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Sample records for hydrocarbon tph concentrations

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  2. Bioremediation and phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Schulthess, Cristian P; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Guillard, Karl

    2017-08-03

    Remediation of contaminated soils is often studied using fine-textured soils rather than low-fertility sandy soils, and few studies focus on recontamination events. This study compared aerobic and anaerobic treatments for remediation of freshly introduced used motor oil on a sandy soil previously phytoremediated and bioacclimated (microorganisms already adapted in the soil environment) with some residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. Vegetated and unvegetated conditions to remediate anthropogenic fill containing residual TPH that was spiked with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) were evaluated in a 90-day greenhouse pot study. Vegetated treatments used switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The concentration of aerobic bacteria were orders of magnitude higher in vegetated treatments compared to unvegetated. Nevertheless, final TPH concentrations were low in all saturated soil treatments, and high in the presence of switchgrass. Concentrations were also low in unvegetated pots with fertilizer. Acclimated indigenous microbial communities were shown to be more effective in breaking down hydrocarbons than introducing microbes from the addition of plant treatments in sandy soils. Remediation of fresh introduced NAPLs on pre-phytoremediated and bioacclimated soil was most efficient in saturated, anaerobic environments, probably due to the already pre-established microbial associations, easily bioavailable contaminants, and optimized soil conditions for microbial establishment and survival.

  3. Evaluation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in urban soil from Maicao, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Castellanos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and their effects on soil properties in urban area of Maicao, Colombia, was evaluated. 18 sites were selected: nine contaminated and nine non-contaminated and two depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm were evaluated. The medium TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3540C and heavy TPH fraction (Soxhlet reflux method, EPA 3550C were extracted. TPH were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Soil parameters related potential adsorption were determined: pH, electrical conductivity (EC, organic carbon (OC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, texture; soil moisture retention, aggregate stability. High contents of TPH was found in all fractions. No significant changes were found for texture and (EC. There was an increase in the content of OC (500%, soil aggregation and aggregate stability (200%; slight decrease pH, CEC and soil moisture retention (23.5% soil surface. These results show the vulnerability of the urban soils to the TPH contamination and exposure of the human population to these contaminants.

  4. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  5. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    potential for hydrocarbon accumulation and could be evaluated for its efficacy as a tool in phytoremediation exercise for cleaning ... often assessed from changes in the physical, chemical ... Germination test: The approach adapted by Agboola.

  6. Evaluation of ethyl lactate as solvent in Fenton oxidation for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Seyedeh Pegah; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Abdul Talib, Suhaimi

    2017-07-01

    Due to the health and environmental risks posed by the presence of petroleum-contaminated areas around the world, remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil has drawn much attention from researchers. Combining Fenton reaction with a solvent has been proposed as a novel way to remediate contaminated soils. In this study, a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), has been used in conjunction with Fenton's reagents for the remediation of diesel-contaminated soil. The main aim of this research is to determine how the addition of EL affects Fenton reaction for the destruction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) within the diesel range. Specifically, the effects of different parameters, including liquid phase volume-to-soil weight (L/S) ratio, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration and EL% on the removal efficiency, have been studied in batch experiments. The results showed that an increase in H 2 O 2 resulted in an increase in removal efficiency of TPH from 68.41% at H 2 O 2  = 0.1 M to 90.21% at H 2 O 2  = 2 M. The lowest L/S, i.e. L/S = 1, had the highest TPH removal efficiency of 85.77%. An increase in EL% up to 10% increased the removal efficiency to 96.74% for TPH, and with further increase in EL%, the removal efficiency of TPH decreased to 89.6%. EL with an optimum value of 10% was found to be best for TPH removal in EL-based Fenton reaction. The power law and pseudo-first order equations fitted well to the experimental kinetic data of Fenton reactions.

  7. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Contaminated Soil Using Bacillus pumilus MVSV3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra Sheeba; Lakshmi, Mahalingam Brinda; Rajagopal, Perumalsam; Velan, Manickam

    2017-01-01

     A study on bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum sludge was performed using Bacillus pumilus/MVSV3 (Accession number JN089707). In this study, 5 kg of agricultural soil was mixed well with 5% oil sludge and fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N:P:K). The treatment resulted in 97% removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 122 d in bacteria mixed contaminated soil when compared to 12% removal of TPH in uninoculated contaminated soil. The population of the microorganism remained stable after introduced into the oil environment. The physical and chemical parameters of the soil mixed with sludge showed variation indicating improvement and the pH level decreased during the experiment period. Elemental analysis and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed the bacterial ability to degrade oil sludge components. Growth experiments with Trigonellafoenumgraecum (Fenugreek) showed the applicability of bioremediated soil for the production.

  8. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  9. Analysis of TPH and Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Fractions in Environmental Interest Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindado, O.; Perez, R. M.; Garcia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical methods to analyze TPH and several aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in soil and groundwater samples contaminated by hydrocarbons are showed. As a part of BIOXISOIL project, analyzing these parameters is fundamental and indispensable to know the initial contamination level, design an adequate method to decontaminate it and eventually assess decontamination accomplished. Analysis of both matrices involve different extraction stages such as microwave radiation, clean up steps based on solid phase extraction and finally a chromatograph analysis with flame ion detector. Analytical procedures have showed satisfactory analytical quality parameters and have been validated against several certified reference materials. (Author)

  10. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R 2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  11. Determining the better solvent and time for extracting soil by soxhlet in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetric method; A determinacao de qual o melhor solvente e o melhor tempo de extracao de sedimento em aparato Soxhlet na metodologia do TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Renato S.; Lima, Guilherme; Baisch, Paulo R. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    There are several methods of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants in sediment. The TPH gravimetric has been widely used in many studies and in oil spill monitoring case. The present work examined three different solvents (DCM, DCM/N-HEX and N-HEX), in three different times, to the purpose to optimize the contaminants extraction using USEPA 9071 and 3540 reference method. Then was realized analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for monitoring the reproducible extracts. The sediments used in this experiment was collected in the Cavalos Island, localized in the city of Rio Grande, RS-Brasil. The sediment was 'washed' and after then contaminated with petroleum. The extracts were realized in Soxhlet apparatus, in three different times (4, 8 and 12 hours), and TOC analysis were realized before and after the extraction. The result demonstrated that eight hours with DCM/N-HEX solvent is more indicated for TPH gravimetric in sediment analysis with high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. TOC analysis demonstrated inappropriate for monitoring extract reproducibility. (author)

  12. Investigation of ethyl lactate as a green solvent for desorption of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian Ahmadkalaei, Seyedeh Pegah; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Abdul Talib, Suhaimi

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of oil-contaminated soil is a major environmental concern worldwide. The aim of this study is to examine the applicability of a green solvent, ethyl lactate (EL), in desorption of diesel aliphatic fraction within total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil and to determine the associated desorption kinetics. Batch desorption experiments were carried out on artificially contaminated soil at different EL solvent percentages (%). In analysing the diesel range of TPH, TPH was divided into three fractions and the effect of solvent extraction on each fraction was examined. The experimental results demonstrated that EL has a high and fast desorbing power. Pseudo-second order rate equation described the experimental desorption kinetics data well with correlation coefficient values, R 2 , between 0.9219 and 0.9999. The effects of EL percentage, initial contamination level of soil and liquid to solid ratio (L/S (v/w)) on initial desorption rate have also been evaluated. The effective desorption performance of ethyl lactate shows its potential as a removal agent for remediation of TPH-contaminated soil worldwide.

  13. Analysis of TPH and Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Fractions in Environmental Interest Matrices; Analisis del TPH y las Fracciones de Hidrocarburos Alifaticos y Aromaticos en Matrices de Interes Medioambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindado, O.; Perez, R. M.; Garcia, S.

    2014-02-01

    Analytical methods to analyze TPH and several aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in soil and groundwater samples contaminated by hydrocarbons are showed. As a part of BIOXISOIL project, analyzing these parameters is fundamental and indispensable to know the initial contamination level, design an adequate method to decontaminate it and eventually assess decontamination accomplished. Analysis of both matrices involve different extraction stages such as microwave radiation, clean up steps based on solid phase extraction and finally a chromatograph analysis with flame ion detector. Analytical procedures have showed satisfactory analytical quality parameters and have been validated against several certified reference materials. (Author)

  14. Current developments in the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: Analysis, interpretation, and use of the TPH parameter for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Surette, M.; Maynard, P.; Lamie, P.O.; Kaslick, C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP) estimated that petroleum-only cases comprised approximately one-half of the state's hazardous waste sites currently under investigation and/or remediation. Because of this significant percentage, it became clear that assessing petroleum sites more efficiently in terms of risk and cleanup alternatives was necessary. One of these key MDEP policies describes an alternative risk assessment approach enabling the quantitative characterization of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-related health risks. The approach relies on the use of an analytical technique by which the mass of petroleum hydrocarbons within specified carbon ranges is quantified. MDEP's TPH risk assessment approach was successfully employed at a residential site contaminated with No. 2 fuel oil. The combined use of MDEP's suggested analytical methods, alternative reference compounds and toxicity values, as well as chromatograms, standard dose equations, and an EPA-approved box model, facilitated the performance of a more realistic and cost-effective assessment of risk. Such assessment provided key management information to regulatory agencies, and project managers, as well as property owners concerned with potential property value loss

  15. Risk characterization and remedial management of TPH-affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Von Burg, R.; Preslo, L.; Lakin, M.

    1994-01-01

    A risk-based remedial program for petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils has been implemented at a large land parcel in California. The site is the former location of a manufacturing facility that had been in operation since the 1940s. As a result of various activities related to parts manufacturing, several large areas of soil were found to contain various petroleum products. The primary sources of petroleum hydrocarbons included cutting oils, lubricating oils, fuels, and hydraulic oils associated with the site operations. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as high as 100,000 mg/kg were identified in soil. These high concentrations of TPH were identified at depths up to 60 feet below ground surface (bgs), with the vadose zone extending to depths of more than 150 feet bgs. Within California, traditional cleanup levels for TPH-affected soils typically range from 100 to 1,000 mg/kg. Because of the client's desire to sell the property for rapid development, the remedial alternative of excavation and off-haul was deemed too time consuming and costly. The estimated costs associated with this remediation which potentially involved soil removal to 100--120 feet exceeded $20 million and could take up to one year to complete. To meet the schedule requirements for site remediations as well as significantly reduce the overall project cost, the authors undertook a risk-based approach to assess if remediation of the TPH-affected soils was required

  16. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial activity and community composition during bioremediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil: effects of hydrocarbon concentration, fertilizers, and incubation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Hämmerle, Marion; Tscherko, Dagmar

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the influence of three factors-diesel oil concentration [2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg(-1) soil], biostimulation (unfertilized, inorganic fertilization with NPK nutrients, or oleophilic fertilization with Inipol EAP22), and incubation time-on hydrocarbon removal, enzyme activity (lipase), and microbial community structure [phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)] in a laboratory soil bioremediation treatment. Fertilization enhanced TPH removal and lipase activity significantly (P 0.05). Microbial communities, as assessed by PLFA patterns, were primarily influenced by the TPH content, followed by fertilization, and the interaction of these two factors, whereas incubation time was of minor importance. This was demonstrated by three-factorial analysis of variance and multidimensional scaling analysis. Low TPH content had no significant effect on soil microbial community, independent of the treatment. High TPH content generally resulted in increased PLFA concentrations, whereby a significant increase in microbial biomass with time was only observed with inorganic fertilization, whereas oleophilic fertilization (Inipol EAP22) tended to inhibit microbial activity and to reduce PLFA contents with time. Among bacteria, PLFA indicative of the Gram-negative population were significantly (P diesel oil and fertilized with NPK after 21-38 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. The Gram-positive population was not significantly influenced by TPH content or biostimulation treatment.

  18. Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the TPH Removal Efficiency in Soil Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A feed forward artificial neural network (FFANN was developed to predict the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from a contaminated soil, using soil washing process with Tween 80. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of developed FFANN model for the estimation of   TPH removal. Materials and Methods: Several independent repressors including pH, shaking speed, surfactant concentration and contact time were used to describe the removal of TPH as a dependent variable in a FFANN model. 85% of data set observations were used for training the model and remaining 15% were used for model testing, approximately. The performance of the model was compared with linear regression and assessed, using Root of Mean Square Error (RMSE as goodness-of-fit measure Results: For the prediction of TPH removal efficiency, a FANN model with a three-hidden-layer structure of 4-3-1 and a learning rate of 0.01 showed the best predictive results. The RMSE and R2 for the training and testing steps of the model were obtained to be 2.596, 0.966, 10.70 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusion: For about 80% of the TPH removal efficiency can be described by the assessed regressors the developed model. Thus, focusing on the optimization of soil washing process regarding to shaking speed, contact time, surfactant concentration and pH can improve the TPH removal performance from polluted soils. The results of this study could be the basis for the application of FANN for the assessment of soil washing process and the control of petroleum hydrocarbon emission into the environments.

  19. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

  20. TPH and PAH concentrations in the subsoil of polyduct segments, oil pipeline pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Castro, Alejandrina; Perez, Guillermina; Flores, Carlos; Torres, Luis G.

    2008-10-01

    For the year 1996, 366 incidents related with clandestine poaching of oil-products were reported in Mexico, 159 in 1997, and 240 in 1998. For the year 2003 (the most recently reported figure), there were 136 events. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), very concerned with the environmental agenda, has developed programs oriented to diminish contamination levels in all of its oil facilities. This work was aimed at characterizing zones around polyduct segments, pipelines, pumping stations, and right-of-way pipelines located in the center of Mexico. The TPH contaminated sites were, in decreasing order, polyduct km 39 + 150 > polyduct km 25 + 020 > Zoquital > Tepetitlan > Catalina > Venta Prieta > Ceiba. Most of the sampled points showed the presence of more than one of the 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants. Except point TEPE 2A, where no PAHs were detected, all the sampled points showed values from low to medium concentrations; however, values found at the sites did not exceed the limits according to the Mexican or the American legislation. The place with the largest contaminated area corresponded to the polyduct km 39 + 150, with 130 m2 and 260 m3 to be treated. The least contaminated area was that around the JUAN 4 point at Juandho station, with 20 m2 and 22 m3 of contaminated soil. The total area to be treated is about 230 m2 and 497 m3.

  1. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  3. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P.; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC–FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. - Highlights: ► Weathered hydrocarbon contamination and soil quality on landfarm site were studied. ► Silica fractionation of hydrocarbons separated aliphatics, aromatics and polars. ► Polar hydrocarbon metabolites had accumulated in the surface soil. ► Total hydrocarbons and TPH correlated with soil quality changes better than polars. ► Toxic response of soil microbial biomass and activity were seen at low TPH (<0.5%). - Polar metabolites constitute the largest fraction of crude oil-derived contaminants in a landfarming site, but TPH better explains soil microbial and ecotoxicological responses.

  4. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  5. A method for predicting the extent of petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of solid- and slurry-phase soil bioremediation experiments involving different crude oils and refined petroleum products were performed to investigate the factors which affect the maximum extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation. The authors used a comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group-type separation analyses, boiling-point distributions, and hydrocarbon typing by field ionization mass spectroscopy. Initial and final concentrations of specified hydrocarbon classes were determined in each of seven different bioremediation treatments. Generally, they found that the degree of TPH biodegradation was affected mainly by the type of hydrocarbons in the contaminant matrix. In contrast, the influence of experimental variables such as soil type, fertilizer concentrations, microbial plate counts, and treatment type (slurry versus landfarming) on the overall extent of TPH biodegradation was insignificant. Based on these findings, a predictive algorithm was developed to estimate the extent of TPH biodegradation from the average reduction of 86 individual hydrocarbon classes and their respective initial concentrations. Model predictions for gravimetric TPH removals were in close agreement with analytical results from two independent laboratories

  6. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  7. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiceniuk, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential for contamination of recent sediments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to tanker and refinery activity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, an area without large local anthropogenic sources of aromatics. Sediment samples were taken from the vicinity of the Come By Chance refinery, Woody Island, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm, all in the north end of the bay. The samples were extracted by two methods, dichloromethane extraction of dried sediment for determination of total aromatic hydrocarbon content and hexane extraction of wet sediment for estimation of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and determination of more volatile compounds. Class analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted on a NH 2 column with detection at 255 nm. Total concentrations of di-tricyclic aromatics were highest at the Woody Island site (0.6 μg/g). The sediments from the Come By Chance site, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm sediments contained 0.3, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/g respectively. The hexane extracts from Come By Chance were lowest in di-tricyclic aromatics (0.007 μg/g), with the other sites being equal in concentration (0.01 μg/g). It is evident from the study that aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Placentia Bay are elevated in some parts of the bay in the absence of local combustion sources, and that the most likely source is petroleum. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chironomid, fish larva and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, Paul L.; Nyman, John A.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated the extent to which various common hydrocarbon measures can be used to predict toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms due to fouling by oil. Actual toxicity results, on laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms using two water-column species and a benthic species, were described earlier. The hydrocarbon measures used were TPH g , TPH FID , TPH MS , TTAH (sum of 41 target aromatic hydrocarbons), principal components of 41 TAHs, and each individual TAH. In general, toxicity was more closely related to TPH MS levels than to TPH FID and (especially) TPH g levels. The strongest relationships were found for TTAH levels and for the principal components of the TAHs. Regressions of toxicity on many individual TAHs were also strong, with a single group of compounds explaining as much as 59% of the variation in survival. While the various regressions were highly significant statistically and at times able to accurately predict broad differences in toxicity, the high variation in survival at a specific hydrocarbon concentration indicates that these hydrocarbon measures can not substitute for actual toxicity determinations in accurately ranking the toxicity of samples from oiled freshwater marshes. - Hydrocarbon measurements cannot be substituted for actual toxicity determinations

  9. Biodegradation of an oil-hydrocarbon contaminated soil, enhanced by surfactants: Effect of the type and dose of surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. G.; Galindo, C.; Rojas, N.; Iturbe, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of different parameters, such as surfactant type an dose, soil initial hydrocarbons concentration, and soil granulometry, over the total petroleum hydrocarbons TPH degradation, as well as over the microbial count (as colony formation units CFU/g soil) along the process. (Author)

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Metal Concentrations in Imported Canned Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Embbey K Ossai; Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue; Elizabeth E. Ajogungbe; Godswill O Tesi

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations and profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn) were determined in selected brands of canned maize in the Nigeria market with a view to providing information on the hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The measurement of the concentrations of PAHs was carried out by using a gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after extraction by ultra-sonication with acetone/dichloromethane and cl...

  11. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  12. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils using soil vapor extraction: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Peterson, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are being remediated in situ at a site in Lakewood, New Jersey by bioremediation in conjunction with soil vapor extractions (SVE) and nutrient addition. The contaminants were from hydraulic oils which leaked from subsurface hydraulic lifts, waste oil from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs), an aboveground storage tank, and motor oil from a leaking UST. The oils contaminated subsurface soils at the site to a depth of 25 feet. Approximately 900 cubic yards of soil were contaminated. Soil sample analyses showed total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 31,500 ppm. The design of the remedial system utilized the results of a treatability study which showed that TPH degrading microorganisms, when supplied with oxygen and nutrients, affected a 14% reduction in TPH in 30 days. A SVE system was installed which used three wells, each installed to a depth of 25 feet below grade. The SVE system was operated to achieve an extracted air flow of approximately 20 to 30 scfm from each well. Bioremediation of the TPH was monitored by measuring CO 2 and O 2 concentrations at the wellheads and vapor monitoring probes. After four months of remediation, CO 2 concentrations were at a minimum, at which point the subsurface soils were sampled and analyzed for TPH. The soil analyses showed a removal of TPH by biodegradation of up to 99.8% after four months of remediation

  14. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  16. Surface Sediment Analysis on Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Organic Carbon from Coastal Area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Payus, C.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments along coastal area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah. Surface sediment samples were collected in 24 different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted for TPH using standard method sediment/ sludge APHA 5520E and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer while for TOC method analysis using United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The range of TPH concentrations in surface sediments were recorded at 0.24 - 20.65 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, meanwhile the TOC percentage ranged from 0.03 - 4.02 %. In the mean time, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation with coefficient, r = 0.790 which showing the TPH concentrations significantly have influence on the TOC accumulations in the surface sediment. (author)

  17. Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.

  18. Bioestimulation process during the biodegradation of TPH in oil contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vallejo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of the nutrients addition (N and P by using the amendment of inorganic simple fertilizer (SIS and inorganic compound fertilizers (FIC in the biodegradation of total hydrocarbon petroleum (TPH. Mesocosmos were used with contaminated soil (20,000 mgTPH/kgdw, abiotic control and a control without nutrient (n=3 were used to evaluate the effect of nutrient amendment. The study was conducted during 125 days with 5 sampling events (EM. During the study two analytical methods for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs: Method D-5831 (ASTM and the modified extraction by mechanical agitation and gravimetric determination method (EAMG (EPA, 1994; Schawab et al., 1999 were evaluated and compared. To monitor the bioremediation physic-chemical (pH, % moisture, and nutrients and microbiological (heterotrophic and hydrocarbon degrader microorganisms parameters were evaluated. The highest TPH degradation rates were observed during the first 28 days in the SIS and FIC treatments (278 and 235 mgTPHs/kgdw/d, respectively compared to the controls (110 mgTPHs/kgdw/d. The abiotic control indicated that the intrinsic bioremediation was the main process during the TPH degradation. Although, there was not significant differences between treatments and the control without nutrients, SIS showed the highest TPH degradation (39% and 41% by D-5831 and EAMG methods, respectively. The low pH (4,1 at the end of the study and the low degraders numbers (1x103 NMP/gdw in the treatments could be the limiting factors to achieve higher degradations rates. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the predominant microorganism during the study (34%. Key words: biodegration, bioestimulation, TPHs, petroleum, nutrients.

  19. Evaluating the impact of extraction and cleanup parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Eija; Peraemaeki, Paavo; Jalonen, Jorma [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Interlaboratory comparisons for the analysis of mineral oil in polluted soil using the GC-FID method indicate that extraction and cleanup conditions have significant effects on the analytical results. In this investigation a ruggedness test was performed on the extraction and cleanup method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was utilized to study the effect of 11 different method parameters on the extraction recovery of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. Both qualitative and quantitative factors were investigated. The results indicate that total petroleum hydrocarbons can be relatively reliably monitored through strict implementation of the ISO and CEN draft standards. However, variation in certain method parameters readily affects the validity of the results. The most critical factors affecting TPH recovery were the solvent and co-solvent used for extraction, the extraction time, adsorbent and its weight and sample TPH concentration. Because adaptation of the draft standards especially with respect to these factors easily leads to TPH recoveries higher than 200% or lower than 70%, the validity of the adapted method should always be verified. A proper estimate of the expanded uncertainty should also be appended to TPH results, because only then can the reliability of the results be guaranteed and further justification is gained to support the end-use of the data. This also supports the credibility of the analytical services and prevents the data end-users from drawing misleading conclusions concerning the environmental risks and potential remediation requirements. (orig.)

  20. Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Sediment from Coastal Area of Putatan and Papar, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Rohana Tair; Yang, S.Z.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and percent total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan, Sabah. Samples were collected in five different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted with Soxhlet, concentrated and analyzed by using UV/ VIS spectrophotometer. The overall mean and range of TPH concentrations in the sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan were 1.95 (0.53-4.59 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) and 0.85 (0.26-1.64 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) respectively. Meanwhile, the TOC ranged from 0.81-2.32 % and 0.35-0.81 % respectively. Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation showed no significant differences between TPH and TOC (p<0.05) in both areas. (author)

  1. Measurement error potential and control when quantifying volatile hydrocarbon concentrations in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Due to their widespread use throughout commerce and industry, volatile hydrocarbons such as toluene, trichloroethene, and 1, 1,1-trichloroethane routinely appears as principal pollutants in contamination of soil system hydrocarbons is necessary to confirm the presence of contamination and its nature and extent; to assess site risks and the need for cleanup; to evaluate remedial technologies; and to verify the performance of a selected alternative. Decisions regarding these issues have far-reaching impacts and, ideally, should be based on accurate measurements of soil hydrocarbon concentrations. Unfortunately, quantification of volatile hydrocarbons in soils is extremely difficult and there is normally little understanding of the accuracy and precision of these measurements. Rather, the assumptions often implicitly made that the hydrocarbon data are sufficiently accurate for the intended purpose. This appear presents a discussion of measurement error potential when quantifying volatile hydrocarbons in soils, and outlines some methods for understanding the managing these errors

  2. Distribution and Fractional Composition of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Roadside Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Mykhailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations and their fractional composition (medium fraction: n-alkane chain-length C15 to C27, heavy fraction: >C27 were determined at distances from 1 to 60 m from roads and at soil depths from 0.5 to 15 cm. The traffic intensities were up to 25000 vehicles per day. Soil TPH concentrations were highest within 15 m distance (665 and 3198 mg kg−1 at the windward and leeward sides, resp., followed by a rapid drop to background values beyond (196 and 115 mg kg−1 in 60 m distance at the windward and leeward sides, resp.. The data variability was lowest at distances of 1 m and highest within tree plantations at distances of 15 m from the road. The TPH concentrations decreased with depth but were significantly higher than the background at all depths investigated. A principal component analysis revealed a positive relation between the medium-to-heavy fraction ratio and soil depth. A fractional differentiation of hydrocarbons with distance from road was not observed. It was concluded that the assessment of the potential of hydrocarbons to translocate, accumulate, or degrade in soil necessitates their subdivision into fractions based on their physicochemical and metabolic properties.

