phytoremediation is becoming one of the most promising methods for treating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)-contaminated soil. Pot culture experiments were conducted in this study to investigate phytoremediation potential of two representative Iridaceae species (Iris dichotoma Pall. and Iris lactea Pall.) in remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results showed that I. lactea was more endurable to extremely high concentration of PHCs (about 40,000 mg/kg), with a relatively high degradation rate of 20.68%.The degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils contaminated with 10,000 and 20,000 mg/kg of PHCs was 30.79% and 19.36% by I. dichotoma, and 25.02% and 19.35% by I. lactea, respectively, which improved by 10-60% than the unplanted controls. The presence of I. dichotoma and I. lactea promoted degradation of PHCs fractions, among which saturates were more biodegradable than aromatics. Adaptive specialization was observed within the bacterial community. In conclusion, phytoremediation by I. dichotoma should be limited to soils contaminated with ≤20,000 mg/kg of PHCs, while I. lactea could be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soils by PHCs with at least 40,000 mg/kg.

  17. Prospects for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to assist in phytoremediation of soil hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtor, Monika; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualistic associations with the roots of 80-90% of vascular plant species and may constitute up to 50% of the total soil microbial biomass. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants. The paper presents and evaluates the role and significance of AMF in phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We focused on (1) an impact of hydrocarbons on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, (2) a potential of AMF to enhance phytoremediation, (3) determinants that influence effectiveness of hydrocarbon removal from contaminated soils. This knowledge may be useful for selection of proper plant and fungal symbionts and crucial to optimize environmental conditions for effective AMF-mediated phytoremediation. It has been concluded that three-component phytoremediation systems based on synergistic interactions between plant roots, AMF and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms demonstrated high effectiveness in dissipation of organic pollutants in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of future urban and biofuel crop expansions on the riverine export of phosphorus to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mayer, Alex S.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased phosphorus (P) loadings threaten the health of the world’s largest freshwater resource, the Laurentian Great Lakes (GL). To understand the linkages between land use and P delivery, we coupled two spatially explicit models, the landscape-scale SPARROW P fate and transport watershed model and the Land Transformation Model (LTM) land use change model, to predict future P export from nonpoint and point sources caused by changes in land use. According to LTM predictions over the period 2010–2040, the GL region of the U.S. may experience a doubling of urbanized areas and agricultural areas may increase by 10%, due to biofuel feedstock cultivation. These land use changes are predicted to increase P loadings from the U.S. side of the GL basin by 3.5–9.5%, depending on the Lake watershed and development scenario. The exception is Lake Ontario, where loading is predicted to decrease by 1.8% for one scenario, due to population losses in the drainage area. Overall, urban expansion is estimated to increase P loadings by 3.4%. Agricultural expansion associated with predicted biofuel feedstock cultivation is predicted to increase P loadings by an additional 2.4%. Watersheds that export P most efficiently and thus are the most vulnerable to increases in P sources tend to be found along southern Lake Ontario, southeastern Lake Erie, western Lake Michigan, and southwestern Lake Superior where watershed areas are concentrated along the coastline with shorter flow paths. In contrast, watersheds with high soil permeabilities, fractions of land underlain by tile drains, and long distances to the GL are less vulnerable.

  19. Micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in fishes from the Great Lakes Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Ryan P; Blazer, Vicki S; Shaw, Cassidy H; Mazik, Patricia M

    2017-09-04

    Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance. Erythrocyte abnormalities were observed at all sites with variable occurrence and severity among sites and species. Benthic-oriented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) expressed lower rates of erythrocyte abnormalities, but higher rates of skin and liver neoplasms, when compared to pelagic-oriented largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at the same site. The reduced erythrocyte abnormalities, increased transcript abundance associated with Phase I and II toxicant responsive pathways, and increased neoplastic lesions among benthic-oriented taxa may indicate the development of contaminant resistance of these species to more acute effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society.

  20. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymus, Katy E; Marshall, Nathaniel T; Stepien, Carol A

    2017-01-01

    Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA) demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05) and high coefficients of determination (R2) for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  1. Deciphering the biodiversity of fish-pathogenic Flavobacterium spp. recovered from the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-11-13

    Flavobacterial diseases negatively impact wild and cultured fishes worldwide. We recently reported on the presence of a large and diverse group of flavobacteria, many of which were associated with lesions in a number of Great Lakes fish species. Herein, we report on the characterization of 65 fish-associated Flavobacterium spp. isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phylogenetic analyses based upon neighbor-joining and Bayesian methodologies. Thirteen isolates were identified as the newly described fish-associated F. plurextorum, F. spartansii, and F. tructae, while 3 isolates were similar to F. frigidimaris; however, the remaining Flavobacterium spp. isolates did not conclusively match any described Flavobacterium spp. and thus were suspected as comprising novel flavobacterial species. A more comprehensive polyphasic characterization was undertaken on 6 isolates, representing a range of association with disease signs in hatchery-raised or free-ranging fish and genetic distinctness. Polyphasic characterization included physiological, morphological, and biochemical analyses, as well as additional phylogenetic analyses based upon near-complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings demonstrated that that at least 5 of the 6 isolates are most likely novel species within the genus Flavobacterium that have never before been reported from fish. Pilot experimental challenge studies suggested that some of these Flavobacterium spp. can cause pathological lesions in fish and were re-isolated from the brains, spleens, livers, and kidneys of experimentally infected fish. The findings underscore the growing number and heterogeneity of flavobacteria now known to be capable of infecting fish.

