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Sample records for hydrocarbon receptor-mediated adverse

  1. Induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogen receptor-mediated activities, and modulation of cell proliferation by dinaphthofurans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Chramostová, Kateřina; Plíšková, M.; Bláha, L.; Brack, W.; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2004), s. 2214-2220 ISSN 0730-7268 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/1527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity * estrogenicity * intercellular communication inhibition Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2004

  2. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shaheen; Liu Shengxi; Stoner, Matthew; Safe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels and also activates inhibitory AhR-ERα crosstalk associated with hormone-induced reporter gene expression. In ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxia, induction of these AhR-mediated responses by TCDD was significantly inhibited. This was not accompanied by decreased nuclear AhR levels or decreased interaction of the AhR complex with the CYP1A1 gene promoter as determined in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hypoxia-induced loss of Ah-responsiveness was not associated with induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or other factors that sequester the AhR nuclear translocation (Arnt) protein, and overexpression of Arnt under hypoxia did not restore Ah-responsiveness. The p65 subunit of NFκB which inhibits AhR-mediated transactivation was not induced by hypoxia and was primarily cytosolic in ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In ZR-75 cells maintained under hypoxic conditions for 24 h, BRCA1 (an enhancer of AhR-mediated transactivation in breast cancer cells) was significantly decreased and this contributed to loss of Ah-responsiveness. In cells grown under hypoxia for 6 h, BRCA1 was not decreased, but induction of CYP1A1 by TCDD was significantly decreased. Cotreatment of ZR-75 cells with TCDD plus the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide for 6 h enhanced CYP1A1 expression in cells grown under hypoxia and normoxia. These results suggest that hypoxia rapidly induces protein(s) that inhibit Ah-responsiveness and these may be similar to constitutively expressed inhibitors of Ah-responsiveness (under normoxia) that are also inhibited by cycloheximide

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with β-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis

  4. Low-dose dioxins alter gene expression related to cholesterol biosynthesis, lipogenesis, and glucose metabolism through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway in mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Haketa, Keiichi; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki; Tohkin, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2008-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental contaminant. TCDD binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), leading to adverse biological responses via the alteration of the expression of various AHR target genes. Although small amounts of TCDD are consumed via contaminated daily foodstuffs and environmental exposures, the effects of low-dose TCDD on gene expression in animal tissues have not been clarified, while a number of genes affected by high-dose TCDD were reported. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed gene expression profiles in livers of C57BL/6N mice that were orally administered relatively low doses of TCDD (5, 50, or 500 ng/kg body weight (bw) day -1 ) for 18 days. The hepatic TCDD concentrations, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were 1.2, 17, and 1063 pg toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ)/g, respectively. The mRNA level of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 was significantly increased by treatment with only TCDD 500 ng/kg bw day -1 . DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed changes in the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm, cholesterol biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis, and glucose metabolism in the liver with at all doses of TCDD employed. However, repression of expression of genes involved in energy metabolism was not observed in the livers of Ahr-null mice that were administered the same dose of TCDD. These results indicate that changes in gene expression by TCDD are mediated by AHR and that exposure to low-dose TCDD could affect energy metabolism via alterations of gene expression

  5. Mode of action and dose-response framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity : The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budinsky, R. A.; Schrenk, D.; Simon, T.; Van Den Berg, M.; Reichard, J. F.; Silkworth, J. B.; Aylward, L. L.; Brix, A.; Gasiewicz, T.; Kaminski, N.; Perdew, G.; Starr, T. B.; Walker, N. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are tumor promoters that cause liver cancer in rats and mice. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been implicated as a key component in this tumor promotion response. Despite extensive knowledge of the toxicology of dioxins, no mode of action (MOA) hypothesis

  6. An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Amplification Loop That Enforces Cell Migration in ER−/PR−/Her2− Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Olga; Wang, Zhongyan; Stanford, Elizabeth A.; Parks, Ashley J.; Ramirez-Cardenas, Alejandra; Landesman, Esther; Laklouk, Israa; Sarita-Reyes, Carmen; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Li, Amy; Monti, Stefano; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in numerous biologic processes. As the known number of AHR-mediated processes grows, so too does the importance of determining what endogenous AHR ligands are produced, how their production is regulated, and what biologic consequences ensue. Consequently, our studies were designed primarily to determine whether ER−/PR−/Her2− breast cancer cells have the potential to produce endogenous AHR ligands and, if so, how production of these ligands is controlled. We postulated that: 1) malignant cells produce tryptophan-derived AHR ligand(s) through the kynurenine pathway; 2) these metabolites have the potential to drive AHR-dependent breast cancer migration; 3) the AHR controls expression of a rate-limiting kynurenine pathway enzyme(s) in a closed amplification loop; and 4) environmental AHR ligands mimic the effects of endogenous ligands. Data presented in this work indicate that primary human breast cancers, and their metastases, express high levels of AHR and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO); representative ER−/PR−/Her2− cell lines express TDO and produce sufficient intracellular kynurenine and xanthurenic acid concentrations to chronically activate the AHR. TDO overexpression, or excess kynurenine or xanthurenic acid, accelerates migration in an AHR-dependent fashion. Environmental AHR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene mimic this effect. AHR knockdown or inhibition significantly reduces TDO2 expression. These studies identify, for the first time, a positive amplification loop in which AHR-dependent TDO2 expression contributes to endogenous AHR ligand production. The net biologic effect of AHR activation by endogenous ligands, which can be mimicked by environmental ligands, is an increase in tumor cell migration, a measure of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:27573671

  7. An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Amplification Loop That Enforces Cell Migration in ER-/PR-/Her2- Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Olga; Wang, Zhongyan; Stanford, Elizabeth A; Parks, Ashley J; Ramirez-Cardenas, Alejandra; Landesman, Esther; Laklouk, Israa; Sarita-Reyes, Carmen; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Li, Amy; Monti, Stefano; Manteiga, Sara; Lee, Kyongbum; Sherr, David H

    2016-11-01

    The endogenous ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in numerous biologic processes. As the known number of AHR-mediated processes grows, so too does the importance of determining what endogenous AHR ligands are produced, how their production is regulated, and what biologic consequences ensue. Consequently, our studies were designed primarily to determine whether ER - /PR - /Her2 - breast cancer cells have the potential to produce endogenous AHR ligands and, if so, how production of these ligands is controlled. We postulated that: 1) malignant cells produce tryptophan-derived AHR ligand(s) through the kynurenine pathway; 2) these metabolites have the potential to drive AHR-dependent breast cancer migration; 3) the AHR controls expression of a rate-limiting kynurenine pathway enzyme(s) in a closed amplification loop; and 4) environmental AHR ligands mimic the effects of endogenous ligands. Data presented in this work indicate that primary human breast cancers, and their metastases, express high levels of AHR and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO); representative ER - /PR - /Her2 - cell lines express TDO and produce sufficient intracellular kynurenine and xanthurenic acid concentrations to chronically activate the AHR. TDO overexpression, or excess kynurenine or xanthurenic acid, accelerates migration in an AHR-dependent fashion. Environmental AHR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene mimic this effect. AHR knockdown or inhibition significantly reduces TDO2 expression. These studies identify, for the first time, a positive amplification loop in which AHR-dependent TDO2 expression contributes to endogenous AHR ligand production. The net biologic effect of AHR activation by endogenous ligands, which can be mimicked by environmental ligands, is an increase in tumor cell migration, a measure of tumor aggressiveness. Copyright © 2016 by The Author(s).

  8. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  9. Tightness and suitability evaluation of abandoned salt caverns served as hydrocarbon energies storage under adverse geological conditions (AGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liu; Jie, Chen; Deyi, Jiang; Xilin, Shi; Yinping, Li; Daemen, J.J.K.; Chunhe, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tightness conditions are set to assess use of old caverns for hydrocarbons storage. • Gas seepage and tightness around caverns are numerically simulated under AGC. • κ of interlayers act as a key factor to affect the tightness and use of salt cavern. • The threshold upper permeability of interlayers is proposed for storing oil and gas. • Three types of real application are introduced by using the tightness conditions. - Abstract: In China, the storage of hydrocarbon energies is extremely insufficient partially due to the lack of storage space, but on the other side the existence of a large number of abandoned salt caverns poses a serious threat to safety and geological environments. Some of these caverns, defined as abandoned caverns under adverse geological conditions (AGC), are expected to store hydrocarbon energies (natural gas or crude oil) to reduce the risk of potential disasters and simultaneously support the national strategic energy reserve of China. Herein, a series of investigations primarily related to the tightness and suitability of the caverns under AGC is performed. Laboratory measurements to determine the physical and mechanical properties as well as porosity and permeability of bedded salt cores from a near target cavern are implemented to determine the petro-mechanical properties and basic parameters for further study. The results show that the mechanical properties of the bedded rock salts are satisfactory for the stability of caverns. The interface between the salt and interlayers exhibits mechanical properties that are between those of rock salt and interlayers and in particular is not a weak zone. The silty mudstone interlayers have relatively high porosity and permeability, likely due to their low content of clay minerals and the presence of halite-filled cracks. The conditions for evaluating the tightness and suitability of a cavern for storing hydrocarbons are proposed, including “No tensile stress,”

  10. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  11. Differential modulation of expression of nuclear receptor mediated genes by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zhiyuan_nju@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Yu, Yijun, E-mail: yjun.yu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Tang, Song [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liu, Hongling, E-mail: hlliu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Su, Guanyong; Xie, Yuwei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hecker, Markus [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Yu, Hongxia [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of TBOEP on expression of genes of several nuclear hormone receptors and their relationship with adverse effect pathways in zebrafish. • TBOEP was neither an agonist nor antagonist of AR or AhR as determined by use of in vitro mammalian cell-based receptor transactivation assays. • Modulation of ER- and MR-dependent pathways allowed for development of feasible receptor-mediated, critical mechanisms of toxic action. - Abstract: As one substitute for phased-out brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is frequently detected in aquatic organisms. However, knowledge about endocrine disrupting mechanisms associated with nuclear receptors caused by TBOEP remained restricted to results from in vitro studies with mammalian cells. In the study, results of which are presented here, embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 μM TBOEP to investigate expression of genes under control of several nuclear hormone receptors (estrogen receptors (ERs), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pregnane × receptor (P × R)) pathways at 120 hpf. Exposure to 0.5 μM TBOEP significantly (p < 0.05, one-way analysis of variance) up-regulated expression of estrogen receptors (ERs, er1, er2a, and er2b) genes and ER-associated genes (vtg4, vtg5, pgr, ncor, and ncoa3), indicating TBOEP modulates the ER pathway. In contrast, expression of most genes (mr, 11βhsd, ube2i,and adrb2b) associated with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro mammalian cell-based (MDA-kb2 and H4IIE-luc) receptor transactivation assays, were also conducted to investigate possible agonistic or antagonistic effects on AR- and AhR-mediated pathways. In mammalian cells, none of these pathways were

  12. Fcγ receptor-mediated inflammation inhibits axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Anti-glycan/ganglioside antibodies are the most common immune effectors found in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is a peripheral autoimmune neuropathy. We previously reported that disease-relevant anti-glycan autoantibodies inhibited axon regeneration, which echo the clinical association of these antibodies and poor recovery in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. However, the specific molecular and cellular elements involved in this antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration are not previously defined. This study examined the role of Fcγ receptors and macrophages in the antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration. A well characterized antibody passive transfer sciatic nerve crush and transplant models were used to study the anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration in wild type and various mutant and transgenic mice with altered expression of specific Fcγ receptors and macrophage/microglia populations. Outcome measures included behavior, electrophysiology, morphometry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting. We demonstrate that the presence of autoantibodies, directed against neuronal/axonal cell surface gangliosides, in the injured mammalian peripheral nerves switch the proregenerative inflammatory environment to growth inhibitory milieu by engaging specific activating Fcγ receptors on recruited monocyte-derived macrophages to cause severe inhibition of axon regeneration. Our data demonstrate that the antibody orchestrated Fcγ receptor-mediated switch in inflammation is one mechanism underlying inhibition of axon regeneration. These findings have clinical implications for nerve repair and recovery in antibody-mediated immune neuropathies. Our results add to the complexity of axon regeneration in injured peripheral and central nervous systems as adverse effects of B cells and autoantibodies on neural injury and repair are increasingly recognized.

  13. Receptor-mediated gene delivery using chemically modified chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T H; Jiang, H L; Nah, J W; Cho, M H; Akaike, T; Cho, C S

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan has been investigated as a non-viral vector because it has several advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity with high cationic potential. However, the low specificity and low transfection efficiency of chitosan need to be solved prior to clinical application. In this paper, we focused on the galactose or mannose ligand modification of chitosan for enhancement of cell specificity and transfection efficiency via receptor-mediated endocytosis in vitro and in vivo

  14. The liver taxis of receptor mediated lactosaminated human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zelian; Shi Lin; Li Tongling; Pang Qijie; He Juying; Guan Changtian

    2002-01-01

    Radiography imaging is used to assess liver taxis mechanism of anti-dwarfism drug lactosaminated human growth hormone (L-rhGH). Both L-rhGH and rhGH labelled with 131 I are used to study their biodistribution in animals (including rabbits, cocks and rats). The results show that L-rhGH is of specific hepatic targeting property, and the maximum hepatic concentration rate is 76.8%, which is two times of rhGH. Its hepatic binding is receptor mediated

  15. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  16. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of trichosanthin in choriocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W.Y.; Huang Hai; Tam, S.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS) is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). It is generally believed that its many biological activities act through inhibition of ribosomes resulting in a decrease in protein synthesis. It has been hypothesized that the rate of entry of TCS into cells to reach ribosomes is an important factor in determining its biological activity. To prove this hypothesis, we have mapped out and compared the intracellular routing of TCS in two cell lines, namely the choriocarcinoma JAR cell line, which is known to be highly sensitive to the toxic effects of TCS, and the hepatoma H35 cell line, to which TCS shows minimal toxicity. Results from laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled TCS quickly accumulated inside JAR cells within 4 h of incubation while only a low level of fluorescent signals was detected in H35 cells during the same period of time. When TCS was conjugated with gold particles (Au) and its intracellular locations were traced with a transmission electron microscope, it was found that most of TCS were bound to coated pits on the JAR cell surface and were rapidly internalized within an hour. By 4 h, TCS reached almost every cytoplasmic region including ribosomes, and the JAR cell began to degenerate. In H35 cells, however, the binding of TCS to coated pits was not observed, but instead, a small amount of TCS was found to penetrate the cell non-specifically by direct diffusion across the cell membrane. Our observations suggest that most of TCS enter JAR cells via a specific receptor mediated pathway, which allows a swift transport of TCS across the membrane and a rapid accumulation of intracellular TCS, while in H35 cells, TCS takes a slow and non-specific route. The receptor-mediated uptake together with the specific intracellular routing of TCS may partly account for the differential vulnerability of the choriocarcinoma cell line towards the toxicity of TCS

  17. DMPD: Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15662540 Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. Li X, Qin J.... J Mol Med. 2005 Apr;83(4):258-66. Epub 2005 Jan 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Modulation of Toll-i...nterleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. PubmedID 15662540 Title Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor

  18. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed.