  3. Management of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil through bioremediation and landfill disposal at a remote location in northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanscartier, D.; Reimer, K.; Zeeb, B.; George, K. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group; Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2010-01-15

    This paper described an innovative method of managing diesel-contaminated soil in a remote Labrador community. The soil was treated in an aerated biopile to reduce mobile petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) concentrations. The soil was then disposed of in a local landfill. An analysis of the soils showed that the method reduced total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the soil. Hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using the Canada-Wide standard reference method. TPH in leachate decreased during the 1-year field treatment period. PHC fractions were reduced to below the standard criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Volatilization was the predominant PHC removal mechanism in the field. The treated soils were used as a landfill cover for refuse. The cost of the treatment method compared favorably with other land remediation techniques. The biopile facility will be used to treat other fuel spills in the community and serve as a demonstration project for other communities. 36 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Evaluation of gastrointestinal solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in soil using an in vitro physiologically based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Aston, David; Yun, Mao; Kengsoontra, Jenny

    2002-03-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in weathered soils may pose risks to humans through the ingestion pathway. To understand the factors controlling their gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, a newly developed experimental extraction protocol was used to model the GI solubility of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residues in highly weathered soils from different sites. The GI solubility of TPH residues was significantly higher for soil contaminated with diesel than with crude oil. Compared to the solubility of TPH residues during fasted state,the solubility of TPH residues during fat digestion was much greater. Diesel solubility increased from an average of 8% during the "gallbladder empty" phase of fasting (and less than 0.2% during the otherfasting phase) to an average of 16% during fat digestion. For crude oil, the solubility increased from an average of 1.2% during the gallbladder empty phase of fasting (and undetectable during the other fasting phase) to an average of 4.5% during fat digestion. Increasing the concentration of bile salts also increased GI solubility. GI solubility was reduced by soil organic carbon but enhanced by the TPH content.

  5. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  8. Roadside and in-vehicle concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Pei-Ling; Harrison, Roy M.

    Airborne concentrations of benzene, toluene and the xylenes have been measured inside passenger cars whilst driven along major roads in the city of Birmingham, UK, as well as immediately outside the car, and at the roadside. A comparison of concentrations measured in the car with those determined from immediately outside showed little difference, with a mean ratio for benzene of 1.17±0.34 and for toluene 1.11±0.16 ( n=53). The ratio of in-car to roadside concentration was rather higher at 1.55±0.68 for benzene and 1.54±0.72 for toluene ( n=53). The roadside concentrations were typically several-fold higher than those measured at a background suburban monitoring station within Birmingham, although much variation was seen between congested and uncongested roads, with concentrations adjacent to uncongested roads similar to those measured at the background monitoring station. Measurements of benzene and toluene in a car driven on a rural road outside the city showed very comparable in-car and out-of-car concentrations strengthening the conclusion that pollution inside the car is derived from pollutants outside entering with ventilation air. The exceptions were an older car where in-car concentrations appreciably exceeded those outside (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.3 for benzene and 2.2 for toluene where n=5) indicating probable self-contamination, and a very new car which built up increased VOC concentrations when stationary without ventilation (in-to out-vehicle ratio=2.4 for benzene and 3.3 for toluene where n=5). A further set of measurements inside London taxi cabs showed concentrations to be influenced by the area within which the taxi was driven, the traffic density and the presence of passengers smoking cigarettes.

  9. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  10. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  11. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  12. Evaluation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Tehran’s Districts Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pardakhti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Tehran’s drinking water was evaluated for the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons during spring and summer of 2009. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that cause adverse health effects on human’s kidney, liver and central nervous systems. In this study six water districts were selected for taking drinking water samples in the city of Tehran as well as one location outside the city limits. The samples were analyzed by GC/MS using EPA method 8260. The average concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2 Dichloromethane, Tetra chloromethane, Trichloroethylene and tetra chloroethylene were determined during a 7 month period and the results were 0.04ppb, 0.52ppb, 0.01ppb, 0.24ppb, 0.03ppb respectively. The highest concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon observed in Tehran’s drinking water was Trichloroethylene and the lowest concentration was Tetra chloromethane. Districts 5 and 6 showed the highest concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran.

  13. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution in Soil and Surface Water by Public Oil Fields in Wonocolo Sub-district, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Lova Sari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public crude oil fields in Wonocolo sub-district were active from 1942 until now and have inadequately operated. The aims of this research were to measure the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH pollution and their distribution in soil and surface water at the Wonocolo public crude oil fields. Twelve composite soil samples were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated sites of old well (OW, transportation line (T, and refinery area (R at the depths of 0–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–90 cm. The composite surface water sample was obtained from two points with different distances from the river side. TPH from soil and surface water samples were extracted using soxhlet and gravimetric method. Quantification of TPH was performed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR Spectrometer. From the results of this study, it was concluded that soils and surface water are contaminated by TPH of 119.80–107,190 µg/g and 211,025.73 µg/L, respectively. TPH is clearly located in the upper of 0–30 cm depth at OW, T, and R sites (52,328.14–107,189.63 µg/g. These concentrations exceeded the soil quality standard of TPH and classified as category A for human hazard risk. The findings from this study show that there are considerable health risks which are potentially poisonous to humans in the local area. We recommend that remediation could be conducted using biological methods to reduce TPH pollution level.

  14. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  15. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  16. Impacts of brain serotonin deficiency following Tph2 inactivation on development and raphe neuron serotonergic specification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gutknecht

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT is implicated in a wide range of functions from basic physiological mechanisms to complex behaviors, including neuropsychiatric conditions, as well as in developmental processes. Increasing evidence links 5-HT signaling alterations during development to emotional dysregulation and psychopathology in adult age. To further analyze the importance of brain 5-HT in somatic and brain development and function, and more specifically differentiation and specification of the serotonergic system itself, we generated a mouse model with brain-specific 5-HT deficiency resulting from a genetically driven constitutive inactivation of neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2. Tph2 inactivation (Tph2-/- resulted in brain 5-HT deficiency leading to growth retardation and persistent leanness, whereas a sex- and age-dependent increase in body weight was observed in Tph2+/- mice. The conserved expression pattern of the 5-HT neuron-specific markers (except Tph2 and 5-HT demonstrates that brain 5-HT synthesis is not a prerequisite for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of raphe neurons subjected to the developmental program of serotonergic specification. Furthermore, although these neurons are unable to synthesize 5-HT from the precursor tryptophan, they still display electrophysiological properties characteristic of 5-HT neurons. Moreover, 5-HT deficiency induces an up-regulation of 5-HT(1A and 5-HT(1B receptors across brain regions as well as a reduction of norepinephrine concentrations accompanied by a reduced number of noradrenergic neurons. Together, our results characterize developmental, neurochemical, neurobiological and electrophysiological consequences of brain-specific 5-HT deficiency, reveal a dual dose-dependent role of 5-HT in body weight regulation and show that differentiation of serotonergic neuron phenotype is independent from endogenous 5-HT synthesis.

  17. Insights into the biodegradation of weathered hydrocarbons in contaminated soils by bioaugmentation and nutrient stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Brassington, Kirsty J; Prpich, George; Paton, Graeme I; Semple, Kirk T; Pollard, Simon J T; Coulon, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions, respectively. This is likely due to the disruption to the indigenous microbial community in the soil caused by grinding. Further, ecotoxicological responses (mustard seed germination and Microtox assays) showed that a reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was not directly correlable to reduction in toxicity; thus monitoring TPH alone is not sufficient for assessing the environmental risk of a contaminated site after remediation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  19. A proposal for revised Intervention Values for petroleum hydrocarbons ('minerale olie') on base of fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken ROG; Baars AJ; Crommentuijn GH; Otte P; LBG

    1999-01-01

    The present Dutch intervention values for mineral oil (i.e. 'Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons') have been reviewed with respect to fractions of TPH and using ecotoxicological and human toxicological data. It is found that review of TPH-fractions is significant with respect to both human and ecological

  20. Hydrocarbon Degradation and Lead Solubility in a Soil Polluted with Lead and Used Motor Oil Treated by Composting and Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarado, L F; Vaca-Mier, M; López, R; Rojas-Valencia, M N

    2018-02-01

    Used lubricant oils and metals can be common soil pollutants in abandoned sites. When soil is contaminated with various hazardous wastes, the efficiency of biological treatments could be affected. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of combining phytoremediation and composting on the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation and lead solubility in a soil contaminated with 31,823 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from used motor oil and 8260 mg/kg of lead. Mexican cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) and yard trimmings were added in the composting process, and lucerne (Medicago sativa) was used in the phytoremediation process. After a 9 week composting process, only 13% of the initial TPH concentration was removed. The following 20 week phytoremediation process removed 48% of TPH. The highest TPH degradation percentage (66%), was observed in the experiment with phytoremediation only. This work demonstrates sustainable technologies, such as biological treatments, represent low-cost options for remediation; however, they are not frequently used because they require long periods of time for success.

  1. Degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples analyzed within accepted analytical holding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.; Thomey, N.; Dietlein, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    Samples which are collected in conjunction with subsurface investigations at leaking petroleum storage tank sites and petroleum refineries are routinely analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Water samples are preserved by the addition of hydrochloric acid and maintained at four degrees centigrade prior to analysis. This is done to prevent bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons. Chemical preservation is not presently performed on soil samples. Instead, the samples are cooled and maintained at four degrees centigrade. This study was done to measure the degree of degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples which are analyzed within accepted holding times. Soil samples were collected and representative subsamples were prepared from the initial sample. Subsamples were analyzed in triplicate for BTEX and TPH throughout the length of the approved holding times to measure the extent of sample constituent degradation prior to analysis. Findings imply that for sandy soils, BTEX and TPH concentrations can be highly dependent upon the length of time which elapses between sample collection and analysis

  2. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model ( R 2  > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0038 gmg -1 d -1 ; half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  3. Impact of hydrocarbon type, concentration and weathering on its biodegradability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, Snežana P; Dalmacija, Božo D; Rončević, Srđan D; Agbaba, Jasmina R; Perović, Svetlana D Ugarčina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of the hydrocarbon type and concentration, as well as the total effect of the natural weathering process to hydrocarbon biodegradability in sandy soil and the environment. In this experiment, sandy soil was separately contaminated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.5% of diesel and crude oils. Oil contaminated soil was taken from the Oil Refinery dumping sites after 9 years of weathering, and its concentration was adjusted to the above-mentioned levels. The biodegradation process was monitored by measuring CO(2), evolution rate, hydrocarbon degradation rate and dehydrogenase activity. The favourable concentration ranges for the soil contaminated with diesel oil were 1.0%, with concentrations at about 2.0% causing slightly adverse effects to CO(2) production which was overcome after 2 weeks, and with 3.5% diesel oil causing significant toxicity. For soil contaminated with crude oil, 2.0% was found to be optimum for effective biodegradation, with 3.5% crude oil also causing adverse effects to CO(2) production, although less so than the same concentration of diesel oil. No adverse effect was obtained for any concentration of the weathered oil, as after the weathering process, the remaining contaminants in the soil were mostly poorly degradable constituents like asphaltenes, resins etc. It has been proposed that such residual material from oil degradation is analogous to, and can even be regarded as, humic material. Due to its inert characteristics, insolubility and similarity to humic materials it is unlikely to be environmentally hazardous.

  4. Concentrations and risk assessment of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons in buses and bus stations of Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Shuguang; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Xiasheng; Yao, Chaoying; Shen, Xueyou

    2009-03-01

    Air pollution surveys of ten selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHCs) were conducted in buses and bus stations in Hangzhou, China. The mean concentrations of MAHCs in the air of buses and bus stations were 95.9 and 36.5 microg/m(3), respectively, of which toluene was the highest in all the sampling sites. Mean concentrations of all MAHCs in buses were statistically higher than those nearby bus stations (pbus drivers were 1.11x10(-5) and 4.00x10(-5), respectively, which were way above the limit set by USEPA. The health risk caused by MAHCs in bus microenvironment should be cautioned.

  5. Effects of humic acid on phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soyoung Park; Ki Seob Kim; Jeong-Tae Kim; Daeseok Kang; Kijune Sung

    2011-01-01

    The use of humic acid (HA) to enhance the efficiency of phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel was evaluated in this study.A sample of soil was artificially contaminated with commercially available diesel fuel to an initial total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 2300 mg/kg and four heavy metals with concentrations of 400 mg/kg for Pb,200 mg/kg for Cu,12 mg/kg for Cd,and 160 mg/kg for Ni.Three plant species,Brassica campestris,Festuca arundinacea,and Helianthus annuus,were selected for the phytodegradation experiment.Percentage degradation of TPH in the soil in a control pot supplemented with HA increased to 45% from 30% without HA.The addition of HA resulted in an increases in the removal of TPH from the soil in pots planted with B.campestris,F.arundinacea,and H.annuus,enhancing percentage degradation to 86%,64%,and 85% from 45%,54%,and 66%,respectively.The effect of HA was also observed in the degradation of n-alkanes within 30 days.The rates of removal of n-alkanes in soil planted with B.campestris and H.annuus were high for n-alkanes in the range of C11-C28.A dynamic increase in dehydrogenase activity was observed during the last 15 days of a 30-day experimental period in all the pots amended with HA.The enhanced biodegradation performance for TPHs observed might be due to an increase in microbial activities and bioavailable TPH in soils caused by combined effects of plants and HA.The results suggested that HA could act as an enhancing agent for phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil contaminated with diesel fuel and heavy metals.

  6. Effect in laboratory of addition of inorganic fertilizers made in degradation of hydrocarbon on contaminated soil by oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo Castro, Jenny Liliana; Perdomo Rojas, Maria Carolina; Benavides Lopez de Mesa, Joaquin L

    2004-01-01

    At present one of the most important environmental problems is contamination of soil ecosystem by hydrocarbon spilling mainly of oil and its derivates, which occurs when oil is explored or transported. Furthermore in Colombia it occurs due to violent assaults made by men outside of law against petroleum infrastructure. To solve this problem there are treatment methods to recover contaminated soil as Land farming technique, adding organic nutrients. In this research this technique was evaluated in vitro, through a design of six experimental units (EU) which contained contaminated soil with crude oil; three EU were treated with Triple 15 inorganic fertilizer and the other three were taken as biotic control. Land farming effectiveness was determined by pH analysis, humidity percent, temperature, count of total heterotrophic microorganisms, and probable number of I degrades microorganisms, nutrients and total hydrocarbons for a four month experimental period At the d of that period, in Land farming treatment with nutrients added was achieved a high remotion percentage TPH up to 91 %, getting final TPH concentration of 2028 ppm comparing biotic control in which the remotion percentage achieved up to 65% and a TPH final concentration was 8049 ppm thus, it could demonstrate that nutrient addition optimizes the degrading hydrocarbon process in soil

  7. Improvement of phytoremediation of an aged petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Fic, Ewa; Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Pawlik, Małgorzata; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of soil inoculation with the Rhodococcus erythropolis CD 106 strain on the effectiveness of the phytoremediation of an aged hydrocarbon-contaminated [approx. 1% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)] soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The introduction of CD 106 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of ryegrass and the removal of hydrocarbons in planted soil. The fresh weight of the shoots and roots of plants inoculated with CD 106 increased by 49% and 30%, respectively. After 210 days of the experiment, the concentration of TPH was reduced by 31.2%, whereas in the planted, non-inoculated soil, it was reduced by 16.8%. By contrast, the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon decreased by 18.7% in non-planted soil bioaugmented with the CD 106 strain. The rifampicin-resistant CD 106 strain survived after inoculation into soil and was detected in the soil during the entire experimental period, but the number of CD 106 cells decreased constantly during the enhanced phytoremediation and bioaugmentation experiments. The plant growth-promoting and hydrocarbon-degrading properties of CD 106, which are connected with its long-term survival and limited impact on autochthonous microflora, make this strain a good candidate for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons.

  8. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorzelec Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland. To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  9. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  10. Alternative splicing and extensive RNA editing of human TPH2 transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Grohmann

    Full Text Available Brain serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2 in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1 is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  12. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Chennai Coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Ramkumar, T

    2010-10-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in marine sediments along the Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal was quantified by Ultra-Violet Fluorescence (UVF) Spectroscopy. The concentration of PHC in surface sediments varied from 1.88 to 39.76 ppm. The highest values obtained in the northern part of the study area, where shipping activities and land-based waste waters disposed into sea through the rivers like Kuvam and Adayar. The Adayar (7.26-16.83 ppm) and Kuvam (5.5-39.72 ppm) cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 50 and 35 cm respectively. PHC values showed a decreasing pattern with depth in all sediment cores suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurring in the recent past. The present study revealed that the PHC values of Chennai coastal sediments are lower than the values reported from selected costal areas including the sediment of the Mumbai coast (7.6-42.8 ppm), Arabian Sea. The results will be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the level of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments.

  14. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  15. Identification of sources of elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area in Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, T.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector in 105 topsoil samples from an industrial area around Bohai Bay, Tianjin in the North of China. Results demonstrated that concentrations of PAHs in 104

  16. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    were also tested in a pilot plant study with smoked trout as a model fish. In addition to confirming that increased combustion temperatures and usage of common alder in comparison with beech increased Sigma PAH25, it was also revealed that the PAH concentration decreased in the order fish skin >> outer......A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25...

  17. Effect of concentration gradients on biodegradation in bench-scale sand columns with HYDRUS modeling of hydrocarbon transport and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Schiewer, Silke; Misra, Debasmita

    2015-09-01

    The present research investigated to what extent results obtained in small microcosm experiments can be extrapolated to larger settings with non-uniform concentrations. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was compared for column experiments versus homogenized microcosms with varying concentrations of diesel, Syntroleum, and fish biodiesel as contaminants. Syntroleum and fish biodiesel had higher degradation rates than diesel fuel. Microcosms showed significantly higher overall hydrocarbon mineralization percentages (p transport and degradation of the investigated fuels in vadose zone conditions similar to those in laboratory column experiments. The numerical model was used to evaluate the impact of different degradation rate constants from microcosm versus column experiments.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (∑12 PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Lowering of the critical concentration for micelle formation in aqueous soap solutions by action of truly dissolved hydrocarbon at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markina, Z.N.; Kostova, N.Z.; Rebinder, P.A.

    1970-03-01

    The effect of dissolved hydrocarbons (octane, benzene, and ethylbenzene) on critical micelle concentration of aqueous solutions of sodium salts of fatty acids from caproate to sodium myristate at various temperatures was studied. Experimental results showed that formation of micelles is promoted by presence of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase. Such solutions have below normal critical micelle concentration. The change in critical micelle concentration decreases with increase in length of hydrocarbon chain in the soap molecule and with decrease of hydrocarbon solubility in pure water. The nature of the hydrocarbon also affects the forms and dimension of the micelle. Aromatic hydrocarbons increase micelle volume and greatly decrease C.M.C., while aliphatic hydrocarbons decrease C.M.C. slightly. (12 refs.)

  1. Assessing breeding potential of peregrine falcons based on chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Miller, M.J. [Iolaire Ecological Consulting, 7899 Thrasher St., Mission, British Columbia, V2V 5H3 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell quality and embryo hatchability. Population recovery has been attributed to re-introduction efforts, coupled with regulatory restrictions on the use of organochlorine pesticides. Peregrines have not returned to breed in some areas, such as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. That region has been extensively planted in fruit orchards which were treated annually with DDT during the early 1950s to the 1970s. Ongoing contamination of avian species, including potential peregrine prey, inhabiting orchards has been documented. In response to an initiative to release peregrines around the city of Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley, we collected potential peregrine prey species and analyzed whole bodies for chlorinated hydrocarbon residues. We used a simple bioaccumulation model to predict concentrations of DDE in peregrine eggs using concentrations in prey and estimates of dietary makeup as input. Peregrines would be expected to breed successfully only if they fed on a diet primarily of doves. Feeding on as little as 10% of other species such as starlings, robins, gulls and magpies would produce DDE concentrations in peregrine eggs greater than the threshold of 15 mg/kg. We also estimated the critical concentration of DDE in total prey to be about 0.5 mg/kg, one half of the previous most conservative criterion for peregrine prey. Concentrations of dieldrin and PCBs in peregrine prey are less than suggested critical levels. - Based on the level of DDE contamination of prey items, it seems unlikely that peregrine falcons could breed successfully throughout most of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.

  2. Atmospheric concentrations and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircioglu, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Sofuoglu, Aysun [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gulbahce-Urla (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples were collected at a suburban (n = 63) and at an urban site (n = 14) in Izmir, Turkey. Average gas-phase total PAH (sum {sub 14}PAH) concentrations were 23.5 ng m{sup -3} for suburban and 109.7 ng m{sup -3} for urban sites while average particle-phase total PAH concentrations were 12.3 and 34.5 ng m{sup -3} for suburban and urban sites, respectively. Higher ambient PAH concentrations were measured in the gas-phase and sum {sub 14}PAH concentrations were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the meteorological parameters were effective on ambient PAH concentrations. Emission sources of particle-phase PAHs were investigated using a diagnostic plot of fluorene (FLN)/(fluorine + pyrene; PY) versus indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY/(indeno[1,2,3-cd]PY + benzo[g,h,i]perylene) and several diagnostic ratios. These approaches have indicated that traffic emissions (petroleum combustion) were the dominant PAH sources at both sites for summer and winter seasons. Experimental gas-particle partition coefficients (K{sub P}) were compared to the predictions of octanol-air (K{sub OA}) and soot-air (K{sub SA}) partition coefficient models. The correlations between experimental and modeled K{sub P} values were significant (r{sup 2} = 0.79 and 0.94 for suburban and urban sites, respectively, p < 0.01). Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. However, overall there was a relatively good agreement between the measured K{sub P} and soot-based model predictions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Towards minimizing measurement uncertainty in total petroleum hydrocarbon determination by GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, E.

    2009-07-01

    Despite tightened environmental legislation, spillages of petroleum products remain a serious problem worldwide. The environmental impacts of these spillages are always severe and reliable methods for the identification and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental samples are therefore needed. Great improvements in the definition and analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were finally introduced by international organizations for standardization in 2004. This brought some coherence to the determination and, nowadays, most laboratories seem to employ ISO/DIS 16703:2004, ISO 9377-2:2000 and CEN prEN 14039:2004:E draft international standards for analysing TPH in soil. The implementation of these methods, however, usually fails because the reliability of petroleum hydrocarbon determination has proved to be poor.This thesis describes the assessment of measurement uncertainty for TPH determination in soil. Chemometric methods were used to both estimate the main uncertainty sources and identify the most significant factors affecting these uncertainty sources. The method used for the determinations was based on gas chromatography utilizing flame ionization detection (GC-FID).Chemometric methodology applied in estimating measurement uncertainty for TPH determination showed that the measurement uncertainty is in actual fact dominated by the analytical uncertainty. Within the specific concentration range studied, the analytical uncertainty accounted for as much as 68-80% of the measurement uncertainty. The robustness of the analytical method used for petroleum hydrocarbon determination was then studied in more detail. A two-level Plackett-Burman design and a D-optimal design were utilized to assess the main analytical uncertainty sources of the sample treatment and GC determination procedures. It was also found that the matrix-induced systematic error may also significantly reduce the reliability of petroleum hydrocarbon determination

  4. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  5. Comparison of Attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These concentrations further changed at day 56 with the non amended soils now having the lowest TPH concentrations. 56 days after spiking with TPH, only the C 10 – C 12 and > C16 carbon number fractions were detected at both depths. Results suggest that natural attenuation can be a viable remediation strategy in ...

  6. Association of atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with their urinary metabolites in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Mansourian, Marjan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Ebrahim, Karim; Sadeghian, Babak; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to determine the atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 )-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their association with their urinary metabolites in children and adolescents. This study was conducted from October 2014 to March 2016 in Isfahan, Iran. We measured 16 species of PAHs bounded to PM 2.5 by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) from 7 parts of the city. Moreover, PAH urinary metabolites were measured in 186 children and adolescents, randomly selected from households. Urinary metabolites consisted of 1-hydroxy naphthalene (1-naphthol), 2-hydroxy naphthalene (2-naphthol), 9-hydroxy phenanthrene (9-phenanthrol), and 1-hydroxy pyrene using GC/MS. Considering the short half-lives of PAHs, we measured the metabolites twice with 4 to 6 months of time interval. We found that the ambient concentrations of PAHs were significantly associated with their urinary metabolites. 1-hydroxy naphthalene and 2-hydroxy naphthalene concentrations showed an increase of 1.049 (95% CI: 1.030, 1.069) and 1.047 (95% CI: 1.025, 1.066) for each unit increase (1 ng/m 3 ) in ambient naphthalene. Similarly, 1-hydroxy pyrene showed an increase of 1.009 (95% CI: 1.006-1.011) for each unit increase (1 ng/m 3 ) in ambient pyrene concentration after adjustment for body mass index, physical activity level, urinary creatinine, age, and sex. The association of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene and ambient phenantherene was significant in the crude model; however after adjustment for the abovementioned covariates, it was no more significant. We found significant correlations between exposure to ambient PM 2.5 -bounded PAHs and their urinary excretion. Considering the adverse health effects of PAHs in the pediatric age group, biomonitoring of PAHs should be underscored; preventive measures need to be intensified.

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  8. Determining Biodegradation Kinetics of Hydrocarbons at Low Concentrations: Covering 5 and 9 Orders of Magnitude of Kow and Kaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Høst Hammershøj, Rikke; Mayer, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    a loaded silicone donor was used to set the concentration of each hydrocarbon in mixture stock solutions; (2) these solutions were combined with environmental water samples in gastight auto sampler vials for 1-100 days incubation, and (3) automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to GC...