  2. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  3. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  4. Proboscideans and paleoenvironments of the Pleistocene Great Lakes: landscape, vegetation, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Hodgins, Greg

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we review the history of proboscideans in the Great Lakes region (Ontario and western New York) in the context of local glacial and vegetational histories. Further, we investigate mammoth (Mammuthus) and mastodon (Mammut) environmental niche partitioning using stable isotope analysis of bone and dentin collagen (δ13Ccol, δ15Ncol) and structural carbonate in tooth enamel bioapatite (δ13Csc, δ18Osc), and demonstrate that stable isotopes can be used to identify non-locals among museum specimens with no contextual records. New radiocarbon dates suggest that Ontario mastodons lived in tundra-like environments as well as their more common spruce forest habitat. Local Ontario/New York mammoths and mastodons consumed 100% C3-plant diets and drank low-18O waters, consistent with colder-than-modern climates and proximity to glacial meltwater sources. Mammoths and mastodons occupied distinct environmental niches, characterized by different oxygen- and nitrogen-isotope compositions and geographical locations. This suggests that direct competition for resources was not a major factor in their local extinction. We suggest that both mammoths and mastodons obtained water from sources formed primarily from precipitation rather than glacial meltwater. We describe how high δ15N values in mammoths could have been caused by a combination of preferences for dry environments, consumption of low-nutrient forage (particularly stems and stalks), coprophagy, geophagy, and dung fertilization. We argue that low δ15N values in mastodons could have been caused by consumption of trees and shrubs (including nitrogen-fixing taxa) and a preference for recently deglaciated landscapes and/or spruce environments. Finally, we raise the possibility that mastodons contributed to the spruce-pine transition by browsing directly on spruce trees.

  5. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  6. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  7. Freshwater wrack along Great Lakes coasts harbors Escherichia coli: Potential for bacterial transfer between watershed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Spoljaric, Ashley; Shively, Dawn A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, persistence, and growth potential of Escherichia coli associated with freshwater organic debris (i.e., wrack) frequently deposited along shorelines (shoreline wrack), inputs from rivers (river CPOM), and parking lot runoffs (urban litter). Samples were collected from 9 Great Lakes beaches, 3 creeks, and 4 beach parking lots. Shoreline wrack samples were mainly composed of wood chips, straw, sticks, leaf litter, seeds, feathers, and mussel shells; creek and parking lot samples included dry grass, straw, seeds, wood chips, leaf/pine needle litter; soil particles were present in parking lot samples only. E. coli concentrations (most probable number, MPN) were highly variable in all sample types: shoreline wrack frequently reached 105/g dry weight (dw), river CPOM ranged from 81 to 7,916/g dw, and urban litter ranged from 0.5 to 24,952/g dw. Sequential rinsing studies showed that 61–87% of E. coli concentrations were detected in the first wash of shoreline wrack, with declining concentrations associated with 4–8 subsequent washings; viable counts were still detected even after 8 washes. E. coli grew readily in shoreline wrack and river CPOM incubated at 35 °C. At 30°C, growth was only detected in river CPOM and not in shoreline wrack or urban litter, but the bacteria persisted for at least 16 days. In summary, freshwater wrack is an understudied component of the beach ecosystem that harbors E. coli and thus likely influences estimations of water quality and the microbial community in the nearshore as a result of transfer between environments.

  8. Macro-Scale Correction of Precipitation Undercatch in the Midwest/Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. M.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation gauge undercatch is a serious problem in the context of using observed meteorological data sets for hydrologic modeling studies in regions with cold winters, such as the Midwest. Attention to this matter is urgently needed to support hydroclimatological research efforts in the region. To support hydrologic modeling studies, a new hybrid gridded meteorological dataset at 1/16 degree resolution based on data from CO-OP station records, the U. S. Historical Climatology Network, the Historical Canadian Climate Database, and Precipitation Regression on Independent Slopes Method has been assembled over the Great Lakes and Midwest regions from 1915-2013 at daily time step. Preliminary hydrologic simulations results using the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrology model with this hybrid gridded meteorological dataset showed that precipitation gauge undercatch was a very significant issue throughout the region, especially for winter snowfall and simulated streamflow, which were both grossly underpredicted. Correction of primary CO-OP station data is generally infeasible due to missing station meta data and lack of local-scale wind speed measurements. Instead, macro-scale post processing techniques were developed to adjust the regridded precipitation product from CO-OP station records from 1950-2013 forwards, accounting for undercatch as a function of regridded wind speed simulations obtained from NCAR Reanalysis. Comparisons of simulated and observed streamflow over seven river basins in the Midwest were used to evaluate the datasets constructed using different combinations of meteorological station inputs, with and without undercatch corrections. The comparisons show promise in producing corrected precipitation data sets from 1950-2013 for hydrologic modeling studies, with substantial improvements in streamflow simulation from the uncalibrated VIC model when gauge undercatch corrections are included.

  9. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  10. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  11. It's like night and day: Diel net-effects on Cercopagidae densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Patricia M.; Bunnell, David; Adams, Jean V.; Watson, Nicole M.; Woelmer, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, zooplankters are often sampled using standard ≤ 153 μm mesh nets without regard to the time of day they are collected. We sampled Cercopagidae during 2013–2014 in northern Lake Huron during day, dusk, and night using two different nets (a 0.5 m wide 153 μm mesh “standard” net and a 0.75 m wide 285 μm mesh “Bythotrephes” net) to determine if there were any differences in their sampled densities. Bythotrephes densities with the standard net were approximately 2.07-fold greater when captured at night than during the day. No time of day bias occurred with the Bythotrephes net. Nighttime Bythotrephes densities did not differ between the two net types. Cercopagis densities did not vary with net type or the time of day in this study, but future work should revisit this result given our low sample size and the low occurrence of Cercopagis in Lake Huron. To reduce bias and calculate accurate density estimates, Cercopagidae should be sampled at night if using a standard net or any time of day with the Bythotrephes net. Given the large impact of invasive predatory cladocerans Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi on food webs since their invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1980s, proper estimation of their densities is essential.

  12. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  13. 水温—冰盖模式对大湖水面温度的模拟%SPATIALLY DISTRIBUTED WATER SURFACE TEMPERATURE MODELING FOR THE GREAT LAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a water temperature model for the Great Lakes.This model is keyed to simulate horizontally and temporally varying surface temperature.An ice cover model is coupled with the water temper ature model,forming a spatially distributed thermodynamic model for the Great La kes.This model can be used to give long-term or short-term simulations of wate r surface temperature and ice cover for the Great Lakes.