  20. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Visser, T.J. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dept. of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  1. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  2. Effect of ARA9 on dioxin receptor mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, M.J.; Whitelaw, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The dioxin (Aryl hydrocarbon) receptor (DR) is a unique bHLH transcription factor which is activated by binding of planar aromatic hydrocarbons typified by dioxin (TCDD). The active receptor is key to metabolism of aryl hydrocarbon xenobiotics by being a potent inducer of CYP1A1 gene activity. Chlorinated dioxins are inert to metabolism and initiate multifarious toxicities, including potent tumour promotion. These ill-effects are mediated by the activated DR and we are studying the mechanisms by which the ligand binding domain of the DR controls activity of the protein. The DR ligand binding domain resides within a PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim homology) region which is contiguous with the bHLH. The latent bHLH/PAS dioxin receptor (DR) is found in the cytoplasm of most mammalian cell types in a complex with heat shock protein 90, a novel immunophilin like protein termed ARA9/XAP2/AIP, and the co-chaperone p23. Here we use antisense ARA9 constructs to reveal that in the absence of ARA9, the DR is unable to form a transcriptionally active complex. Co-expression of antisense ARA9 with a form of the DR which is constitutively targeted to the nucleus leads to dramatically decreased levels of the nuclear DR protein, implying that ARA9 may function beyond its currently proposed role in cytoplasmic retention of the latent DR

  3. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  4. Environmental phthalate monoesters activate pregnane X receptor-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Christopher H.; Waxman, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Phthalate esters, widely used as plasticizers in the manufacture of products made of polyvinyl chloride, induce reproductive and developmental toxicities in rodents. The mechanism that underlies these effects of phthalate exposure, including the potential role of members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is not known. The present study investigates the effects of phthalates on the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The ability of phthalate monoesters to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in a HepG2 cell reporter assay following transfection with mouse PXR (mPXR), human PXR (hPXR), or the hPXR allelic variants V140M, D163G, and A370T. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) increased the transcriptional activity of both mPXR and hPXR (5- and 15-fold, respectively) with EC 50 values of 7-8 μM. mPXR and hPXR were also activated by monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, up to 5- to 6-fold) but were unresponsive to monomethyl phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate (M(n)BP) at the highest concentrations tested (300 μM). hPXR-V140M and hPXR-A370T exhibited patterns of phthalate responses similar to the wild-type receptor. By contrast, hPXR-D163G was unresponsive to all phthalate monoesters tested. Further studies revealed that hPXR-D163G did respond to rifampicin, but required approximately 40-fold higher concentrations than wild-type receptor, suggesting that the ligand-binding domain D163G variant has impaired ligand-binding activity. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by phthalate monoesters demonstrated here suggests that these ubiquitous environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals

  5. Upregulation of endothelin ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in rat coronary artery after organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Karen; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction occurred in isolated segments of rat coronary arteries during organ culture. Presence of contractile endothelin ET(B) receptors was studied by measuring the change in isometric tension in rings of left anterior......(+)-solution was not modified after 1 day in culture medium. The experiments indicate that organ culture of rat coronary arteries upregulate endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction by inducing synthesis of new protein....... descending coronary arteries isolated from hearts of rats as response to application of the selective endothelin ET(B) receptor agonist, Sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin-1. In segments cultured 1 day in serum free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sarafotoxin 6c induced a concentration dependent contraction...

  6. THIP, a hypnotic and antinociceptive drug, enhances a tonic GABAA receptor mediated conductance in mouse neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Jensen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    its cellular actions in the neocortex are uncertain, we studied the effects of THIP on neurons in slices of frontoparietal neocortex of 13- to 19-day-old (P13-19) mice. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that the clinically relevant THIP concentration of 1 μM induced a robust tonic GABA...... suggest that THIP activates an extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated conductance in the neocortex, which may alter the cortical network activity....

  7. The Influence of Receptor-Mediated Interactions on Reaction-Diffusion Mechanisms of Cellular Self-organisation

    KAUST Repository

    Klika, Vá clav; Baker, Ruth E.; Headon, Denis; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2011-01-01

    formation, motivating numerous theoretical and experimental studies, though its verification at the molecular level in biological systems has remained elusive. In this work, we consider the influence of receptor-mediated dynamics within the framework

  8. Neuropeptide Y restores non-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Johannes; Dietrich, Peter; Moleda, Lukas; Müller-Schilling, Martina; Wiest, Reiner

    2015-12-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to KCl (30-300 mM) were used to bypass G protein-coupled receptor mechanisms. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-pathway was tested by non-selective cyclooxygenase-inhibition using indomethacin. KCl-induced vascular contractility but not vascular sensitivity was significantly attenuated in PVL rats as compared with sham rats. Administration of NPY resulted in an augmentation of KCl-evoked vascular sensitivity being not different between study groups. However, KCl-induced vascular contractility was markedly more enhanced in PVL rats, thus, vascular response was no more significantly different between PVL and sham rats after addition of NPY. Administration of indomethacin abolished the NPY-induced enhancement of vasoconstriction. Receptor-independent vascular contractility is impaired in mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension. NPY improves non-receptor mediated mesenteric vasoconstriction more effective in portal hypertension than in healthy conditions correcting splanchnic vascular hyporesponsiveness. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  9. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery to Macrophages in Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha; Chaudhuri, Gautam; Arora, Sunil K.; Sehgal, Shobha; Basu, Sandip K.

    1989-05-01

    Methotrexate coupled to maleylated bovine serum albumin was taken up efficiently through the ``scavenger'' receptors present on macrophages and led to selective killing of intracellular Leishmania mexicana amazonensis amastigotes in cultured hamster peritoneal macrophages. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free methotrexate in eliminating the intracellular parasites. Furthermore, in a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters, the drug conjugate brought about more than 90% reduction in the size of footpad lesions within 11 days. In contrast, the free drug at a similar concentration did not significantly affect lesion size. These studies demonstrate the potential of receptor-mediated drug delivery in the therapy of macrophage-associated diseases.

  10. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  11. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis. (paper)

  12. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor-mediated feeding and grooming in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Spruijt, Berry M; Brakkee, Jan H; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-11-05

    Decades ago it was recognized that the pharmacological profile of melanocortin ligands that stimulated grooming behavior in rats was strikingly similar to that of Xenopus laevis melanophore pigment dispersion. After cloning of the melanocortin MC1 receptor, expressed in melanocytes, and the melanocortin MC4 receptor, expressed mainly in brain, the pharmacological profiles of these receptors appeared to be very similar and it was demonstrated that these receptors mediate melanocortin-induced pigmentation and grooming respectively. Grooming is a low priority behavior that is concerned with care of body surface. Activation of central melanocortin MC4 receptors is also associated with meal termination, and continued postprandial stimulation of melanocortin MC4 receptors may stimulate natural postprandial grooming behavior as part of the behavioral satiety sequence. Indeed, melanocortins fail to suppress food intake or induce grooming behavior in melanocortin MC4 receptor-deficient rats. This review will focus on how melanocortins affect grooming behavior through the melanocortin MC4 receptor, and how melanocortin MC4 receptors mediate feeding behavior. This review also illustrates how melanocortins were the most likely candidates to mediate grooming and feeding based on the natural behaviors they induced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Receptor-mediated photo-cytotoxicity: synthesis of a photoactivatable psoralen derivative conjugated to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, F P; Knobler, R M; Yemul, S S; Bisaccia, E; Edelson, R L

    1986-12-15

    4'-Aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen has been chemically conjugated to insulin using a carbodiimide derivative. The psoralen moiety retains its photochemical reactivity as evidenced by its ability to crosslink DNA after exposure to long wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA, 320-400 nm). This chimeric molecule has been used to selectively kill a population of lymphocytes whose expression of insulin receptors has been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Insulin carries the psoralen into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis, where it is subsequently activated by exposure to UVA light. The UVA induced activity of AMT-insulin can be blocked by the presence of native insulin. The viability of unstimulated lymphocytes was not affected by AMT-insulin and UVA light. The hybrid insulin-psoralen molecule may be a prototype for a family of phototoxic drugs which can be selectively delivered to subsets of lymphocytes.

  14. Platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide responses in endogenous depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hideki; Koyama, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Itaru

    1991-01-01

    We have previously indicated that epinephrine stimulates phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis by activating alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in human platelets. This method involves the measurement of the accumulation of [ 3 H]-inositol-1-phosphate (IP-1) as an index of Pl hydrolysis; lithium is added to inhibit the metabolism of IP-1, thus giving an enhanced signal. In the present study, we assessed the platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated PI responses in samples from 15 unmedicated patients with endogenous depression and 15 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The responses to epinephrine in the depressed patients were significantly higher than those of the controls, whereas the basal values did not differ significantly. These results support the hypothesis that platelet alpha-2 adrenergic receptors may be supersensitive in patients with endogenous depression

  15. Bicarbonate Contributes to GABAA Receptor-Mediated Neuronal Excitation in Surgically-Resected Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Young, Kim; Fenoglio, Kristina A.; Kerrigan, John F.; Rho, Jong M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in GABAA receptor-mediated depolarization of human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) neurons was investigated using cellular electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Activation of GABAA receptors with muscimol (30 μM) provoked neuronal excitation in over 70% of large (18-22 μM) HH neurons in HCO3- buffer. Subsequent perfusion of HCO3--free HEPES buffer produced partial suppression of muscimol-induced excitation. Additionally, 53% of large HH neurons under HCO3--free conditions exhibited reduced intracellular calcium accumulation by muscimol. These results suggest that HCO3- efflux through GABAA receptors on a subpopulation of large HH neurons may contribute to membrane depolarization and subsequent activation of L-type calcium channels. PMID:19022626

  16. Gelidium amansii promotes dendritic spine morphology and synaptogenesis, and modulates NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hong, Yong-Ki; Nam, Joo Hyun; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are essential for the differentiation and maturation of developing neurons as well as providing survival support to the mature neurons. Moreover, therapeutically neurotrophic factors are promising to reconstruct partially damaged neuronal networks in neurodegenerative diseases. In the previous study, we reported that the ethanol extract of an edible marine alga, Gelidium amansii (GAE) had shown promising effects in the development and maturation of both axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in primary culture of hippocampal neurons (1) GAE promotes a significant increase in the number of filopodia and dendritic spines; (2) promotes synaptogenesis; (3) enhances N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor recruitment; and (4) modulates NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. Taken together these findings that GAE might be involved in both morphological and functional maturation of neurons suggest the possibility that GAE may constitute a promising candidate for novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Multifunctional pH-Responsive Folate Receptor Mediated Polymer Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqing; Yang, Xiaoye; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Deqing; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional pH-responsive folate receptor mediated targeted polymer nanoparticles (TPNps) were developed for docetaxel (DTX) delivery based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)poly (β-amino ester) (P123-PAE) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (P123-FA) copolymers. The DTX was loaded into the TPNps with a decent drug loading content of 15.02 ± 0.14 wt%. In vitro drug release results showed that the DTX was released from the TPNps at a pH-dependent manner. Tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay revealed that the bland polymer nanoparticles displayed almost nontoxicity at 200 μg/mL concentration. However, the DTX-loaded TPNps showed high anti-tumor activity at low IC50 (0.72 μg/mL) for MCF-7 cells following 48 h incubation. Cellular uptake experiments revealed that the TPNps had higher degree of cellular uptake than nontargeted polymer nanoparticles, indicating that the nanoparticles were internalized into the cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the cellular uptake pathways for the FA grafted polymer were involved in energy-dependent, clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The cell killing effect and cellular uptake of the DTX-TPNps by the MCF-7 cells were all enhanced by about two folds at pH 5.5 when compared with pH 7.4. The TPNps also significantly prolonged the in vivo retention time for the DTX. These results suggest that the biocompatible pH responsive folate-modified polymer nanoparticles present a promising safe nanosystem for intracellular targeted delivery of DTX.

  18. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis

  19. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated 36chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated 36 chloride ( 36 Cl - ) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated 36 Cl - uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regional variation in muscimol-stimulated 36 Cl - uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated 36 Cl - uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br - >Cl - ≥NO 3 - >I - ≥SCN - >>C 3 H 5 OO - ≥ClO 4 - >F - , consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl - channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  20. The role of receptor-mediated T-cells activation disorders in pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Esimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the peculiarities and mechanisms of receptor-mediated T-lymphocytes disorders in different clinical forms of pulmonary tuberculosis.Materials and мethods. The study involved 116 patients with first diagnosed infiltrative and disseminated drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. The key stages in receptor-mediated activation of T-lymphocytes, isolated from blood, after their CD3/CD28-induction in vitro with addition of intracellular transport blocker were analyzed. Their immunotyping was carried out with the method of two- and threecolor flow cytofluorometry. The obtained results were statistically analyzed.Results. The breach of extracellular and intracellular stages of T-lymphocytes activation, shown by reduction in total number of CD3- and CD28-positive cells, and CD3+CD28+IL2+, CD3+CD28+IL2–, CD3+NF-kB+, CD3+NFAT2+ lymphocytes, and increase in number of CD3+CTLA4+ cells, was identified with most of their manifestations in disseminated drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. It was shown that the content of CD3+AP-1+ lymphocytes is variable in drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: it increases in the infiltrative form and decreases in the disseminated form.Conclusion. The results showed different mechanisms leading to a deficiency of IL-2-positive lymphocytes and T-lymphocytopenia: from “functional reserve” exhaustion of T-cells in drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis to immunosuppression under the influence of suppressive cytokines (in case of the infiltrative form and inhibitory protein CTLA4 (in case of the disseminated form in drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. 

  1. Effects of sarcosine and N, N-dimethylglycine on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ruu; Tu, Yi-Shu; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2017-02-28

    Sarcosine, a glycine transporter type 1 inhibitor and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor co-agonist at the glycine binding site, potentiates NMDA receptor function. Structurally similar to sarcosine, N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is also N-methyl glycine-derivative amino acid and commonly used as a dietary supplement. The present study compared the effects of sarcosine and DMG on NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory field potentials (EFPs) in mouse medial prefrontal cortex brain slices using a multi-electrode array system. Glycine, sarcosine and DMG alone did not alter the NMDA receptor-mediated EFPs, but in combination with glutamate, glycine and its N-methyl derivatives significantly increased the frequency and amplitude of EFPs. The enhancing effects of glycine analogs in combination with glutamate on EFPs were remarkably reduced by the glycine binding site antagonist 7-chlorokynurenate (7-CK). However, DMG, but not sarcosine, reduced the frequency and amplitude of EFPs elicited by co-application of glutamate plus glycine. D-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine binding site on NMDA receptors, affected EFPs in a similar manner to DMG. Furthermore, DMG, but not sarcosine, reduced the frequencies and amplitudes of EFPs elicited by glutamate plus D-serine, another endogenous ligand for glycine binding site. These findings suggest that sarcosine acts as a full agonist, yet DMG is a partial agonist at glycine binding site of NMDA receptors. The molecular docking analysis indicated that the interactions of glycine, sarcosine, and DMG to NMDA receptors are highly similar, supporting that the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors is a critical target site for sarcosine and DMG.