  9. Genetic moderation of cocaine subjective effects by variation in the TPH1, TPH2, and SLC6A4 serotonin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, Michelle A; Hamon, Sara C; Harding, Mark J; Nielsen, Ellen M; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated variants of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)1, TPH2, and SLC6A4 in the moderation of the subjective effects of cocaine. Non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals (N=66) were intravenously administered saline and cocaine (40 mg) in a randomized order. Participants self-reported subjective effects of cocaine using a visual analog scale starting before administration of saline or cocaine (-15 min) to up to 20 min after infusion. Self-report ratings on the visual analog scale ranged from 0 (no effect) to 100 (greatest effect). Participants were genotyped for the TPH1 rs1799913, TPH2 rs4290270, and SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR variants. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in subjective effect scores over time while controlling for population structure. Participants carrying the TPH1 rs1799913 A allele reported greater subjective response to cocaine for 'stimulated' and 'access' relative to the CC genotype group. Those carrying the TPH2 rs4290270 A allele reported higher 'good effect' and lower 'depressed' effect relative to the TT genotype group. Those carrying the SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR S' allele reported greater 'desire' and 'access' compared with the L'L' genotype group. These findings indicate that TPH1, TPH2, and SLC6A4 variants moderate the subjective effects of cocaine in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent participants.

  10. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  11. Field desorption mass spectroscopy monitoring of changes in hydrocarbon type composition during petroleum biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group type separation, boiling point distribution, and hydrocarbon typing by field desorption mass spectroscopy (FDMS) has been developed to quantify changes in hydrocarbon type composition during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. FDMS is able to quantify the concentration of hundreds of specific hydrocarbon types based on their respective hydrogen deficiency (z-number) and molecular weight (carbon number). Analytical results from two bioremediation experiments involving soil contaminated with crude oil and motor oil indicate that alkanes and two-ring saturates (naphthenes) were readily biodegradable. In addition, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons generally were biodegraded to a larger extent than those of high molecular weight. More importantly, it was found that the extent of biodegradation of specific hydrocarbon types was comparable between treatments and appeared to be unaffected by the petroleum contaminant source, soil type, or experimental conditions. It was therefore concluded that in these studies the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation is primarily affected by the molecular composition of the petroleum hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil

  12. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  13. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-24

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL 8h :s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  14. Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Tapani; Veijalainen, Henna; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-01-01

    Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil refineries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have influenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined significantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s). A decline in air concentrations have coincided with consistent implementation of control measures. Such measures include on-line monitoring of leaks; benzene recovery; floating container roofs; improved valves and seals; hermetic pumps; recovery of loading gases and instalment of torches in terminals; cutback in coke combustion; a new production line spanning directly from the dock to aromatics production; and recovery of loading gases in the doc. Other tools in exposure management include personal leak monitors, on-line measurements, monitoring campaigns, risk assessment, and availability and user training of protective equipment. However, improvements are still needed. Hydrocarbon or benzene air concentrations have not declined in 8 of 17 units, in some of which concentrations exceed 10% of the relevant

  15. Long term trends in atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A study of Japanese cities from 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Tang, Ning; Nagato, Edward Gou; Toriba, Akira; Sakai, Shigekatsu; Kano, Fumio; Goto, Sumio; Endo, Osamu; Arashidani, Kei-Ichi; Kakimoto, Hitoshi

    2018-02-01

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected during the summer and winter in five Japanese cities spanning Hokkaido to Kyushu (Sapporo, Kanazawa, Tokyo, Sagamihara and Kitakyushu) from 1997 to 2014. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with four to six rings, including pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Two nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NBaP), were identified by HPLC with chemiluminescence detection. A comparison of PAH and NPAH concentrations and [NPAH]/[PAH] ratios such as [1-NP]/[Pyr] and [6-NBaP]/[BaP] revealed the following characteristics in the five cities: (1) In Sapporo, Kanazawa, Tokyo and Sagamihara, the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs were high at the beginning of the sampling period and then steadily decreased, with NPAHs decreasing faster than PAHs. The large initial [1-NP]/[Pyr] ratios suggest that the major contributor was automobiles but subsequent decreases in this ratio suggest decreased automobile contributions. (2) By contrast, PAH concentrations in Kitakyushu did not decrease during the sampling period, though concentrations of NPAHs decreased. The consistently smaller [1-NP]/[Pyr] ratio and larger [6-NBaP]/[BaP] ratio in Kitakyushu suggests that the major contributor of PAHs was not automobiles but iron manufacturing which uses a large amount of coal. The sudden increase in atmospheric PAH concentrations in the winter of 2014 may also be due to iron manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Large scale treatment of total petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Gregory; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Mok, Puah Chum; Ball, Andrew S

    2018-05-15

    Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L -1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L -1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment. Metagenomic analysis indicated that there was a shift in the microbial community when compared to the beginning of the treatment. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from day 0 to day 32, although differences at the genus level were observed. The predominant genera at the beginning of the treatment (day 0 just after inoculation) were Cloacibacterium, Sediminibacterium and Brevundimonas while at the end of the treatment members of Flavobacterium dominated, reaching almost half the population (41%), followed by Pseudomonas (6%) and Limnobacter (5.8%). To the author's knowledge, this is among the first studies to report the successful large scale biodegradation of TPH-contaminated groundwater (18,000 L per treatment session) at an offshore petrochemical facility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  18. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H 2 O, pyrene:H 2 O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H 2 O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H 2 O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H 2 O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H 2 O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO 2 and H 2 CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H 2 O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes

  19. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  20. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosol of the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.M.; Perez Pastor, R.M.; Bea, J.F.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.

    1990-01-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled in the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. From these results, it has been tried to identify emission sources of the studied hydrocarbons. (Author). 10 refs

  1. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  2. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  3. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Kate A.; Yunker, Mark B.; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  4. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  5. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  6. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  7. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical and Physical Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Contamination of soil was investigated in this study from the Tehran Oil refining Co. of Iran. Fifteen soil samples were collected at several points in the Azimabad, 15 km south of Tehran City, Iran. Samples were collected at depths of 0–30 cm. Control sampleswere prepared to determinebackgroundlevels ofsoil contaminationwithpetroleumhydrocarbonsfor comparison with contaminatedsites. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH concentrations varied from 101334.0–101367.1 and 25321.1–25876.6 mg kg-1 respectively. The results elevated levels of TPH and PAH contents when compared with the control sample. Soil acidity (low pH of 5.3–5.9 and low electrical conductivity provided evidence of reduced metabolic activities on the affected site.Microbialgrowthrates for bacteria and fungi expressed as colony forming units were 2.62×109 and 4.14×106CFU/g soil, respectively for the contaminated and 5.76×109 and 6.83×106CFU/g soil, for the control treatments respectively. These drastic changes can have impact on the nutrient cycle and prevents the absorption of nutrients by plant root sand lead to a reduction in yield. 

  9. TPH2 polymorphisms and alcohol-related suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan; Paska, Alja Videtič

    2011-02-18

    Substantial evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies corroborates implication of genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, on suicidal behavior and alcoholism risk. Serotonergic disfunction seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behavior. Recent studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 showed mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide. We performed SNP and alcohol analysis on 388 suicide victims and 227 controls. The results showed association between suicide (Pχ²=0.043) and alcohol-related suicide (Pχ²=0.021) for SNP Rs1843809. A tendency for association was determined also for polymorphism Rs1386493 (Pχ²=0.055) and alcohol-related suicide. Data acquired from psychological autopsies in a subsample of suicide victims (n=79) determined more impulsive behavior (Pχ²=0.016) and verbal aggressive behavior (Pχ²=0.025) in the subgroup with alcohol misuse or dependency. In conclusion, our results suggest implication of polymorphisms in suicide and alcohol-related suicide, but further studies are needed to clarify the interplay among serotonergic system disfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun; Tao Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  11. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  12. Treatment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils using hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by waste basic oxygen furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, T.T.; Kao, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The contamination of subsurface soils with petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying waste basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) as the catalyst to enhance the Fenton-like oxidation to remediate fuel oil or diesel contaminated soils. The studied controlling factors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons included concentrations of H 2 O 2 , BOF slag dosages, types of petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., fuel oil and diesel), and types of iron mineral. Experimental results indicate that oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbon via the Fenton-like process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag. Results from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveal that the major iron type of BOF slag/sandy loam system was iron mineral (e.g., α-Fe 2 O 3 and α-FeOOH). Approximately 76% and 96% of fuel oil and diesel removal were observed (initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 10,000 mg kg -1 ), respectively, with the addition of 15% of H 2 O 2 and 100 g kg -1 of BOF slag after 40 h of reaction. Because BOF slag contains extractable irons such as amorphous iron and soluble iron, it can act as an iron sink to supply iron continuously for Fenton-like oxidation. Results demonstrate that Fenton-like oxidation catalyzed by BOF slag is a potential method to be able to remediate petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils efficiently and effectively.

  13. Bio-concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina along eastern coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Amin Bashir M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous sources of chemical pollutants which can impact the mangrove ecosystem through adjacent waters, industrial and sewage discharges and air depositions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are semi volatile ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutants detected in all environmental compartments. In the monitoring framework for the mangrove ecosystem along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, nine mangrove stands were examined for the accumulation of PAHs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The mean values detected for total PAHs in sediments, roots and leaf were 2.98, 8.57 and 23.43 ng/g respectively. The trend of the total PAHs concentration in all sites showed the descending order: leaf > roots > sediments. Beside the sandy nature of the sediments, the presences of all stands in remote areas fare from the direct anthropogenic effects lead to these relative low values. PAH bio-concentration factors for leaf are two to three magnitudes higher than that in roots, suggesting atmosphere deposition /leaf uptake mechanism in addition to the sediment/root mechanism. The diagnostic ratios revealed that the sources of PAHs are mainly pyrogenic.

  14. Hydrocarbon composition and concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico sediments in the 3 years following the Macondo well blowout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock-Adams, Lydia; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Joye, Samantha B; Medeiros, Patricia M

    2017-10-01

    In April of 2010, the Macondo well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico resulted in an unprecedented release of oil into the water column at a depth of approximately 1500 m. A time series of surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected to the northwest of the well from 2010 to 2013 for molecular biomarker and bulk carbon isotopic analyses. While no clear trend was observed in subsurface sediments, surface sediments (0-3 cm) showed a clear pattern with total concentrations of n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and petroleum biomarkers (terpanes, hopanes, steranes) increasing from May to September 2010, peaking in late November 2010, and strongly decreasing in the subsequent years. The peak in hydrocarbon concentrations were corroborated by higher organic carbon contents, more depleted Δ 14 C values and biomarker ratios similar to those of the initial MC252 crude oil reported in the literature. These results indicate that at least part of oil discharged from the accident sedimented to the seafloor in subsequent months, resulting in an apparent accumulation of hydrocarbons on the seabed by the end of 2010. Sediment resuspension and transport or biodegradation may account for the decrease in sedimented oil quantities in the years following the Macondo well spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosols of the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.; Perez-Pastor, R. M.; Bea, F. J.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1991-01-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled m the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. (Author)

  16. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskowska, Karolina; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and their respirable fraction (PM4) in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air) of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  17. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskowska Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs associated with total suspended particles (TSP and their respirable fraction (PM4 in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Nagapattinam - Pondicherry coastal waters, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, K; Balakrishnan, S; Sampathkumar, P

    2017-04-15

    In this present study, petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analyzed in three different coastal sediment cores viz., (N1, P1 and P2) from the Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India to examine the viability of PHCs. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt+clay+sand) and PHC unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of PHCs. Cluster analysis was used to discriminate the sediment samples based on their degree of contamination. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of PHC in marine sediments. This baseline PHCs data can be used for regular ecological monitoring and effective management for the mining and tourism related activities in the coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of fulvic acid concentration and origin on photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution: Importance of active oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinghui; Li Gongchen; Yang Zhifeng; Chen Yumin; Huang, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    With an Xe arc lamp house as simulated sunlight, the influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration and origins on photodegradation of acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene in aqueous solution have been studied. Similar effects of FAs, collected from five places around China, on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) photodegradation have been observed. Active oxygen was of significance in PAH photodegradation with the presence of FAs. For systems with 1.25 mg L -1 FAs, the contributions of ·OH to PAH photodegradation rates were from 33% to 69%. FAs had two opposite effects, i.e., stimulating the generation of active oxygen and advancing PAH photodegradation; competing with PAHs for energy and photons and restraining PAH photodegradation. Generally, photodegradation rates of the 5 PAHs decreased with the increase of FAs concentration; except fluoranthene and pyrene were advanced in solutions with low FA concentration. The influences of FA concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin. - Influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin, and active oxygen played an important role in PAH photodegradation

  20. Source contribution analysis of surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in northeastern Asia by source–receptor relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Kajino, Mizuo; Sato, Keiichi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Hiromasa; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the source–receptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40°N, 40–60%) and central China (30–40°N, 10–40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40–80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O 3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes. -- Highlights: •Source–receptor analysis was conducted for investigating PAHs in northeast Asia. •In winter, transboundary transport from China is large contribution in leeward. •Relative contribution from Korea, Japan, and eastern Russia is increased in summer. •This seasonal variation is strongly controlled by the meteorological conditions. •The transport distance is different among PAH species. -- Transboundary transport of PAHs in northeast Asia was investigated by source–receptor analysis

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  2. The Willow Microbiome is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and, after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67 growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment and thus protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF TPH IN SOILS: AN RTDF PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Remediation Technology Development Forum has undertaken a project to investigate the use of plants in remediation of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Since sites have been established at a number of locations the project will be able to consider climate, contain...

  4. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C.; Ball, J.C.; Stevens, R.

    1995-03-01

    Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 x 10 6 barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ''super'' plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed

  6. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  7. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  8. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobenzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various foodstuffs before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Castell, Victoria; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2009-04-01

    The cooking-induced changes in the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various foodstuffs were investigated. Foods included fish (sardine, hake and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, boiled) samples were analyzed. There were some variations in the concentrations of PBDEs before and after cooking. However, they depended not only on the cooking process, but mainly on the specific food item. The highest HCB concentrations were found in sardine, being lower in cooked samples. All cooking processes enhanced HCB levels in hake, while very scarce differences could be noted in tuna (raw and cooked). In general terms, the highest PAH concentrations were found after frying by being the values especially notable in fish, excepting hake, where the highest total PAH levels corresponded to roasted samples. The results of this study show that, in general, cooking processes are only of a limited value as a means of reducing PBDE, HCB and PAH concentrations in food.

  9. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  11. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Comparison of atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons between temperate regions and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna

    2009-09-01

    For the purpose of understanding the transport and deposition mechanisms and the air-water distribution of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs), their atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio was evaluated. In addition, for the purpose of differentiating VCHC behaviour in a temperate climate from its behaviour in a polar climate, the atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio evaluated in matrices from temperate zones was compared with the concentration ratio evaluated in Antarctic matrices. In order to perform air samplings also at rigid Antarctic temperatures, the sampling apparatus, consisting of a diaphragm pump and canisters, was suitably modified. Chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were measured in air, water and snow using specific techniques composed of a purpose-made cryofocusing-trap-injector (for air samples) and a modified purge-and-trap injector (for aqueous samples) coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The VCHCs were retrieved in all the investigated matrices, both Italian and Antarctic, with concentrations varying from tens to thousands of ng m(-3) in air and from digits to hundreds of ng kg(-1) in water and snow. The atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratios were always found to be lower than 1. In particular, the Italian air/water concentration ratios were smaller than the Antarctic ones, by reason of the higher atmospheric photochemical activity in temperate zones. On the other hand, the Antarctic air/snow concentration ratios proved to be largely in favour of snow with respect to the Italian ratios, thus corroborating the hypothesis of a more efficient VCHC deposition mechanism and accumulation on Antarctic snow.

  13. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  14. Transcriptome of pancreas-specific Bmpr1a-deleted islets links to TPH1–5-HT axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Xu Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling is crucial for the development and function of numerous organs, but its role on the function of pancreatic islets is not completely clear. To explore this question, we applied the high throughput transcriptomic analyses on the islets isolated from mice with a pancreas-specific deletion of the gene, Bmpr1a, encoding the type 1a BMP receptor. Consistently, these pBmpr1aKO mice had impaired glucose homeostasis at 3 months, and were more severely affected at 12 months of age. These had lower fasting blood insulin concentrations, with reduced expression of several key regulators of β-cell function. Importantly, transcriptomic profiling of 3-month pBmpr1aKO islets and bioinformatic analyses revealed abnormal expression of 203 metabolic genes. Critically among these, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (Tph1, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT was the highest over-expressed one. 5-HT is an important regulator of insulin secretion from β cells. Treatment with excess 5-HT inhibited this secretion. Thus our transcriptomic analysis links two highly conserved molecular pathways the BMP signaling and the TPH1–5-HT axis on glucose homeostasis.

  15. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation of some toxic hydrocarbon pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshahawy, M.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    samples were collected from the same location in Suez Gulf during the period from June, 2004 to April 2006 then microbiologically and chemically analyzed . the TPH levels ranged from 55 to 86 ppm and exceeded the known permissible limits referring to a settled situation of chronic hydrocarbon pollution in the studied area. on the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts cfu clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon . the ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones ranged between 26 and 50% over the period of collection. the biodegradation potentials of suez gulf consortia were studied at different concentrations of phenanthrene as a sole carbon source. it was found that the degradation kinetics of phenanthrene either due to biotic or abiotic factors is affected with the initial concentration of PAHs. twenty PAHs degraders were isolated from Suez Gulf consortia after different adaptation periods on phenanthrene.ten isolates were selected to be promising due to their ability to tolerate high base oil concentrations, grow at wide range of temperatures and their short incubation period on MSO. the biodegradation kinetics of 200 ppm phenanthrene by the selected isolates was monitored by HPLC

  16. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57–410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01–9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. - Highlights: • Resuspendable fraction of settled dust from microenvironment of buses in Harbin monitored for PAHs exposure assessment. • Higher levels of PAHs pollutants at gasoline-powered buses than at compressed natural gas-powered buses. • Non-occupational and occupational exposures in the microenvironment of buses are assessed. - Occupational and non-occupational exposure to PAHs from the microenvironment of bus

  17. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  18. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Feng, Yujie; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Xing, Baoshan; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-03-01

    This preliminary study measured Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in the resuspendable fraction of settled dust on 39 bus lines, to evaluate the impact of engine type (gasoline and compressed natural gas) on exposure for commuters and drivers. Benzo(b)fluoranthene(BbF) was the predominant PAH in resuspendable fraction of settled bus dust. The concentration of total PAHs was 92.90 ± 116.00 μg/g (range: 0.57-410) in gasoline buses and 3.97 ± 1.81 (range: 2.01-9.47) in compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. Based on Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations for the sum of 16 PAHs, the average daily dose (ADD) via dust ingestion and dermal contact was calculated. The ADD of PAHs was higher for commuters and drivers in gasoline-powered buses than in buses using CNG buses. For both short and long duration journeys, young commuters were exposed to higher levels of PAHs via dust ingestion and dermal contact than adult commuters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RBCA-based approaches to ecological risk assessment for TPH-contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummell, R.; Vedagiri, U.

    1995-01-01

    The RBCA guidelines proposed by ASTM form an evaluation and decision-making framework for sites potentially contaminated by petroleum releases. They present a three-tiered approach of decreasing conservatism and increasing site-specificity that primarily evaluates risks to human health. While RBCA includes consideration of environmental impacts, there are no specific recommendations on how this is to be achieved. A RBCA-based ecological risk assessment approach was developed for TPH-contaminated areas in Alaska. The approach presents a habitat-based selection process for surrogate chemicals and indicator chemicals of ecological relevance, evaluation of ecotoxicity, derivation of matrix-specific Tier 1 RBSLs (including soils) and determination of Tier 2 and 3 SSTLS. Chemicals are considered by class, aquatic (freshwater and saltwater) and terrestrial habitats are evaluated independently, and chemical concentrations are screened in all media of concern (air, soil, water, sediment). Data needs and decision points specific to ecological receptors are identified for each tier of the approach. Other aspects of the approach include consideration of contaminant migration pathways and habitats that are typical of Arctic conditions. Areas where ecological and human risk concerns may overlap are identified

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in selected species of fish and prawn form northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, P.; Kadam, A.N.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    of the method was in he range of 36.9-78.5% for 1-10 mu g.g/1, wet wt chrysene concentrations. The levels observed were low ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 mu g.g/1 (wet wt, chrysene equivalent units). The most abundant species Johnius glaucus and Coilia dussumieri...

  1. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  2. Origin and in situ concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Schleicher, Anja M.; Horiguchi, Keika; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exp. 319 of IODP was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud gas monitoring. • Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud. • Chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. • Absolute CH 4 concentrations in the formation reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment . - Abstract: NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud circulation through a riser. Drilling mud was pumped through the drill string and returned to the drill ship through the riser pipe during drilling of hole C0009A from 703 to 1604 mbsf (meter below sea floor) and hole enlargement from 703 to 1569 mbsf. During riser drilling, gas from returning drilling mud was continuously extracted, sampled and analyzed in real time to reveal information on the gas composition and gas concentrations at depth. Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud and reached up to 14 vol.% of methane and 48 ppmv of ethane. The chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. Hydrocarbons released from drilling mud and cuttings correlate with visible allochthonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. At greater depth, addition of small but increasing amounts of hydrocarbons probably from low-temperature thermal degradation of organic matter is indicated. The methane content is also tightly correlated with several intervals of low Poisson’s ratio from Vp/Vs observed in sonic velocity logs, suggesting that the gas is situated in the pore space of the rock as free gas. The gas concentrations in the formation, determined from drilling mud gas monitoring, reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment for methane in hole C0009A, in line with gas concentrations from interpreted downhole sonic logs

  3. Common variants in the TPH2 promoter confer susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Chen; Lu, Weihong; Song, Lisheng; Liu, Dentang; Xu, Yifeng; Fang, Yiru

    2012-07-01

    Serotonergic system-related genes may be good candidates in investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Our previous study suggested that promoter region of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2) may confer the susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether common variants within TPH2 promoter may predispose to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 509 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and 510 matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. Five polymorphisms within TPH2 promoter region were tested. No statistically significant differences were found in allele or genotype frequencies between schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. The frequency of the rs4448731T-rs6582071A-rs7963803A-rs4570625T-rs11178997A haplotype was significantly higher in cases compared to the controls (P = 0.003; OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15-1.95). Our results suggest that the common variants within TPH2 promoter are associated with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to elucidate the role of TPH2 in the etiology of paranoid schizophrenia.

  4. Partnership in an application of RBCA: Case study for quantitative assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Shepherd, D.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) was successfully applied at a site contaminated with weathered Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) from a past release of Diesel Fuel No. 2. In partnership with the state regulatory agency, an approach was developed to assess the toxicity of TPH by the evaluation of its individual classes/constituents. Historically, assessments of petroleum product releases have focused solely on TPH as an analytical parameter and not its individual fractions and/or constituents which represent the actual toxicity of the released product. Soil and groundwater TPH data by Modified California Method 8015 (GC/MS) were reviewed. Based on analytical standards, typical Diesel Fuel No. 2 carbon ranges/fractions were identified. In addition, site-specific carbon-chain lengths were identified based on the aforementioned standard. In consultation with state regulators and according to state draft RBCA guidance, site-specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three TPH carbon-range fractions were identified as constituents of concern. In order to quantify the three TPH fractions, appropriate toxicological surrogates were identified. Site-specific exposures to potential human and ecological receptors were evaluated in close consultation with the state regulators. Limited contaminant fate and transport analysis was conducted. Subsequently, complete exposure pathways were quantified

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations across the Florida Panhandle continental shelf and slope after the BP MC 252 well failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Richard A.; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick; Moss, Joseph A.; Amick, Lauren; Carruth, Rebecca; Head, Marie; Marks, Joel; Tominack, Sarah; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The R/V Bellows, Florida Institute of Oceanography (FIO), with faculty and students from the University of West Florida (UWF), sampling mats of oil floating over the continental shelf south of Pensacola Florida during the BP MC 252 well failure. PAH concentrations in sediments on the shelf declined over time after the well was capped with a half life of ∼200 days. - Highlights: • PAHs concentrations were highest in slope sediments near the failed well site. • PAH concentrations in the shelf sediments were highest during the oil spill. • PAHs concentrations declined over time since the spill. - Abstract: The Florida Panhandle continental shelf environment was exposed to oil from the BP oil well failure in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Floating mats of oil were documented by satellite, but the distribution of dissolved components of the oil in this region was unknown. Shipek® grab samples of sediments were taken during repeated cruises between June 2010 and June 2012 to test for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of this contamination. Sediments were collected as composite samples, extracted using standard techniques, and PAHs were quantified by GC/MS-SIM. PAHs in samples from the continental slope in May 2011 were highest near to the failed well site and were reduced in samples taken one year later. PAHs from continental shelf sediments during the spill (June 2010) ranged from 10 to 165 ng g −1 . Subsequent cruises yielded variable and reduced amounts of PAHs across the shelf. The data suggest that PAHs were distributed widely across the shelf, and their subsequent loss to background levels suggests these compounds were of oil spill origin. PAH half-life estimates by regression were 70–122 days for slope and 201 days for shelf stations

  6. Effect of 'PC Game Room' use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on plasma testosterone concentrations in young male Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heon; Kang, Jong-Won; Ku, Seung-Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Cho, Soo-Hun; Koong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2005-03-01

    'PC Game Rooms' were first popularized in Korea, although the concept is now becoming popular worldwide. PC Game Rooms provide users with high-performance PC connected to the high-speed internet, and access to computer games. However, PC Game Room users are exposed to various hazardous agents such as cigarette smoke in a confined environment, and thus it is likely that excessive PC Game Room use involves abnormal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as being associated with disturbed sleep or circadian rhythm. In this cross-sectional study, the exposure to PAH was evaluated by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol. The correlations between PC Game Room use and PAH exposure and plasma testosterone and LH levels were analysed in 208 young male Koreans. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations increased (P = 0.0001) and plasma testosterone levels decreased (P = 0.0153) significantly with increased duration of PC Game Room use. Correlation analysis showed that plasma testosterone concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with urinary 1-OHP (r = -0.22, P = 0.0012) and 2-naphthol (r = -0.15, P = 0.0308) concentrations. Moreover, these associations persisted after adjusting for other independent variables. However, the duration of PC Game Room use itself was not found to be an independent significant determinant of plasma testosterone level. Rather, PC Game Room use increased PAH exposure, which decreased plasma testosterone level. The younger age group (15-19 years) showed a more prominent decrease in plasma testosterone concentrations with increasing duration of PC Game Room use than the older age group (20-24 years) (r2 = 0.355, P = 0.0301 versus r2 = 0.213, P = 0.0001). These results imply that the excessive use of PC Game Rooms is related to an adverse impact on sex hormonal status in young male Koreans via PAH exposure. This effect was more prominent in the younger age group.