  14. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    A regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and surrounding areas has been developed in support of the Great Lakes Basin Pilot project under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Availability and Use Program. The transient 2-million-cell model incorporates multiple aquifers and pumping centers that create water-level drawdown that extends into deep saline waters. The 20-layer model simulates the exchange between a dense surface-water network and heterogeneous glacial deposits overlying stratified bedrock of the Wisconsin/Kankakee Arches and Michigan Basin in the Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan; eastern Wisconsin; northern Indiana; and northeastern Illinois. The model is used to quantify changes in the groundwater system in response to pumping and variations in recharge from 1864 to 2005. Model results quantify the sources of water to major pumping centers, illustrate the dynamics of the groundwater system, and yield measures of water availability useful for water-resources management in the region. This report is a complete description of the methods and datasets used to develop the regional model, the underlying conceptual model, and model inputs, including specified values of material properties and the assignment of external and internal boundary conditions. The report also documents the application of the SEAWAT-2000 program for variable-density flow; it details the approach, advanced methods, and results associated with calibration through nonlinear regression using the PEST program; presents the water-level, drawdown, and groundwater flows for various geographic subregions and aquifer systems; and provides analyses of the effects of pumping from shallow and deep wells on sources of water to wells, the migration of groundwater divides, and direct and indirect groundwater discharge to Lake Michigan. The report considers the role of unconfined conditions at the regional scale as well as the influence of salinity on groundwater flow

  15. Phytoplankton Productivity Across Prairie Saline Lakes of the Great Plains (USA): A Step Toward Deciphering Patterns Through Lake Classification Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-20

    reliable indicator of nitrogen limitation in these lakes is not apparent. Although N2- fixation rates and hetero- cyst formation can indicate nitrogen ...1983; Herbst and Bradley 1989; Reuter et al. 1993). Terrestrial sources of nitrogen may be less abundant in grasslands than in forested areas, as...Photochemical for- mation of biologically available nitrogen from dissolved humic substances in coastal marine systems. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 18: 285–292. doi

  16. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dvonch, J. Timothy [University of Michigan, Air Quality Laboratory, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gratz, Lynne E. [University of Washington-Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Landis, Matthew S. [U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) present human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it is difficult to trace emissions from point sources to impacted sites. Recent studies suggest that metal isotope ratios may be useful for distinguishing between and tracing source emissions. We measured Pb, strontium (Sr), and Hg isotope ratios in daily precipitation samples that were collected at seven sites across the Great Lakes region between 2003 and 2007. Lead isotope ratios ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8062 to 0.8554) suggest that Pb deposition was influenced by coal combustion and processing of Mississippi Valley-Type Pb ore deposits. Regional differences in Sr isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70859 to 0.71155) are likely related to coal fly ash and soil dust. Mercury isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg = − 1.13 to 0.13‰) also varied among the sites, likely due to regional differences in coal isotopic composition, and fractionation occurring within industrial facilities and in the atmosphere. These data represent the first combined characterization of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotope ratios in precipitation collected across the Great Lakes region. We demonstrate the utility of multiple metal isotope ratios in parallel with traditional trace element multivariate statistical modeling to enable more complete pollution source attribution. - Highlights: • We measured Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in precipitation from the Great Lakes region. • Pb isotopes suggest that deposition was impacted by coal combustion and metal production. • Sr isotope ratios vary regionally, likely due to soil dust and coal fly ash. • Hg isotopes vary due to fractionation occurring within facilities and the atmosphere. • Isotope results support conclusions of previous trace element receptor modeling.

  17. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  19. Decadal-to-centennial-scale climate variability: Insights into the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.

  20. West Nile Virus Transmission in Winter: The 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality Event

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in N...

  1. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  2. Big Ship Data: Using vessel measurements to improve estimates of temperature and wind speed on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Kevin; Kerkez, Branko

    2017-05-01

    The sheer size of many water systems challenges the ability of in situ sensor networks to resolve spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic processes. New sources of vastly distributed and mobile measurements are, however, emerging to potentially fill these observational gaps. This paper poses the question: How can nontraditional measurements, such as those made by volunteer ship captains, be used to improve hydrometeorological estimates across large surface water systems? We answer this question through the analysis of one of the largest such data sets: an unprecedented collection of one million unique measurements made by ships on the North American Great Lakes from 2006 to 2014. We introduce a flexible probabilistic framework, which can be used to integrate ship measurements, or other sets of irregular point measurements, into contiguous data sets. The performance of this framework is validated through the development of a new ship-based spatial data product of water temperature, air temperature, and wind speed across the Great Lakes. An analysis of the final data product suggests that the availability of measurements across the Great Lakes will continue to play a large role in the confidence with which these large surface water systems can be studied and modeled. We discuss how this general and flexible approach can be applied to similar data sets, and how it will be of use to those seeking to merge large collections of measurements with other sources of data, such as physical models or remotely sensed products.

  3. Techniques and methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys in Great Lakes tributaries, 1995 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Fodale, Michael F.; Heinrich, John W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Weise, Jerry G.; Weisser, John W.; Young, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Before 1995, Great Lakes streams were selected for lampricide treatment based primarily on qualitative measures of the relative abundance of larval sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus. New integrated pest management approaches required standardized quantitative measures of sea lamprey. This paper evaluates historical larval assessment techniques and data and describes how new standardized methods for estimating abundance of larval and metamorphosed sea lampreys were developed and implemented. These new methods have been used to estimate larval and metamorphosed sea lamprey abundance in about 100 Great Lakes streams annually and to rank them for lampricide treatment since 1995. Implementation of these methods has provided a quantitative means of selecting streams for treatment based on treatment cost and estimated production of metamorphosed sea lampreys, provided managers with a tool to estimate potential recruitment of sea lampreys to the Great Lakes and the ability to measure the potential consequences of not treating streams, resulting in a more justifiable allocation of resources. The empirical data produced can also be used to simulate the impacts of various control scenarios.