  2. The Influence of Receptor-Mediated Interactions on Reaction-Diffusion Mechanisms of Cellular Self-organisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Baker, R. E.; Headon, D.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2012), s. 935-957 ISSN 0092-8240 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : reaction-diffusion * receptor-mediated patterning * turing models Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/9713544x6871w4n6/?MUD=MP

  3. Vascular endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction requires phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guogang; Jamali, Roya; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    In cardiovascular diseases, endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells are upregulated. The present study revealed that organ culture of rat mesenteric artery segments enhanced endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction paralleled with increase in the receptor mRNA an...

  4. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B 2 receptor agonist) and des-Arg 9 -bradykinin- (selective B 1 receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE 2 . The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg 9 -bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B 2 receptors, but not those on B 1 . Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in some patients with asthma

  5. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in

  6. Assessment of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a human cell-based reporter gene assay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Pěnčíková, K.; Neca, J.; Ciganek, M.; Grycová, A.; Dvořák, Z.; Machala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 220, JAN2017 (2017), s. 307-316 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07711S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : rat primary hepatocytes * liver epithelial-cells * cancer-risk assessment Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  7. Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Potapenko, Evgeniy S

    2013-08-15

    An enhanced glutamate excitatory function within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricluar nuclei is known to contribute to increased neurosecretory and presympathetic neuronal activity, and hence, neurohumoral activation, during heart failure (HF). Still, the precise mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamate-driven neuronal activity in HF remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed simultaneous electrophysiology and fast confocal Ca²⁺ imaging to determine whether altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ levels (NMDA-ΔCa²⁺) occurred in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in HF rats. We found that activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a larger ΔCa²⁺ in MNCs from HF when compared with sham rats. The enhanced NMDA-ΔCa²⁺ was neither dependent on the magnitude of the NMDA-mediated current (voltage clamp) nor on the degree of membrane depolarization or firing activity evoked by NMDA (current clamp). Differently from NMDA receptor activation, firing activity evoked by direct membrane depolarization resulted in similar changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ in sham and HF rats. Taken together, our results support a relatively selective alteration of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and signaling following activation of NMDA receptors in MNCs during HF. The downstream functional consequences of such altered ΔCa²⁺ signaling during HF are discussed.

  8. Novel isoforms of the TFIID subunit TAF4 modulate nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunkhorst, Adrian; Neuman, Toomas; Hall, Anita; Arenas, Ernest; Bartfai, Tamas; Hermanson, Ola; Metsis, Madis

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factor TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFs). TAFs are essential for modulation of transcriptional activity but the regulation of TAFs is complex and many important aspects remain unclear. In this study, we have identified and characterized five novel truncated forms of the TFIID subunit TAF4 (TAF II 135). Analysis of the mouse gene structure revealed that all truncations were the results of alternative splicing and resulted in the loss of domains or parts of domains implicated in TAF4 functional interactions. Results from transcriptional assays showed that several of the TAF4 isoforms exerted dominant negative effects on TAF4 activity in nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional activation. In addition, alternative TAF4 isoforms could be detected in specific cell types. Our results indicate an additional level of complexity in TAF4-mediated regulation of transcription and suggest context-specific roles for these new TAF4 isoforms in transcriptional regulation in vivo

  9. Plant cell surface receptor-mediated signaling - a common theme amid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Zhou, Jinggeng; Shan, Libo; Meng, Xiangzong

    2018-01-29

    Sessile plants employ a diverse array of plasma membrane-bound receptors to perceive endogenous and exogenous signals for regulation of plant growth, development and immunity. These cell surface receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that harbor different extracellular domains for perception of distinct ligands. Several RLK and RLP signaling pathways converge at the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), which function as shared co-receptors. A repertoire of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) associate with the receptor complexes to relay intracellular signaling. Downstream of the receptor complexes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are among the key signaling modules at which the signals converge, and these cascades regulate diverse cellular and physiological responses through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. In this Review, we summarize the emerging common theme that underlies cell surface receptor-mediated signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana : the dynamic association of RLKs and RLPs with specific co-receptors and RLCKs for signal transduction. We further discuss how signaling specificities are maintained through modules at which signals converge, with a focus on SERK-mediated receptor signaling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca 2+ in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP 4 ), an IP 3 derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP 4 are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP 4 in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in [ 3 H]IP 4 and [ 3 H]IP 3 accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. [ 3 H]IP 4 accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP 3 and IP 4 hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP 4 and calcium homeostasis

  11. Electroacupuncture Potentiates Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Descending Inhibitory Control in a Mouse Model of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (KOA is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, which can lead to chronic pain. Although electroacupuncture (EA is effective in relieving chronic pain in the clinic, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced diffuse noxius inhibitory controls (DNIC function is associated with chronic pain and may be related to the action of endocannabinoids. In the present study, we determined whether EA may potentiate cannabinoid receptor-mediated descending inhibitory control and inhibit chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA. We found that the optimized parameters of EA inhibiting chronic pain were the low frequency and high intensity (2 Hz + 1 mA. EA reversed the reduced expression of CB1 receptors and the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG level in the midbrain in chronic pain. Microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG can reversed the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity and DNIC function. In addition, CB1 receptors on GABAergic but not glutamatergic neurons are involved in the EA effect on DNIC function and descending inhibitory control of 5-HT in the medulla, thus inhibiting chronic pain. Our data suggest that endocannabinoid (2-AG-CB1R-GABA-5-HT may be a novel signaling pathway involved in the effect of EA improving DNIC function and inhibiting chronic pain.

  12. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  13. Killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by receptor-mediated drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Basu, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    p-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) conjugated to maleylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA) was taken up efficiently through high-affinity MBSA-binding sites on macrophages. Binding of the radiolabeled conjugate to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C was competed for by MBSA but not by PAS. At 37 degrees C, the radiolabeled conjugate was rapidly degraded by the macrophages, leading to release of acid-soluble degradation products in the medium. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free PAS in killing the intracellular mycobacteria in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected in culture with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The killing of intracellular mycobacteria mediated by the drug conjugate was effectively prevented by simultaneous addition of excess MBSA (100 micrograms/ml) or chloroquine (3 microM) to the medium, whereas these agents did not affect the microbicidal action of free PAS. These results suggest that (i) uptake of the PAS-MBSA conjugate was mediated by cell surface receptors on macrophages which recognize MBSA and (ii) lysosomal hydrolysis of the internalized conjugate resulted in intracellular release of a pharmacologically active form of the drug, which led to selective killing of the M. tuberculosis harbored by mouse macrophages infected in culture. This receptor-mediated modality of delivering drugs to macrophages could contribute to greater therapeutic efficacy and minimization of toxic side effects in the management of tuberculosis and other intracellular mycobacterial infections

  14. GABA-A Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus. Recently, a consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model has been proposed at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors based on structure-activity relationship for functional activation of tonic currents and seizure protection. Aside from anticonvulsant actions, neurosteroids have been found to be powerful anxiolytic and anesthetic agents. Neurosteroids and Zn 2+ have preferential affinity for δ-containing receptors. Thus, Zn 2+ can prevent neurosteroid activation of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. Recently, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ selectively inhibits extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors and thereby fully prevents AP activation of tonic inhibition and seizure protection. We confirmed that neurosteroids exhibit greater sensitivity at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors. Overall, extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors are primary mediators of tonic inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  16. The effect of vanadate on receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in rat liver parenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, G.M.; Gudmundsen, O.; Berg, T.

    1990-01-01

    Vanadate is a phosphate analogue that inhibits enzymes involved in phosphate release and transfer reactions. Since such reactions may play important roles in endocytosis, we studied the effects of vanadate on various steps in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid labeled with 125I-tyramine-cellobiose (125I-TC-AOM). The labeled degradation products formed from 125I-TC-AOM are trapped in the lysosomes and may therefore serve as lysosomal markers in subcellular fractionation studies. Vanadate reduced the amount of active surface asialoglycoprotein receptors approximately 70%, but had no effect on the rate of internalization and retroendocytosis of ligand. The amount of surface asialoglycoprotein receptors can be reduced by lowering the incubation temperature gradually from 37 to 15 degrees C; vanadate affected only the temperature--sensitive receptors. Vanadate inhibited degradation of 125I-TC-AOM 70-80%. Degradation was much more sensitive to vanadate than binding; half-maximal effects were seen at approximately 1 mM vanadate for binding and approximately 0.1 mM vanadate for degradation. By subcellular fractionation in sucrose and Nycodenz gradients, it was shown that vanadate completely prevented the transfer of 125I-TC-AOM from endosomes to lysosomes. Therefore, the inhibition of degradation by vanadate was indirect; in the presence of vanadate, ligand did not gain access to the lysosomes. The limited degradation in the presence of vanadate took place in a prelysosomal compartment. Vanadate did not affect cell viability and ATP content

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  18. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing

  19. Influence of ER leak on resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ and receptor-mediated Ca2+ signalling in human macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhadi, Janice A; Fountain, Samuel J

    2017-06-03

    Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyto ) and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca 2+ leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca 2+ leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca 2+ ] cyto revealing a Ca 2+ leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin. IP 3 receptors (Xestospongin C, 2-APB), ryanodine receptors (dantrolene), and translocon (anisomycin) inhibition facilitated ER Ca 2+ leak in model macrophage, with translocon inhibition also reducing resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . In primary macrophage, translocon inhibition blocks Ca 2+ leak but does not influence resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . We identify a role for translocon-mediated ER Ca 2+ leak in receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in both model and primary human macrophage, whereby the Ca 2+ response to ADP (P2Y receptor agonist) is augmented following anisomycin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate a role of ER Ca 2+ leak via the translocon in controlling resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in model macrophage and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in model macrophage and primary macrophage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Receptor-mediated mechanism for the transport of prolactin from blood to cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R.J.; Slaby, F.J.; Posner, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) interacts with areas of the central nervous system which reside behind the blood-brain barrier. While vascular PRL does not cross this barrier, it is readily accessible to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from which it may gain access to the PRL-responsive areas of the brain. Studies were undertaken to characterize the mechanism responsible for the translocation of PRL from blood to CSF. Rats were given external jugular vein injections of [ 125 -I]iodo-PRL in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled ovine PRL (oPRL), human GH, bovine GH, or porcine insulin. CSF and choroid plexus were removed 60 min later. CSF samples were electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels and resultant autoradiographs were analyzed with quantitative microdensitometry. The data revealed that unlabeled lactogenic hormones, viz. oPRL and human GH, caused a statistically significant inhibition of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL transport from blood to CSF. In contrast, nonlactogenic hormones, viz bovine GH and insulin, had no effect on [ 125 I]iodo-PRL transport into the CSF. An identical pattern of competition was observed in the binding of hormone to the choroid plexus. Furthermore, vascular injections of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL administered with a range of concentrations of unlabeled oPRL revealed a dose-response inhibition in the transport of [ 125 I]iodo-PRL from blood to CSF. The study demonstrates that PRL enters the CSF by a specific, PRL receptor-mediated transport mechanism. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that the transport mechanism resides at the choroid plexus. The existence of this transport mechanism reflects the importance of the cerebroventricular system in PRL-brain interactions

  1. Decreased α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated inositide hydrolysis in neurons from hypertensive rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldstein, J.B.; Gonzales, R.A.; Baker, S.P.; Sumners, C.; Crews, F.T.; Raizada, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of α 1 -adrenergic receptors and norepinephrine (NE)-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol phospholipid has been studied in neuronal cultures from the brains of normotensive (Wistar-Kyoto, WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. Binding of 125 I-1-[β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-aminomethyl] tetralone (HEAT) to neuronal membranes was 68-85% specific and was rapid. Competition-inhibition experiments with various agonists and antagonists suggested that 125 I-HEAT bound selectively to α 1 -adrenergic receptors. Specific binding of 125 I-HEAT to neuronal membranes from SH rat brain cultures was 30-45% higher compared with binding in WKY normotensive controls. This increase was attributed to an increase in the number of α 1 -adrenergic receptors on SH rat brain neurons. Incubation of neuronal cultures of rat brain from both strains with NE resulted in a concentration-dependent stimulation of release of inositol phosphates, although neurons from SH rat brains were 40% less responsive compared with WKY controls. The decrease in responsiveness of SH rat brain neurons to NE, even though the α 1 -adrenergic receptors are increased, does not appear to be due to a general defect in membrane receptors and postreceptor signal transduction mechanisms. This is because neither the number of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors nor the carbachol-stimulated release of inositol phosphates is different in neuronal cultures from the brains of SH rats compared with neuronal cultures from the brains of WKY rats. These observations suggest that the increased expression of α 1 -adrenergic receptors does not parallel the receptor-mediated inositol phosphate hydrolysis in neuronal cultures from SH rat brain

  2. Milrinone attenuates thromboxane receptor-mediated hyperresponsiveness in hypoxic pulmonary arterial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K T; Elkhateeb, O; Nolette, N; Outbih, O; Halayko, A J; Dakshinamurti, S

    2011-07-01

    Neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, due in part to dysregulation of the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. Hypoxia induces TP receptor-mediated hyperresponsiveness, whereas serine phosphorylation mediates desensitization of TP receptors. We hypothesized that prostacyclin (IP) receptor activity induces TP receptor phosphorylation and decreases ligand affinity; that TP receptor sensitization in hypoxic myocytes is due to IP receptor inactivation; and that this would be reversible by the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor milrinone. We examined functional regulation of TP receptors by serine phosphorylation and effects of IP receptor stimulation and protein kinase A (PKA) activity on TP receptor sensitivity in myocytes from neonatal porcine resistance pulmonary arteries after 72 h hypoxia in vitro. Ca(2+) response curves to U46619 (TP receptor agonist) were determined in hypoxic and normoxic myocytes incubated with or without iloprost (IP receptor agonist), forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator), H8 (PKA inhibitor) or milrinone. TP and IP receptor saturation binding kinetics were measured in presence of iloprost or 8-bromo-cAMP. Ligand affinity for TP receptors was normalized in vitro by IP receptor signalling intermediates. However, IP receptor affinity was compromised in hypoxic myocytes, decreasing cAMP production. Milrinone normalized TP receptor sensitivity in hypoxic myocytes by restoring PKA-mediated regulatory TP receptor phosphorylation. TP receptor sensitivity and EC(50) for TP receptor agonists was regulated by PKA, as TP receptor serine phosphorylation by PKA down-regulated Ca(2+) mobilization. Hypoxia decreased IP receptor activity and cAMP generation, inducing TP receptor hyperresponsiveness, which was reversed by milrinone. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis generates nanomechanical force reflective of ligand identity and cellular property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ren, Juan; Wang, Jingren; Li, Shixie; Zou, Qingze; Gao, Nan