  7. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  8. Filamentous fungi remove weathered hydrocarbons from polluted soil of tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ-ARMENDÁRIZ, Beatriz; MARTÍNEZ-CARRERA, Daniel; CALIXTO-MOSQUEDA, María; ALBA, Joel; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, Refugio

    2010-01-01

    Weathered hydrocarbons from worldwide petrolic activities become more recalcitrant over time. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from a polluted soil [65,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)/kg soil], which had been exposed to tropical environmental conditions for more than 20 years in southeast Mexico, was studied using filamentous fungi. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors (60 mL) containing a substrate consisting of polluted soil and sugar cane bagasse pith as bulk agent...

  9. The influence of PAH concentration and distribution on real-time in situ measurements of petroleum products in soils using laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, G.S.; Lieberman, S.H.; McGinnis, W.C.; Knowles, D.; Peven, C.

    1995-01-01

    Real-time laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in situ measurements of soil samples provide a reliable and cost-effective screening tool for hydrocarbon site assessments. The site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS), is a truck-mounted cone penetrometer probe modified with a sapphire window and connected to a laser by fiber optics. The pulsed nitrogen laser 337-nm excitation source induces fluorescence in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are present in petroleum products. The fluorescence response of these compounds is measured with a fluorometer. The SCAPS can provide continuous hydrocarbon screening measurements to soil depths greater than 100 feet. Discrete soil samples collected from the SCAPS boreholes were extracted and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID), and 16 parent and over 100 alkyl substituted PAH compounds by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS). This method provides a basis for evaluating the relationship between TPH and PAH concentrations in the soil samples and laser induced fluorescence measurements from the soil borings

  10. Evidence for large average concentrations of the nitrate radical (NO3) in Western Europe from the HANSA hydrocarbon database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penkett, S.A.; Burgess, R.A.; Coe, H.; Coll, I.; Hov, O.; Lindskog, A.; Schmidbauer, N.; Solberg, S.; Roemer, M.; Thijsse, T.; Beck, J.; Reeves, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    The nitrate radical (NO3) was first measured in the atmosphere in the 1970s and suggestions were made that it could play a major role in oxidising many unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as those emitted from the biosphere. Analysis of the hydrocarbon mix over the North Atlantic Ocean suggested

  11. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g -1  dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10 -6 -2.11 × 10 -5 and 9.08 × 10 -6 -4.50 × 10 -3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  12. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  13. Phytoremediation of a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated shallow aquifer in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Cook, Rachel L.; Landmeyer, James E.; Atkinson, Brad; Malone, Donald R.; Shaw, George; Woods, Leilani

    2014-01-01

    A former bulk fuel terminal in North Carolina is a groundwater phytoremediation demonstration site where 3,250 hybrid poplars, willows, and pine trees were planted from 2006 to 2008 over approximately 579,000 L of residual gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Since 2011, the groundwater altitude is lower in the area with trees than outside the planted area. Soil-gas analyses showed a 95 percent mass loss for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and a 99 percent mass loss for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX and methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations have decreased in groundwater. Interpolations of free-phase, fuel product gauging data show reduced thicknesses across the site and pooling of fuel product where poplar biomass is greatest. Isolated clusters of tree mortalities have persisted in areas with high TPH and BTEX mass. Toxicity assays showed impaired water use for willows and poplars exposed to the site's fuel product, but Populus survival was higher than the willows or pines on-site, even in a noncontaminated control area. All four Populus clones survived well at the site.

  14. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  15. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  16. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive

  17. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  20. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  1. Investigation of Predictive Potential of TPH1 Common Polymorphism in Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Todorova Nikolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association studies are the predominant type of studies on genetics of the common diseases. The present case-control study aims to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682 T/A and the predisposition to idiopathic scoliosis (IS in a Bulgarian population sample. Methods: A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were included. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson's chi-squared test and the Fisher’s exact test. A value of p less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results indicated that TPH1 (rs10488682 is not associated with the susceptibility to IS, the onset of the disease, the family history or the gender. Based on these preliminary results, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a predisposing factor for IS in Bulgarian patients. Conclusions: Much larger case-control studies will be needed to examine the role of this TPH1 functional genetic variant in the etiology and pathogenesis of IS in Caucasian population. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for early detection of the predisposition among the relatives and for more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve in the affected children.

  2. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  3. Effect of various concentrations of Ti in hydrocarbon plasma polymer films on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandrovcova, Marta, E-mail: marta.vandrovcova@fgu.cas.cz [Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Grinevich, Andrey; Drabik, Martin; Kylian, Ondrej; Hanus, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Stankova, Lubica; Lisa, Vera [Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bacakova, Lucie [Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with Ti in concentration of 0–20 at.% were prepared. • The Ti concentration was positively correlated with the material surface wettability. • The optimum Ti concentrations for the MG-63 cells behavior were identified. • The Ti concentration also influenced the cell immune activation. - Abstract: Hydrocarbon polymer films (ppCH) enriched with various concentrations of titanium were deposited on microscopic glass slides by magnetron sputtering from a Ti target. The maximum concentration of Ti (about 20 at.%) was achieved in a pure argon atmosphere. The concentration of Ti decreased rapidly after n-hexane vapors were introduced into the plasma discharge, and reached zero values at n-hexane flow of 0.66 sccm. The decrease in Ti concentration was associated with decreasing oxygen and titanium carbide concentration in the films, decreasing wettability (the water drop contact angle increased from 20° to 91°) and decreasing root-mean-square roughness (from 3.3 nm to 1.0 nm). The human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on pure ppCH films and on films with 20 at.% of Ti showed relatively high concentrations of ICAM-1, a marker of cell immune activation. Lower concentrations of Ti (mainly 5 at.%) improved cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation, as revealed by higher concentrations of talin, vinculin and osteocalcin. Higher Ti concentrations (15 at.%) supported cell growth, as indicated by the highest final cell population densities on day 7 after seeding. Thus, enrichment of ppCH films with appropriate concentrations of Ti makes these films more suitable for potential coatings of bone implants.

  4. Generation of a Tph2 Conditional Knockout Mouse Line for Time- and Tissue-Specific Depletion of Brain Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliarini, Sara; Pacini, Giulia; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin has been gaining increasing attention during the last two decades due to the dual function of this monoamine as key regulator during critical developmental events and as neurotransmitter. Importantly, unbalanced serotonergic levels during critical temporal phases might contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite increasing evidences from both animal models and human genetic studies have underpinned the importance of serotonin homeostasis maintenance during central nervous system development and adulthood, the precise role of this molecule in time-specific activities is only beginning to be elucidated. Serotonin synthesis is a 2-step process, the first step of which is mediated by the rate-limiting activity of Tph enzymes, belonging to the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and existing in two isoforms, Tph1 and Tph2, responsible for the production of peripheral and brain serotonin, respectively. In the present study, we generated and validated a conditional knockout mouse line, Tph2 flox/flox, in which brain serotonin can be effectively ablated with time specificity. We demonstrated that the Cre-mediated excision of the third exon of Tph2 gene results in the production of a Tph2 null allele in which we observed the near-complete loss of brain serotonin, as well as the growth defects and perinatal lethality observed in serotonin conventional knockouts. We also revealed that in mice harbouring the Tph2 null allele, but not in wild-types, two distinct Tph2 mRNA isoforms are present, namely Tph2Δ3 and Tph2Δ3Δ4, with the latter showing an in-frame deletion of amino acids 84–178 and coding a protein that could potentially retain non-negligible enzymatic activity. As we could not detect Tph1 expression in the raphe, we made the hypothesis that the Tph2Δ3Δ4 isoform can be at the origin of the residual, sub-threshold amount of serotonin detected in the brain of Tph2 null/null mice. Finally, we set

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  6. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  7. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  8. A passive air sampler for characterizing the vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuzhong; Deng Shuxing; Liu Yanan; Shen Guofeng; Li Xiqing; Cao Jun; Wang Xilong; Reid, Brian; Tao Shu

    2011-01-01

    Air-soil exchange is an important process governing the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel passive air sampler was designed and tested for measuring the vertical concentration profile of 4 low molecular weight PAHs in gaseous phase (PAH LMW4 ) in near soil surface air. Air at various heights from 5 to 520 mm above the ground was sampled by polyurethane foam disks held in down-faced cartridges. The samplers were tested at three sites: A: an extremely contaminated site, B: a site near A, and C: a background site on a university campus. Vertical concentration gradients were revealed for PAH LMW4 within a thin layer close to soil surface at the three sites. PAH concentrations either decreased (Site A) or increased (Sites B and C) with height, suggesting either deposition to or evaporation from soils. The sampler is a useful tool for investigating air-soil exchange of gaseous phase semi-volatile organic chemicals. - Research highlights: → Design, field test and calibration of the novel passive air sampler, PAS-V-I. → Vertical concentration gradients of PAH LMW4 within a thin layer close to soil. → Comparison of results between PAS-V-I measurement and fugacity approach. → Potential application of PAS-V-I and further modifications. - A novel passive sampling device was developed and tested for measuring vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air.

  9. Treatment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils using hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by waste basic oxygen furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, T.T. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.M., E-mail: jkao@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    The contamination of subsurface soils with petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread environmental problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying waste basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) as the catalyst to enhance the Fenton-like oxidation to remediate fuel oil or diesel contaminated soils. The studied controlling factors that affect the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons included concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BOF slag dosages, types of petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., fuel oil and diesel), and types of iron mineral. Experimental results indicate that oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbon via the Fenton-like process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag. Results from the X-ray powder diffraction analysis reveal that the major iron type of BOF slag/sandy loam system was iron mineral (e.g., {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-FeOOH). Approximately 76% and 96% of fuel oil and diesel removal were observed (initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration = 10,000 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively, with the addition of 15% of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 100 g kg{sup -1} of BOF slag after 40 h of reaction. Because BOF slag contains extractable irons such as amorphous iron and soluble iron, it can act as an iron sink to supply iron continuously for Fenton-like oxidation. Results demonstrate that Fenton-like oxidation catalyzed by BOF slag is a potential method to be able to remediate petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils efficiently and effectively.

  10. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M.; Hill, Anita J.; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The response of a polymer coated QCM sensor is affected by water soaking time. → Polymer-water interfacial processes influence the QCM sensitivity for hydrocarbons. → The QCM sensitivity of high Tg polymer films is affected by plasticization processes. - Abstract: Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible

  11. Spartial and seasonal variations in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of Kisumu City bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, Bowa O; Lalah, Joseph O; Shem, Wandiga O

    2009-11-01

    Seasonal and offshore concentration variations for selected sixteen priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, have been investigated. PAHs concentrations in sediments and water range from 0.4 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the PAHs concentrations showed that the most contaminated samples are found during rainy season (April, 2006), 5 m offshore for sediments and 10 m offshore for water. Dry season (October, 2005) generally recorded lower concentrations. The variations showed significant difference (p < or = 0.05) with season and distance of sampling from the shore.

  12. Polymorphism screening and haplotype analysis of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH1 and association with bipolar affective disorder in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Mei J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in serotonin neurotransmission are implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (BPD. The tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH, which codes for the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in serotonin biosynthetic pathway, is one of the leading candidate genes for psychiatric and behavioral disorders. In a preliminary study, we found that TPH1 intron7 A218C polymorphism was associated with BPD. This study was designed to investigate sequence variants of the TPH1 gene in Taiwanese and to test whether the TPH1 gene is a susceptibility factor for the BPD. Methods Using a systematic approach, we have searched the exons and promoter region of the TPH1 gene for sequence variants in Taiwanese Han and have identified five variants, A-1067G, G-347T, T3804A, C27224T, and A27237G. These five variants plus another five taken from the literature and a public database were examined for an association in 108 BPD patients and 103 controls; no association was detected for any of the 10 variants. Results Haplotype constructions using these 10 SNPs showed that the 3 most common haplotypes in both patients and controls were identical. One of the fourth common haplotype in the patient group (i.e. GGGAGACCCA was unique and showed a trend of significance with the disease (P = 0.028. However, the significance was abolished after Bonferroni correction thus suggesting the association is weak. In addition, three haplotype-tagged SNPs (htSNPs were selected to represent all haplotypes with frequencies larger than 2% in the Taiwanese Han population. The defined TPH1 htSNPs significantly reduce the marker number for haplotype analysis thus provides useful information for future association studies in our population. Conclusion Results of this study did not support the role of TPH1 gene in BPD etiology. As the current studies found the TPH1 gene under investigation belongs to the peripheral

  13. Analytical evaluation of BEA zeolite for the pre-concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent chromatographic analysis in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Costa, Andréia A; Wang, Huiyong; Dias, José A; Dias, Sílvia C L; Campiglia, Andres D

    2012-07-06

    The analytical performance of BEA - a commercial zeolite - is evaluated for the pre-concentration of fifteen Environmental Protection Agency - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent HPLC analysis in tap and lake water samples. The pre-concentration factors obtained with BEA have led to a method with excellent analytical figures of merit. One milliliter aliquots were sufficient to obtain excellent precision of measurements at the parts-per-trillion concentration level with relative standard deviations varying from 4.1% (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene) to 13.4% (pyrene). The limits of detection were excellent as well and varied between 1.1 (anthracene) and 49.9 ng L(-1) (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene). The recovery values of all the studied compounds meet the criterion for regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which mandates relative standard deviations equal or lower than 25%. The small volume of organic solvents (100 μL per sample) and amount of BEA (2 mg per sample) makes sample pre-concentration environmentally friendly and cost effective. The extraction procedure is well suited for numerous samples as the small working volume (1 mL) facilitates the implementation of simultaneous sample extraction. These are attractive features when routine monitoring of numerous samples is contemplated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of various concentrations of Ti in hydrocarbon plasma polymer films on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrovcova, Marta; Grinevich, Andrey; Drabik, Martin; Kylian, Ondrej; Hanus, Jan; Stankova, Lubica; Lisa, Vera; Choukourov, Andrei; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer films (ppCH) enriched with various concentrations of titanium were deposited on microscopic glass slides by magnetron sputtering from a Ti target. The maximum concentration of Ti (about 20 at.%) was achieved in a pure argon atmosphere. The concentration of Ti decreased rapidly after n-hexane vapors were introduced into the plasma discharge, and reached zero values at n-hexane flow of 0.66 sccm. The decrease in Ti concentration was associated with decreasing oxygen and titanium carbide concentration in the films, decreasing wettability (the water drop contact angle increased from 20° to 91°) and decreasing root-mean-square roughness (from 3.3 nm to 1.0 nm). The human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on pure ppCH films and on films with 20 at.% of Ti showed relatively high concentrations of ICAM-1, a marker of cell immune activation. Lower concentrations of Ti (mainly 5 at.%) improved cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation, as revealed by higher concentrations of talin, vinculin and osteocalcin. Higher Ti concentrations (15 at.%) supported cell growth, as indicated by the highest final cell population densities on day 7 after seeding. Thus, enrichment of ppCH films with appropriate concentrations of Ti makes these films more suitable for potential coatings of bone implants.

  15. Heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediments and tissue of Cyclope neritea from two sites in Suez Canal, Egypt and histopathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Hesham M; Shehata, Abdalla M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and hydrocarbons are of the most common marine pollutants around the world. The present study aimed to assess the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in tissues of the snail cyclope neritea, water and sediments from two sites of the study area (Temsah lake and Suez canal) represent polluted and unpolluted sites respectively. The results showed that, the levels of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Mg and Zn) in the polluted area have reached harmful limits recorded globally. Lead in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached to 0.95 ppm, 4.54 ppm and 7.93 ppm respectively. Cadmium reached 0.31 ppm, 1.15 ppm and 3.08 ppm in the corresponding samples. Cobalt was not detected in water, but it reached 1.42 ppm and 10.36 ppm in the sediment and snails tissue respectively. Magnesium in water, sediment and tissue of the snail reached 3.73 ppm, 9.44 ppm and12.6 ppm respectively. Zinc reached 0.11 ppm, 3.89 ppm and 12.60ppm in the corresponding samples. Meanwhile, hydrocarbons in the polluted area (site1) reached 110.10 μg/L, 980.15 μg/g and 228.00 μg/g in water sediment and digestive gland tissues of the snails respectively. Whereas, hydrocarbons in the unpolluted area (site2) were estimated as 14.20 μg/L, 55.60 μg/g and 22.66 μg/g in water, sediment and tissue of the snails respectively. The combination of histopathological image with monitoring of the metal level in the digestive gland of the present snail provides an important tool for early detection of impending environmental problems and potential public health issues. Petroleum hydrocarbons are toxic to the marine fauna when present above certain limit in the marine water. The major detoxification organ in molluscs is the digestive gland, which has been used as a bioindicator organ for toxicity assessment. The effect of high crude oil on the digestive gland tubules of exposed snails when examined microscopically reveals a series of histological changes which indicates that the

  16. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) Metabolite Concentrations and the Effect of GST Polymorphisms Among US Air Force Personnel Exposed to Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ema G.; Smith, Kristen; Maule, Alexis L.; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Kelsey, Karl; Proctor, Susan; McClean, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) and urinary metabolites among US Air Force (USAF) personnel, and investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Methods Personal air samples were collected from 37 full-time USAF personnel during 4 consecutive workdays and analyzed for JP-8 constituents and total hydrocarbons. Pre- and postshift urine samples were collected each day and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon urinary metabolites. Results Work shift exposure to total hydrocarbons was significantly associated with postshift urinary 1-naphthol (β = 0.17; P = <0.0001), 2-naphthol (β = 0.09; P = 0.005), and 2-hydroxyfluorene concentrations (β = 0.08; P = 0.006), and a significant gene-environment interaction was observed with glutathione S-transferase mu-1. Conclusions USAF personnel experience inhalation exposure to JP-8, which is associated with absorption of JP-8 constituents while performing typical job-related tasks, and in our data the glutathione S-transferase mu-1 polymorphism was associated with differential metabolism of naphthalene. PMID:24806557

  17. CFG-7-P3 : potential of aggregate-associated biodegradation of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon fractions in crude-oil contaminated soils from a northern Canadian site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.; Snelgrove, J.; Akbari, A.; Ghoshal, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2010-07-01

    Soil aggregation can limit aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation rates due to the slower intra-pore diffusion of nutrients, oxygen and hydrocarbons. This study investigated the influence of soil aggregation at a pilot-scale biopile of crude oil-contaminated soil shipped from a site in the Northwest Territories. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity of the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria through soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a tank maintained at 15 degrees C. Results showed that nutrient amendment significantly enhanced aggregation. After 60 days, approximately 50 per cent of the initial total hydrocarbon productivity (TPH) was reduced in both the treated and untreated biopile. However, a TPH analysis of soil aggregate levels showed that the biodegradation of high weight hydrocarbon fractions in macroaggregates was more significantly reduced in the nutrient-amended soils. Results suggested that the soil particles in the macroaggregates were more loosely clustered, and may have supported enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  18. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter – Exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. - Highlights: • Urban tree-cover increases gaseous PAH concentrations during summertime. • Elevated PAH concentrations do not clearly correspond with vegetation properties. • Tree-cover attenuates seasonal PAH concentration fluctuation. - Higher ambient gaseous PAH concentrations were detected within urban tree cover as compared to open areas during summertime.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in water and sediments of car wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwach, B O; Lalah, J O

    2009-11-01

    Mean concentrations of selected USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and water samples from Car Wash and Kisat areas of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria in Kenya have been determined using GC-FID and GC-MS. Sampling was done during the rainy season in April 2006. The PAH concentrations in sediment and water ranged from 0.04 to 31.95 microg/g dry weight and 3.32 to 55.8 microg/L, respectively, depending upon the sampling location. The total concentration levels of PAHs in both the sediment and water phase in this study were found to be much higher compared with those reported from other regions worldwide, revealing significant PAH pollution of Car Wash and Kisat areas of Kisumu city bay as a consequent of anthropogenic activities as described in the text. The GC-detected PAHs were confirmed by GC-MS.

  2. Natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons-a study of biodegradation effects in groundwater (Vitanovac, Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Nenad; Matić, Ivan; Papić, Petar; Beškoski, Vladimir P; Ilić, Mila; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Miletić, Srđan; Nikić, Zoran; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2018-01-20

    The role of natural attenuation processes in groundwater contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is of intense scientific and practical interest. This study provides insight into the biodegradation effects in groundwater at a site contaminated by kerosene (jet fuel) in 1993 (Vitanovac, Serbia). Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), hydrochemical indicators (O 2 , NO 3 - , Mn, Fe, SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - ), δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and other parameters were measured to demonstrate biodegradation effects in groundwater at the contaminated site. Due to different biodegradation mechanisms, the zone of the lowest concentrations of electron acceptors and the zone of the highest concentrations of metabolic products of biodegradation overlap. Based on the analysis of redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, redox processes ranged from strictly anoxic (methanogenesis) to oxic (oxygen reduction) within a short distance. The dependence of groundwater redox conditions on the distance from the source of contamination was observed. δ 13 C values of DIC ranged from - 15.83 to - 2.75‰, and the most positive values correspond to the zone under anaerobic and methanogenic conditions. Overall, results obtained provide clear evidence on the effects of natural attenuation processes-the activity of biodegradation mechanisms in field conditions.

  3. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  4. Increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Alpine streams during annual snowmelt: investigating effects of sampling method, site characteristics, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Alumbaugh, Robert E; Cook, Michelle E

    2014-10-07

    Silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates were used to measure time-integrated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in alpine streams during annual snowmelt. The three sampling sites were located near a main highway in Arthur's Pass National Park in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. A similar set of PAH congeners, composed of 2-4 rings, were found in silicone passive samplers and macroinvertebrates. The background PAH concentrations were similar at all sites, implying that proximity to the highway did not affect concentrations. In passive samplers, an increase of PAH concentrations by up to seven times was observed during snowmelt. In macroinvertebrates, the concentration changes were moderate; however, macroinvertebrate sampling did not occur during the main pulse observed in the passive samplers. The extent of vegetation in the catchment appeared to affect the concentration patterns seen at the different stream sites. A strong correlation was found between PAH concentrations in passive samplers and the amount of rainfall in the study area, indicating that the washout of contaminants from snowpack by rainfall was an important process.

  5. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  8. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TPH2 gene polymorphisms in the regulatory region are associated with paranoid schizophrenia in Northern Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X M; Ding, M; Pang, H; Wang, B J

    2014-03-12

    In the last years, serotonin (5-HT) has been related with the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. The rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis is tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of TPH2 gene may affect gene expression and biosynthesis of 5-HT triggering to various neuropsychiatric disorders related to 5-HT dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the TPH2 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 164 patients with schizophrenia and 244 healthy controls were genotyped for six TPH2 SNPs (rs4570625, rs11178997, rs11178998, rs41317118, rs17110747, and rs41317114). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs4570625 and in the frequencies of GTA and TTA haplotypes corresponding to rs4570625-rs11178997-rs11178998. Our findings suggest that common genetic variations of TPH2 are likely to contribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.