  4. An energy-circuit population model for great egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff P.

    1997-01-01

    I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake stages, but water area exerted primary control during a two-year drought. Modeling prey production as a linear function of water area resulted in underestimation of prey density during the drought, suggesting that prey organisms maintained high fecundity while concentrated in submerged vegetation at the lakeward fringe of the littoral zone. Simulation confirmed that large influxes of wading birds during the drought were the combined result of a regional refuge response and the availability of concentrated prey. Modeling immigration and emigration as primarily functions of the surface-water drying rate, rather than lake stage, resulted in a closer match of observed and simulated population trends for foraging birds, suggesting that the pattern of surface-water fluctuations was a more important factor than water depth. Simulation indicated an abrupt-threshold response rather than a linear association between foraging efficiency and low temperatures, which reduce activity levels of forage fishes. Great Egret breeder recruitment is primarily a function of prey availability, climate, and hydrologic trends, but simulation confirmed the concurrent involvement of a seasonal or physiological-readiness factor. An attractor function driven by high winter lake stages was necessary to reproduce observed patterns of breeder recruitment, suggesting that Great Egrets initiate nesting based on environmental cues that lead to peak food availability when nestlings are present. Poor correspondence of reproductive effort and nest productivity suggested that the drought compromised the birds

  5. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  6. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  7. Association of microbial community composition and activity with lead, chromium, and hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Becker, J; Bischoff, M; Turco, R F; Konopka, A E

    2002-08-01

    Microbial community composition and activity were characterized in soil contaminated with lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and hydrocarbons. Contaminant levels were very heterogeneous and ranged from 50 to 16,700 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg of soil(-1), 3 to 3,300 mg of total Cr kg of soil(-1), and 1 to 17,100 mg of Pb kg of soil(-1). Microbial community compositions were estimated from the patterns of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); these were considerably different among the 14 soil samples. Statistical analyses suggested that the variation in PLFA was more correlated with soil hydrocarbons than with the levels of Cr and Pb. The metal sensitivity of the microbial community was determined by extracting bacteria from soil and measuring [(3)H]leucine incorporation as a function of metal concentration. Six soil samples collected in the spring of 1999 had IC(50) values (the heavy metal concentrations giving 50% reduction of microbial activity) of approximately 2.5 mM for CrO(4)2- and 0.01 mM for Pb2+. Much higher levels of Pb were required to inhibit [14C]glucose mineralization directly in soils. In microcosm experiments with these samples, microbial biomass and the ratio of microbial biomass to soil organic C were not correlated with the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. However, microbial C respiration in samples with a higher level of hydrocarbons differed from the other soils no matter whether complex organic C (alfalfa) was added or not. The ratios of microbial C respiration to microbial biomass differed significantly among the soil samples (P < 0.05) and were relatively high in soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or heavy metals. Our results suggest that the soil microbial community was predominantly affected by hydrocarbons.

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water: The perspectives of history and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation, the use of microbial degradation processes to detoxify environmental contamination, was first applied to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground water systems in the early 1970s. Since that time, these technologies have evolved in some ways that were clearly anticipated early investigators, and in other ways that were not foreseen. The expectation that adding oxidants and nutrients to contaminated aquifers would enhance biodegradation, for example, has been born out subsequent experience. Many of the technologies now in common use such as air sparging, hydrogen peroxide addition, nitrate addition, and bioslurping, are conceptually similar to the first bioremediation systems put into operation. More unexpected, however, were the considerable technical problems associated with delivering oxidants and nutrients to heterogeneous ground water systems. Experience has shown that the success of engineered bioremediation systems depends largely on how effectively directions and rates of ground water flow can be controlled, and thus how efficiently oxidants and nutrients can be delivered to contaminated aquifer sediments. The early expectation that injecting laboratory-selected or genetically engineered cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria into aquifers would be a useful bioremediation technology has not been born out subsequent experience. Rather, it appears that petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in ground water systems and that bacterial addition is usually unnecessary. Perhaps the technology that was least anticipated early investigators was the development of intrinsic bioremediation. Experience has shown that natural attenuation mechanisms - biodegradation, dilution, and sorption - limit the migration of contaminants to some degree in all ground water systems. Intrinsic bioremediation is the deliberate use of natural attenuation processes to treat contaminated ground water to specified concentration levels at predetermined

  9. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  10. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  11. Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72,000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130,000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport.

  12. Classifying sea lamprey marks on Great Lakes lake trout: observer agreement, evidence on healing times between classes and recommendations for reporting of marking statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, Mark P.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Mullet, Katherine M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998 two workshops were held to evaluate how consistent observers were at classifying sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) as described in the King classification system. Two trials were held at each workshop, with group discussion between trials. Variation in counting and classifying marks was considerable, such that reporting rates for A1–A3 marks varied two to three-fold among observers of the same lake trout. Observer variation was greater for classification of healing or healed marks than for fresh marks. The workshops highlighted, as causes for inconsistent mark classification, both departures from the accepted protocol for classifying marks by some agencies, and differences in how sliding and multiple marks were interpreted. Group discussions led to greater agreement in classifying marks. We recommend ways to improve the reliability of marking statistics, including the use of a dichotomous key to classify marks. Laboratory data show that healing times of marks on lake trout were much longer at 4°C and 1°C than at 10°C and varied greatly among individuals. Reported A1–A3 and B1–B3 marks observed in late summer and fall collections likely result from a mixture of attacks by two year classes of sea lamprey. It is likely that a substantial but highly uncertain proportion of attacks that occur in late summer and fall lead to marks that are classified as A1–A3 the next spring. We recommend additional research on mark stage duration.

  13. Prevalence of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga Cladophora in three Great Lakes: growth and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Chun, Chan; Kahn, Chase I; Borchert, Andrew J; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Peller, Julie; Pier, Christina; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The reemergence of avian botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type E has been observed across the Great Lakes in recent years. Evidence suggests an association between the nuisance algae, Cladophora spp., and C. botulinum in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. However, the nature of the association between Cladophora and C. botulinum is not fully understood due, in part, to the complex food web interactions in this disease etiology. In this study, we extensively evaluated their association by quantitatively examining population size and serotypes of C. botulinum in algal mats collected from wide geographic areas in lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Erie in 2011-2012 and comparing them with frequencies in other matrices such as sand and water. A high prevalence (96%) of C. botulinum type E was observed in Cladophora mats collected from shorelines of the Great Lakes in 2012. Among the algae samples containing detectable C. botulinum, the population size of C. Botulinum type E was 10(0)-10(4) MPN/g dried algae, which was much greater (up to 10(3) fold) than that found in sand or the water column, indicating that Cladophora mats are sources of this pathogen. Mouse toxinantitoxin bioassays confirmed that the putative C. botulinum belonged to the type E serotype. Steam treatment was effective in reducing or eliminating C. botulinum type E viable cells in Cladophora mats, thereby breaking the potential transmission route of toxin up to the food chain. Consequently, our data suggest that steam treatment incorporated with a beach cleaning machine may be an effective treatment of Cladophora-borne C. botulinum and may reduce bird mortality and human health risks.