    2018-08-01

    Whether environmental (thermal, chemical, and nutrient) signals generate quantifiable, nanoscale, mechanophysical changes in the cellular plasma membrane has not been well elucidated. Assessment of such mechanophysical properties of plasma membrane may shed lights on fundamental cellular process. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement of the mechanical properties of live cells was hampered by the difficulty in accounting for the effects of the cantilever motion and the associated hydrodynamic force on the mechanical measurement. These challenges have been addressed in our recently developed control-based AFM nanomechanical measurement protocol, which enables a fast, noninvasive, broadband measurement of the real-time changes in plasma membrane elasticity in live cells. Here we show using this newly developed AFM platform that the plasma membrane of live mammalian cells exhibits a constant and quantifiable nanomechanical property, the membrane elasticity. This mechanical property sensitively changes in response to environmental factors, such as the thermal, chemical, and growth factor stimuli. We demonstrate that different chemical inhibitors of endocytosis elicit distinct changes in plasma membrane elastic modulus reflecting their specific molecular actions on the lipid configuration or the endocytic machinery. Interestingly, two different growth factors, EGF and Wnt3a, elicited distinct elastic force profiles revealed by AFM at the plasma membrane during receptor-mediated endocytosis. By applying this platform to genetically modified cells, we uncovered a previously unknown contribution of Cdc42, a key component of the cellular trafficking network, to EGF-stimulated endocytosis at plasma membrane. Together, this nanomechanical AFM study establishes an important foundation that is expandable and adaptable for investigation of cellular membrane evolution in response to various key extracellular signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Decrement of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in dentate granule cells in epileptic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, M

    1996-05-01

    1. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were studied in hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGCs) in the pilocarpine model and human temporal lobe epilepsy, with the use of the whole cell patch-clamp recording technique in slice preparations. 2. In the pilocarpine model, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats that were allowed to experience spontaneous seizures for 2 mo. Human hippocampal specimens were obtained from epileptic patients who underwent surgical treatment for medically intractable seizures. 3. IPSCs were generated by single perforant path stimulation and recorded at a membrane potential (Vm) of 0 mV near the reversal potential of glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents in the voltage-clamp recording. IPSCs were pharmacologically identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) IPSCs by 10 microM bicuculline methiodide. 4. During low-frequency stimulation, IPSCs were not different in amplitude among non-seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, human nonsclerotic hippocampi, seizure-experienced rat hippocampi, and human sclerotic hippocampi. In the last two groups of DGCs, current-clamp recordings indicated the presence of prolonged excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) mediated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. 5. High-frequency stimulation, administered at Vm = -30 mV to activate NMDA currents, reduced GABAA IPSC amplitude specifically in seizure-experienced rat hippocampi (t = 2.5, P < 0.03) and human sclerotic hippocampi (t = 7.7, P < 0.01). This reduction was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) (50 microM). The time for GABAA IPSCs to recover to their original amplitude was also shortened by the application of APV. 6. I conclude that, when intensively activated, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory transmission may interact with GABAergic synaptic inhibition in DGCs in seizure-experienced hippocampus to transiently reduce GABA(A) receptor-channel function. Such interactions may contribute to

  6. Receptor-mediated transcytosis of cyclophilin B through the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, M; Descamps, L; Allain, F; Denys, A; Durieux, S; Fenart, L; Kieda, C; Cecchelli, R; Spik, G

    1999-07-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein mainly located in intracellular vesicles and secreted in biological fluids. In previous works, we demonstrated that CyPB interacts with T lymphocytes and enhances in vitro cellular incorporation and activity of CsA. In addition to its immunosuppressive activity, CsA is able to promote regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves. However, the crossing of the drug from plasma to neural tissue is restricted by the relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. To know whether CyPB might also participate in the delivery of CsA into the brain, we have analyzed the interactions of CyPB with brain capillary endothelial cells. First, we demonstrated that CyPB binds to two types of binding sites present at the surface of capillary endothelial cells from various species of tissues. The first type of binding sites (K(D) = 300 nM; number of sites = 3 x 10(6)) is related to interactions with negatively charged compounds such as proteoglycans. The second type of binding sites, approximately 50,000 per cell, exhibits a higher affinity for CyPB (K(D) = 15 nM) and is involved in an endocytosis process, indicating it might correspond to a functional receptor. Finally, the use of an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier allowed us to demonstrate that CyPB is transcytosed by a receptor-mediated pathway (flux = 16.5 fmol/cm2/h). In these conditions, CyPB did not significantly modify the passage of CsA, indicating that it is unlikely to provide a pathway for CsA brain delivery.

  7. NMDA receptors mediate neuron-to-glia signaling in mouse cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Ulyana; Pankratov, Yuri; Kirchhoff, Frank; North, R Alan; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2006-03-08

    Chemical transmission between neurons and glial cells is an important element of integration in the CNS. Here, we describe currents activated by NMDA in cortical astrocytes, identified in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Astrocytes were studied by whole-cell voltage clamp either in slices or after gentle nonenzymatic mechanical dissociation. Acutely isolated astrocytes showed a three-component response to glutamate. The initial rapid component was blocked by 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), which is an antagonist of AMPA receptors (IC50, 2 microM), and the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP-5 blocked the later sustained component (IC50, 0.6 microM). The third component of glutamate application response was sensitive to D,L-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate, a glutamate transporter blocker. Fast application of NMDA evoked concentration-dependent inward currents (EC50, 0.3 microM); these showed use-dependent block by (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801). These NMDA-evoked currents were linearly dependent on membrane potential and were not affected by extracellular magnesium at concentrations up to 10 mM. Electrical stimulation of axons in layer IV-VI induced a complex inward current in astrocytes situated in the cortical layer II, part of which was sensitive to MK-801 at holding potential -80 mV and was not affected by the AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist NBQX. The fast miniature spontaneous currents were observed in cortical astrocytes in slices as well. These currents exhibited both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. We conclude that cortical astrocytes express functional NMDA receptors that are devoid of Mg2+ block, and these receptors are involved in neuronal-glial signal transmission.

  8. Scavenger receptors mediate the role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Talamillo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval-pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor, the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi-mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues.

  9. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  10. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of low density lipoproteins in aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanan, D.A.

    1986-04-01

    Lipoprotein binding and metabolism in actively-dividing (subconfluent) and quiescent (postconfluent) bovine aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were qualitatively investigated by fluorescence microscopy using dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-labelled lipoproteins and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. LDL and acetylated-LDL (AcLDL) were seen bound to the surfaces of subconfluent ECs (at 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C), as a random distribution of punctate foci. ECs therefore closely resembled fibroblasts in the distribution of LDL receptors on their surfaces. No binding of LDL was seen on postconfluent EC surfaces by either direct or indirect fluorescence microscopy. The patterns of AcLDL binding on postconfluent ECs resembled those on subconfluent ECs. Intracellular LDL and AcLDL occurred as perinuclear accumulations of large fluorescent disc-shaped profiles in subconfluent ECs. These accumulations were shown to arise from surface-bound material by pulse-chase experiments. Intracellular LDL was absent in the majority of postconfluent ECs, while AcLDL accumulation was massive. 'Wounding' of cultures allowed simultaneous assessment of lipoprotein metabolism in quiescent and actively-dividing areas of the same culture. It is concluded that postconfluent quiescent bovine aortic ECs in vitro metabolise virtually no LDL via the LDL-receptor pathway due to a vanishingly low number of LDL receptors. This contrasts with the ability of postconfluent cells to metabolise relatively large amounts of AcLDL via a receptor-mediated mechanism. The significance of these conclusions is discussed with respect to the interaction of plasma lipoproteins with the endothelium in vivo. 301 refs

  11. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Versalovic, James

    2015-12-15

    -mediated suppression of colonic inflammation. The effective combination of diet, gut bacteria, and host receptor-mediated signaling may result in opportunities for therapeutic microbiology and provide clues for discovery and development of next-generation probiotics. Copyright © 2015 Gao et al.

  12. Astrocytes protect neurons against methylmercury via ATP/P2Y(1) receptor-mediated pathways in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yusuke; Shinozaki, Youichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in astrocytes, thereby protecting neurons against MeHg via interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated pathways. MeHg increased several mRNAs in astrocytes, among which IL-6 was the highest. For this, ATP/P2Y1 receptor-mediated mechanisms were required because the IL-6 production was (i) inhibited by a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, (ii) abolished in astrocytes obtained from P2Y1 receptor-knockout mice, and (iii) mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. In addition, (iv) MeHg released ATP by exocytosis from astrocytes. As for the intracellular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 production, p38 MAP kinase was involved. MeHg-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) showed neuro-protective effects against MeHg, which was blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody and was mimicked by the application of recombinant IL-6. As for the mechanism of neuro-protection by IL-6, an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pathway in neurons seems to be involved. Taken together, when astrocytes sense MeHg, they release ATP that autostimulates P2Y1 receptors to upregulate IL-6, thereby leading to A1 receptor-mediated neuro-protection against MeHg.

  13. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  14. In vitro binding and receptor-mediated activity of terlipressin at vasopressin receptors V1 and V2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khurram; Pappas, Stephen Chris; Devarakonda, Krishna R

    2018-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic, systemic vasoconstrictor with selective activity at vasopressin-1 (V 1 ) receptors, is a pro-drug for the endogenous/natural porcine hormone [Lys 8 ]-vasopressin (LVP). We investigated binding and receptor-mediated cellular activities of terlipressin, LVP, and endogenous human hormone [Arg 8 ]-vasopressin (AVP) at V 1 and vasopressin-2 (V 2 ) receptors. Cell membrane homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human V 1 and V 2 receptors were used in competitive binding assays to measure receptor-binding activity. These cells were used in functional assays to measure receptor-mediated cellular activity of terlipressin, LVP, and AVP. Binding was measured by [ 3 H]AVP counts, and the activity was measured by fluorometric detection of intracellular calcium mobilization (V 1 ) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (V 2 ). Binding potency at V 1 and V 2 was AVP>LVP>terlipressin. LVP and terlipressin had approximately sixfold higher affinity for V 1 than for V 2 . Cellular activity potency was also AVP>LVP>terlipressin. Terlipressin was a partial agonist at V 1 and a full agonist at V 2 ; LVP was a full agonist at both V 1 and V 2 . The in vivo response to terlipressin is likely due to the partial V 1 agonist activity of terlipressin and full V 1 agonist activity of its metabolite, LVP. These results provide supportive evidence for previous findings and further establish terlipressin pharmacology for vasopressin receptors.

  15. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  16. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  17. Direct and indirect endocrine disruption : aromatase and estrogen receptor-mediated processes in breast cancer development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heneweer, Marjoke

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been defined by the World Health Organization as: “exogenous substances or mixtures that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations”. Synthetic, as well as,

  18. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  19. Reboxetine Enhances the Olanzapine-Induced Antipsychotic-Like Effect, Cortical Dopamine Outflow and NMDA Receptor-Mediated Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Monica M; Jardemark, Kent; Malmerfelt, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Svensson, Torgny H

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical data have shown that addition of the selective norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor reboxetine increases the antipsychotic-like effect of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride and, in parallel, enhances cortical dopamine output. Subsequent clinical results suggested that adding reboxetine to stable treatments with various antipsychotic drugs (APDs) may improve positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated in rats the effects of adding reboxetine to the second-generation APD olanzapine on: (i) antipsychotic efficacy, using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test, (ii) extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability, using a catalepsy test, (iii) dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving animals and (iv) cortical N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated transmission, using intracellular electrophysiological recording in vitro. Reboxetine (6 mg/kg) enhanced the suppression of CAR induced by a suboptimal dose (1.25 mg/kg), but not an optimal (2.5 mg/kg) dose of olanzapine without any concomitant catalepsy. Addition of reboxetine to the low dose of olanzapine also markedly increased cortical dopamine outflow and facilitated prefrontal NMDA receptor-mediated transmission. Our data suggest that adjunctive treatment with a NET inhibitor may enhance the therapeutic effect of low-dose olanzapine in schizophrenia without increasing EPS liability and add an antidepressant action, thus in principle allowing for a dose reduction of olanzapine with a concomitant reduction of dose-related side effects, such as EPS and weight gain. PMID:20463659

  20. Prostaglandin E2 potentiation of P2X3 receptor mediated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Yen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is a well-known inflammatory mediator that enhances the excitability of DRG neurons. Homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are abundantly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and participate in the transmission of nociceptive signals. The interaction between PGE2 and P2X3 receptors has not been well delineated. We studied the actions of PGE2 on ATP-activated currents in dissociated DRG neurons under voltage-clamp conditions. PGE2 had no effects on P2X2/3 receptor-mediated responses, but significantly potentiated fast-inactivating ATP currents mediated by homomeric P2X3 receptors. PGE2 exerted its action by activating EP3 receptors. To study the mechanism underlying the action of PGE2, we found that the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin and the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP increased ATP currents, mimicking the effect of PGE2. In addition, forskolin occluded the enhancement produced by PGE2. The protein kinase A (PKA inhibitors, H89 and PKA-I blocked the PGE2 effect. In contrast, the PKC inhibitor, bisindolymaleimide (Bis did not change the potentiating action of PGE2. We further showed that PGE2 enhanced α,β-meATP-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia and the enhancement was blocked by H89. These observations suggest that PGE2 binds to EP3 receptors, resulting in the activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and leading to an enhancement of P2X3 homomeric receptor-mediated ATP responses in DRG neurons.

  1. Electroacupuncture improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via Angiotensin II its receptors-mediated mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Jiaojun; Du, Yuanhao; Cui, Jingjun; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xuezhu

    2014-11-11

    To investigate the effects and potential mechanism of electroacupuncture intervention on expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors-mediated signaling pathway in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Totally 126 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group. The latter two were further divided into ten subgroups (n = 6) following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors (AT1R, AT2R), as well as effector proteins in phosphatidyl inositol signal pathway were monitored before and at different times after MCAO. MCAO-induced decline of ipsilateral rCBF was partially suppressed by electroacupuncture, and contralateral blood flow was also superior to that of model group. Angiotensin II level was remarkably elevated immediately after MCAO, while electroacupuncture group exhibited significantly lower levels at 1 to 3 h and the value was significantly increased thereafter. The enhanced expression of AT1R was partially inhibited by electroacupuncture, while increased AT2R level was further induced. Electroacupuncture stimulation attenuated and postponed the upregulated-expressions of Gq and CaM these upregulations. ELISA results showed sharply increased expressions of DAG and IP3, which were remarkably neutralized by electroacupuncture. MCAO induced significant increases in expression of Angiotensin II and its receptor-mediated signal pathway. These enhanced expressions were significantly attenuated by electroacupuncture intervention, followed by reduced vasoconstriction and improved blood supply in ischemic region, and ultimately conferred beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia.