  10. Identification of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on concentrations in soils from two sides of the Himalayas between China and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Bi, Xiang; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang

    2016-05-01

    To understand distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Himalayas, 77 soil samples were collected from the northern side of the Himalayas, China (NSHC), and the southern side of the Himalayas, Nepal (SSHN), based on altitude, land use and possible trans-boundary transport of PAHs driven by wind from Nepal to the Tibetan Plateau, China. Soils from the SSHN had mean PAH concentration greater than those from the NSHC. Greater concentrations of PAHs in soils were mainly distributed near main roads and agricultural and urban areas. PAHs with 2-3 rings were the most abundant PAHs in the soils from the Himalayas. Concentrations of volatile PAHs were significantly and positively correlated with altitude. Simulations of trajectories of air masses indicated that distributions of soil PAH concentrations were associated with the cyclic patterns of the monsoon. PAH emissions from traffic and combustion of biomass or coal greatly contributed to concentrations of PAHs in soils from the Himalayas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column based on tissue residues in mussels and salmon: An equilibrium partitioning approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium partitioning was used to estimate concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column from PAH residues in tissues of mussels and juvenile pink salmon collected from coastal marine waters affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Estimated concentrations were within factors of 2 to 5 for fish and 5 to 10 for mussels of average total dissolved and particulate PAHs measured in concurrent water samples. Temporal trends of estimated and measured water-column PAH concentrations were comparable. Water-column PAH concentrations estimated from residues in tissues of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were higher than estimates based on residues in tissues of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Possible reasons for this difference include seasonal variations in mussel lipid content, differences in PAH uptake and depuration rates between fish and mussels, differences in how fish and mussels interact with particulate oil, and possible short exposure times for juvenile pink salmon. All of these factors may play a role. In any event, estimates of dissolved PAHs in the water column, based on PAH residues in either fish or mussel tissue, confirm that PAH concentrations generally did not exceed water quality standards for protection of marine life

  12. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  13. Risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel hydrocarbons at a major airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel-hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and ground water at a major airport in Colorado. In situ bioremediation pilot testing, natural attenuation modeling, and full-scale remedial action planning and implementation for soil and ground water contamination has conducted at four airport fuel farms. The sources of fuel contamination were leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) or pipelines transporting Jet A fuel and aviation gasoline. Continuing sources of contamination were present in several small cells of free-phase product and in fuel residuals trapped within the capillary fringe at depths 15 to 20 feet below ground surface. Bioventing pilot tests were conducted to assess the feasibility of using this technology to remediate contaminated soils. The pilot tests included measurement of initial soil gas chemistry at the site, determination of subsurface permeability, and in situ respiration tests to determine fuel biodegradation rates. A product recovery test was also conducted. ES designed and installed four full-scale bioventing systems to remediate the long-term sources of continuing fuel contamination. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected in ground water at concentrations slightly above regulatory guidelines

  14. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. - Highlights: • We compare PAH and azaarene concentrations in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealed pavement. • Concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff greatly exceeded those in asphalt-sealcoat runoff. • Decreases in azaarenes and LMW PAHs were offset by increases in HMW PAHs. • PAH concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff remained high for months after application. - Concentrations of PAHs in runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat continue to be elevated for at least 3 months following sealcoat application

  15. Comparison of concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile of fishes from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the environmental consequences of decommissioning offshore oil platforms on local and regional fish populations, contaminant loads in reproducing adults were investigated at seven platform sites and adjacent, natural sites. Specimens of three species (Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus; kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens; and kelp bass, Paralabrax clathratus) residing at platforms and representing the regional background within the Santa Barbara Channel and within the San Pedro Basin were collected. Some of the most important contaminant classes related to oil operations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. However, acute exposure cannot be related directly to PAH tissue concentrations because of rapid metabolism of the parent chemicals in fish; therefore, PAH metabolites in bile were measured, targeting free hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis of the bound PAH glucuronides and sulfates. An ion-pairing method was developed for confirmatory analysis that targeted PAH glucuronides and sulfates. Concentrations of hydroxylated PAHs in all samples (76 fish from platforms and 64 fish from natural sites) were low, ranging from less than the limits of detection (5 to 120 nanograms per milliliter bile; 0.03 to 42 nanograms per milligram protein) to a maximum of 320 nanograms per milliliter bile (32 nanograms per milligram protein). A previously proposed dosimeter of PAH exposure in fish, 1-hydroxypyrene, was not detected at any platform site. Low concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene were detected in 3 of 12 kelp rockfish collected from a natural reef site off Santa Barbara. The most prevalent OH-PAH, 2-hydroxyfluorene, was detected at low concentrations in seven fish of various species; of these, four were from two of the seven platform sites. The greatest concentrations of 2-hydroxyfluorene were found in three fish of various species from Platform Holly and were only

  16. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  18. Aquatic predicted no-effect concentration for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and probabilistic ecological risk assessment in Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Juying; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Zhen; Yao, Ziwei; Lin, Zhongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) is often used in ecological risk assessment to determine low-risk concentrations for chemicals. In the present study, native marine species were selected for toxicity testing. The PNECs for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), specifically phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were derived from chronic and acute toxicity data with log-normal statistical methods. The achieved PNECs for Phe, Pyr, and BaP were 2.33, 1.09, and 0.011 μg/L, respectively. In Jinzhou Bay and the Shuangtaizi River Estuary of Liaodong Bay in the Bohai Sea, China, the surface water concentrations of the three PAHs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on two probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) methods, namely probabilistic risk quotient and joint probability curve, the potential risk of Phe, Pyr, and BaP in Jinzhou Bay and Shuangtaizi River Estuary was assessed. The same order of ecological risk (BaP > Phe > Pyr) was found by both models. Our study considered regional characteristics of marine biota during the calculation of PNECs, and the PERA methods provided probabilities of potential ecological risks of chemicals. Within the study area, further research on BaP is required due to its high potential ecological risk.

  19. A passive air sampler for characterizing the vertical concentration profile of gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near soil surface air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Deng, Shuxing; Liu, Yanan; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Xiqing; Cao, Jun; Wang, Xilong; Reid, Brian; Tao, Shu

    2011-03-01

    Air-soil exchange is an important process governing the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A novel passive air sampler was designed and tested for measuring the vertical concentration profile of 4 low molecular weight PAHs in gaseous phase (PAH(LMW4)) in near soil surface air. Air at various heights from 5 to 520 mm above the ground was sampled by polyurethane foam disks held in down-faced cartridges. The samplers were tested at three sites: A: an extremely contaminated site, B: a site near A, and C: a background site on a university campus. Vertical concentration gradients were revealed for PAH(LMW4) within a thin layer close to soil surface at the three sites. PAH concentrations either decreased (Site A) or increased (Sites B and C) with height, suggesting either deposition to or evaporation from soils. The sampler is a useful tool for investigating air-soil exchange of gaseous phase semi-volatile organic chemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuvmani Patowary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1 and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and Bacillus cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH after five weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m-3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m-3) compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend) on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at

  2. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  3. Uraniferous concentrations in the Francevillian of Gabon: their association with fossil hydrocarbon-bearing ore deposits of the lower Proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Weber, Francis

    1981-01-01

    The Francevillian U deposits of Gabon are located in one of the oldest non metamorphic sedimentary series of the Lower Proterozoic 2150 M.Y. old. The uraniferous mineralization 2050 M.Y. old is strongly related to organic matter concentrated in oil-bearing structures after migration. No geological event remobilized the mineralizations since their settling [fr

  4. [The association of polymorphisms in SLC18A1, TPH1 and RELN genes with risk of paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionova, D Iu; Gareeva, A E; Khusnutdinova, E K; Nasedkina, T V

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a biochip for the analysis of polymorphisms in candidate genes for schizophrenia: DISC1, RELN, ZNF804A, PLXNA2, COMT, SLC18A41, CACNA1C, ANK3, TPH1, PLAA and SNAP-25. Using biochip the allele and genotype frequencies in 198 patients with schizophrenia and 192 healthy individuals have been obtained. For SLC18A1 polymorphism rs2270641 A>C, the frequencies of A allele (p = 0.007) and AA genotype (p = 0.002) were lower in patients compared with healthy individuals. A significant association was found between AA genotype (p = 0.036) of the TPH1 polymorphism rs1800532 C>A and schizophrenia. The C allele (p = 0.039) of the RELNpolymorphism rs7341475 C>T were lower in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy individuals in a tatar population. Genotype AA of the TPH1 polymorphism rs1800532 C>A were more frequent in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy individuals. Ithas been shown that the C allele (p = 0.0001) and GC (p = = 0.0001) genotype of the PLXNA2 polymorphism rs1327175 G>C are associated with the family history in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. The obtained data suggest that SLC18A1, TPH1 and RELN gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of paranoid schizophrenia.

  5. Concentration, distribution and source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the southeast suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shucai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kaiyan; Shen, Yating; Hu, Lianwu; Wang, Xuejun

    2009-04-01

    Total suspended particle samples and gas phase samples were collected at three representative sampling sites in the southeastern suburb of Beijing from March 2005 to January 2006. The samples were analyzed for 16 US EPA priority PAHs using GC/MS. Concentrations of Sigma PAHs in particle and gas phases were 0.21-1.18 x 10(3) ng m(-3) and 9.5 x 10(2) ng-1.03 x 10(5) ng m(-3), respectively. PAH concentrations displayed seasonal variation in the order of winter>spring>autumn>summer for particle phase, and winter>autumn>summer>spring for gas phase. Partial correlation analysis indicates that PAH concentrations in particle phase are negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with air pollution index of SO(2). No significant correlation is observed between gas phase PAHs and the auxiliary parameters. Sources of PAH are identified through principal component analysis, and source contributions are estimated through multiple linear regression. Major sources of atmospheric PAHs in the study area include coal combustion, coke industry, vehicular emission and natural gas combustion.

  6. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l -1 to 8 mg TPH l -1 . Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  7. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  9. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifei Zhang; Liang Dong; Lijun Ren; Shuangxin Shi; Li Zhou; Ting Zhang; Yeru Huang

    2012-01-01

    The pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the surface water of the rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta region was investigated.Fourteen surface water samples were collected in June 2010.Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Concentrations of PAHs and PAEs ranged 12.9-638.1 ng/L and 61-28550 ng/L,respectively.Fluoranthene,naphthalene,pyrene,phenanthrene,di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate,and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant compounds in the samples.The water samples were moderately Polluted with benzo[a]pyrene according to China's environmental quality standard for surface water.The two highest concentrations of PAHs and PAEs occurred in samples from Taihu Lake,Wuxi City and the western section of Yangchenghu Lake.Potential sources of Pollution at S7 were petroleum combustion and the plastics industry,and at Yangchenghu Lake were petroleum combustion and domestic waste.Pollution in samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal originated from diesel engines.There were no obvious sources of pollution for the other water samples.These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs of pollution from PAHs and PAEs.

  10. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-02

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  11. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  12. Association of regulatory TPH2 polymorphisms with higher reduction in depressive symptoms in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó, Patricia; Rodríguez, Natalia; Boloc, Daniel; Blázquez, Ana; Torres, Teresa; Gortat, Ana; Plana, Maria Teresa; Lafuente, Amalia; Mas, Sergi; Arnaiz, Joan Albert; Lázaro, Luisa

    2017-07-03

    Genetic variability related to the brain serotonergic system has a significant impact on both the susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), and the response to antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. TPH2 is one of the most important serotonergic candidate genes in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) pharmacogenetic studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of regulatory polymorphisms that are specifically located in human TPH2 transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), and therefore could be functional by altering gene expression, on clinical improvement in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine. The selection of SNPs was also based on their linkage disequilibrium with TPH2 rs4570625, a genetic variant with questionable functionality, which was previously associated with clinical response in our pediatric population. A total of 83 children and adolescents were clinically evaluated 12weeks after initiating antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine for the first time. Clinical improvement was assessed by reductions in depressive symptoms measured using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) scale. The polymorphisms rs11179002, rs60032326 and rs34517220 were, for the first time in the literature, significantly associated with higher clinical improvement. The strongest association was found for rs34517220. In particular, minor allele homozygotes showed higher score reductions on the CDI scale compared with the major allele carriers. Interestingly, this polymorphism is located in a human TPH2 TFBS for two relevant transcription factors in the serotoninergic neurons, Foxa1 and Foxa2, which together with the high level of significance found for this SNP, could indicate that rs34517220 is in fact the crucial functional genetic variant related to the fluoxetine response. These results provide new evidence for the role of regulatory genetic variants that could modulate human TPH2

  13. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. Seasonality of 7Be concentrations in Europe and influence of tropopause height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Hernández-Ceballos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analysing the latitudinal variability of both the yearly and seasonal pattern of 7Be surface activity concentrations, at addressing the impact of tropopause height (TPH on 7Be distribution and at evaluating the time lag between TPH and 7Be at European level. With this aim, weekly 7Be and daily TPH data at 17 sampling stations during 10 yr (2001–2010 are analysed. 7Be shows a clear increasing tendency in the period and generally tends to increase with decreasing latitude. The seasonal pattern generally shows maxima during the warm period and minima during the cold one. The seasonal variogram analysis points out a good spatial correlation for TPH data while a weaker one is observed for 7Be, having TPH a larger influence on 7Be during summer. The influence of TPH on 7Be exhibits a large spatial variability, with a clear gap between south and north in the area of the polar front jet. The results identify the presence of two main groups, in particular separating between stations located in northern Europe (50 °N and higher and stations in southern Europe (south of 50 °N. A similar behaviour for stations located in the same geographical area is also observed when looking at the day of maximum impact of TPH on 7Be concentrations. The results suggest that 7Be concentrations respond in different time ranges to changes in the TPH, observing seasonal differences in each group. These results represent the first European approach to the understanding of the TPH impact on 7Be concentrations at surface levels.

  15. Adsorption and desorption of hydrocarbons at low concentrations. Progress report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, R.

    1985-01-01

    Research accomplishments during the report period include the following: (1) Measurements of the transmission of argon on activated carbon at 0 and 40 0 C, and extraction of the longitudinal and solid-phase diffusion coefficients by the moment-analysis method. (2) Design of an experiment to measure the transmission of radioactive argon-41 at the 2 megawatt research reactor at University of Michigan. (3) Measurements of the transmission of radioactive argon-41 on activated carbon at 0 0 C. (4) Derivations of expressions for the steady-state transmission and the first-order moment of a transmission curve for a step-function increase in the input concentration of an adsorbate flowing through an adsorber bed characterized by both solid- and gas-phase diffusion, mass-transfer resistance, and a first-order chemical reaction. (5) Analysis of the transmission of three binary mixtures (viz., propane and n-butane at 0 and 25 0 C, and n-butane and 1,3-butadiene at 25 0 C) on cross-linked polystyrene

  16. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable.

  17. Concentration and Risk Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soil in the Typical Semi-Arid City of Xi’an in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wenjuan; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, presenting potential threats to the ecological environment and human health. Sixty-two urban soil samples were collected in the typical semi-arid city of Xi’an in Northwest China. They were analyzed for concentration, pollution, and ecological and health risk of sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs. The total concentrations of the sixteen PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in the urban soil ranged from 390.6 to 10,652.8 µg/kg with an average of 2052.6 µg/kg. The concentrations of some individual PAHs in the urban soil exceeded Dutch Target Values of Soil Quality and the Σ16PAHs represented heavy pollution. Pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene had high ecological risk to aquatic/soil organisms, while other individual PAHs showed low ecological risk. The total ecological risk of PAHs to aquatic/soil organisms is classified as moderate. Toxic equivalency quantities (TEQs) of the sixteen PAHs varied between 21.16 and 1625.78 µg/kg, with an average of 423.86 µg/kg, indicating a relatively high toxicity potential. Ingestion and dermal adsorption of soil dust were major pathways of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of human exposure to PAHs were 2.86 × 10−5 for children and 2.53 × 10−5 for adults, suggesting that the cancer risk of human exposure to PAHs from urban soil is acceptable. PMID:29584654

  18. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposing Fungi Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to obtain the isolates of soil borne fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere which were capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. The soil samples were collected from South Sumatra mangrove forest which was contaminated by petroleum. The isolates obtained were selected based on their ability to survive, to grow and to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in medium containing petroleum residue. There were 3 isolates of soil borne hydrocarbonoclastic fungi which were able to degrade petroleum in vitro. The 3 isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigates, A. parasiticus, and Chrysonilia sitophila. C. sitophila was the best isolate to decrease total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH from medium containing 5-20% petroleum residue.

  19. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  20. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [de

  1. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  2. Thermal soil desorption for total petroleum hydrocarbon testing on gas chromatographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, J.

    1995-01-01

    Testing for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is one of the most common analytical tests today. A recent development in chromatography incorporates Thermal Soil Desorption technology to enable analyses of unprepared soil samples for volatiles such as BTEX components and semi-volatiles such as diesel, PCBs, PAHs and pesticides in the same chromatogram, while in the field. A gas chromatograph is the preferred method for determining TPH because the column in a GC separates the individual hydrocarbons compounds such as benzene and toluene from each other and measures each individually. A GC analysis will determine not only the total amount of hydrocarbon, but also whether it is gasoline, diesel or another compound. TPH analysis with a GC is typically conducted with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Extensive field and laboratory testing has shown that incorporation of a Thermal Soil Desorber offers many benefits over traditional analytical testing methods such as Headspace, Solvent Extraction, and Purge and Trap. This paper presents the process of implementing Thermal Soil Desorption in gas chromatography, including procedures for, and advantages of faster testing and analysis times, concurrent volatile and semi-volatile analysis, minimized sample manipulation, single gas (H 2 ) operation, and detection to the part-per billion levels

  3. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons using combined in-vessel composting ‎and oxidation by activated persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Asgari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated the efficiency of activated persulfate and ‎in-vessel composting for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons. ‎Remediation by activated persulfate with ferrous sulfate as pre-treatment was done at batch system. In the chemical oxidation, various variables including persulfate concentrations (10-3000 mg/g as waste, pH (3-7, ferrous sulfate (0.5-4 mg/g as wasteand temperature (20-60°C were studied. In the biological system, premature compost was added as an amendment. The filter cake to compost ratio were 1:0 (as control and 1:5 to 15 (as dry basis. C: N: P ratio and moisture content were 100:5:1 and 45-60%, respectively. The results showed that acidic pH (pH=3 had high efficiency for the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons by activated persulfate. Temperature had the significant effect during the persulfate oxidation. When ferrous sulfate was used as an activator for degradation at acidic condition and 60°C, removal efficiency increased to 47.32%. The results of biological process showed that the minimum total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in all reactors was 62 percent. The maximum and minimum removal efficiency was obtained at 1:5 (69.46% and 1:10 (62.42% mixing ratios, respectively. Kinetic study showed that second order kinetic model (R2>0.81 shows the best agreement with the experimental data and the rate of TPH degradation at low mixing ratio (1:3 was faster than high mixing ratio (1:15. Therefore, according to the results, in-vessel composting after pre-treatment by activated persulfate is suggested as an efficient process for degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  6. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were school in Xi'an. Indoor pollutants were mostly influenced by outdoor air. Biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission were main sources for PAHs. Secondary formation was the main source for OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks assessment of PAHs showed there were potential health risks for students during sampling time.

  8. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ching Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surrogates to assess hazard or risk of exposure to the whole fractions. Membership in a TPH fraction is generally defined by the number of carbon atoms in a compound and by a compound's equivalent carbon (EC number index, which can predict its environmental fate. Here, we systematically and objectively re-evaluate the assignment of TPH to specific fractions using comparative molecular field analysis and hierarchical clustering. The approach is transparent and reproducible, reducing inherent reliance on judgment when toxicity information is limited. Our evaluation of membership in these fractions is highly consistent (̃80% on average across various fractions with the empirical approach of MADEP and TPHCWG. Furthermore, the results support the general methodology of mixture risk assessment to assess both cancer and noncancer risk values after the application of fractionation.

  9. Insights into microbial communities mediating the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, José A; Margesin, Rosa

    2018-05-01

    The study of microbial communities involved in soil bioremediation is important to identify the specific microbial characteristics that determine improved decontamination rates. Here, we characterized bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in terms of (i) abundance (using quantitative PCR) and (ii) taxonomic diversity and structure (using Illumina amplicon sequencing) during the bioremediation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an Alpine former military site during 15 weeks comparing biostimulation (inorganic NPK fertilization) vs. natural attenuation and considering the effect of temperature (10 vs. 20 °C). Although a considerable amount of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) loss could be attributed to natural attenuation, significantly higher TPH removal rates were obtained with NPK fertilization and at increased temperature, which were related to the stimulation of the activities of indigenous soil microorganisms. Changing structures of bacterial and fungal communities significantly explained shifts in TPH contents in both natural attenuation and biostimulation treatments at 10 and 20 °C. However, archaeal communities, in general, and changing abundances and diversities in bacterial and fungal communities did not play a decisive role on the effectiveness of soil bioremediation. Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidia classes, within bacterial community, and undescribed/novel groups, within fungal community, proved to be actively involved in TPH removal in natural attenuation and biostimulation at both temperatures.

  10. PM 10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Concentrations, source characterization and estimating their risk in urban, suburban and rural areas in Kandy, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, A. P.; Karunaratne, D. G. G. P.; Sivakanesan, R.

    2011-05-01

    Kandy, a world heritage city, is a rapidly urbanized area in Sri Lanka, with a high population density of ˜6000 hab km -2. As it is centrally located in a small valley of 26 km 2 surrounded by high mountains, emissions from the daily flow of >100,000 vehicles, most are old and poorly maintained, get stagnant over the study area with an increased emphasis on the associated health impacts. Particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be major pollutants in vehicular emissions; while PAHs account for the majority of mutagenic potency of PM. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 8 h average concentrations of ambient PM 10 PAHs at twenty sites distributed in the urban, suburban and rural Kandy. Samples on glass micro fibre filters were collected with a high volume air sampler from July/2008 to March/2009, prepared through standard procedures and analyzed for PAHs by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet visible detection. Further, the type and strength of possible anthropogenic emission sources that cause major perturbations to the atmosphere were assessed by traffic volume (24 h) counts and firewood mass burnt/d at each sampling site, with the subsequent societal impact through quantitative cancer risk assessment. The results can serve as a base set to assess the PAH sources, pollution levels and human exposure. Mean total concentrations of 16 prioritized PAHs (∑PAHs) ranged from 57.43 to 1246.12 ng m -3 with 695.94 ng m -3 in urban heavy traffic locations (U/HT), 105.55 ng m -3 in urban light traffic locations, 337.45 ng m -3 in suburban heavy traffic stations, 154.36 ng m -3 in suburban light traffic stations, 192.48 ng m -3 in rural high firewood burning area and 100.31 ng m -3 in rural low firewood burning area. The mean PM 10 concentration was 129 μg m -3 (55-221 μg m -3); which is beyond the WHO air quality standards. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon signature and the spatial variation

  11. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  13. Antidepressive-drug-induced bodyweight gain is associated with polymorphisms in genes coding for COMT and TPH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    of a single depressive episode and who were under antidepressive treatment. Weight gainers were identified based on rating with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C...... and sex. These new findings may aid the understanding of susceptibility to side effects such as weight gain during clinical antidepressive treatment....

  14. TPH2 -703G/T SNP may have important effect on susceptibility to suicidal behavior in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2009-04-30

    Serotonergic system-related genes can be good candidate genes for both major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behavior. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serotonin 2A receptor gene -1438A/G SNP (HTR2A -1438A/G), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene -703G/T SNP (TPH2 -703G/T) and serotonin 1A receptor C-1019G (HTR1A C-1019G) with suicidal behavior. One hundred and eighty one suicidal depressed patients and 143 non-suicidal depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were recruited from patients who were admitted to Korea University Ansan Hospital. One hundred seventy six normal controls were healthy volunteers who were recruited by local advertisement. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for HTR2A -1438A/G, TPH2 -703G/T and 5-HT1A C-1019G. The suicidal depressed patients were evaluated by the lethality of individual suicide attempts using Weisman and Worden's risk-rescue rating (RRR) and the Lethality Suicide Attempt Rating Scale-updated (LSARS-II). In order to assess the severity of depressive symptoms of patients, Hamilton's Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was administered. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between groups by chi(2) statistics. Association of genotype of the candidate genes with the lethality of suicidal behavior was examined with ANOVA by comparing the mean scores of LSARS and RRR according to the genotype. There were statistically significant differences in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of TPH2 -703G/T between the suicidal depressive group and the normal control group. The homozygous allele G (G/G genotype) frequency was significantly higher in suicidal depressed patients than in controls. However, no differences in either genotype distribution or in allele frequencies of HTR2A -1438A/G and HTR1A C-1019G were observed between the suicidal depressed patients, the non-suicidal depressed patients, and the normal controls. There were no differences in the

  15. Equilibrium Model for the Extraction of Am(III), Eu(III), and HNO{sub 3} into DMDOHEMA in TPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The extraction of americium(III), europium(III), and nitric acid into DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-octyl-2-[2-hexyl-oxy-ethyl]-malonamide) dissolved in TPH (a kerosene-type diluent) was studied as a function of initial nitric acid and DMDOHEMA concentrations. Nitric acid extraction can be described by the formation of three complexes, HNO{sub 3}-L{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}-L, and (HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}-L. Americium(III) extraction is best described by the formation of three complexes, Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-L{sub 4}, Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-HNO{sub 3}-L{sub 3}, and Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-(HNO{sub 3}){sub 2}-L{sub 2}. However, some deviations occur at higher nitric acid concentrations. These deviations may be explained by the simplified but questionable assumption of constant activity coefficients in the organic phase. (author)

  16. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite concentrations and the effect of GST polymorphisms among US Air Force personnel exposed to jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ema G; Smith, Kristen; Maule, Alexis L; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Kelsey, Karl; Proctor, Susan; McClean, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the association between inhalation exposure to jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) and urinary metabolites among US Air Force (USAF) personnel, and investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms. Personal air samples were collected from 37 full-time USAF personnel during 4 consecutive workdays and analyzed for JP-8 constituents and total hydrocarbons. Pre- and postshift urine samples were collected each day and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon urinary metabolites. Work shift exposure to total hydrocarbons was significantly associated with postshift urinary 1-naphthol (β = 0.17; P = inhalation exposure to JP-8, which is associated with absorption of JP-8 constituents while performing typical job-related tasks, and in our data the glutathione S-transferase mu-1 polymorphism was associated with differential metabolism of naphthalene.