  14. Prevalence of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga Cladophora in three Great Lakes: growth and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Kahn, Chase I.; Borchert, Andrew J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Peller, Julie R.; Pier, Christina; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of avian botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type E has been observed across the Great Lakes in recent years. Evidence suggests an association between the nuisance algae, Cladophoraspp., and C. botulinum in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. However, the nature of the association between Cladophora and C. botulinum is not fully understood due, in part, to the complex food web interactions in this disease etiology. In this study, we extensively evaluated their association by quantitatively examining population size and serotypes of C. botulinum in algal mats collected from wide geographic areas in lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Erie in 2011–2012 and comparing them with frequencies in other matrices such as sand and water. A high prevalence (96%) of C. botulinum type E was observed inCladophora mats collected from shorelines of the Great Lakes in 2012. Among the algae samples containing detectable C. botulinum, the population size of C. Botulinum type E was 100–104 MPN/g dried algae, which was much greater (up to 103 fold) than that found in sand or the water column, indicating thatCladophora mats are sources of this pathogen. Mouse toxinantitoxin bioassays confirmed that the putativeC. botulinum belonged to the type E serotype. Steam treatment was effective in reducing or eliminating C. botulinum type E viable cells in Cladophora mats, thereby breaking the potential transmission route of toxin up to the food chain. Consequently, our data suggest that steam treatment incorporated with a beach cleaning machine may be an effective treatment of Cladophora-borne C. botulinum and may reduce bird mortality and human health risks.

  15. Citizen science datasets reveal drivers of spatial and temporal variation for anthropogenic litter on Great Lakes beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Anna; Drag, Nate; Lyandres, Olga; Neville, Sarah; Hoellein, Timothy

    2017-01-15

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (AL) on marine beaches and its ecological effects have been a major focus of research. Recent studies suggest AL is also abundant in freshwater environments, but much less research has been conducted in freshwaters relative to oceans. The Adopt-a-BeachTM (AAB) program, administered by the Alliance for the Great Lakes, organizes volunteers to act as citizen scientists by collecting and maintaining data on AL abundance on Great Lakes beaches. Initial assessments of the AAB records quantified sources and abundance of AL on Lake Michigan beaches, and showed that plastic AL was >75% of AL on beaches across all five Great Lakes. However, AAB records have not yet been used to examine patterns of AL density and composition among beaches of all different substrate types (e.g., parks, rocky, sandy), across land-use categories (e.g., rural, suburban, urban), or among seasons (i.e., spring, summer, and fall). We found that most AL on beaches are consumer goods that most likely originate from beach visitors and nearby urban environments, rather than activities such as shipping, fishing, or illegal dumping. We also demonstrated that urban beaches and those with sand rather than rocks had higher AL density relative to other sites. Finally, we found that AL abundance is lowest during the summer, between the US holidays of Memorial Day (last Monday in May) and Labor Day (first Monday in September) at the urban beaches, while other beaches showed no seasonality. This research is a model for utilizing datasets collected by volunteers involved in citizen science programs, and will contribute to AL management by offering priorities for AL types and locations to maximize AL reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Response in Water, Sediment, and Biota to Destratification of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Carla; Black, Frank J; Stringham, Blair; Collins, Jeffrey N; Goodman, James R; Saxton, Heidi J; Mansfield, Christopher R; Schmidt, Joshua N; Yang, Shu; Johnson, William P

    2017-05-02

    Measurements of chemical and physical parameters made before and after sealing of culverts in the railroad causeway spanning the Great Salt Lake in late 2013 documented dramatic alterations in the system in response to the elimination of flow between the Great Salt Lake's north and south arms. The flow of denser, more-saline water through the culverts from the north arm (Gunnison Bay) to the south arm (Gilbert Bay) previously drove the perennial stratification of the south arm and the existence of oxic shallow brine and anoxic deep brine layers. Closure of the causeway culverts occurred concurrently with a multiyear drought that resulted in a decrease in the lake elevation and a concomitant increase in top-down erosion of the upper surface of the deep brine layer by wind-forced mixing. The combination of these events resulted in the replacement of the formerly stratified water column in the south arm with one that was vertically homogeneous and oxic. Total mercury concentrations in the deep waters of the south arm decreased by approximately 81% and methylmercury concentrations in deep waters decreased by roughly 86% due to destratification. Methylmercury concentrations decreased by 77% in underlying surficial sediment, whereas there was no change observed in total mercury. The dramatic mercury loss from deep waters and methylmercury loss from underlying sediment in response to causeway sealing provides new understanding of the potential role of the deep brine layer in the accumulation and persistence of methylmercury in the Great Salt Lake. Additional mercury measurements in biota appear to contradict the previously implied connection between elevated methylmercury concentrations in the deep brine layer and elevated mercury in avian species reported prior to causeway sealing.