  2. Loss of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions Induce Preterm Cellular and Structural Remodeling of the Cervix and Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M.; Dobyns, Abigail E.; Beck, Hailey L.; Kurtzman, James T.; Garfield, Robert E.; Kirby, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term. PMID:24339918

  3. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  4. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  5. Phenobarbital but not diazepam reduces AMPA/Kainate receptor mediated currents and exerts opposite actions on initial seizures in the neonatal rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eNardou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam (DZP and phenobarbital (PB are extensively used as first and second line drugs to treat acute seizures in neonates and their actions are thought to be mediated by increasing the actions of GABAergic signals. Yet, their efficacy is variable with occasional failure or even aggravation of recurrent seizures questioning whether other mechanisms are not involved in their actions. We have now compared the effects of DZP and PB on ictal-like events (ILEs in an in vitro model of mirror focus (MF. Using the three-compartment chamber with the two immature hippocampi and their commissural fibers placed in 3 different compartments, kainate was applied to one hippocampus and PB or DZP to the contralateral one, either after one ILE or after many recurrent ILEs that produce an epileptogenic MF. We report that in contrast to PB, DZP aggravated propagating ILEs from the start and did not prevent the formation of MF. PB reduced and DZP increased the network driven Giant Depolarising Potentials suggesting that PB may exert additional actions that are not mediated by GABA signalling. In keeping with this, PB but not DZP reduced field potentials recorded in the presence of GABA and NMDA receptor antagonists. These effects are mediated by a direct action on AMPA/Kainate receptors since PB: i reduced AMPA/Kainate receptor mediated currents induced by focal applications of glutamate ; ii reduced the amplitude and the frequency of AMPA but not NMDA receptor mediated miniature EPSCs; iii augmented the number of AMPA receptor mediated EPSCs failures evoked by minimal stimulation. These effects persisted in MF. Therefore, PB exerts its anticonvulsive actions partly by reducing AMPA/Kainate receptors mediated EPSCs in addition to the pro-GABA effects. We suggest that PB may have advantage over DZP in the treatment of initial neonatal seizures since the additional reduction of glutamate receptors mediated signals may reduce the severity of neonatal seizures.

  6. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  7. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Histamine H3 Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Rat Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K; Allen, Nyika A; Rosenberg, Martina J; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    We have reported that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-induced deficits in dentate gyrus, long-term potentiation (LTP), and memory are ameliorated by the histamine H 3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. Curiously, ABT-239 did not enhance LTP or memory in control offspring. Here, we initiated an investigation of how PAE alters histaminergic neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus and other brain regions employing combined radiohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in vitro to examine histamine H 3 receptor number and function. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution 4 hours each day throughout gestation. This pattern of drinking, which produces a mean peak maternal serum ethanol concentration of 60.8 ± 5.8 mg/dl, did not affect maternal weight gain, litter size, or offspring birthweight. Radiohistochemical studies in adult offspring revealed that specific [ 3 H]-A349821 binding to histamine H 3 receptors was not different in PAE rats compared to controls. However, H 3 receptor-mediated G i /G o protein-effector coupling, as measured by methimepip-stimulated [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding, was significantly increased in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and dentate gyrus of PAE rats compared to control. A LIGAND analysis of detailed methimepip concentration-response curves in dentate gyrus indicated that PAE significantly elevates receptor-effector coupling by a lower affinity H 3 receptor population without significantly altering the affinities of H 3 receptor subpopulations. In agreement with the [ 35 S]-GTPγS studies, a similar range of methimepip concentrations also inhibited electrically evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential responses and increased paired-pulse ratio, a measure of decreased glutamate release, to a significantly greater extent in dentate gyrus slices from PAE rats than in controls. These results suggest that a PAE-induced elevation in H 3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release from

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and genotoxic effects of fractionated extract of standard reference diesel exhaust particle material in pulmonary, liver and prostate cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pálková, L.; Vondráček, Jan; Trilecová, L.; Ciganek, M.; Pěnčíková, K.; Neca, J.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Machala, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2015), s. 438-448 ISSN 0887-2333 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : Air pollution * PAHs * SRM 1650b Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (UEM-P) Impact factor: 3.338, year: 2015

  10. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human β-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3% of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of β-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14% the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized β-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized β-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor

  11. The Influence of Receptor-Mediated Interactions on Reaction-Diffusion Mechanisms of Cellular Self-organisation

    KAUST Repository

    Klika, Václav

    2011-11-10

    Understanding the mechanisms governing and regulating self-organisation in the developing embryo is a key challenge that has puzzled and fascinated scientists for decades. Since its conception in 1952 the Turing model has been a paradigm for pattern formation, motivating numerous theoretical and experimental studies, though its verification at the molecular level in biological systems has remained elusive. In this work, we consider the influence of receptor-mediated dynamics within the framework of Turing models, showing how non-diffusing species impact the conditions for the emergence of self-organisation. We illustrate our results within the framework of hair follicle pre-patterning, showing how receptor interaction structures can be constrained by the requirement for patterning, without the need for detailed knowledge of the network dynamics. Finally, in the light of our results, we discuss the ability of such systems to pattern outside the classical limits of the Turing model, and the inherent dangers involved in model reduction. © 2011 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  12. Rac1 switching at the right time and location is essential for Fcγ receptor-mediated phagosome formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yuka; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Akira; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Egami, Youhei; Araki, Nobukazu

    2017-08-01

    Lamellipodia are sheet-like cell protrusions driven by actin polymerization mainly through Rac1, a GTPase molecular switch. In Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es), Rac1 activation is required for lamellipodial extension along the surface of IgG-Es. However, the significance of Rac1 deactivation in phagosome formation is poorly understood. Our live-cell imaging and electron microscopy revealed that RAW264 macrophages expressing a constitutively active Rac1 mutant showed defects in phagocytic cup formation, while lamellipodia were formed around IgG-Es. Because activated Rac1 reduced the phosphorylation levels of myosin light chains, failure of the cup formation is probably due to inhibition of actin/myosin II contractility. Reversible photo-manipulation of the Rac1 switch in macrophages fed with IgG-Es could phenocopy two lamellipodial motilities: outward-extension and cup-constriction by Rac1 ON and OFF, respectively. In conjunction with fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging of Rac1 activity, we provide a novel mechanistic model of phagosome formation spatiotemporally controlled by Rac1 switching within a phagocytic cup. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Ruthenium complexes with phenylterpyridine derivatives target cell membrane and trigger death receptors-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiqin; Gao, Pan; Yu, Lianling; Ma, Bin; You, Yuanyuan; Chan, Leung; Mei, Chaoming; Chen, Tianfeng

    2017-06-01

    Elucidation of the communication between metal complexes and cell membrane may provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Herein we synthesized a novel class of ruthenium (Ru) complexes containing phtpy derivatives (phtpy = phenylterpyridine), analyzed their structure-activity relationship and revealed their action mechanisms. The result showed that, the increase in the planarity of hydrophobic Ru complexes significantly enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake. Meanwhile, the introduction of nitro group effectively improved their anticancer efficacy. Further mechanism studies revealed that, complex (2c), firstly accumulated on cell membrane and interacted with death receptors to activate extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. The complex was then transported into cell cytoplasm through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. Most of the intracellular 2c accumulated in cell plasma, decreasing the level of cellular ROS, inducing the activation of caspase-9 and thus intensifying the apoptosis. At the same time, the residual 2c can translocate into cell nucleus to interact with DNA, induce DNA damage, activate p53 pathway and enhance apoptosis. Comparing with cisplatin, 2c possesses prolonged circulation time in blood, comparable antitumor ability and importantly, much lower toxicity in vivo. Taken together, this study uncovers the role of membrane receptors in the anticancer actions of Ru complexes, and provides fundamental information for rational design of membrane receptor targeting anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Keiko; Fujimoto, Takahiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito; Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Masahide; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. ► Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. ► Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Decreased expression of IL-7Rα, IL-2Rα and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. ► Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7Rα and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2Rα expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans Is Internalized by Receptor-Mediated or ‘Triggered’ Phagocytosis, Dependent on Actin Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Caroline Rezende; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcosis by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival of Cryptococcus yeast cells is important for the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Cryptococcus neoformans phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages using confocal and electron microscopy techniques, as well as flow cytometry quantification, evaluating the importance of fungal capsule production and of host cell cytoskeletal elements for fungal phagocytosis. Electron microscopy analyses revealed that capsular and acapsular strains of C. neoformans are internalized by macrophages via both ‘zipper’ (receptor-mediated) and ‘trigger’ (membrane ruffle-dependent) phagocytosis mechanisms. Actin filaments surrounded phagosomes of capsular and acapsular yeasts, and the actin depolymerizing drugs cytochalasin D and latrunculin B inhibited yeast internalization and actin recruitment to the phagosome area. In contrast, nocodazole and paclitaxel, inhibitors of microtubule dynamics decreased internalization but did not prevent actin recruitment to the site of phagocytosis. Our results show that different uptake mechanisms, dependent on both actin and tubulin dynamics occur during yeast internalization by macrophages, and that capsule production does not affect the mode of Cryptococcus uptake by host cells. PMID:24586631

  16. Design and development of hyaluronan-functionalized polybenzofulvene nanoparticles as CD44 receptor mediated drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Mariano; Scialabba, Cinzia; Giammona, Gaetano; Paolino, Marco; Razzano, Vincenzo; Grisci, Giorgio; Giuliani, Germano; Makovec, Francesco; Cappelli, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    A tri-component polymer brush (TCPB ), composed of a polybenzofulvene copolymer bearing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of its cylindrical brush-like backbone and oligo-PEG fractions, was employed in the preparation of 350 nm nanostructured drug delivery systems capable of delivering the anticancer drug doxorubicin. The obtained drug delivery systems were characterized on the basis of drug loading and release, dimensions and zeta potential, morphology and in vitro cell activity, and uptake on three different human cell lines, namely the bronchial epithelial 16HBE, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, and the colon cancer HCT116 cells. Finally, the ability of doxorubicin-loaded TCPB nanoparticles (DOXO-TCPB) to be internalized into cancer cells by CD44 receptor mediated uptake was assessed by means of uptake studies in HCT cells. These data were supported by anti-CD44-FITC staining assay. The proposed TCPB nanostructured drug delivery systems have many potential applications in nanomedicine, including cancer targeted drug delivery.

  17. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  19. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  20. The brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1 regulates dopamine D2 receptor-mediated transmission in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia; Napoli, Ilaria; Mercaldo, Valentina; Lacoux, Caroline; Ferrari, Francesca; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; De Chiara, Valentina; Prosperetti, Chiara; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Bagni, Claudia

    2007-08-15

    Dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)DR)-mediated transmission in the striatum is remarkably flexible, and changes in its efficacy have been heavily implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Although receptor-associated proteins are clearly involved in specific forms of synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of D(2) receptors in this brain area are essentially obscure. We have studied the physiological responses of the D(2)DR stimulations in mice lacking the brain cytoplasmic RNA BC1, a small noncoding dendritically localized RNA that is supposed to play a role in mRNA translation. We show that the efficiency of D(2)-mediated transmission regulating striatal GABA synapses is under the control of BC1 RNA, through a negative influence on D(2) receptor protein level affecting the functional pool of receptors. Ablation of the BC1 gene did not result in widespread dysregulation of synaptic transmission, because the sensitivity of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors was intact in the striatum of BC1 knock-out (KO) mice despite D(2) and CB(1) receptors mediated similar electrophysiological actions. Interestingly, the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP, one of the multiple BC1 partners, is not involved in the BC1 effects on the D(2)-mediated transmission. Because D(2)DR mRNA is apparently equally translated in the BC1-KO and wild-type mice, whereas the protein level is higher in BC1-KO mice, we suggest that BC1 RNA controls D(2)DR indirectly, probably regulating translation of molecules involved in D(2)DR turnover and/or stability.

  1. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. → The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. → Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. → Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. → Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  2. ZFAT plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its T cell receptor-mediated response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Keiko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute of Life Sciences for the Next Generation of Women Scientists, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto, Takahiro [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Okamura, Tadashi [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Masahiro [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Yoko [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Mototani, Yasumasa; Goto, Motohito [Division of Animal Models, Department of Infectious Diseases, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ota, Takeharu; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroki, Masahide [Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsunoda, Toshiyuki [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasazuki, Takehiko [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirasawa, Senji, E-mail: sshirasa@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan); Central Research Institute for Advanced Molecular Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated Cd4-Cre-mediated T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat-deficiency leads to reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired T cell receptor-mediated response in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased expression of IL-7R{alpha}, IL-2R{alpha} and IL-2 in Zfat-deficient peripheral T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zfat plays critical roles in peripheral T cell homeostasis. -- Abstract: ZFAT, originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, development and primitive hematopoiesis. Zfat is highly expressed in T- and B-cells in the lymphoid tissues, however, its physiological function in the immune system remains totally unknown. Here, we generated the T cell-specific Zfat-deficient mice and demonstrated that Zfat-deficiency leads to a remarkable reduction in the number of the peripheral T cells. Intriguingly, a reduced expression of IL-7R{alpha} and the impaired responsiveness to IL-7 for the survival were observed in the Zfat-deficient T cells. Furthermore, a severe defect in proliferation and increased apoptosis in the Zfat-deficient T cells following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation was observed with a reduced IL-2R{alpha} expression as well as a reduced IL-2 production. Thus, our findings reveal that Zfat is a critical regulator in peripheral T cell homeostasis and its TCR-mediated response.

  3. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the antiangiogenic effects of human T lymphoblastic cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Xiong, Wei; Qiu, Qian; Shao, Zhuo; Shao, Zuo; Hamel, David; Tahiri, Houda; Leclair, Grégoire; Lachapelle, Pierre; Chemtob, Sylvain; Hardy, Pierre

    2012-04-15

    Microparticles possess therapeutic potential regarding angiogenesis. We have demonstrated the contribution of apoptotic human CEM T lymphocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) as inhibitors of angiogenic responses in animal models of inflammation and tumor growth. In the present study, we characterized the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effects of LMPs on pathological angiogenesis in an animal model of oxygen-induced retinopathy and explored the role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in the effects of LMPs on human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). LMPs dramatically inhibited cell growth of HRECs, suppressed VEGF-induced cell migration in vitro experiments, and attenuated VEGF-induced retinal vascular leakage in vivo. Intravitreal injections of fluorescently labeled LMPs revealed accumulation of LMPs in retinal tissue, with more than 60% reductions of the vascular density in retinas of rats with oxygen-induced neovascularization. LMP uptake experiments demonstrated that the interaction between LMPs and HRECs is dependent on temperature. In addition, endocytosis is partially dependent on extracellular calcium. RNAi-mediated knockdown of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) reduced the uptake of LMPs and attenuated the inhibitory effects of LMPs on VEGF-A protein expression and HRECs cell growth. Intravitreal injection of lentivirus-mediated RNA interference reduced LDLR protein expression in retina by 53% and significantly blocked the antiangiogenic effects of LMPs on pathological vascularization. In summary, the potent antiangiogenic LMPs lead to a significant reduction of pathological retinal angiogenesis through modulation of VEGF signaling, whereas LDLR-mediated endocytosis plays a partial, but pivotal, role in the uptake of LMPs in HRECs.