  17. Bacterial community shift and hydrocarbon transformation during bioremediation of short-term petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the impact of bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (BR, added both nutrients and bacterial consortia), and natural attenuation (NA) on hydrocarbon degradation efficiency and microflora characterization during remediation of a freshly contaminated soil. After 112 days of remediation, the initial level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) (61,000 mg/kg soil) was reduced by 4.5% and 5.0% in the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Bioremediation did not significantly enhance TPH biodegradation compared to natural attenuation. The degradation of the aliphatic fraction was the most active with the degradation rate of 30.3 and 28.7 mg/kg/day by the NA and BR treatments, respectively. Soil microbial activities and counts in soil were generally greater for bioremediation than for natural attenuation. MiSeq sequencing indicated that the diversity and structure of microbial communities were affected greatly by bioremediation. In response to bioremediation treatment, Promicromonospora, Pseudomonas, Microcella, Mycobacterium, Alkanibacter, and Altererythrobacter became dominant genera in the soil. The result indicated that combining bioaugmentation with biostimulation did not improve TPH degradation, but soil microbial activities and structure of microbial communities are sensitive to bioremediation in short-term and heavily oil-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Biostimulation (Nutrients) in hydrocarbons contaminated soils by respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Erika; Roldan, Fabio; Garzon, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The biostimulation process was evaluated in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil by respirometry after amendment with inorganic compound fertilizer (ICF) (N: P: K 28:12:7) and simple inorganic salts (SIS) (NH 4 NO 3 and K 2 HPO 4 ). The soil was contaminated with oily sludge (40.000 MgTPH/Kgdw). The oxygen uptake was measured using two respirometers (HACH 2173b and OXITOP PF 600) during thirteen days (n=3). Two treatments (ICF and SIS) and three controls (abiotic, reference substance and without nutrients) were evaluated during the study. Physicochemical (pH, nutrients, and TPH) and microbiological analysis (heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms) were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each assay. Higher respiration rates were recorded in sis and without nutrient control. Results were 802.28 and 850.72- 1 d-1, MgO 2 kgps - 1d i n HACH, while in OXITOP were 936.65 and 502.05 MgO 2 Kgps respectively. These data indicate that amendment of nutrients stimulated microbial metabolism. ICF had lower respiration rates (188.18 and 139.87 MgO 2 kgps - 1d - 1 i n HACH and OXITOP, respectively) as well as counts; this could be attributed to ammonia toxicity.

  19. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  20. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bourotte

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI and in a natural one (CUNHA.The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs (ΣHPAs was 4.5 times higher in the urban area than in the natural one. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene have been detected in the soils of both areas and presented similar concentrations. Acenaphthene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds. Pyrene was twice more abundant in the soils of natural area (15 µg.kg-1 than of the urban area and fluoranthene was the dominant compound (203 µg.kg-1 in urban area (6.8 times higher than in the natural area. Some compounds of higher molecular weight, which are tracers of vehicular emissions showed significant concentrations in urban soils. Pyrene represented 79% of ΣPAHs whereas it has not been detected in natural soils. The results showed that forest soils in urban area are characterized by the accumulation of high molecular weight compounds of industrial and vehicular origin.Estudos sobre a poluição por Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (HPAs são escassos em solos tropicais e no Brasil. Um estudo foi realizado para examinar a composição, as concentrações e fontes de HPAs encontrados em Latossolos vermelho-amarelo (Oxissolos, remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo. As áreas de estudos localizaram-se em um sítio urbano (PEFI e um natural (CUNHA. A composição granulométrica, pH, teor de matéria orgânica e composição mineralógica foram determinados em amostras de solo superficial. A soma dos HPAs analisados (ΣHPAs foi 4,5 vezes mais

  1. Comparison of the Concentration Profiles of 12 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Different Sources with Monitoring Data from Prague Using a Similarity Measure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tydlitát, Vratislav; Kotlík, B.; Punčochář, Miroslav; Mikešová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 208-221 ISSN 1040-6638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : car exhausts * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) * urban atmosphere Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2010

  2. Wastewater Characterization Survey Cavalier Air Station, North Dakota (AFSPC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemenway, Doris

    1997-01-01

    ... & Grease and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations entering the waste stabilization ponds and elevated constituents at selected locations throughout the base due to a regulated state effluent permit...

  3. Effect of family structure and TPH2 G-703T on the stability of dysregulation profile throughout adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria; Bianchi, Valentina; Monzani, Dario; Beri, Silvana; Bellina, Monica; Greco, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Tesei, Alessandra; Caldirola, Daniela; Giorda, Roberto; Perna, Giampaolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-01-15

    Two different polymorphisms (TPH2 G-703T and 5-HTTLPR) involved in the serotonergic pathway have been reported to play a role, both alone and in interaction with the environment, in early and adult emotion regulation. As most of these studies are cross-sectional, we know little about the impact of these polymorphisms over time, particularly during adolescence. Because we were interested in the effects of these polymorphisms and environment (i.e., family structure) at different time-points on the emotional dysregulation profile, we performed a path analysis model in a general adolescent population sample of a five-year follow-up study. We found a high stability of Dysregulation Profile problems independently from the examined allelic variants. We also found that early family structure directly influences the levels of dysregulation problems in early adolescence, both alone and in interaction with TPH2, suggesting the presence of a gene-environment interaction effect. Furthermore, we found that in adolescents homozygous for the TPH2 G allele, the effect of the early family structure remains active during late adolescence, albeit mediated by earlier emotional problems. The high attrition rate, the use of only one source on behavioral problems of adolescents, and the focus on a single polymorphism in the investigated genes could limit the generalizability of the present results. These results suggest that early family structure could play a significant role in the development and maintenance of emotional and behavioral problems not only in early adolescence but also in late-adolescence, although this effect was mediated and moderated by behavioral and genetic variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and applications of the Petunia class II Act1/dTph1 transposable element system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerats, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Transposable genetic elements are considered to be ubiquitous. Despite this, their mutagenic capacity has been exploited in only a few species. The main plant species are maize, Antirrhinum, and Petunia. Representatives of all three major groups of class II elements, viz., hAT-, CACTA- and Mutator-like elements, have been identified in Petunia. Here we focus on the research "history" of the Petunia two-element Act1-dTph1 system and the development of its application in forward- and reverse-genetics studies.

  5. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  6. Ecopiling: A combined Phytoremediation and Passive Biopiling System for Remediating Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils at Field Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran J Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil (1613 mg Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH kg-1 soil. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilisers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and white clover (Trifolium repens was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but 1 subsample (152mg TPH kg-1 soil. The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labour and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs. The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is aesthetically pleasing.

  7. Loads Limits Values of Soils with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Vladimirescu, Andreea

    2017-04-01

    The high demand for oil and associated products as a source of energy, resulting in increased oil exploitation, producing, refining, transportation, storage, marketing and use led to high levels of environmental pollution. The optimum bioremediation variant proved to be the one in which fertilizer (potassium humate in NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides) applied in a 650 l/ha dose was used together with the Zeba absorbent in 32 kg/ha dose, where the TPH level dropped by 58% in 45 days from the pollution with 3% crude oil. Most of these areas are affected by historical pollution. Many organic contaminants may undergo an ongoing process in the soil, whereby over time contaminant become less and less subject to decomposition even though relatively can still be detected in the laboratory analyses. In Romania about 50.000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The bioremediation was the main method of rehabilitation. The Regulation on the assessment of environmental pollution, the following are presented as guide values for total oil hydrocarbons content in soil: - normal: less than 100 mg/kg; - alert values for sensitive soils: 200 mg/kg; - alert values for less sensitive soils: 1000 mg/kg; - intervention values for sensitive soils: 500 mg/kg; - intervention values for less sensitive soils: 2000 mg/kg. Researches done in laboratory monitored the effect of various concentrations of oil (under 2000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg, 7000 mg/kg, 10 000 mg/kg) on germination of wheat seeds at 5 and 7 days after seeding and (fresh and dry) biomass production after 40 days. Tree experiments were done: one with recently contaminated light oil, one with recently contaminated heavy oil and one with old contamination. After 5 days from sowing, the largest number of germinated seeds was found in the experiments with old contamination. The fewest germinated seeds was found in the experience with light oil. The experience with heavy oil showed an intermediate number of

  8. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  9. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) alternations has since long been suspected in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase; TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been...... affected individuals having attempted suicide at least once and patients with no history of suicide attempts (P = 0.84). A systematic literature review and meta-analysis support the A218C polymorphism as a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.......07-1.29). Association studies on suicide attempts are however conflicting (heterogeneity index I(2) = 0.54) and do not support the A218C/A779C polymorphisms being a susceptibility locus for suicidal behavior among individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (OR = 0.96 [0.80-1.16]). We conclude that the TPH1 A218...

  10. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  11. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  12. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  13. Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater using oil degrading bacteria and phototrophic microorganisms in rotating biological contactor: Effect of N:P ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Anal; Mukherji, Suparna

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater in bioreactors using heterotrophic microorganisms is often associated with various operational problems. In this study, a consortium of phototrophic microorganisms and a bacterium is developed on the discs of a rotating biological contactor (RBC) for treatment of wastewater containing diesel oil. The reactor was fed with oil degrading bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia and oil tolerant phototrophic microorganisms. After biofilm formation and acclimatization to 0.6% (v/v) diesel, continuous-mode operation was initiated at 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Residual diesel in the effluent was 0.003%. Advantages of this system include good total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, no soluble carbon source requirement and good settleability of biosolids. Biofilm observations revealed the predominance of B. cepacia and cyanobacteria (Phormidium, Oscillatoria and Chroococcus). The N:P ratio affected the relative dominance of the phototrophic microorganisms and bacterial culture. This ratio was a critical factor in determining the performance efficiency of the reactor. At 21 h HRT and organic loading of 27.33 g TPH/m 2 d, the N:P ratio 28.5:1 and 38:1 both yielded high and almost comparable TPH and COD removal efficiencies. This study presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries

  14. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance

  15. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H.; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m 2 . The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures

  16. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  17. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R

    2009-11-01

    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  19. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  20. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  3. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  4. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  5. Microbial metabolism and community structure in response to bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huggins, Tyler; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that electrodes in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) can potentially serve as a nonexhaustible electron acceptor for in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The deployment of BES not only eliminates aeration or supplement of electron acceptors as in contemporary bioremediation but also significantly shortens the remediation period and produces sustainable electricity. More interestingly, the study reveals that microbial metabolism and community structure distinctively respond to the bioelectrochemically enhanced remediation. Tubular BESs with carbon cloth anode (CCA) or biochar anode (BCA) were inserted into raw water saturated soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons for enhancing in situ remediation. Results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal rate almost doubled in soils close to the anode (63.5-78.7%) than that in the open circuit positive controls (37.6-43.4%) during a period of 64 days. The maximum current density from the BESs ranged from 73 to 86 mA/m(2). Comprehensive microbial and chemical characterizations and statistical analyses show that the residual TPH has a strongly positive correlation with hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM) numbers, dehydrogenase activity, and lipase activity and a negative correlation with soil pH, conductivity, and catalase activity. Distinctive microbial communities were identified at the anode, in soil with electrodes, and soil without electrodes. Uncommon electrochemically active bacteria capable of hydrocarbon degradation such as Comamonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas putida, and Ochrobactrum anthropi were selectively enriched on the anode, while hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria were dominant in soil samples. Results from genus or phylum level characterizations well agree with the data from cluster analysis. Data from this study suggests that a unique constitution of microbial communities may play a key role in BES enhancement of petroleum hydrocarbons

  6. Study on Concentration of Particulate Matter with Diameter Less than 10 Microns, Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Related to PM2.5 in the Ambient Air of Sina Hospital District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In recent decades, extensive studies have shown a number of short and long-term health effects of particle matters. In addition to particle matters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metals in airborne particles due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are considered major air pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of PM2.5particulate, 7heavy metal concentrations and 13 PAHs compound associated with fine particles (PM2.5-boud PAHs in the district of Sina hospital, Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in air of Sina Hospital district in Tehran. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were determined by gravimetric. Also heavy metal concentrations in samples after digestion were determined with ICP-AES instrument through injection. Then the PAHs compounds from each sample were extracted by ultrasonic method. After this step, extracted sample was injected for analysis by GC-MS and concentration of each compound was read. Results: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 during the study was 41.19 µg/m3.Concentration values for zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic, were 92/69, 05/38, 2/18, 24/4, 19/4 and 34/1 ng/m3 respectively but mercury not found in this study. Average concentrations of PAHs compounds have been variable from0.07 ng/m3 for Chrysene to 1.21ng/m3 for Dibenzo(ahanthracene. Conclusion: In this study, the daily average of PM2.5 concentrations was above the Iranian National PM, WHO (25 µg/m3 and EPA (35 µg/m3 standards established for PM2.5 particles. Heavy metal concentrations in this study were lower than values reported in previous studies in Tehran. The highest concentrations among PAHs compounds belonging toIndeo(cd 1,2,3pyren, Dibenzo(ah anthracene, Benzo (B flouranthin and Benzo (Kflouranthin that all of these compounds are related to vehicle emissions.

  7. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1 min and the energy consumption was 32.6 mA/cm 2 . However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20 L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30 min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. - Highlights: • The hybrid electrolytic biological cell was used for degradation of oilfield produced water. • Decomposition of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon with or without the biofilter. • High saline water with the high chloride and sulfate ions content treatment. • The removal of electrochemical by-products is a phase change technique that requires the maintenance the biofilm on the filter media, which is sensitive and a complex operation. • Biofilter is efficient for the degradation of PW bye products, the critical drawback to their utility in full-scale operations is high TDS water content and detention time of treatment.

  9. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Kieran J; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2014-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg(-1) soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg(-1) soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing.

  10. Subsoil TPH contamination in two oil pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in north Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, R; Flores-Serrano, R M; Castro, A; Flores, C; Torres, L G

    2010-11-01

    This investigation deals with the characterization carried out in zones around two pipeline pumping stations and one pipeline right-of-way in the north of Mexico. In particular those areas where contamination was evaluated: (a) south area of the separation ditch in the Avalos station, (b) the area between the separation ditch at the Avalos station, (c) km 194+420 of the Moctuzma station, and (d) km 286+900 in the Candelaria station. Results of this investigation showed that only four samples showed TPH values higher than the Mexican limit for 2004: AVA 1B, with 21,191 mg kg(-1); AVA 1C, with 9348 mg kg(-1); AVA 2B, with 13,970 mg kg(-1); and MOC 2A, with 4108 mg kg(-1).None of the sampled points showed the presence of PAHs at values higher than those found in the Mexican or American legislations. PAH were detected in the range of 0.0004 and 13.05 mg kg(-1).It is suggested to implement surfactant soil washing as a remediation technique for the approximately 600 m(3) that need to be treated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, En Chun; Sun, Hong; Xu, Qiu Jin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin Fei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (P > 0.05), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than 1 × 10(-4) in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences.

  12. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) alternations has since long been suspected in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase; TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been...... associated with schizophrenia. The minor allele (A) of this polymorphism (A218C) is also more frequent in patients who have attempted suicide and individuals who died by suicide, than in healthy control individuals. In an attempt to replicate previous findings, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs......) were genotyped in 837 Scandinavian schizophrenia patients and 1,473 controls. Three SNPs spanning intron 6 and 7, including the A218C and A779C polymorphisms, were associated with schizophrenia susceptibility (P = 0.019). However there were no differences in allele frequencies of these loci between...

  13. Identification of Achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1) target genes and evaluation of DKK1 and TPH1 expression in pancreatic endocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Térèse A; Westin, Gunnar; Skogseid, Britt

    2009-01-01

    ASCL1 role in pancreatic endocrine tumourigenesis has not been established. Recently it was suggested that ASCL1 negatively controls expression of the Wnt signalling antagonist DKK1. Notch signalling regulates expression of TPH1, the rate limiting enzyme in the biosyntesis of serotonin. Understanding the development and proliferation of pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) is essential for the development of new therapies. ASCL1 target genes in the pancreatic endocrine tumour cell line BON1 were identified by RNA interference and microarray expression analysis. Protein expressions of selected target genes in PETs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. 158 annotated ASCL1 target genes were identified in BON1 cells, among them DKK1 and TPH1 that were negatively regulated by ASCL1. An inverse relation of ASCL1 to DKK1 protein expression was observed for 15 out of 22 tumours (68%). Nine tumours displayed low ASCL1/high DKK1 and six tumours high ASCL1/low DKK1 expression. Remaining PETs showed high ASCL1/high DKK1 (n = 4) or low ASCL1/low DKK1 (n = 3) expression. Nine of twelve analysed PETs (75%) showed TPH1 expression with no relation to ASCL1. A number of genes with potential importance for PET tumourigenesis have been identified. ASCL1 negatively regulated the Wnt signalling antagonist DKK1, and TPH1 expression in BON1 cells. In concordance with these findings DKK1 showed an inverse relation to ASCL1 expression in a subset of PETs, which may affect growth control by the Wnt signalling pathway

  14. Simulation of a thermoelectric gas sensor that determines hydrocarbon concentrations in exhausts and the light-off temperature of catalyst materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ritter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalyst materials can be characterized with a thermoelectric gas sensor. Screen-printed thermopiles measure the temperature difference between an inert part of the planar sensor and a part that is coated with the catalyst material to be analyzed. If the overall sensor temperature is modulated, the catalytic activity of the material can be varied. Exothermic reactions that occur at the catalyst layer cause a temperature increase that can then be measured as a sensor voltage due to the Seebeck coefficient of the thermopiles. This mechanism can also be employed at stationary conditions at constant sensor temperature to measure gas concentrations. Then, the sensor signal changes linearly with the analyte concentration. Many variables influence the sensing performance, for example, the offset voltage due to asymmetric inflow and the resulting inhomogeneous temperature distributions are an issue. For even better understanding of the whole sensing principle, it is simulated in this study by a 3-D finite element model. By coupling all influencing physical effects (fluid flow, gas diffusion, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and electrical properties a model was set up that is able to mirror the sensor behavior precisely, as the comparison with experimental data shows. A challenging task was to mesh the geometry due to scaling problems regarding the resolution of the thin catalyst layer in the much larger gas tube. Therefore, a coupling of a 3-D and a 1-D geometry is shown. This enables to calculate the overall temperature distribution, fluid flow, and gas concentration distribution in the 3-D model, while a very accurate calculation of the chemical reactions is possible in a 1-D dimension. This work does not only give insight into the results at stationary conditions for varying feed gas concentrations and used substrate materials but shows also how various exhaust gas species behave under transient temperature modulation.

  15. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, December 1, 1981-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.B.; Rao, V.S.; Wood, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is the seventh annual progress report on this project. During the period covered by the first six reports (June 1976 through December 1980) a shock tube and optical systems to measure H, D and O atom concentrations were built and fully characterized. The performance of our microwave discharge lamps were defined by numerous high-resolution spectroscopic profiles, while empirical calibrations were also made for all three of the above species. H, D and O atom concentrations were measured in gas mixtures containing H 2 , D 2 , O 2 , CD 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 D 6 , C 3 H 8 and C 3 D 8 in various proportions, and rate constants of several elementary reactions were deduced from the data. During the period covered by this report (December 1, 1981 to December 31, 1982) we have made kinetic modelling calculations to correlate H, D and O atom concentrations measured in shock-heated mixtures of C 2 H 6 -O 2 -Ar, C 2 D 6 -O 2 -Ar, C 3 H 8 -O 2 -Ar and C 3 D 8 -O 2 -Ar. These computations are difficult because there are several reactions for which rate constants are not known, so that it is necessary to do many calculations to completely optimize the results. Consequently, work is still going on with these calculations. We have completed an extensive series of measurements of H and D atom concentrations in pyrolysis experiments of benzene, toluene and neopentane and deuterium analogs, that have led to rate constants for the initial dissociation of these compounds, and for the reaction of H atoms with benzene and toluene

  16. Increased albumin excretion in industrial workers due to shift work rather than to prolonged exposure to low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, P J; Caubo, M E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--It has been reported that groups of workers in petrochemical industries who have been exposed to low concentrations of chemicals for prolonged periods have an increased urinary albumin excretion compared with unexposed controls. This increase, however, seemed to be unrelated to the extent, duration, and type of exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suggestion that the small increase in albumin excretion might be due to differences in physical workload betwe...

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, January 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.B.; Lifshitz, A.; Wood, D.R.; Chiang, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    This is a second annual progress report on this project. The period covered by the first report (June through December, 1976) was devoted to building and testing a shock tube and an optical system to be used to measure H and D atom concentrations. During 1977 this apparatus was completed and used. The performance of our microwave discharge lamps was characterized by numerous high-resolution spectroscopic profiles, so that the shapes of the Lyman-alpha lines produced under various operating conditions are now quite well-known. Measurements of H or D atom concentrations in shock-heated mixtures of D 2 -N 2 O-Ar, D 2 -O 2 -Ar and H 2 -O 2 -Ar have been made. During the balance of the contract year (January 1 through May 31, 1978) measurements of H or D atom concentrations in shock-heated mixtures of CD 4 -Ar, C 8 H 18 (2,2,3,3, tetramethyl butane)-Ar, C 8 H 18 -CH 4 -Ar, C 3 H 8 -Ar and C 3 H 8 -CH 4 -Ar will be made, and kinetic data on reactions of H and D atoms deduced from the experimental results

  19. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. SERT and TPH-1 mRNA expression are reduced in irritable bowel syndrome patients regardless of visceral sensitivity state in large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoffs, Angèle P M; ter Linde, José J M; Akkermans, Louis M A; Samsom, Melvin

    2012-05-01

    Colorectal visceral hypersensitivity has been demonstrated in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Serine protease and serotonergic signaling modulate gastrointestinal visceral sensitivity. We evaluated whether altered mucosal serine protease and serotonergic pathway components are related to rectal visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients. Colorectal mucosal biopsies of 23 IBS patients and 15 controls were collected. Gene transcripts of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, trypsinogen IV, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1, and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Substance P and 5-HT contents were measured by ELISA. The number of enterochromaffin cells, mast cells, and intraepithelial lymphocytes was determined using immunohistochemistry. Rectal visceral sensitivity was determined in IBS patients using barostat programmed for phasic ascending distension. Rectal hypersensitivity (+) and (-) IBS patients showed lower TPH-1 and SERT mRNA levels in the rectum compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Rectal hypersensitivity (+) IBS patients (n = 12) showed lower TPH-1 mRNA level in the sigmoid compared with controls (P = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in PAR-2 and trypsinogen IV expression between controls and IBS patients. Rectal substance P content was increased in IBS patients compared with controls (P = 0.045). No significant differences were found in transcript levels, cell counts, and substance P and 5-HT contents between rectal hypersensitivity (+) and (-) IBS patients. In conclusion, regardless of visceral hypersensitivity state, several serotonergic signaling components are altered in IBS patients.

  1. Cleaning of contaminated grounds with hydrocarbons by means of biopile; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe Arguelles, R.; Flores Torres, C.; Chavez Lopez, C.; Roldan Martin, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1999, the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPH and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore, an experimental biopile of 30 m{sup 3} was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80% of TPH and PAH remove. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 325 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se llevo a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de HTP, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos (Iturbe et al., 2000). Las tecnicas propuestas son biopilas y lavado de suelo con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de HTP del 80 porciento en cinco meses de operacion.

  2. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  3. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  4. Influence on serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations of human paraoxonase 1 polymorphism (Q192R) and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mexican women, a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Almendarez-Reyna, Claudia I; Orta-García, Sandra T; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are a consequence of the combination of genetic and environmental factors and/or the interaction between them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure and PON1 Q192R polymorphism (genetic susceptibility) on serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in Mexican women (n = 206). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations (1-OHP; exposure biomarker for PAHs) were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography technique, PON1 Q192R polymorphism was genotyped using TaqMan probes and serum ADMA concentrations were evaluated using a commercially available ELISA kit. Urinary 1-OHP levels detected in this study ranged from 0.07 to 9.37 μmol/mol of creatinine (0.13-18.0 μg/g of creatinine). Regarding allele frequency (PON1 Q192R polymorphism), the 192Q-allele frequency was 0.43 and for the 192R-allele it was 0.57. In relation to serum ADMA levels, the levels ranged from 0.06 to 1.46 μmol/L. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis was performed and associations between urinary 1-OHP levels (β = 0.05, p = 0.002), PON1 Q192R polymorphism (β = 0.04, p = 0.003) and serum ADMA concentrations were found. Besides, an interaction (gene-environment interaction) of both independent variables (1-OHP and PON1 polymorphism) on serum ADMA levels was found (β = 0.04, p = 0.02) in the constructed multiple linear model. Therefore, according to the significance of this research, it is necessary to execute health programs to reduce cardiovascular risk in the assessed population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine sediments along the shoreline of Douglas Channel to Hecate Strait in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Laforest, Sonia; Lambert, Patrick; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Shah, Keval; Landriault, Mike; Goldthorp, Michael

    2017-09-15

    The occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone along the northern British shoreline were evaluated based on analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, petroleum related biomarkers such as terpanes and steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including non-alkylated and alkylated homologues (APAHs). The TPH levels, n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers and PAHs in all the sampling sites, except for Masset Harbor/York Point at Gil Island were low, without obvious unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and petroleum contamination input. Specifically, n-alkanes showed a major terrestrial plants input; PAHs with abundant non-alkylated PAHs but minor APAHs showed a major pyrogenic input. However, obvious petroleum-derived hydrocarbons have impacted Masset Harbor. A historical petroleum input was found in York Point at Gil Island, due to the presence of the low level of petroleum biomarkers. Ecological assessment of 13 non-alkylated PAHs in Masset Harbor indicated no potential toxicity to the benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  7. Degradation of tetraethyllead during the degradation of leaded gasoline hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulroy, P.T.; Ou, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    For over 50 years, leaded gasoline was the only fuel for automobiles, and tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major octane number enhancer used in leaded gasoline. Ample information is available on the fate and remediation of gasoline hydrocarbons in contaminated subsoils and groundwater. However, little is known regarding the fate of TEL in leaded gasoline-contaminated subsoils and groundwater. In soil not contaminated with gasoline, TEL was rapidly degraded and completely disappeared in 14 d. In gasoline-contaminated soil, TEL degradation was slower; after 77 d, 4 to 17% of the applied TEL still remained in the contaminated soil. Disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was initially rapid but slowed appreciably after 7 to 14 d. As a result, after 77 d, 33 to 51% of the applied gasoline still remained in soil. The retardation of TEL degradation in leaded gasoline-contaminated soil is due to the presence of gasoline hydrocarbons. As long as gasoline hydrocarbons remain in soil, TEL may also remain in soil, most likely in the gasoline hydrocarbon phase

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  9. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  10. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil-contaminated soil with the earthworm: Hyperiodrilus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, O A; Aigbodion, F I

    2015-12-01

    A study on the bioremediation potentials of the earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus (Beddard) in soil contaminated with crude oil was investigated. Dried and sieved soils were contaminated with 5 ml each of crude oil with replicates and inoculated with earthworms and monitored daily for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), while BTEX constituents and earthworms tissues were analyzed using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the earthworm significantly enhanced the physicochemical parameters of the contaminated soil resulting in a decrease of the total organic carbon (56.64 %), sulfate (57.66 %), nitrate (57.69 %), phosphate (57.73 %), sodium (57.69 %), potassium (57.68 %), calcium (57.69 %) and magnesium (57.68 %) except pH (3.90 %) that slightly increased. There was a significant decrease in the TPH (84.99 %), benzene (91.65 %), toluene (100.00 %), ethylbenzene (100.00 %) and xylene (100.00 %). Analyses of the tissues of the earthworm at the end of the experiment showed that the earthworms bioaccumulated/biodegraded 57.35/27.64 % TPH, 38.91/52.73 % benzene, 27.76/72.24 % toluene, 42.16/57.85 % ethylbenzene and 09.62/90.38 % xylene. The results showed that the earthworms H. africanus could be used to bioremediate moderately polluted soil with crude oil contamination in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  12. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  17. Cleaning of contaminated soils with hydrocarbons by biocell; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Arguelles, R.; Flores-Torres, C; Chavez-Lopez, C.; Roldan-Martin, A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1990 the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPG and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore an experimental biopile of 30 m3 was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80 % of TPH and PAH remotion. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 425 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburo poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se lleva a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de http, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos. Las tecnicas propuesta son biopilas y lavado de suelos con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de http del 80 porciento con cinco meses de operacion. Se muestra las partes de una biopila y se dan los resultados de la biopila experimental en la refineria Francisco I. Madero.