  17. Effect of salinity on mercury methylating benthic microbes and their activities in Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Yu, Ri-Qing; Barkay, Tamar; Hamilton, Trinity L; Baxter, Bonnie K; Naftz, David L; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Surface water and biota from Great Salt Lake (GSL) contain some of the highest documented concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the United States. In order to identify potential biological sources of MeHg and controls on its production in this ecosystem, THg and MeHg concentrations, rates of Hg(II)-methylation and MeHg degradation, and abundances and compositions of archaeal and bacterial 16 rRNA gene transcripts were determined in sediment along a salinity gradient in GSL. Rates of Hg(II)-methylation were inversely correlated with salinity and were at or below the limits of detection in sediment sampled from areas with hypersaline surface water. The highest rates of Hg(II)-methylation were measured in sediment with low porewater salinity, suggesting that benthic microbial communities inhabiting less saline environments are supplying the majority of MeHg in the GSL ecosystem. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts affiliated with the sulfate reducer Desulfobacterium sp. was positively correlated with MeHg concentrations and Hg(II)-methylation rates in sediment, indicating a potential role for this taxon in Hg(II)-methylation in low salinity areas of GSL. Reactive inorganic Hg(II) (a proxy used for Hg(II) available for methylation) and MeHg concentrations were inversely correlated with salinity. Thus, constraints imposed by salinity on Hg(II)-methylating populations and the availability of Hg(II) for methylation are inferred to result in higher MeHg production potentials in lower salinity environments. Benthic microbial MeHg degradation was also most active in lower salinity environments. Collectively, these results suggest an important role for sediment anoxia and microbial sulfate reducers in the production of MeHg in low salinity GSL sub-habitats and may indicate a role for salinity in constraining Hg(II)-methylation and MeHg degradation activities by influencing the availability of Hg(II) for methylation.

  18. Effect of salinity on mercury methylating benthic microbes and their activities in Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S.; Yu, Ri-Qing; Barkay, Tamar; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Naftz, David L.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Surface water and biota from Great Salt Lake (GSL) contain some of the highest documented concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the United States. In order to identify potential biological sources of MeHg and controls on its production in this ecosystem, THg and MeHg concentrations, rates of Hg(II)-methylation and MeHg degradation, and abundances and compositions of archaeal and bacterial 16 rRNA gene transcripts were determined in sediment along a salinity gradient in GSL. Rates of Hg(II)-methylation were inversely correlated with salinity and were at or below the limits of detection in sediment sampled from areas with hypersaline surface water. The highest rates of Hg(II)-methylation were measured in sediment with low porewater salinity, suggesting that benthic microbial communities inhabiting less saline environments are supplying the majority of MeHg in the GSL ecosystem. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene transcripts affiliated with the sulfate reducer Desulfobacterium sp. was positively correlated with MeHg concentrations and Hg(II)-methylation rates in sediment, indicating a potential role for this taxon in Hg(II)-methylation in low salinity areas of GSL. Reactive inorganic Hg(II) (a proxy used for Hg(II) available for methylation) and MeHg concentrations were inversely correlated with salinity. Thus, constraints imposed by salinity on Hg(II)-methylating populations and the availability of Hg(II) for methylation are inferred to result in higher MeHg production potentials in lower salinity environments. Benthic microbial MeHg degradation was also most active in lower salinity environments. Collectively, these results suggest an important role for sediment anoxia and microbial sulfate reducers in the production of MeHg in low salinity GSL sub-habitats and may indicate a role for salinity in constraining Hg(II)-methylation and MeHg degradation activities by influencing the availability of Hg(II) for methylation.

  19. Linking the distribution of microbial deposits from the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) to tectonic and climatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Anthony; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Boulle, Julien; Pace, Aurélie; Bourillot, Raphaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Brayard, Arnaud; Désaubliaux, Guy; Goslar, Tomasz; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Dupraz, Christophe; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2016-10-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a modern hypersaline lake, in which an extended modern and ancient microbial sedimentary system has developed. Detailed mapping based on aerial images and field observations can be used to identify non-random distribution patterns of microbial deposits, such as paleoshorelines associated with extensive polygons or fault-parallel alignments. Although it has been inferred that climatic changes controlling the lake level fluctuations explain the distribution of paleoshorelines and polygons, straight microbial deposit alignments may underline a normal fault system parallel to the Wasatch Front. This study is based on observations over a decimetre to kilometre spatial range, resulting in an integrated conceptual model for the controls on the distribution of the microbial deposits. The morphology, size and distribution of these deposits result mainly from environmental changes (i.e. seasonal to long-term water level fluctuations, particular geomorphological heritage, fault-induced processes, groundwater seepage) and have the potential to bring further insights into the reconstruction of paleoenvironments and paleoclimatic changes through time. New radiocarbon ages obtained on each microbial macrofabric described in this study improve the chronological framework and question the lake level variations that are commonly assumed.

  20. Quantitation of microorganic compounds in waters of the Great Lakes by adsorption on activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stacy L.; Kempe, Lloyd L.; Graham, E. S.; Beeton, Alfred M.

    1963-01-01

    Microorganic compounds in waters of Lakes Michigan and Huron have been sampled by adsorption on activated carbon in filters installed aboard the M/V Cisco and at the Hammond Bay Laboratory of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The organic compounds were eluted from the carbon according to techniques developed at the U.S. Public Health Service. On the assumption that chloroform eluates represent less polar compounds from industrial sources and alcohol eluates the more polar varieties of natural origin, plots of chloroform eluates against alcohol eluates appear to be useful in judging water qualities. Based upon these criteria, the data in this paper indicate that both the waters of northern Lake Michigan and of Lake Huron, in the vicinity of Hammond Bay, Michigan, are relatively free from pollution. The limnetic waters of Lake Michigan showed a particularly high ratio of alcohol to chloroform eluates. Data for monthly samples indicated that this ratio fluctuated seasonally. The periodicity of the fluctuations was similar to those of lake levels and water temperatures.

  1. Description of the Microsporidian Parasite, Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp., Infecting Fish in the Great Lakes Region, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B D Phelps

    Full Text Available Heterosporosis is an increasingly important microsporidian disease worldwide, impacting wild and farmed raised fishes in both marine and freshwater environments. A previously undescribed species (Heterosporis sp., with widespread distribution in the Great Lakes region, was the subject of this study. Three angler-caught fish were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2009-2010 with lesions caused by intracellular proliferation of parasitic spores, resulting in destruction and eventual widespread necrosis of the host skeletal muscles. Mature ovoid (5.8 x 3.5 μm spores of a microsporidian parasite, consistent with the genus Heterosporis, were observed by light and electron microscopy. Molecular identification was performed using primer walking to obtain a near-complete rRNA gene sequence (~3,600 bp. A unique species of Heterosporis was identified, demonstrating less than 96% sequence identity to other published Heterosporis sp. on the basis of partial rRNA gene sequence analysis. Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp. (formerly Heterosporis sp. was identified in yellow perch (Perca flavescens, northern pike (Esox lucius and walleye (Sander vitreus from inland lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Previous research suggests this species may be even more widespread in the Great Lakes region and should be reexamined using molecular techniques to better understand the distribution of this novel species.