  4. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein by retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, A W; Anderson, H R; Gardiner, T A; Bailie, J R; Archer, D B

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigated the receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cultured retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs). Low-density lipoprotein and insulin were conjugated to 10 nm colloidal gold, and these ligands were added to cultured bovine RVECs for 20 minutes at 4 degrees C. The cultures were then warmed to 37 degrees C and fixed after incubation times between 30 seconds and 1 hour. Control cells were incubated with unconjugated gold colloid at times and concentrations similar to those of the ligands. Additional control cells were exposed to several concentrations of anti-insulin receptor antibody or a saturating solution of unconjugated insulin before incubation with gold insulin. Using transmission electron microscopy, insulin gold and LDL gold were both observed at various stages of RME. Insulin-gold particles were first seen to bind to the apical plasma membrane (PM) before clustering in clathrin-coated pits and internalization in coated vesicles. Gold was later visualized in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, corresponding to early endosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or late endosomes. In several instances, localized regions of the limiting membrane of the MVBs appeared coated, a feature of endosomal membranes not previously described. After RME at the apical PM and passage through the endosomal system, the greater part of both insulin- and LDL-gold conjugates was seen to accumulate in large lysosome-like compartments. However, a small but significant proportion of the internalized ligands was transcytosed and released as discrete membrane-associated quanta at the basal cell surface. The uptake of LDL gold was greatly increased in highly vacuolated, late-passage RVECs. In controls, anti-insulin receptor antibody and excess unconjugated insulin caused up to 89% inhibition in gold-insulin binding and internalization. These results illustrate the internalization and intracellular

  6. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy David K

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine modulation of neuronal signaling in the frontal cortex, midbrain, and striatum is essential for processing and integrating diverse external sensory stimuli and attaching salience to environmental cues that signal causal relationships, thereby guiding goal-directed, adaptable behaviors. At the cellular level, dopamine signaling is mediated through D1-like or D2-like receptors. Although a role for D1-like receptors in a variety of goal-directed behaviors has been identified, an explicit involvement of D2 receptors has not been clearly established. To determine whether dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling contributes to associative and reversal learning, we compared C57Bl/6J mice that completely lack functional dopamine D2 receptors to wild-type mice with respect to their ability to attach appropriate salience to external stimuli (stimulus discrimination and disengage from inappropriate behavioral strategies when reinforcement contingencies change (e.g. reversal learning. Results Mildly food-deprived female wild-type and dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice rapidly learned to retrieve and consume visible food reinforcers from a small plastic dish. Furthermore, both genotypes readily learned to dig through the same dish filled with sterile sand in order to locate a buried food pellet. However, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice required significantly more trials than wild-type mice to discriminate between two dishes, each filled with a different scented sand, and to associate one of the two odors with the presence of a reinforcer (food. In addition, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice repeatedly fail to alter their response patterns during reversal trials where the reinforcement rules were inverted. Conclusions Inbred C57Bl/6J mice that develop in the complete absence of functional dopamine D2 receptors are capable of olfaction but display an impaired ability to acquire odor-driven reinforcement contingencies

  7. Hypersensitivity to thromboxane receptor mediated cerebral vasomotion and CBF oscillations during acute NO-deficiency in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Horváth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low frequency (4-12 cpm spontaneous fluctuations of the cerebrovascular tone (vasomotion and oscillations of the cerebral blood flow (CBF have been reported in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Since endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO suppresses constitutively the release and vascular effects of thromboxane A(2 (TXA(2, NO-deficiency is often associated with activation of thromboxane receptors (TP. In the present study we hypothesized that in the absence of NO, overactivation of the TP-receptor mediated cerebrovascular signaling pathway contributes to the development of vasomotion and CBF oscillations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of pharmacological modulation of TP-receptor activation and its downstream signaling pathway have been investigated on CBF oscillations (measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats and vasomotion (measured by isometric tension recording in isolated rat middle cerebral arteries, MCAs both under physiological conditions and after acute inhibition of NO synthesis. Administration of the TP-receptor agonist U-46619 (1 µg/kg i.v. to control animals failed to induce any changes of the systemic or cerebral circulatory parameters. Inhibition of the NO synthesis by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/kg i.v. resulted in increased mean arterial blood pressure and a decreased CBF accompanied by appearance of CBF-oscillations with a dominant frequency of 148±2 mHz. U-46619 significantly augmented the CBF-oscillations induced by L-NAME while inhibition of endogenous TXA(2 synthesis by ozagrel (10 mg/kg i.v. attenuated it. In isolated MCAs U-46619 in a concentration of 100 nM, which induced weak and stable contraction under physiological conditions, evoked sustained vasomotion in the absence of NO, which effect could be completely reversed by inhibition of Rho-kinase by 10 µM Y-27632. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that hypersensitivity of the TP

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  9. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and prostaglandin E2 formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Possible parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    alpha 1-Adrenergic receptors mediate two effects on phospholipid metabolism in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-D1) cells: hydrolysis of phosphoinositides and arachidonic acid release with generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The similarity in concentration dependence for the agonist (-)-epinephrine in eliciting these two responses implies that they are mediated by a single population of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. However, we find that the kinetics of the two responses are quite different, PGE2 production occurring more rapidly and transiently than the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The antibiotic neomycin selectively decreases alpha 1-receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis without decreasing alpha 1-receptor-mediated arachidonic acid release and PGE2 generation. In addition, receptor-mediated inositol trisphosphate formation is independent of extracellular calcium, whereas release of labeled arachidonic acid is largely calcium-dependent. Moreover, based on studies obtained with labeled arachidonic acid, receptor-mediated generation of arachidonic acid cannot be accounted for by breakdown of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, or phosphatidic acid. Further studies indicate that epinephrine produces changes in formation or turnover of several classes of membrane phospholipids in MDCK cells. We conclude that alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in MDCK cells appear to regulate phospholipid metabolism by the parallel activation of phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. This parallel activation of phospholipases contrasts with models described in other systems which imply sequential activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase or phospholipase A2

  10. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of polypeptide hormones is a regulated process: inhibition of [125I]iodoinsulin internalization in hypoinsulinemic diabetes of rat and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.L.; Robert, A.; Grunberger, G.; van Obberghen, E.; Freychet, P.; Orci, L.; Gorden, P.

    1986-01-01

    Much data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of hormone excess. Thus, in hyperinsulinemic states there is an accelerated loss of cell surface insulin receptors. In the present experiments we addressed this question in hypoinsulinemic states, in which insulin binding to cell surface receptors is generally increased. In hepatocytes obtained from hypoinsulinemic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, [ 125 I]iodoglucagon internalization was increased, while at the same time [ 125 I]iodoinsulin internalization was decreased. The defect in [ 125 I]iodoinsulin internalization was corrected by insulin treatment of the animal. In peripheral blood monocytes from patients with type I insulinopenic diabetes, internalization of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was impaired; this defect was not present in insulin-treated patients. These data in the hypoinsulinemic rat and human diabetes suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of insulin deficiency as well as insulin excess. Delayed or reduced internalization of the insulin-receptor complex could amplify the muted signal caused by deficient hormone secretion

  11. Nitric oxide inhibits the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated adrenomedullary catecholamine release but has no effect on adrenal blood flow response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallegue, Ali; Yamaguchi, Nobuharu

    2005-06-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in bradykinin (BK)-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion still remains obscure. The present study was to investigate whether an inhibition of NO synthase with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) would modulate BK-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion (ACS) and adrenal vasodilating response (AVR) in anesthetized dogs. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined with an HPLC coupled with an electrochemical detector. All drugs were locally administered to the left adrenal gland via intra-arterial infusion. BK dose-dependently increased both ACS and AVR. Hoe-140, a selective B(2) antagonist, significantly blocked the BK-induced increases in both ACS and AVR. In the presence of L-NAME, the BK-induced ACS was significantly enhanced, while the simultaneous AVR remained unaffected. These results suggest that the both BK-induced ACS and AVR are primarily mediated by B(2) receptors in the canine adrenal gland. Our results also suggest that the enhanced ACS in response to BK in the presence of L-NAME may have resulted from a specific inhibition of NO formation in the adrenal gland. It is concluded that the BK-induced NO may play an inhibitory role in the B(2)-receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating ACS, while it may not be implicated in the B(2)-receptor-mediated AVR under in vivo conditions.

  12. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  15. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  16. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  17. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  18. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  19. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  20. Permanent Distal Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery in Rat Causes Local Increased ETB, 5-HT1B and AT1 Receptor-Mediated Contractility Downstream of Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne N P; Hornbak, Malene; Larsen, Stine S

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: In response to experimental stroke, a characteristic functional and expressional upregulation of contractile G-protein-coupled receptors has been uncovered in the affected cerebral vasculature; however, the mechanism initiating this phenomenon remains unknown. Methods: Using...... a model of permanent distal occlusion of rat middle cerebral arteries, we investigated whether there was a regional difference in receptor-mediated contractility of segments located upstream and downstream of the occlusion site. The contractile response to endothelin, angiotensin and 5-hydroxytryptamine...... receptor stimulation was studied by sensitive wire myograph. Results: Only downstream segments exhibited an augmented contractile response to stimulation with each of the three ligands, with the response towards sarafotoxin 6c being especially augmented compared to sham, upstream and contralateral controls...

  1. Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Daniel J; Seger, Donna L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed. Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: 59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated. 318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values. These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.

  2. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  3. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  4. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  5. Receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in association with amino acid infusion: a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodei, Lisa; Zoboli, Stefania; Grana, Chiara; Bartolomei, Mirco; Rocca, Paola; Caracciolo, Maurizio; Chinol, Marco; Paganelli, Giovanni; Cremonesi, Marta; Maecke, Helmut R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of 90 Y-DOTATOC per cycle administered in association with amino acid solution as kidney protection in patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Forty patients in eight groups received two cycles of 90 Y-DOTATOC, with activity increased by 0.37 GBq per group, starting at 2.96 and terminating at 5.55 GBq. All patients received lysine ± arginine infusion immediately before and after therapy. Forty-eight percent developed acute grade I-II gastrointestinal toxicity (nausea and vomiting) after amino acid infusion whereas no acute adverse reactions occurred after 90 Y-DOTATOC injection up to 5.55 GBq/cycle. Grade III haematological toxicity occurred in three of seven (43%) patients receiving 5.18 GBq, which was defined as the maximum tolerable activity per cycle. Objective therapeutic responses occurred. Five GBq per cycle is the recommended dosage of 90 Y-DOTATOC when amino acids are given to protect the kidneys. Although no patients developed acute kidney toxicity, delayed kidney toxicity remains a major concern, limiting the cumulative dose to 25 Gy. The way forward with this treatment would seem to be to identify more effective renal protective agents, in order to be able to increase the cumulative injectable activity and hence tumour dose. (orig.)

  6. Depression of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission by four α2 adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro rat spinal cord preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, E S L; Chambers, J P; Evans, R H

    1998-01-01

    α2-Adrenoceptor agonists have a spinal site of analgesic action. In the current study the synaptic depressant actions of xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and dexmedetomidine have been compared on segmental reflexes containing NMDA receptor-mediated components in the neonatal rat hemisected spinal cord preparation in vitro.Reflexes were evoked in the ventral root following either supramaximal electrical stimulation of the corresponding ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root to evoke the high intensity excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) involving all primary afferent fibres, or low intensity stimulation to evoke the solely A fibre-mediated low intensity e.p.s.p. The high intensity e.p.s.p. contains a greater NMDA receptor-mediated component.Xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine all depressed both the high intensity e.p.s.p. and the low intensity e.p.s.p. giving respective EC50 values of 0.91±0.2 μM (n=12), 23.4±3 nM (n=12), 37.7±7 nM (n=8) and 0.84±0.1 nM (n=4) for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. and 0.76±0.1 μM (n=12), 22.0±3 nM (n=12), 24.9±6 nM (n=4) and 2.7±0.6 nM (n=4) for depression of the low intensity e.p.s.p., respectively. Unlike the other three drugs, the two values for dexmedetomidine, showing a greater selectivity for the high intensity e.p.s.p., are significantly different.Each of these depressant actions was reversed by the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (1 μM).In contrast to previous reports of the actions of α2-adrenoceptor agonists on the in vitro spinal cord preparation, at concentrations ten fold higher than the above EC50 values xylazine, romifidine, detomidine and dexmedetomidine depressed the initial population spike of motoneurons (MSR). This depression was not reversed by atipamezole.Comparison of the rank order of the present EC50 values for depression of the high intensity e.p.s.p. with potency ratios from in vivo analgesic tests in previous studies show a close

  7. GABA(A receptor-mediated acceleration of aging-associated memory decline in APP/PS1 mice and its pharmacological treatment by picrotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yoshiike

    Full Text Available Advanced age and mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin (PS1 are two serious risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Finding common pathogenic changes originating from these risks may lead to a new therapeutic strategy. We observed a decline in memory performance and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP in both mature adult (9-15 months transgenic APP/PS1 mice and old (19-25 months non-transgenic (nonTg mice. By contrast, in the presence of bicuculline, a GABA(A receptor antagonist, LTP in adult APP/PS1 mice and old nonTg mice was larger than that in adult nonTg mice. The increased LTP levels in bicuculline-treated slices suggested that GABA(A receptor-mediated inhibition in adult APP/PS1 and old nonTg mice was upregulated. Assuming that enhanced inhibition of LTP mediates memory decline in APP/PS1 mice, we rescued memory deficits in adult APP/PS1 mice by treating them with another GABA(A receptor antagonist, picrotoxin (PTX, at a non-epileptic dose for 10 days. Among the saline vehicle-treated groups, substantially higher levels of synaptic proteins such as GABA(A receptor alpha1 subunit, PSD95, and NR2B were observed in APP/PS1 mice than in nonTg control mice. This difference was insignificant among PTX-treated groups, suggesting that memory decline in APP/PS1 mice may result from changes in synaptic protein levels through homeostatic mechanisms. Several independent studies reported previously in aged rodents both an increased level of GABA(A receptor alpha1 subunit and improvement of cognitive functions by long term GABA(A receptor antagonist treatment. Therefore, reduced LTP linked to enhanced GABA(A receptor-mediated inhibition may be triggered by aging and may be accelerated by familial AD-linked gene products like Abeta and mutant PS1, leading to cognitive decline that is pharmacologically treatable at least at this stage of disease progression in mice.