  18. Removal of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources using polypropylene and titanium dioxide nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Karyab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum hydrocarbons are the most important pollutants which threat human health and aquatics. Adsorbents are one of the common equipment in water pollution management; however, their applications have been associated with limitations. Objective: To evaluate the potential of polypropylene/titanium dioxide Nano-composite in adsorption of light petroleum hydrocarbons from water sources. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at school of health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014-15. Activation of polypropylene fibers, with 1 cm length and 300 microns diameters, was achieved with wet heating. To synthesize of nano-composite the fibers were coated with nano-titanium dioxide with 20 nm diameter. The sonication was performed at 26 kHz and 100 W of power in 40ºc. The morphology of the fractured surfaces of impact specimens was examined by FESEM. The adsorption rate of petrol and gasoline, as surrogate of TPH, was evaluated in different retention time within polyamide mesh aperture diameter of 250 nm. Average of TPH adsorbing, per unit weight of adsorbent, were analyzed with analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc tests. Findings: The FESEM micrographs showed that the dispersion of the nano-Tio2 particles was relatively good and only few aggregations exist. The maximum adsorption capacity of petrol and gasoline was obtained in 30 minute. The adsorption rate of gasoline was 6.49±0.10 g/g and oil was 7.01±0.13 g/g. Conclusion: According to the results and in comparison with commercial imported adsorbents, the synthesized Nano-composite had favorable performance. The results show that the polypropylene/Tio2 Nano-composite can be used effectively in light petroleum hydrocarbons removal from polluted water sources.

  19. Studies on the effect of petroleum hydrocarbon on the microbial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Key words: Hydrocarbon, microbial counts, physico-chemical characteristics. INTRODUCTION. Petroleum ... carbons, whose composition also varies with the source. ... hydrocarbons into aquifers can lead to concentrations of.

  20. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  1. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  2. Evaluation of landfarm remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at the Inveresk Railyard, Launceston, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, M.A.; Garland, C.D.; Crowley, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cost of landfarm bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at a disused railyard site in Tasmania, Australia is reported. The landfarm area was enclosed in an impermeable clay embankment and where necessary the base was also rolled with clay. Microbial inoculation was not deemed to be necessary since suitable degrading biota were found to be present in site samples prior to commencement of the landfarming. Fertilizer amendment comprised primarily ammonium sulphate and superphosphate to give a C:N ratio (TPH:fertilizer) of 28:1 and a C:P ratio of 200:1. The soil was turned regularly and watered as required for the 12-month duration of the operation. Over this period levels of TPH showed a linear decline from a mean of 4,644 mg/kg to near 100 mg/kg or less, with greatest losses being in the chain lengths C10-C28. The cost was determined to be $A13.40c per m 3 , which is at the lower end of the spectrum of reported landfarming costs. The cost of such operations is important since the reported economics will influence others' choice of bioremediation techniques

  3. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  4. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  5. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  6. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  8. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  9. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  11. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  12. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  13. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  15. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  16. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  17. The Oil-Spill Snorkel: an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eCruz Viggi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proof-of-concept of the Oil-Spill Snorkel: a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The Oil-Spill Snorkel consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water. The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode, where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing 1 or 3 graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p=0.023, two-tailed t-test in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p=0.040 in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing 3 snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12±1% (p=0.004 and 21±1% (p=0.001 was observed in microcosms containing 1 and 3 snorkels, respectively. Although, the Oil-Spill Snorkel potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable configurations for field

  18. In situ phytoremediation of a soil historically contaminated by metals, hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Arenella, M; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2012-05-01

    In the past several years, industrial and agricultural activities have led to serious environmental pollution, resulting in a large number of contaminated sites. As a result, much recent research activity has focused on the application of bioremediation technologies as an environmentally friendly and economically feasible means for decontamination of polluted soil. In this study horse manure and Populus nigra (var. italica) (HM + P treatment) have been used, at real scale level, as an approach for bioremediation of a soil historically contaminated by metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni) and organic contaminants, such as polychlorobiphenyls and petroleum hydrocarbon. After one year, the HM + P phytotreatment was effective in the reclamation of the polluted soil from both organic and inorganic contaminants. A reduction of about 80% in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and 60% in polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and total metals was observed in the HM + P treatment. In contrast, in the horse manure (HM) treatment, used as control, a reduction of only about 30% of TPH was obtained. In order to assess both effectiveness and evolution of the remediation system to a biologically active soil ecosystem, together with the pollution parameters, the parameters describing the evolution of the soil functionality (enzymatic activities and protein SDS-PAGE pattern) were investigated. A stimulation of the metabolic soil processes (increase in dehydrogenase activity) was observed in the HM + P compared to the HM treatment. Finally, preliminary protein SDS-PAGE results have permitted the identification of proteins that have been recovered in the HM + P soil with respect to the HM; this may become a basic tool for improving the biogeochemical status of soil during the decontamination through the identification of microbial populations that are active in soil decontamination.

  19. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  20. Isolation of four hydrocarbon effluent-degrading Bacillaceae species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percentage decreases in total hydrocarbon concentration within 18 days: 98% with Bacillus licheniformis STK08, 87% with Geobacillus stearothermophilus STM04, 80% with Lysinibacillus sphaericus STZ75 and 72% with Bacillus firmus STS84.

  1. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    -known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform

  2. A test of plant-aided petroleum hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosler, K R [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, ON (Canada); Drake, E N [Exxon Research Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1999-12-31

    A research program was established to develop environmental restoration technologies which apply to contaminated industrial sites. The program involved two separate but related parts. Part One involved a multi-year field study, Part Two a greenhouse potted plant study. This paper presents the results of the greenhouse-based phytoremediation experiment which assessed the potential impacts of three treatment factors on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soils for use in those cases where the use of plants for restoring contaminated environments might be a simple and cost-effective clean-up alternative. This study showed that biologically-aided contaminant degradation can be enhanced by various treatments such as adding nutrients in the form of inorganic fertilizers, adding oxygen or modifying soil conditions. The study also showed that contaminant degradation can be enhanced in the rhizosphere of various plant species and that remediation of some contaminants can be achieved by exploiting the unique symbiotic relationship between some fungal species and plant roots. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. A test of plant-aided petroleum hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, K.R.; Drake, E.N.

    1998-01-01

    A research program was established to develop environmental restoration technologies which apply to contaminated industrial sites. The program involved two separate but related parts. Part One involved a multi-year field study, Part Two a greenhouse potted plant study. This paper presents the results of the greenhouse-based phytoremediation experiment which assessed the potential impacts of three treatment factors on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soils for use in those cases where the use of plants for restoring contaminated environments might be a simple and cost-effective clean-up alternative. This study showed that biologically-aided contaminant degradation can be enhanced by various treatments such as adding nutrients in the form of inorganic fertilizers, adding oxygen or modifying soil conditions. The study also showed that contaminant degradation can be enhanced in the rhizosphere of various plant species and that remediation of some contaminants can be achieved by exploiting the unique symbiotic relationship between some fungal species and plant roots. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in hydrogen peroxide- and nitrate-amended microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, B.J.; Pugh, L.B.; Clarke, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty microcosms were constructed using aquifer materials from a former coal gasification site and divided into four groups: poisoned control, nutrient-free control, hydrogen peroxide-amended, and nitrate-amended microcosms. Each microcosm contained site soil and groundwater in a 1.2-L glass media bottle. When depleted, hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrate were injected into the microcosms. Microcosms were periodically sacrificed for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes [BTEX]); total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH); and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). BTEX and two- and three-ringed PAHs were degraded in microcosms receiving electron-acceptor additions compared to poisoned controls. Four-, five-, and six-ringed PAHs were not significantly degraded during this study. Except in poisoned controls, significant amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) or nitrate were utilized, and microbial populations increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to site soils used to assemble the microcosms (i.e., baseline samples)

  5. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Total petroleum hydrocarbons: Characterization of physico-chemical behaviour and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemoets, J.; Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Houtven, D. van; Bertels, D.; Weltens, R.; Cornelis, C. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Vries, P. de; Sterren, G. van der; Alphenaar, A. [TTE, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. Recently, the TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based upon a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological I-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes. The present study aims at a verification (reproducibility; accuracy) and optimization of both methods and a critical review on the relevance of the proposed fractions for the prediction of human health risks. Two 'umpire' methods were selected for reference: GS-MS in full scan mode and liquid state NMR. (orig.)

  7. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J.; Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  8. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J. [Vito, Mol (Belgium); Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A. [TTE, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  9. Combination of biochar amendment and phytoremediation for hydrocarbon removal in petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Zhao, Zhipeng; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    Remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum is a challenging task. Four different bioremediation strategies, including natural attenuation, biochar amendment, phytoremediation with ryegrass, and a combination of biochar and ryegrass, were investigated with greenhouse pot experiments over a 90-day period. The results showed that planting ryegrass in soil can significantly improve the removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the number of microorganisms. Within TPHs, the removal rate of total n-alkanes (45.83 %) was higher than that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (30.34 %). The amendment of biochar did not result in significant improvement of TPH removal. In contrast, it showed a clear negative impact on the growth of ryegrass and the removal of TPHs by ryegrass. The removal rate of TPHs was significantly lower after the amendment of biochar. The results indicated that planting ryegrass is an effective remediation strategy, while the amendment of biochar may not be suitable for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  10. Pyrolytic Treatment and Fertility Enhancement of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, Julia E; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Masiello, Caroline A; Gao, Xiaodong; Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-03-01

    Pyrolysis of contaminated soils at 420 °C converted recalcitrant heavy hydrocarbons into "char" (a carbonaceous material similar to petroleum coke) and enhanced soil fertility. Pyrolytic treatment reduced total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) to below regulatory standards (typically hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not observed, with post-pyrolysis levels well below applicable standards. Plant growth studies showed a higher biomass production of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa (Simpson black-seeded lettuce) (80-900% heavier) in pyrolyzed soils than in contaminated or incinerated soils. Elemental analysis showed that pyrolyzed soils contained more carbon than incinerated soils (1.4-3.2% versus 0.3-0.4%). The stark color differences between pyrolyzed and incinerated soils suggest that the carbonaceous material produced via pyrolysis was dispersed in the form of a layer coating the soil particles. Overall, these results suggest that soil pyrolysis could be a viable thermal treatment to quickly remediate soils impacted by weathered oil while improving soil fertility, potentially enhancing revegetation.

  11. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  12. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  13. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  15. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  16. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  18. Natural attenuation of diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Antonio; Gallego, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A diesel fuel spill at a concentration of 1 L m -2 soil was simulated on a 12 m 2 plot of agricultural land, and natural attenuation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was monitored over a period of 400 days following the spill after which the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be below the legal contamination threshold for soil. The main fraction of these compounds (95%) remained at the surface layer (0-10 cm). Shortly after the spill (viz. between days 0 and 18), evaporation was the main origin of the dramatic decrease in pollutant concentrations in the soil. Thereafter, soil microorganisms used aliphatic hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy, as confirmed by the degradation ratios found. Soil quality indicators, soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity, regained their original levels about 200 days after the spill. - The effect of aliphatic hydrocarbons contamination on soil quality was monitored over a period of 400 days after a Diesel fuel spill

  19. Development of backward equations T(p,h), T(p,s) and p(h,s) for heavy water liquid and vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick P Petropoulos; Simos E Simopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Backward equations for heavy water (a) temperature as a function of pressure and enthalpy T(p,h), (b) temperature as a function of pressure and entropy T(p,s) and (c) pressure as a function of enthalpy and entropy p(h,s) presented in this work, are based on the 'IAPS Formulation 1984 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Heavy Water Substance' [1], and also on the respective equations for the ordinary water substance as presented in 'The IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam' [2]. Heavy water and steam thermodynamic properties can be calculated using the basic equations and saturation equations that are included in [1]. However, [1] does not contain any backward functions T(p,h), T(p,s) and p(h,s), which are needed for heavy water thermodynamic process modeling. The development of the two temperature backward functions efficiently increases computational speed for temperature calculations more than three times as pointed out in the similar case problem for ordinary water, addressed successfully in [2]. Without these temperature backward functions calculations may be performed only iteratively using the heavy water state equations at a much greater computing cost. Moreover, the development of the pressure backward function saves even more computing time in modeling problems since two-dimensional iterations from the h(p,T) and s(p,T) heavy water functions may by effectively avoided. In addition, given the pressure function p(h,s), the heavy water temperature T(h,s) can be calculated by the temperature function T(p,h). The numerical consistencies of calculated T and p to the state equations included in [1] are sufficient for most applications in the heavy water nuclear reactors heat cycles. For applications, where the demands on numerical consistency and accuracy are rather high, iterations with the approved state equations may be necessary. In these cases both temperature and pressure

  20. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four species of bottom dwelling fish and two species of crustaceans from the Estuary and Gulf of Saint-Lawrence and from the Saguenay fjord; Concentrations d`hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques chez quatre especes de poissons de fond et deux especes de crustaces de l`estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent et du fjord du Saguenay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, E.; Canuel, G.; Padros, J.; Clermont, Y. [Quebec Univ., INRS-Oceanologie, Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Gobeil, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.

    1999-08-01

    An update was presented on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in bottom dwelling fish and crustaceans in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Saguenay fjord. Attempts were made to detect specific compounds including fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo-b-fluoranthene, benzo-k-fluoranthene, benzo-a-pyrene, dibenzo-a,h-anthracene, benzo-g,h,i-perylene, naphtalene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Concentrations of all PAHs in the muscle tissue of cod, plaice, skate and halibut were found to be below analytical detection limits. Concentrations of most PAHs were also below detection limits in halibut liver tissue and crab. The exception was benzo-a-anthracene. Shrimp muscle contained measurable levels of many PAHs. The levels were detected by fluorimetry but could not be confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, it was concluded that the fish can be considered safe for human consumption. 3 refs., 13 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  3. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  4. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  5. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  6. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  7. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosols of the urban area of Madrid; Estudio de las variaciones diarias en las concentraciones de algunos hidrocarburos alifaticos y aromatico; policiclicos, en aerosoles de la zona urbana de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. M.; Perez-Pastor, R. M.; Bea, F. J.; Campos, A.; Gonzalez, D.

    1991-07-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled m the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. (Author)

  8. Differences of diurnal variations of some aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in aerosols of the urban area of Madrid; Estudio de las variaciones diarias en las concentraciones de algunos hidrocarburos alifaticos y aromatico; policiclicos, en aerosoles de la zona urbana de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M M; Perez-Pastor, R M; Bea, F J; Campos, A; Gonzalez, D

    1991-07-01

    A study on daily concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (PAH's and AH's), was carried out in aerosols sampled m the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid. Samples were taken at morning and night during February and June, for short sampling times, on glass fiber filters in Hi-Vol samplers, and then extracted ultrasonically with cyclohexane. Analysis were performed by HRGC with fused-silica capillary columns. The variable traffic rate, and the strong influence during winter periods of domestic heating are characteristic of this place. The aim of this work was to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variations of selected AH and PAH in the urban area of Madrid, by using descriptive parameters, such as total concentrations of AH and PAH, characteristic profiles and predominance carbon index. (Author)

  9. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  10. Enrichment and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from petroleum refinery waste as potent bioaugmentation agent for in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulomi; Roy, Ajoy; Pal, Siddhartha; Mohapatra, Balaram; Kazy, Sufia K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sar, Pinaki

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic biodegradation potential of bacteria from petroleum refinery waste was investigated through isolation of cultivable strains and their characterization. Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp. populated the normal cultivable taxa while prolonged enrichment with hydrocarbons and crude oil yielded hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of genera Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pandoraea, etc. Strains isolated through enrichment showed assemblages of superior metabolic properties: utilization of aliphatic (C6-C22) and polyaromatic compounds, anaerobic growth with multiple terminal electron acceptors and higher biosurfactant production. Biodegradation of dodecane was studied thoroughly by GC-MS along with detection of gene encoding alkane hydroxylase (alkB). Microcosms bioaugmented with Enterobacter, Pandoraea and Burkholderia strains showed efficient biodegradation (98% TPH removal) well fitted in first order kinetic model with low rate constants and decreased half-life. This study proves that catabolically efficient bacteria resides naturally in complex petroleum refinery wastes and those can be useful for bioaugmentation based bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  12. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  13. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  14. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  15. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  16. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  17. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  18. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  19. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  1. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  2. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardi, Eliete; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 m u g . L -1 , characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  3. Distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in water and sediment in Sao Sebastiao, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Eliete [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Miranda, Luiz Bruner de; Weber, Rolf Roland [Miami Univ., RSMAS/NAC, Miami, FL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This study describes the dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) in surface water and the origin and distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from the surface bottom sediments. The main objective was to verify the anthropogenic contribution on the adjacent inner shelf of Sao Sebastiao, taking into account the distribution of hydrographic properties and knowledge of the main circulation. The DDPH concentration range of the 20 samples were from 0.35 to 2.50 {sup m}u{sup g}. L{sup -1}, characterising this region as slightly affected by the contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. Considering sediment hydrocarbon results, sites located in the inner shelf were divided into three groups: one with mainly biogenic hydrocarbons, a second one with biogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons and a third with significant contribution of petroleum hydrocarbons. These results show an influence of human activities in the Sao Sebastiao Channel on the surrounding areas of the inner shelf. (Author)

  4. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the growth of a microalga, Isochrysis sp. (Chrysophyta)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Saldanha, M.C.; Rajkumar, R.

    the growth of the alga in a concentration above 10%, while crude oil at a similar concentration had little effect on the growth. Hydrocarbon would cause environmental damage through selective effects on natural biota in the marine environment....

  5. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  6. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  7. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  8. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  9. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  10. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  11. A comparison of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbon compositions of vehicle fuels and urban air in Dublin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B M; Marnane, I S [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Hourly roadside hydrocarbon concentrations were measured over a six-week period at a heavily trafficked junction in Dublin city centre. Samples of ten typical leaded and unleaded petrol fuels used in Irish vehicles were also collected and their hydrocarbon compositions determined. The measured ambient hydrocarbon concentrations are presented, as are the properties of each of the analysed fuels. Comparison of the ambient hydrocarbon concentrations and the fuel hydrocarbon composition reveals a strong correlation for most hydrocarbons, except those compounds that were wholly combustion derived (i.e. not present in the fuel). Different characteristics were noted for aromatics, alkanes and alkenes. The comparison of roadside ambient air and fuel hydrocarbon content agrees well with other studies that have compared fuel content and exhaust composition. The relative impacts of exhaust and evaporative emissions on roadside hydrocarbon concentrations are apparent. (Author)

  12. Model Titan atmospheric hydrocarbon analysis by Ion Mobility Spectrometry in dry helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojiro, D.R.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.; Cohen, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is one analytical technique being investigated for the in situ analysis of the atmosphere of Titan. Any hydrocarbon ions that may form react immediately, in microseconds, with the high concentration of water vapor normally present in conventional IMS. By reducing the water concentration to the parts-per-billion range, the lifetime of the hydrocarbon ions may be increased to the milliseconds required for measurement. At low water level concentrations, other species may become the reactant ion. This study focuses on IMS analysis of expected Titan atmospheric hydrocarbons under very dry, low water concentration conditions

  13. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  14. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  15. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Olsen, I L; Poulsen, O M

    1992-01-01

    In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors or approx......In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors...

  17. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-04

    Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  18. Hydrocarbon fermentation: kinetics of microbial cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma, G [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse; Ribot, D

    1978-11-01

    Modeling of microbial growth using nonmiscible substrate is studied when kinetics of substrate dissolution is rate limiting. When the substrate concentration is low, the growth rate is described by an analytical relation that can be identified as a Contois relationship. If the substrate concentration is greater than a critical value S/sub crit/, the potentially useful hydrocarbon S* concentration is described by S* = S/sub crit//(1 + S/sub crit//S). A relationship was found between S/sub crit/ and the biomass concentration X. When X increased, S/sub crit/ decreased. The cell growth rate is related to a relation ..mu.. = ..mu../sub m/(A(X/S/sub crit/)(1 + S/sub crit//S) + 1)/sup -1/. This model describes the evolution of the growth rate when exponential or linear growth occurs, which is related to physico-chemical properties and hydrodynamic fermentation conditions. Experimental data to support the model are presented.

  19. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  20. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  1. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  2. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  3. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  4. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  5. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. An experimental study on the bio-surfactant-assisted remediation of crude oil and salt contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Guohe; Song, Weikun; Huang, Yuefei

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid) on the remediation of crude oil and salt contaminated soil was investigated in this study. The experimental results indicated that there was a distinct decline of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration within the soil when using rhamnolipid during a remediation period of 30 days, with maximum TPH reduction of 86.97%. The most effective remediation that was observed was with rhamnolipid at a concentration of 2 CMC in soil solution, and a first-order TPH degradation rate constant of 0.0866 d(-1). The results also illustrated that salts in soil had a negative impact on TPH reduction, and the degradation rate was negatively correlated with NaCl concentration in soil solution. The analysis of soil TPH fractions indicated that there was a significant reduction of C13-C30 during the remediation process when using bio-surfactant.

  7. Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals as an Optofluidic Platform for Fast Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiwei; Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Burgess, Ian B; Wang, Xihua

    2018-06-13

    Most of the reported optofluidic devices analyze liquid by measuring its refractive index. Recently, the wettability of liquid on various substrates has also been used as a key sensing parameter in optofluidic sensors. However, the above-mentioned techniques face challenges in the analysis of the relative concentration of components in an alkane hydrocarbon mixture, as both refractive indices and wettabilities of alkane hydrocarbons are very close. Here, we propose to apply volatility of liquid as the key sensing parameter, correlate it to the optical property of liquid inside inverse opal photonic crystals, and construct powerful optofluidic sensors for alkane hydrocarbon identification and analysis. We have demonstrated that via evaporation of hydrocarbons inside the periodic structure of inverse opal photonic crystals and observation of their reflection spectra, an inverse opal film could be used as a fast-response optofluidic sensor to accurately differentiate pure hydrocarbon liquids and relative concentrations of their binary and ternary mixtures in tens of seconds. In these 3D photonic crystals, pure chemicals with different volatilities would have different evaporation rates and can be easily identified via the total drying time. For multicomponent mixtures, the same strategy is applied to determine the relative concentration of each component simply by measuring drying time under different temperatures. Using this optofluidic sensing platform, we have determined the relative concentrations of ternary hydrocarbon mixtures with the difference of only one carbon between alkane hydrocarbons, which is a big step toward detailed hydrocarbon analysis for practical use.