  2. Notes on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda from the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of the species of Decapoda known from the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    Between August 18 and September 5, 1950, Dr. C. Beets, geologist Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, explored the aquatic fauna and flora of the Great Bitter Lake. In the course of this exploration dredge hauls were made at 47 stations, distributed all over the lake. An account of this work and a

  3. Notes on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda from the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of the species of Decapoda known from the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    Between August 18 and September 5, 1950, Dr. C. Beets, geologist Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, explored the aquatic fauna and flora of the Great Bitter Lake. In the course of this exploration dredge hauls were made at 47 stations, distributed all over the lake. An account of this work and a descrip

  4. Great Bear Lake, N.W.T. - 1963, No. 13 in 1964 Data Record Series, Canadian Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 7500188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Great Bear Lake has an area of 29,500 km^2 and it is the fourth largest lake in North America. It is situated at an elevation of 169 m (515 ft) and has a maximum...

  5. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  6. Sound velocity profiles collected in the Great Lakes and one station in Galveston Bay by NOAA Navigation Response Team 4, April - August 2006 (NODC Accession 0002823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profiles were collected using sound velocimeter in the Great Lakes and Galveston Bay from NOAA NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4 from 11 April 2006 to 04...

  7. Coastal Cover Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Great Lakes 1996-era and 2001-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0042437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1996-era and 2001-era classifications of Great lakes and can be used to analyze change. This imagery was collected as part of the...

  8. Great Blue Herons in the Lake Champlain Ecosystem An Assessment of the Rookeries on Shad Island, VT and Valcour Island, New York Spring/Summer 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Champlain is home to four Great Blue Heron rookeries, three large and one small. The Shad Island, Valcour Island and Porter Bay rookeries are large rookeries...

  9. Zooplankton, chemical, and other data collected from net, sediment sampler, and other instruments from 01 July 1970 to 01 March 1972 in the Great Lakes (NODC Accession 7200691)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, chemical, and other data were collected using net, sediment sampler, and other instruments in the Great Lakes. Data were collected from 01 July 1970 to...

  10. Sound velocity profiles collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team No. 4 in the Great Lakes, July 5 - September 25, 2007 (NODC Accession 0020370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 05 July 2007 to 25 September 2007. Sound velocity profiles...

  11. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) U.S. Great Lakes 1996-2001-era land cover change analysis (NODC Accession 0038725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 1996-era and 2001-era classifications of US Great Lakes can be used to analyze change. This imagery was collected as part of the...

  12. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  13. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  14. Biology and impact of Thrips calcaratus Uzel in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Raffa

    1991-01-01

    Basswood (Tilia americana L.) stands in the Lake States have been experiencing defoliation since around 1979. These symptoms were originally attributed to frost damage because they occur in early spring. However, the pattern of damaged trees was atypical of frost injury. Only basswood trees were affected, and there was no relationship to sites known...

  15. EPA’s National Coastal Condition Assessment: Pilot research in Great Lakes connecting channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Office of Water’s 5-year cycles of national surveys of wetlands, lakes, rivers, and coastal areas help satisfy the assessment and antidegradation provisions of the Clean Water Act. Measuring extant conditions precedes measuring change in conditions. Surveys are chal...

  16. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo A. Massol-Deyá

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source. Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ∝, β and γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal φ29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene; and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA] were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE

  17. Geoelectrical characterization of a site with hydrocarbon contamination caused by pipeline leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Shevnin, Vladimir; Ochoa-Valdes, Jesus [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method is used extensively in environmental impact studies including hydrocarbon contamination. In this work, the results of the geoelectrical characterization of a contaminated site caused by pipeline leakage are presented. Geoelectrical study was performed with multi-electrode technology and 2D profile data interpretation. VES results from six parallel profiles were presented in resistivity sections and maps. Layered model of the site was found including aquifer and aquitard layers. Although the contamination grade of the site is low, we found two contaminated zones into sandy aquifer. Aquifer and aquitard were characterized by its resistivity, clay content, porosity and cation exchange capacity values. Recalculation of resistivity data into petrophysical sections and maps was performed by an inversion algorithm taking into account pore water salinity. Petrophysical parameters for uncontaminated areas estimated from resistivity are close to real values; meanwhile, in contaminated zones petrophysical parameters have anomalous values. Similar effects of contamination influence on petrophysical parameters were found in laboratory by resistivity measurements made at clean and contaminated sand samplers. [Spanish] El metodo Sondeo Electrico Vertical (SEV) es ampliamente utilizado en estudios de impacto ambiental incluyendo el caso de contaminacion por hidrocarburos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la caracterizacion geoelectrica de un sitio contaminado por hidrocarburos relacionado con una fuga en linea de ducto. El estudio geoelectrico fue realizado utilizando el metodo SEV en la variante de tomografia, realizandose una interpretacion 2D de los datos observados. Seis perfiles paralelos de SEV fueron medidos y presentados sus resultados en secciones y mapas. Se determino un modelo estratificado que incluye acuitardo y acuifero. Aunque el grado de contaminacion en este sitio es bajo fue posible localizar dos zonas

  18. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on hybrid poplar fine root dynamics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, J.; Knight, J.D.; Van Rees, K.C.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science

    2006-07-01

    -colonized treatment. These results indicate that although the colonization of hybrid poplar by ECM fungi may help the trees better tolerate hydrocarbon contaminated soils, the phytoremediation potential is weakened. This can be attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the mycelium of Pisolithus tinctorius.