  8. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  9. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  10. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  11. Escitalopram attenuates β-amyloid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Juan; Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wu, Di; Tang, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Fang-Fang; Bai, Feng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2016-03-22

    Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether escitalopram could inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms, we treated the rat primary hippocampal neurons with Aβ1-42 and examined the effect of escitalopram on tau hyperphosphorylation. Results showed that escitalopram decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, escitalopram activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Moreover, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also activated the Akt/GSK-3β pathway and decreased Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 blocked the activation of Akt/GSK-3β pathway and the attenuation of tau hyperphosphorylation induced by escitalopram. Finally, escitalopram improved Aβ1-42 induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and spine density, and reversed Aβ1-42 induced reduction of synaptic proteins. Our results demonstrated that escitalopram attenuated Aβ1-42-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in primary hippocampal neurons through the 5-HT1A receptor mediated Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  12. Chronic restraint stress causes a delayed increase in responding for palatable food cues during forced abstinence via a dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T; Best, Olivia; Luo, Jonathan; Miller, Leah R

    2017-02-15

    Relapse to unhealthy eating habits in dieters is often triggered by stress. Animal models, moreover, have confirmed a causal role for acute stress in relapse. The role of chronic stress in relapse vulnerability, however, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, in the present study, we used an abstinence-based relapse model in rats to test the hypothesis that exposure to chronic stress increases subsequent relapse vulnerability. Rats were trained to press a lever for highly palatable food reinforcers in daily 3-h sessions and then tested for food seeking (i.e., responding for food associated cues) both before and after an acute or chronic restraint stress procedure (3h/day×1day or 10days, respectively) or control procedure (unstressed). The second food seeking test was conducted either 1day or 7days after the last restraint. Because chronic stress causes dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated alterations in prefrontal cortex (a relapse node), we also assessed dopaminergic involvement by administering either SCH-23390 (10.0μg/kg; i.p.), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, or vehicle prior to daily treatments. Results showed that chronically, but not acutely, stressed rats displayed increased food seeking 7days, but not 1day, after the last restraint. Importantly, SCH-23390 combined with chronic stress reversed this effect. These results suggest that drugs targeting D 1 -like receptors during chronic stress may help to prevent future relapse in dieters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in DDT1 MF-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in α 1 -adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT 1 MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the α 1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of [ 32 P] NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT 1 , MF-2 cells, possibly the α-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation of unidirectional 45 Ca 2+ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the α 1 -adrenergic receptor to Ca 2+ mobilization in DDT 1 MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family

  14. [Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Gong, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is a new antiepileptic drug. The results of clinical trials suggest that oxcarbazepine is well tolerated and has less drug interactions. It is being used more and more widely in clinical practice, but its adverse effects should not be ignored. The most common adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are usually related to the central nervous system and digestive system, including fatigue, drowsiness, diplopia, dizziness, nausea and vomit. The common skin adverse reaction is rash. Long-term use of oxcarbazepine may also cause hyponatremia. This article reviews the literature from China and overseas about the adverse effets of oxcarbazepine over the last 10 years in order to find information about rational clinical use of oxcarbazepine.

  15. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  16. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  17. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  18. In vitro function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor predicts in vivo sensitivity of oviparous vertebrates to dioxin-like compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among species and taxa presents a major challenge to ecological risk assessments. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs in vertebrates. Prior investig...

  19. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  20. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  1. CB1 receptor-mediated signaling underlies the hippocampal synaptic, learning, and memory deficits following treatment with JWH-081, a new component of spice/K2 preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-02-01

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids have been sprayed onto plant material, which is subsequently packaged and sold as "Spice" or "K2" to mimic the effects of marijuana. A recent report identified several synthetic additives in samples of "Spice/K2", including JWH-081, a synthetic ligand for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). The deleterious effects of JWH-081 on brain function are not known, particularly on CB1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we evaluated the effects of JWH-081 on pCaMKIV, pCREB, and pERK1/2 signaling events followed by long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks using CB1 receptor wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Acute administration of JWH-081 impaired CaMKIV phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of CREB phosphorylation in CB1 receptor WT mice was observed only at higher dose of JWH-081 (1.25 mg/kg). JWH-081 at higher dose impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice and failed to alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, SR treated or CB1 receptor KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio compared with vehicle or WT littermates. In hippocampal slices, JWH-081 impaired LTP in CB1 receptor WT but not in KO littermates. Furthermore, JWH-081 at higher dose impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory on the Y-maze in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice. Collectively our findings suggest that deleterious effects of JWH-081 on hippocampal function involves CB1 receptor mediated impairments in CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, LTP, learning and memory in mice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ultrastructural evidence for the accumulation of insulin in nuclei of intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an insulin-receptor mediated process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Jarett, L.

    1987-01-01

    Monomeric ferritin-labeled insulin (F/sub m/-Ins), a biologically active, electron-dense marker of occupied insulin receptors, was used to characterize the internalization of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. F/sub m/-Ins bound specifically to insulin receptors and was internalized in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In the nucleus, several F/sub m/-Ins particles usually were found in the same general location-near nuclear pores, associated with the periphery of the condensed chromatin. Addition of a 250-fold excess of unlabeled insulin or incubation at 15 0 C reduced the number of F/sub m/-Ins particles found in nuclei after 90 min by 99% or 92%, respectively. Nuclear accumulation of unlabeled ferritin was only 2% of that found with F/sub m/-Ins after 90 min at 37 0 C. Biochemical experiments utilizing 125 I-labeled insulin and subcellular fractionation indicated that intact 3T3-L1 adipocytes internalized insulin rapidly and that ≅ 3% of the internalized ligand accumulated in nuclei after 1 hr. These data provide biochemical and high-resolution ultrastructural evidence that 3T3-L1 adipocytes accumulate potentially significant amounts of insulin in nuclei by an insulin receptor-mediated process. The transport of insulin or the insulin-receptor complex to nuclei in this cell or in others may be directly involved in the long-term biological effects of insulin - in particular, in the control of DNA and RNA synthesis

  3. Receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of arachidonic acid release in 3T3 fibroblasts. Selective susceptibility to islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, T.; Ui, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thrombin exhibited diverse effects on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts. It (a) decreased cAMP in the cell suspension, (b) inhibited adenylate cyclase in the Lubrol-permeabilized cell suspension in a GTP-dependent manner, increased releases of (c) arachidonic acid and (d) inositol from the cell monolayer prelabeled with these labeled compounds, (e) increased 45 Ca 2+ uptake into the cell monolayer, and (f) increased 86 Rb + uptake into the cell monolayer in a ouabain-sensitive manner. Most of the effects were reproduced by bradykinin, platelet-activating factor, and angiotensin II. The receptors for these agonists are thus likely to be linked to three separate effector systems: the adenylate cyclase inhibition, the phosphoinositide breakdown leading to Ca 2+ mobilization and phospholipase A2 activation, and the Na,K-ATPase activation. Among the effects of these agonists, (a), (b), (c), and (e) were abolished, but (d) and (f) were not, by prior treatment of the cells with islet-activating protein (IAP), pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates the Mr = 41,000 protein, the alpha-subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (Ni), thereby abolishing receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The effects (a), (c), (d), and (e) of thrombin, but not (b), were mimicked by A23187, a calcium ionophore. The effects of A23187, in contrast to those of receptor agonists, were not affected by the treatment of cells with IAP. Thus, the IAP substrate, the alpha-subunit of Ni, or the protein alike, may play an additional role in signal transduction arising from the Ca 2+ -mobilizing receptors, probably mediating process(es) distal to phosphoinositide breakdown and proximal to Ca 2+ gating

  4. Striatal adenosine A2A receptor-mediated positron emission tomographic imaging in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats using [18F]-MRS5425

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Lang Lixin; Jacobson, Orit; Shinkre, Bidhan; Ma Ying; Niu Gang; Trenkle, William C.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Chen Xiaoyuan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A 2A receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, specifically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons in the striatum (caudate-putamen). This brain region undergoes degeneration of presynaptic dopamine projections and depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease. We developed an 18 F-labeled A 2A analog radiotracer ([ 18 F]-MRS5425) for A 2A receptor imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that this tracer could image A 2A receptor changes in the rat model for Parkinson's disease, which is created following unilateral injection of the monoaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. Methods: [ 18 F]-MRS5425 was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and PET imaging data were collected. Image-derived percentage injected doses per gram (%ID/g) in regions of interest was measured in the striatum of normal rats and in rats unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA after intravenous administration of saline (baseline), D 2 agonist quinpirole (1.0 mg/kg) or D 2 antagonist raclopride (6.0 mg/kg). Results: Baseline %ID/g reached a maximum at 90 s and maintained plateau for 3.5 min, and then declined slowly thereafter. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, %ID/g was significantly higher in the lesioned side compared to the intact side, and the baseline total %ID/g (data from both hemispheres were combined) was significantly higher compared to quinpirole stimulation starting from 4.5 min until the end of acquisition at 30 min. Raclopride did not produce any change in uptake compared to baseline or between the hemispheres. Conclusion: Thus, increase of A 2A receptor-mediated uptake of radioactive MRS5425 could be a superior molecular target for Parkinson's imaging.

  5. Striatal adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated positron emission tomographic imaging in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats using [{sup 18}F]-MRS5425

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Lang Lixin; Jacobson, Orit [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Shinkre, Bidhan [Chemical Biology Unit, Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Ma Ying [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Niu Gang [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Trenkle, William C. [Chemical Biology Unit, Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jacobson, Kenneth A. [Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Chen Xiaoyuan [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kiesewetter, Dale O., E-mail: dk7k@nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: A{sub 2A} receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, specifically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons in the striatum (caudate-putamen). This brain region undergoes degeneration of presynaptic dopamine projections and depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease. We developed an {sup 18}F-labeled A{sub 2A} analog radiotracer ([{sup 18}F]-MRS5425) for A{sub 2A} receptor imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that this tracer could image A{sub 2A} receptor changes in the rat model for Parkinson's disease, which is created following unilateral injection of the monoaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. Methods: [{sup 18}F]-MRS5425 was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and PET imaging data were collected. Image-derived percentage injected doses per gram (%ID/g) in regions of interest was measured in the striatum of normal rats and in rats unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA after intravenous administration of saline (baseline), D{sub 2} agonist quinpirole (1.0 mg/kg) or D{sub 2} antagonist raclopride (6.0 mg/kg). Results: Baseline %ID/g reached a maximum at 90 s and maintained plateau for 3.5 min, and then declined slowly thereafter. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, %ID/g was significantly higher in the lesioned side compared to the intact side, and the baseline total %ID/g (data from both hemispheres were combined) was significantly higher compared to quinpirole stimulation starting from 4.5 min until the end of acquisition at 30 min. Raclopride did not produce any change in uptake compared to baseline or between the hemispheres. Conclusion: Thus, increase of A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated uptake of radioactive MRS5425 could be a superior molecular target for Parkinson's imaging.

  6. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  7. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  8. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  13. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  14. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  15. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  16. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  17. P2Y receptor-mediated transient relaxation of rat longitudinal ileum preparations involves phospholipase C activation, intracellular Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Felix; Krause, Ludwig; Tokay, Tursonjan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Purinergic signaling plays a major role in the enteric nervous system, where it governs gut motility through a number of P2X and P2Y receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the P2Y receptor-mediated motility in rat longitudinal ileum preparations. Ileum smooth muscle strips were prepared from rats, and fixed in an organ bath. Isometric contraction and relaxation responses of the muscle strips were measured with force transducers. Drugs were applied by adding of stock solutions to the organ bath to yield the individual final concentrations. Application of the non-hydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists α,β-Me-ATP or 2-Me-S-ADP (10, 100 μmol/L) dose-dependently elicited a transient relaxation response followed by a sustained contraction. The relaxation response was largely blocked by SK channel blockers apamin (500 nmol/L) and UCL1684 (10 μmol/L), PLC inhibitor U73122 (100 μmol/L), IP3 receptor blocker 2-APB (100 μmol/L) or sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol/L), but not affected by atropine, NO synthase blocker L-NAME or tetrodotoxin. Furthermore, α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation was suppressed by P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 (50 μmol/L) or P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211 (100 μmol/L), and was abolished by co-application of the two antagonists, whereas 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation was abolished by P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 (50 μmol/L). In addition, P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 (1 μmol/L) not only abolished α,β-Me-ATP-induced relaxation, but also suppressed 2-Me-S-ADP-induced relaxation. P2Y receptor agonist-induced transient relaxation of rat ileum smooth muscle strips is mediated predominantly by P2Y1 receptor, but also by P2Y6 and P2Y13 receptors, and involves PLC, IP3, Ca(2+) release and SK channel activation, but is independent of acetylcholine and NO release.

  18. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    , the present data indicate that, in rat striatum, the actions of quinelorane are mediated primarily by D2 receptors, and suggest that behavioural hypersensitivity to this agonist, induced by unilateral SNPC lesions, is associated with an increase in D2, but not D3 or D4, receptor-mediated G-protein activation.

  19. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  20. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  1. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  2. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  3. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  4. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  5. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  6. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  7. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  8. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and Contribution of Priority PAHs to Ah Receptor-Mediated Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants. PMID:25111307

  9. Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of sediments from Yangtze river estuary and contribution of priority PAHs to ah receptor--mediated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chen, Ling; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Lili; Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Yan, Yan; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Hollert, Henner; Wu, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants.

  10. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  11. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  12. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  13. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  14. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  16. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  19. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  1. Bioassay directed identification of natural aryl hydrocarbon-receptor agonists in marmalade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ede, van K.I.; Li, A.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Citrus fruit and citrus fruit products, like grapefruit, lemon and marmalade were shown to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, as detected with the DR CALUX® bioassay. This is of interest regarding the role of the Ah-receptor pathway in the adverse effects of dioxins, PCBs and other

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  3. Moss as bio-indicators of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Vicente J. Monleon

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of air pollutants linked to a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including asthma, cancers, cardiovascular disease, and fetal growth impairment. PAHs are emitted by combustion of organic matter (e.g. fossil fuels, plant biomass) and can accumulate in plant and animal tissues over time. Compared to criteria...

  4. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  6. Linking Ah receptor mediated effects of sediments and impacts on fish to key pollutants in the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir, China - A comprehensive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floehr, Tilman; Scholz-Starke, Björn; Xiao, Hongxia; Hercht, Hendrik; Wu, Lingling; Hou, Junli; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Segner, Helmut; Kammann, Ulrike; Yuan, Xingzhong; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2015-12-15

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), created in consequence of the Yangtze River's impoundment by the Three Gorges Dam, faces numerous anthropogenic impacts that challenge its unique ecosystem. Organic pollutants, particularly aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, have been widely detected in the Yangtze River, but only little research was yet done on AhR-mediated activities. Hence, in order to assess effects of organic pollution, with particular focus on AhR-mediated activities, several sites in the TGR area were examined applying the "triad approach". It combines chemical analysis, in vitro, in vivo and in situ investigations to a holistic assessment. Sediments and the benthic fish species Pelteobagrus vachellii were sampled in 2011/2012, respectively, to identify relevant endpoints. Sediment was tested in vitro with the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction assay, and in vivo with the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test and Sediment Contact Assay with Danio rerio. Activities of phase I (EROD) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) biotransformation enzymes, pollutant metabolites and histopathological alterations were studied in situ in P. vachellii. EROD induction was tested in vitro and in situ to evaluate possible relationships. Two sites, near Chongqing and Kaixian city, were identified as regional hot-spots and further investigated in 2013. The sediments induced in the in vitro/in vivo bioassays AhR-mediated activities and embryotoxic/teratogenic effects - particularly on the cardiovascular system. These endpoints could be significantly correlated to each other and respective chemical data. However, particle-bound pollutants showed only low bioavailability. The in situ investigations suggested a rather poor condition of P. vachellii, with histopathological alterations in liver and excretory kidney. Fish from Chongqing city exhibited significant hepatic EROD induction and obvious parasitic infestations. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite 1

  7. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  8. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  9. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  10. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  11. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  12. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  13. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  15. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  16. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  17. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  18. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  19. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  1. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  3. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  4. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  5. Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions can be caused by a wide range of therapeutics. Adverse drug reactions affect many bodily organ systems and vary widely in severity. Milder adverse drug reactions often resolve quickly following withdrawal of the casual drug or sometimes after dose reduction. Some adverse drug reactions are severe and lead to significant organ/tissue injury which can be fatal. Adverse drug reactions also represent a financial burden to both healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, a number of stakeholders would benefit from development of new, robust biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognostication of adverse drug reactions. There has been significant recent progress in identifying predictive genomic biomarkers with the potential to be used in clinical settings to reduce the burden of adverse drug reactions. These have included biomarkers that can be used to alter drug dose (for example, Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and azathioprine dose) and drug choice. The latter have in particular included human leukocyte antigen (HLA) biomarkers which identify susceptibility to immune-mediated injuries to major organs such as skin, liver, and bone marrow from a variety of drugs. This review covers both the current state of the art with regard to genomic adverse drug reaction biomarkers. We also review circulating biomarkers that have the potential to be used for both diagnosis and prognosis, and have the added advantage of providing mechanistic information. In the future, we will not be relying on single biomarkers (genomic/non-genomic), but on multiple biomarker panels, integrated through the application of different omics technologies, which will provide information on predisposition, early diagnosis, prognosis, and mechanisms. Impact statement • Genetic and circulating biomarkers present significant opportunities to personalize patient therapy to minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. ADRs are a significant heath issue

  6. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  7. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  8. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  9. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  10. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  11. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  12. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  13. The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and Mental Health of Employees in ... CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities ... Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years.