  8. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  9. Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in relation to circulating concentrations of thyroxine and vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-11-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, metabolites and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma concentrations of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (pturtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean concentration of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most concentrated of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most concentrated of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean concentrations of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13 ng

  10. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  11. Hydrocarbons (aliphatic and aromatic) in the snow-ice cover in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.; Kluvitkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented the concentration and composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice-infested waters in the France-Victoria trough in the northern Barents Sea and in the Mendeleev ridge in the Amerasian basin of the Arctic Ocean. Extreme conditions such as low temperatures, ice sheets and the polar nights render the arctic environment susceptible to oil spills. Hydrocarbons found in these northern seas experience significant transformations. In order to determine the sources, pathways and transformations of the pollutants, it is necessary to know their origin. Hydrocarbon distributions is determined mostly by natural hydrobiological and geochemical conditions. The regularity of migration is determined by natural factors such as formation and circulation of air and ice drift. There is evidence suggesting that the hydrocarbons come from pyrogenic sources. It was noted that hydrocarbons could be degraded even at low temperatures. 17 refs., 1 tab

  12. Subsurface migration of petroleum hydrocarbons: A case study of immiscible migration and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The subsurface distribution of a leaked crude oil illustrates the combined influence of both the chemical and physical properties of soil and free product on the migration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Immiscible phase behavior was observed, as well as chromatographic-like separation of the lighter constituents of the crude oil from the heavier constituents. After downward migration through approximately 50 ft of unsaturated, heterogeneous alluvial sediments, the crude oil formed a horizontal plume on top of a perched, saturated zone. Immiscible phase trapping is evident from the occurrence of very high concentration of hydrocarbons in both the vertical and horizontal plumes. Samples taken from the vertical zone of contamination indicate a transition from heavier hydrocarbons near the surface to lighter hydrocarbons at depth. This phenomenon is attributed to chromatographic-like separation of the heavier hydrocarbons by the soil, possibly due to preferential solubility of the lighter hydrocarbons in percolating ran water

  13. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, E B; Ashton, B M; Miles, M S

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g(-1)) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both.

  14. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch-Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Lakshmi Srinivasa; Madhavi, T.; Srinu, D.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch-Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through n-butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4-291, ethane (C2) from 0-84, propane (C3) from 0-37, i-butane (iC4) from 0-5 and n-butane (nC4) from 0-4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between -42.9‰ to -13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite - PDB) and -21.2‰ to -12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  15. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  18. Use of rum and sugar cane bagasse in the removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil; Uso de cachaza y bagazo de cana de azucar en la remocion de hidrocarburos en suelo contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using two different types of agricultural residues, filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith, as amendment and bulking agents. To test these approaches, a microcosms test was applied to soil contaminated with 14 300 mg kg-1 of TPH and 23.14 mg kg-1 of PAH. The soil treatments consisted of the following ratios of soil to residue (%/%): 100:0, 98:2, 98:4 and 98:6, and macronutrient addition was based on a carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (C:N:P, %/ % / %) of 100:10:1. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith treatments, in which the TPH removal efficiency was 60.1% using sugar cane bagasse pith and 51.4% with filter cake mud. A filter cake mud ratio of 96:4 produced the highest observed removal efficiency of PAH (43%), and a sugarcane bagasse pith ratio of 98:2 resulted in a PAH removal efficiency of 41%. Filter cake mud treatment could be an alternative for use in the bioremediation process of soils polluted with hydrocarbons. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de remocion de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos (HAP) y de hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP) de un suelo contaminado con petroleo crudo, utilizando dos tipos de residuos agroindustriales, la cachaza y el bagazo de cana de azucar como enmiendas y texturizante. Para ello, se realizaron pruebas en microcosmos de cultivos solidos para la biorremediacion de un suelo contaminado con 14300 mg kg-1 de HTP y 23.14 mg kg-1 de HAP. Las relaciones suelo: residuo utilizadas en las pruebas fueron las siguientes (%): 100:0, 98:2, 96:4 y 94:6, y la adicion de macronutrimentos con base en la relacion carbono/nitrogeno/fosforo (%%%) de 100:10:1. El analisis estadistico indico que hay diferencias

  19. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  20. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  2. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  3. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  4. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area.

  6. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Goa coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    Average hydrocarbon concentrations in water, plankton and sediment samples collected from the central west coast of India between 14 degrees 40'N and 15 degrees 50'N were 30.9 mu g/litre, 46.9 mu g/g dry wt and 7.1 degrees kg/g dry wt respectively...

  7. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  8. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Ferná ndez-Pinos, Marí a-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Mé janelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piñ a, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jimé nez, Begoñ a; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  10. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the White sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.; Bogunov, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in the White Sea was presented. The study was conducted to determine natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in order to aid in future zoning plans. Hydrocarbons were extracted from samples of aerosols, ice, water, particulate matter, phyto- and zooplankton, and bottom sediments. Results of the study suggested that HC concentrations in aerosols above the White Sea were lower than in marine aerosols above the southeastern Atlantic and lower than Alkane concentrations in aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. A study of PAH behaviour in Northern Dvina estuaries showed that the submicron fractions contained light polyarenes. Particulate matter collected in sedimentation traps was enriched in phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Aliphatic HC enrichment was due to the presence of phytoplankton and other microorganisms. Between 54 per cent and 85 per cent of initial organic matter was consumed during diagenesis in the bottom sediments, indicating a high rate of HC transformation. It was suggested that the majority of oil HC transported with river water is precipitated. Fluoranthene was the dominant PAH in the study, and was assumed to be caused by natural transformation of PAH composition during distant atmospheric transport. Pyrogenic contamination of the bottom sediments was attributed to an aluminium plant. It was concluded that the detection of significant amounts of HC is not direct evidence of their anthropogenic origins. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in

  12. Determination of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples contaminated with spent motor engine oil collected from Abakaliki auto-mechanic site were analyzed to determine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components which are often targets in environmental check. Identification and quantification of the PAH components was accomplished ...

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  14. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  15. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  18. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the Cispata Bay, Colombia: A marine tropical ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Núñez, Saudith; Navarro-Frómeta, Amado; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Urango-Cárdenas, Iván

    2017-07-15

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (ppolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7.0-41ngg -1 in sediment, 0.03-0.34ngmL -1 in water samples, 53.24ngg -1 in fish, and 66ngg -1 in seabirds. The high concentrations of heavy metals in seabirds may be explained by their feeding habits. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Cispata Bay may be due to hydrocarbon spills during oil transport at the nearby oil port. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame

  1. Ex-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Larsen, S.B.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are naturally occurring organic compounds. As a result of anthropogenic activities, PAH concentration has increased in the environment considerably. PAH are regarded as environmental pollutants because they have toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on l...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  3. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincui; Zhao, Yongsheng; Sun, Jichao; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Chunyan

    2018-06-01

    This paper has investigated the concentration and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shallow groundwater from an alluvial-diluvial fan of the Hutuo River in North China. Results show that the concentration levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons range from 0 to 92.06 ng/L, do not conform to drinking water quality standards in China (GB 5749- 2006). However, the concentration figures of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are much lower than that of other studies conducted elsewhere in China. In addition, highly-concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (50-92 ng/L) are fragmentarily distributed. The composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from this study indicates that low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are predominant in groundwater samples, medium molecular compounds occur at low concentrations, and high molecular hydrocarbons are not detected. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in groundwater samples is basically the same as that of gaseous samples in the atmosphere in this study. Therefore, the atmospheric input is assumed to be an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, no less than wastewater discharge, adhesion on suspended solids, and surface water leakage. Ratios of specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate that they mainly originate from wood or coal combustion as well as natural gas and partially from petroleum according to the result of principal component analysis. On the whole, conclusions are drawn that the contamination sources of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are likely petrogenic and pyrolytic inputs. Future investigations by sampling topsoil, vadose soil, and the atmosphere can further verify aforementioned conclusions.

  4. Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T.; Hazen, Terry C.; Conrad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. - Highlights: ► The hydrocarbon distribution was more widely spread than previously predicted or reported. ► 4 subsurface plumes were identified. ► More soluble compounds were preferentially extracted in the deepwater. ► Percentage of detectable results is a useful data analysis technique. ► Subsurface dispersants application increased hydrocarbons in subsurface waters. - All available certified Deepwater Horizon data was used to determine the spatial, temporal, and chemical distribution of hydrocarbons in subsurface of the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Alkanes as Components of Soil Hydrocarbon Status: Behavior and Indication Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of soils on three key plots with different climatic conditions and technogenic impacts in Volgograd, Moscow, and Arkhangelsk oblasts have showed that alkanes in the soil exchange complex have some indication potential for the identification of soil processes. The following combinations of soil-forming factors and processes have been studied: (a) self-purification of soil after oil pollution; (b) accumulation of hydrocarbons coming from the atmosphere to soils of different land use patterns; and (c) changes in the soil hydrocarbon complex beyond the zone of technogenic impact due to the input of free hydrocarbon-containing gases. At the injection input of hydrocarbon pollutants, changes in the composition and proportions of alkanes allow tracing the degradation trend of pollutants in the soil from their initial content to the final stage of soil self-purification, when the background concentrations of hydrocarbons are reached. Upon atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons onto the soil, from the composition and mass distribution of alkanes, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of toxicants on biogeochemical processes in the soil, including their manifestation under different land uses. Composition analysis of soil alkanes in natural landscapes can reveal signs of hydrocarbon emanation fluxes in soils. The indication potentials of alkanes in combination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other components of soil hydrocarbon complex can also be used for the solution of other soil-geochemical problems.

  6. Hydrocarbons in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in different regions of the Black Sea Russian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nemirovskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Content and composition of hydrocarbons (mainly the aliphatic ones in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in the Gelendzhik Bay, the Big Sochi water area, the Feodosiya Bay and the Black Sea central part are defined and compared with the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a contents. It is shown that the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations exceeding the background ones are found only in the coastal zone. Advancing to the pelagic zone is accompanied by sharp decrease of their concentrations. Petroleum and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are mainly manifested in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composition. Influence of construction of the Olympic facilities upon distribution of hydrocarbons in the Big Sochi water area was of short duration, and already by 2015 the aliphatic hydrocarbons concentration decreased, on the average, up to 24 µg/l in the surface waters, and up to 18 µg/g – in the bottom sediments. Accumulation of hydrocarbons took place in bottom sediments, where their concentrations exceeded the background ones in terms of dry weight. In the Gelendzhik Bay, their content reached 252 μg/g, and in the composition of organic carbon (Corg > 1 %, which may indicate the contamination of sediments with oil products. In the Feodosiya Bay their part in the composition of Corg did not exceed 0.73 % and was 0.35 % on average. Natural alkanes dominated in the composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The bottom sediments are characterized by the predominance of odd high-molecular terrigenous alkanes. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied sediments was rather low: up to 31 ng/g in the Gelendzhik Bay, up to 348 ng/g in the Feodosiya Bay. These concentrations according to the EPA classification are considered background, or minor petroleum hydrocarbons increase the level of aliphatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments, thus creating a modern hydrocarbon background.

  7. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  8. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  10. Monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by using stable carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Hinchee, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Spilled or leaked nonhalogenated petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil can generally be metabolized by indigenous, aerobic bacteria. In situ biological degradation of hydrocarbons may be accelerated by supplying inorganic nutrients and/or oxygen. Approaches to monitoring and verifying enhanced in situ biodegradation have included measurements of changes over time in the (a) concentration of hydrocarbons, (b) temperature, (c) number of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, (d) ratio of fast-degrading hydrocarbons (e.g., pristanes or phytanes), and (e) metabolic intermediates. Measurements of oxygen consumption over time and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in soil gas also have been used as indicators of hydrocarbon degradation. An alternative approach that may help substantiate biodegradation is to measure stable carbon isotope ratios in soil gas CO 2 . Stable carbon isotope ratio analysis is inexpensive and commercially available at many laboratories. Carbon dioxide produced by hydrocarbon degradation may be distinguished from that produced by other processes based on the carbon isotopic compositions characteristic of the source material and/or fractionation accompanying microbial metabolism. Here the authors demonstrate the applicability of the stable isotope technique for monitoring enhanced. aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons using data from three locations in the United States

  11. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  14. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Gulf of Trieste sediments (northern Adriatic): potential impacts of maritime traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic) is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in the northern Adriatic, with intense maritime traffic experienced at multiple ports. The impact of maritime traffic on contamination by hydrocarbons in this area was assessed. Concentrations of hydrocarbons were higher near the expected contamination sources and still elevated in the adjacent offshore areas. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly of petrogenic origin, with some contribution of biogenic origin. A continuous contamination by aliphatic hydrocarbons and degradation processes were hypothesized. Concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were generally greater near the contamination sources. Compared to the prevailing pyrolytic origin, the petrogenic PAH origin seemed to be less important, but not negligible. Results revealed that intensive maritime traffic is a probable source of contamination by hydrocarbons in the investigated area, which is largely limited to areas near the contamination sources.

  15. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  16. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  17. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  18. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  20. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  1. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  2. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  3. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  4. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  5. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Al-Omran, Laila

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the central part of the Gulf were measured using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Concentrations varied between 4.0 and 56.2 μg/g wet sediment (expressed as Kuwait Crude Oil equivalents), with an average of 12.3 μ/g. Highest concentrations were recorded in the north-west sector, with concentrations decreasing in a south-westerly direction. No significant correlations were observed between petroleum hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon (r-0.07), 'mud' content (r=0.09), 'sand' content (r= -0.08) or 'gravel' content (r= -0.12). Distributions of oil are considered to relate more closely to prevailing current and localized pollutant sources in the region. Despite the substantial inputs of oil to the Gulf, contamination can be considered comparatively low, possibly reflecting physical processes and biological degradation which accelerate removal of petroleum from this marine environment. (author)

  7. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafidz Yusoff; Zaini Assim; Samsur Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen surface sediment samples collected from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were recovered from sediment by Soxhlet extraction method and then analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/ MS). Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching division are ranged from 35.6 μg/ g to 1466.1 μg/ g dry weights. The sediments collected from Bako Bay, Kuching showed high concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons. Several molecular indices were used to predict the predominant sources of hydrocarbons. Carbon preference index (CPI) value revealed widespread anthropogenic input in this study area (CPI= 0 to 4.1). The ratio of C 31 / C 19 and C 29 / C 31 indicated that major input of aliphatic hydrocarbon mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements. Generally, the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment from South China Sea off Kuching division are generally higher compare to other area in the world. (author)

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  9. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  11. Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Burton, Carmen A.; Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    The variables affecting the occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply in California were assessed based on statistical evaluation of three large statewide datasets; gasoline oxygenates also were analyzed for comparison with hydrocarbons. Benzene is the most frequently detected (1.7%) compound among 17 hydrocarbons analyzed at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration 0.024 μg/l) in groundwater used for public supply in California; methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most frequently detected (5.8%) compound among seven oxygenates analyzed (median detected concentration 0.1 μg/l). At aquifer depths used for public supply, hydrocarbons and MTBE rarely co-occur and are generally related to different variables; in shallower groundwater, co-occurrence is more frequent and there are similar relations to the density or proximity of potential sources. Benzene concentrations are most strongly correlated with reducing conditions, regardless of groundwater age and depth. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that benzene and other hydrocarbons detected in old, deep, and/or brackish groundwater result from geogenic sources of oil and gas. However, in recently recharged (since ~1950), generally shallower groundwater, higher concentrations and detection frequencies of benzene and hydrocarbons were associated with a greater proportion of commercial land use surrounding the well, likely reflecting effects of anthropogenic sources, particularly in combination with reducing conditions.

  12. In Situ Hydrocarbon Degradation by Indigenous Nearshore Bacterial Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrier, J.

    2005-01-01

    series experiments demonstrated that short-term exposure of petroleum to UV light enhanced hydrocarbon degradation by 48% over that observed for non-photo-oxidized petroleum. Despite the greater bio-availability of the photo-oxidized over the non-photo-oxidized petroleum, an initial lag in CO 2 production was observed indicating potential phototoxicity of the photo- by-products. (delta) 13 C analysis and mass balance calculations reveal that co-metabolism with pinfish resulted in increased hydrocarbon degradation for both photo-oxidized and non-photo-oxidized petroleum each by over 100%. These results demonstrate the cumulative effect of photo-oxidation and co-metabolism on petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial populations indigenous to systems chronically impacted by hydrocarbon input. To address the second objective of this proposal bacterial concentrates were collected from Bayboro Harbor in April 2001 for nucleic acid extraction and subsequent natural radiocarbon abundance analyses. Unfortunately, however, all of these samples were lost due to a faulty compressor in our -70 freezer. The freezer was subsequently repaired and samples were again collected from Bayboro Harbor in June 2002 and again December 2002. Several attempts were made to extract the nucleic acid samples--however, the student was not able to successfully extract and an adequate amount of uncontaminated nucleic acid samples for subsequent natural radiocarbon abundance measurements of the bacterial carbon by accelerator mass spectrometry (i.e. require at least 50 (micro)g carbon for AMS measurement). Consequently, we were not able to address the second objective of this proposed work

  13. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  14. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  15. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  16. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Hydrocarbon solvent exposure data: compilation and analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D J; Armstrong, T W; Barone, N J; Suder, J A; Evans, M J

    2000-01-01

    An occupational exposure database for hydrocarbon solvent end-use applications was constructed from the published literature. The database provides exposure assessment information for such purposes as regulatory risk assessments, support of industry product stewardship initiatives, and identification of applications in which limited exposure data are available. It is quantitative, documented, and based on credible data. Approximately 350 articles containing quantitative hydrocarbon solvent exposure data were identified using a search of computer databases of published literature. Many articles did not report sufficient details of the exposure data for inclusion in the database (e.g., full-shift exposure or task-based exposure data). Others were excluded because only limited summary statistics were provided, which precluded statistical analysis of the data (e.g., arithmetic mean concentration presented, but no sample number). Following evaluation, 16,880 hydrocarbon solvent exposure measurements from 99 articles were entered into a database for analysis. Methods used to identify and evaluate published solvent exposure data are described along with more detailed analysis of worker exposure to hydrocarbon solvents in three major end-use applications: painting and coating, printing, and adhesives. Solvent exposures were evaluated against current ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs) and trends were identified. Limited quantitative data are available prior to 1970. In general, reported hydrocarbon solvent exposures decreased fourfold from 1960 to 1998, were below the TLVs applicable to specific hydrocarbon solvents at the time, and on average have been below 40% of the TLV since 1980. The database already has proved valuable; however, the utility of published exposure data could be further improved if authors consistently reported essential data elements and supporting information.

  18. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  19. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  20. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  1. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-01-01

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana–Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r 2 < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  2. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  3. Methane and Benzene in Drinking-Water Wells Overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale Hydrocarbon Production Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B; Barlow, Jeannie R B; Engle, Mark A; Belitz, Kenneth; Ging, Patricia B; Hunt, Andrew G; Jurgens, Bryant C; Kharaka, Yousif K; Tollett, Roland W; Kresse, Timothy M

    2017-06-20

    Water wells (n = 116) overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to investigate the occurrence and sources of selected hydrocarbons in groundwater. Methane isotopes and hydrocarbon gas compositions indicate most of the methane in the wells was biogenic and produced by the CO 2 reduction pathway, not from thermogenic shale gas. Two samples contained methane from the fermentation pathway that could be associated with hydrocarbon degradation based on their co-occurrence with hydrocarbons such as ethylbenzene and butane. Benzene was detected at low concentrations (2500 years, indicating the benzene was from subsurface sources such as natural hydrocarbon migration or leaking hydrocarbon wells. One sample contained benzene that could be from a surface release associated with hydrocarbon production activities based on its age (10 ± 2.4 years) and proximity to hydrocarbon wells. Groundwater travel times inferred from the age-data indicate decades or longer may be needed to fully assess the effects of potential subsurface and surface releases of hydrocarbons on the wells.

  4. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  5. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  6. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  7. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  8. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  9. Field-scale assessment of phytotreatment of soil contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.R.T.; Koskinen, P.E.P.; Tuhkanen, T.A.; Puhakka, J.A. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Tampere Univ. of Tech., Tampere (Finland); Pichtel, J. [Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States); Vaajasaari, K. [Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, Tampere (Finland); Joutti, A. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    Background, Aims, and Scope. Phytoremediation is remediation method which uses plants to remove, contain or detoxify environmental contaminants. Phytoremediation has successfully been applied for the removal of fresh hydrocarbon contamination, but removal of aged hydrocarbons has proven more difficult. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface can be enhanced by the presence of plant roots, i.e. the rhizosphere effect. Phytostabilization reduces heavy metal availability via immobilization in the rhizosphere. Soils contaminated by both hydrocarbons and heavy metals are abundant and may be difficult to treat. Heavy metal toxicity can inhibit the activity of hydrocarbon-degrading micro-organisms and decrease the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria. In this experiment, weathered hydrocarbon- and heavy metal-contaminated soil was treated using phytoremediation in a 39-month field study in attempts to achieve both hydrocarbon removal and heavy metal stabilization. Methods. A combination of hydrocarbon degradation and heavy metal stabilization was evaluated in a field-scale phytoremediation study of weathered contaminants. Soil had been contaminated over several years with hydrocarbons (11,400{+-}4,300 mg kg dry soil){sup -1} and heavy metals from bus maintenance activities and was geologically characterized as till. Concentrations of soil copper, lead and zinc were 170{+-}50 mgkg{sup -1}, 1,100{+-}1,500 mg kg{sup -1} and 390{+-} 340 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The effect of contaminants, plant species and soil amendment (NPK fertilizer or biowaste compost) on metabolic activity of soil microbiota was determined. Phytostabilization performance was investigated by analyses of metal concentrations in plants, soil and site leachate as well as acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri and Enchtraeus albidus. Results. Over 39 months hydrocarbon concentrations did not decrease significantly (P=0.05) in non-amended soil, although 30% of initial hydrocarbon concentrations were

  10. MTBE and aromatic hydrocarbons in North Carolina stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C; Black, David C; McBlief, Kathleen V

    2002-01-01

    A total of 249 stormwater samples were collected from 46 different sampling locations in North Carolina over an approximate 1-year period and analyzed to identify land use types where fuel oxygenates and aromatic hydrocarbons may be present in higher concentrations and at greater frequency. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in ion selective mode to achieve a quantitation limit of 0.05 microg/l. m-,p-Xylene and toluene were detected in over half of all samples analyzed, followed by MTBE: o-xylene: 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene: ethylbenzene; and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. Benzene, DIPE, TAME and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were detected in runoff from a gas station or discharge of contaminated groundwater from a former leaking underground storage tank. For all of the aromatic hydrocarbons, the maximum observed contaminant concentrations were over an order of magnitude lower than current drinking water standards.

  11. total petroleum hydrocarbons in organs of commercially available fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding Author: .... This work was done to access the level of TPH and possible health risk ... fish sample was weighed using analytical balance into a 100 mL ...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  13. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  14. Proficiency Test SYKE 9/2012. Oil hydrocarbons in water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of oil hydrocarbons from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one surface water sample and one soil sample for the determination of oil hydrocarbons were distributed. In total, 18 laboratories participated in the PT. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this p...

  15. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    oxidation of contaminants and by integrating the process to biological treatment, in which the formed degradation products can be biodegraded. Phytoremediation was used to remove fresh and aged petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, and modified FentonAEs reaction combined with biodegradation was used to remove aged creosote oil from soil. The effects of hydrocarbon aging, different plant species and soil amendments on the removal efficiency were studied in phytoremediation experiments. Lab-scale experiments were made with fresh diesel fuel, and a field study was made with aged hydrocarbons deriving from diesel fuel and lubricants. The used plant species were pine, poplar, a grass mixture and a legume mixture. The experiments with modified Fenton's treatment were carried out in soil columns, to which concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added simulating in situ injection. Iron was not added since the soil was rich in iron. After FentonAEs treatment, the soil was incubated in serum bottles to determine the effects on bioavailability of PAHs by modified FentonAEs oxidation and to simulate the potential of intrinsic remediation. In addition to hydrocarbon analyses, the effects of both methods on soil microbial activities and toxicity were determined. In the presence of white clover and green pea, pine or poplar, 89 to 98 % of diesel fuel was removed, whereas the presence of grasses did not increase diesel fuel removal compared to treatment without plants, where up to 86 % of diesel fuel was removed. When diesel was applied to the trees for a second time, reduction in one month was 9 to 25 % higher than what was achieved after first month of first application. During the four growing season study with soil contaminated with aged hydrocarbon contaminants, the presence of vegetation did not increase hydrocarbon removal in unfertilised soil. Vegetation cover was denser in amended soil than in unfertilised soil. The addition of compost or NPK fertiliser enhanced hydrocarbon removal

  16. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  17. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  20. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  1. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  2. Comparison of Composting and Vermicomposting Processes in Refining Drill Cutting Mud from Ahvaz Oil Field in the Presence of Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin takdastan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutting and drilling mud contains significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons that are detrimental to both the environment and public health. The objective of this study was to remove the hazardous components of drill cutting mud using the two biological processes of sewage sludge vermicomposting and biocomposting. In an experimental laboratory research, two pilot composting and vermicomposting processes, each over a period of two months with 2 repetitions, were conducted using the the same biological sludge mixed with drill cuttings contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH along with sawdust and yard waste. The GC-FID unit was used to determine the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Results showed that the vermicomposting pilot had a higher TPH removal efficiency than did the composting one so that TPH concentration in the mixed waste mass declined after 60 days from its original value of 42.004 g/kg to 11.316 g/kg. In other words, TPH removal in the pilots A (vermicomposting and B (biocomposting were 73/06% and 55/3%, respectively. Moreover, the TPH levels in the two composting and vermicomposting pilots on the 45th and 60th days showed significant differences (p < 0.05. The study showed that the vermicomposting process enjoys a higher capability than the composting one in removing TPH from oil-based drill cutting waste.

  3. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  4. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  5. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, César C.; Doumer, Marta E.; Gallice, Wellington C.; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L.; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. - Highlights: • Historical inputs of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary were evaluated. • Spectroscopic and chromatographic methods were used in combination. • High hydrocarbon concentrations were related to anthropogenic activities. • Low hydrocarbon levels could be explained by the 1970s global oil crisis. - Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques could be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments

  7. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concent