  19. Changes in Magnetic Mineralogy Through a Depth Sequence of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, N. N.; Klüglein, N.; Appel, E.; Petrovsky, E.; Kappler, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments, soils and groundwater can act as a natural storage for many types of pollution. This study aims to investigate ferro(i)magnetic phase formation and transformation in the presence of organic contaminants (hydrocarbons) and its relation to bacterial activity, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). Due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use the site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, until the base was closed in 1991. This site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. During remediation processes the groundwater level in the sediments fluctuated, driving the hydrocarbon contaminants to lower depth levels along with the groundwater and leading to magnetite formation (Rijal et al., Environ.Pollut., 158, 1756-1762, 2010). In our study we drilled triplicate cores at three locations which were studied earlier. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain the ferro(i)magnetic concentration distributions along the depth sections. Additionally the sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were studied. The triplicate cores were used to statistically discriminate outliers and to recognize significant magnetic signatures with depth. The results show that the highest concentration of ferrimagnetic phases (interpreted as newly formed magnetite) exists at the probable top of the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone. For example at one of the sites this zone is found between 1.4-1.9 m depth (groundwater table at ~2.3 m depth). High S-ratio and the correlation of ARM with MS values confirm the contribution of magnetite for the ferro(i)magnetic enhancement in the GWF zone. In the previous studies the MS

  20. State of subsoil in a former petrol station: physicochemical characterization and hydrocarbon contamination evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Rosales, Rosa; Martinez-Pagán, Pedro; Faz, Ángel; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    Former petrol stations are, possibly, potential hydrocarbon contaminated soil areas due to leakage in Underground Storage Tanks and fuel dispensing activities. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in gasoline, like benzene and semi-volatile organics in diesel, are carcinogenic and very toxic substances which can involve a serious risk for ecosystem and human health. Based on Electrical Resistivity Tomography 2D results from a previous work, there have been selected three potentially contaminated goal areas in a former petrol station located in SE Spain in order to obtain soil samples by drilling and to assess the gasoline and diesel contamination. A special sampling design was carried out and soil samples for VOCs were preserved at field with a KCl solution to minimize volatilization losses. It had been chosen Headspace-GC-MS as the better technique to quantify individual VOCs and GC-FID to get a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) assessment after a solid/fluid pressurized extraction. The physicochemical characterization of the subsoil was performed to know how humidity, clay content or pH data could be related to the presence of hydrocarbons in the soil samples. Results show that VOCs concentrations in subsoil samples of the petrol station are around ppb levels. TPH ranged between 17 mg/kg soil and 93 mg/kg soil (ppm levels) what involves diesel and gasoline leaks due to these detected residual concentrations in the subsoil. The maximum value was found at 6 m deep in an intermediate zone between Underground Storage Tanks positions (located at 4 m deep). Therefore, these results confirm that organic compounds transference with strong vertical component has taken place. It has been observed that humidity minimum values in the subsoil are related to TPH maximum values that could be explained because of the vapour phase and the retention of hydrocarbon in soil increases when humidity goes down. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in the subsoil tend to be pH-dependent and clay

  1. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  2. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  3. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alex; Mubako, Stanley; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2016-06-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  4. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  5. 76 FR 47095 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... applies to all vessels operated by American Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Agreements A and B... American Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826 Key Lakes, Inc 361,385 Total tonnage, each... Minimum basic rate, St. Lawrence River 889 x 0.983 = 874 Maximum rate, through trip 3,901 x 0.983 = 3,833...

  6. 75 FR 7958 - 2010 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... applies to all vessels operated by American Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Both Agreement A and... Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826 ] Key Lakes, Inc 361,385 Total tonnage, each... rate, St. Lawrence River. 820.04 38.09 858 --Maximum rate, through trip 3,599.58 167.20 3,767 Area 2: 5...

  7. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  8. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.

  9. Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 ± 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 ± 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy.

  10. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  11. Defining remediation targets and treatment options for hydrocarbon contamination in Quttinirpaaq National Park (Ellesmere Island) : a holistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanscartier, D.; Laing, T.; Zeeb, B.; Li, J.; Mohn, W.; Mouland, G.; Glenfield, R.; Reimer, K.; Prevost, J.C. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A combined field investigation and research program to determine remediation targets for the Quttinirpaaq National Park was described. The park is a polar desert located on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island. The aim of the program was to define an appropriate remediation strategy for the area, which contains petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at various locations. Generic evaluation criteria that are successfully used in other regions of Canada are not appropriate for investigating Arctic ecosystems. A risk assessment approach was used to evaluate hydrocarbon concentrations that may pose a risk to plants and invertebrates living within the soil. Soil invertebrates were collected from hydrocarbon-contaminated and non-contaminated soils to assess if there was a difference between invertebrate communities at the sites. Data from the study were then used to evaluate risk as well as to derive F3 eco-soil contact remediation criteria. Microcosms containing small amounts of soil were used to investigate mineralization rates under different amendment regimes over a period of 6 weeks. Bench-scale bioreactors were then used to mimic conditions in the field. Bioremediation treatment plots were then established at 2 sites in the park. Hydrocarbon absorbent polymer technology (HAPT) was also used to extract hydrocarbons from soils. Both the laboratory and the field research programs showed that bioremediation is a good treatment option for the heavier hydrocarbons found at the park. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Using structured expert judgment to assess invasive species prevention: Asian carp and the Mississippi-Great Lakes hydrologic connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M

    2014-02-18

    Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally.

  13. Using the MESH modelling system for hydrological ensemble forecasting of the Laurentian Great Lakes at the regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pietroniro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Environment Canada has been developing a community environmental modelling system (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire – MEC, which is designed to facilitate coupling between models focusing on different components of the earth system. The ultimate objective of MEC is to use the coupled models to produce operational forecasts. MESH (MEC – Surface and Hydrology, a configuration of MEC currently under development, is specialized for coupled land-surface and hydrological models. To determine the specific requirements for MESH, its different components were implemented on the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed, situated on the Canada–U.S. border. This experiment showed that MESH can help us better understand the behaviour of different land-surface models, test different schemes for producing ensemble streamflow forecasts, and provide a means of sharing the data, the models and the results with collaborators and end-users. This modelling framework is at the heart of a testbed proposal for the Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX which should allow us to make use of the North American Ensemble Forecasting System (NAEFS to improve streamflow forecasts of the Great Lakes tributaries, and demonstrate how MESH can contribute to a Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS.

  14. Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Contamina