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  17. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  18. Role of alterations in Ca{sup 2+}-associated signaling pathways in the immunotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, D.R.; Davs, D.P.; Campbell, K. [Univ. of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. The effects of PAHs on the immune system of various animals and models have been studied for at least 30 yr. Despite these efforts, the mechanism or mechanisms by which PAHs exert their effects on the immune system are still largely unknown. During recent years, the molecular events associated with lymphocyte activation and receptor-mediated signaling have become increasingly clear. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cellular bases for toxicant-induced immune cell injury. Understanding mechanisms of drug or chemical effects on the immune system is an important area of research in the field of immunotoxicology, and indeed in all fields of toxicology. Mechanistic toxicology plays an important role in risk assessment and extrapolation of potential human health effects. In this review, we have summarized recent evidence that has examined the effects of PAHs on the immune system of animals and humans. In particular, we have focused on the effects of PAHs on cell signaling in lymphoid cells and have examined the hypothesis that PAHs alter lymphocyte activation via calcium-dependent mechanisms. Previously published reports are discussed, and new data obtained with murine B cells and cell lines are presented demonstrating the relationship between alterations in intracellular calcium and immune dysregulation. These data demonstrate a strong association between PAH-induced alterations in B- and T-lymphocyte activation and changes in calcium homeostasis. 111 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments: prediction of bioavailability and characterization of organic matter domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, C.

    2001-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of priority pollutants which are of increasing environmental concern because of their adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants. Soils and sediments generally serve as a sink for PAHs, which leads to the accumulation of PAHs at

  20. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  1. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  2. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  3. Adverse reactions associated with acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, E A; Bateman, D N

    2009-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most common agents deliberately ingested in self-poisoning episodes and a leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Acetylcysteine is widely acknowledged as the antidote of choice for paracetamol poisoning, but its use is not without risk. Adverse reactions, often leading to treatment delay, are frequently associated with both intravenous and oral acetylcysteine and are a common source of concern among treating physicians. A systematic literature review investigating the incidence, clinical features, and mechanisms of adverse effects associated with acetylcysteine. A variety of adverse reactions to acetylcysteine have been described ranging from nausea to death, most of the latter due to incorrect dosing. The pattern of reactions differs with oral and intravenous dosing, but reported frequency is at least as high with oral as intravenous. The reactions to the intravenous preparation result in similar clinical features to true anaphylaxis, including rash, pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and rarely hypotension, but are caused by nonimmunological mechanisms. The precise nature of this reaction remains unclear. Histamine now seems to be an important mediator of the response, and there is evidence of variability in patient susceptibility, with females, and those with a history of asthma or atopy are particularly susceptible. Quantity of paracetamol ingestion, measured through serum paracetamol concentration, is also important as higher paracetamol concentrations protect patients against anaphylactoid effects. Most anaphylactoid reactions occur at the start of acetylcysteine treatment when concentrations are highest. Acetylcysteine also affects clotting factor activity, and this affects the interpretation of minor disturbances in the International Normalized Ratio in the context of paracetamol overdose. This review discusses the incidence, clinical features, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and

  4. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  5. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  6. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  7. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  8. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  9. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  10. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  11. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  12. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  13. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  14. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  15. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  16. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  17. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  18. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  19. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  20. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  1. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  2. Monoclonal antibody to the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor blocks IGF-I receptor-mediated DNA synthesis: clarification of the mitogenic mechanisms of IGF-I and insulin in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flier, J.S.; Usher, P.; Moses, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) stimulate an overlapping spectrum of biological responses in human skin fibroblasts. Although insulin and IGF-I are known to stimulate the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA in these cells, the identify of the receptor(s) that mediates this effect has not been fully clarified. The mouse anti-human IGF-I receptor antibody αIR-3 binds with specificity to IGF-I but not to insulin receptors in human placental membranes; it also specifically inhibits the binding of 125 I-labeled IGF-I but not 125 I-labeled insulin to suspensions of human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. αIR-3 competitively inhibits IGF-I-mediated stimulation of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of αIR-3 and in the presence of a fixed antibody concentration can be partially overcome by high concentrations of IGF-I. In contrast, at concentrations of 3 H]thymidine incorporation is not inhibited by αIR-3. However, the incremental effects of higher concentrations (> 1 μg/ml) of insulin on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation are inhibited by αIR-3. αIR-3 is a highly specific antagonist of IGF-I receptor-mediated mitogenesis in human skin fibroblasts. By using this antibody, it is shown directly that insulin can act through the IGF-I receptor to stimulate DNA synthesis but can also activate this effect through the insulin receptor itself

  3. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  4. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.

  5. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  6. [Management of adverse drug effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G

    2000-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are still considered one of the main problems of drug therapy. ADRs are associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, decreased compliance and therapeutic success as well as high direct and indirect medical costs. Several considerations have to come into play when managing a potential ADR. It is critical to establish an accurate clinical diagnosis of the adverse event. Combining information about drug exposure together with considering other possible causes of the reaction is crucial to establish a causal relationship between the reaction and the suspected drug. Identification of the underlying pathogenesis of an ADR together with the severity of the reaction will have profound implications on continuation of drug therapy after an ADR. Since spontaneous reports about ADRs are a key stone of a functioning post-marketing surveillance system and therefore play a key role in improving drug safety, health care professionals are highly encouraged to report ADRs to a local or national organization. However, because the majority of ADRs is dose-dependent and therefore preventable, individualization of pharmacotherapy may have a major impact on reducing such events.

  7. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  8. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  9. An Integrative data mining approach to identifying Adverse ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework is a tool for making biological connections and summarizing key information across different levels of biological organization to connect biological perturbations at the molecular level to adverse outcomes for an individual or population. Computational approaches to explore and determine these connections can accelerate the assembly of AOPs. By leveraging the wealth of publicly available data covering chemical effects on biological systems, computationally-predicted AOPs (cpAOPs) were assembled via data mining of high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro data, in vivo data and other disease phenotype information. Frequent Itemset Mining (FIM) was used to find associations between the gene targets of ToxCast HTS assays and disease data from Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) by using the chemicals as the common aggregators between datasets. The method was also used to map gene expression data to disease data from CTD. A cpAOP network was defined by considering genes and diseases as nodes and FIM associations as edges. This network contained 18,283 gene to disease associations for the ToxCast data and 110,253 for CTD gene expression. Two case studies show the value of the cpAOP network by extracting subnetworks focused either on fatty liver disease or the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR). The subnetwork surrounding fatty liver disease included many genes known to play a role in this disease. When querying the cpAOP

  10. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  11. Opioid receptor mediated anticonvulsant effect of pentazocine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, N; Khosla, R; Kohli, J

    1998-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of (+/-) pentazocine (10, 30 & 50 mg/kg), a Sigma opioid agonist, resulted in a dose dependent anticonvulsant action against maximal electroshock seizures in mice. This anticonvulsant effect of pentazocine was not antagonized by both the doses of naloxone (1 and 10 mg/kg) suggesting thereby that its anticonvulsant action is probably mediated by Sigma opiate binding sites. Its anticonvulsant effect was potentiated by both the anticonvulsant drugs viz. diazepam and diphenylhydantoin. Morphine, mu opioid agonist, on the other hand, failed to protect the animals against maximal electroshock seizures when it was given in doses of 10-40 mg/kg body wt.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  13. Inositol trisphosphate receptor mediated spatiotemporal calcium signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S

    1995-04-01

    Spatiotemporal Ca2+ signalling in the cytoplasm is currently understood as an excitation phenomenon by analogy with electrical excitation in the plasma membrane. In many cell types, Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations are mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor/Ca2+ channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, with positive feedback between cytosolic Ca2+ and IP3-induced Ca2+ release creating a regenerative process. Remarkable advances have been made in the past year in the analysis of subcellular Ca2+ microdomains using confocal microscopy and of Ca2+ influx pathways that are functionally coupled to IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Ca2+ signals can be conveyed into the nucleus and mitochondria. Ca2+ entry from outside the cell allows repetitive Ca2+ release by providing Ca2+ to refill the endoplasmic reticulum stores, thus giving rise to frequency-encoded Ca2+ signals.

  14. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  15. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  16. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  17. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  18. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  19. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  20. Managing adverse effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, James N; Ramamurthy, Chethan; Borghaei, Hossein

    2018-05-01

    Remarkable efficacy has been achieved in a variety of cancer types by targeting immune checkpoints. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor ipilimumab, the programmed death 1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and the programmed death ligand 1 inhibitors atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are the agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of certain advanced malignancies. These agents mark a departure from both standard cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. However, they are associated with a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can manifest as a wide range of autoimmune phenomena. The irAEs can affect any system in the body and in rare cases are life-threatening. It is critical for the practicing medical oncologist to recognize and promptly treat any irAEs that may develop.

  1. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  2. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  3. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  4. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  5. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  6. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  7. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  8. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  9. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  10. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  11. Ga-66 labeled somatostatin analogue DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide as a potential agent for positron emission tomography imaging and receptor mediated internal radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugur, Oemer; Kothari, Paresh J.; Finn, Ronald D.; Zanzonico, Pat; Ruan, Shutian; Guenther, Ilonka; Maecke, Helmut R.; Larson, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide labeled somatostatin analogues selectively target somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing tumors as a basis for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Recently, a DOTA-functionalized somatostatin analogue, DOTATOC (DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide) has been developed. This compound has been shown to be superior to the other somatostatin analogues as indicated by its uniquely high tumor-to-non-target tissue ratio. DOTATOC can be labeled with a variety of radiometals including gallium radioisotopes. Gallium-66 is a positron emitting radionuclide (T 1/2 =9.5 hr; β + =56%), that can be produced in carrier free form by a low-beam energy cyclotron. In this study we investigated SSTR targeting characteristics of 66 Ga-DOTATOC in AR42J rat pancreas tumor implanted nude mice as a potential agent for diagnosis and receptor-mediated internal radiotherapy of SSTR-expressing tumors. We compared our results with 67 Ga- and 68 Ga- labeled DOTATOC. The radiolabeling procedure gave labeling yield ranged from 85-95% and radiochemical and chemical purity was >95%. In-vitro competitive binding curves and in-vivo competitive displacement studies with an excess of unlabeled peptide indicates that there is specific binding of the radioligand to SSTR. Animal biodistribution data and serial microPET TM images demonstrated rapid tumor uptake and rapid clearance from the blood and all tissues except kidney. Maximum % ID/g values for tumor were 10.0±0.7, 13.2±2.1 and 9.8±1.5 for 66 Ga-, 67 Ga-, and 68 Ga-DOTATOC, respectively. Calculated tumor, kidney and bone marrow doses for 66 Ga-DOTATOC based on biodistribution data were 178, 109 and 1.2 cGy/MBq, respectively. We conclude that 66 Ga labeled DOTATOC can be used for PET diagnosis and quantitative imaging-based dosimetry of SSTR positive tumors. 66 Ga-DOTATOC may also be used in higher doses for ablation of these tumors. However, kidney is the critical organ for toxicity (tumor/kidney ratio 1.64), and high kidney uptake must

  12. Ga-66 labeled somatostatin analogue DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide as a potential agent for positron emission tomography imaging and receptor mediated internal radiotherapy of somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Oemer E-mail: ougur@hacettepe.edu.tr; Kothari, Paresh J.; Finn, Ronald D.; Zanzonico, Pat; Ruan, Shutian; Guenther, Ilonka; Maecke, Helmut R.; Larson, Steven M

    2002-02-01

    Radionuclide labeled somatostatin analogues selectively target somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing tumors as a basis for diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Recently, a DOTA-functionalized somatostatin analogue, DOTATOC (DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide) has been developed. This compound has been shown to be superior to the other somatostatin analogues as indicated by its uniquely high tumor-to-non-target tissue ratio. DOTATOC can be labeled with a variety of radiometals including gallium radioisotopes. Gallium-66 is a positron emitting radionuclide (T{sub 1/2} =9.5 hr; {beta}{sup +}=56%), that can be produced in carrier free form by a low-beam energy cyclotron. In this study we investigated SSTR targeting characteristics of {sup 66}Ga-DOTATOC in AR42J rat pancreas tumor implanted nude mice as a potential agent for diagnosis and receptor-mediated internal radiotherapy of SSTR-expressing tumors. We compared our results with {sup 67}Ga- and {sup 68}Ga- labeled DOTATOC. The radiolabeling procedure gave labeling yield ranged from 85-95% and radiochemical and chemical purity was >95%. In-vitro competitive binding curves and in-vivo competitive displacement studies with an excess of unlabeled peptide indicates that there is specific binding of the radioligand to SSTR. Animal biodistribution data and serial microPET{sup TM} images demonstrated rapid tumor uptake and rapid clearance from the blood and all tissues except kidney. Maximum % ID/g values for tumor were 10.0{+-}0.7, 13.2{+-}2.1 and 9.8{+-}1.5 for {sup 66}Ga-, {sup 67}Ga-, and {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC, respectively. Calculated tumor, kidney and bone marrow doses for {sup 66}Ga-DOTATOC based on biodistribution data were 178, 109 and 1.2 cGy/MBq, respectively. We conclude that {sup 66}Ga labeled DOTATOC can be used for PET diagnosis and quantitative imaging-based dosimetry of SSTR positive tumors. {sup 66}Ga-DOTATOC may also be used in higher doses for ablation of these tumors. However, kidney is the

  13. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated constitutive Gαi3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5′-0-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding strategy, we characterised Gαi3 subunit activation by h5-HT1B receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Gαi3, whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT1B receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Gαi3 and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 μM) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. Isotopic dilution experiments ([35S]GTPγS versus GTPγS) revealed high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding to Gαi3 subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPγS for Gαi3 subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. h5-HT1B receptor-mediated Gαi3 subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding, basal Gαi3 activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Gαi3 activation. In conclusion, at h5-HT1B receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Gαi3, and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Gα subunit; (ii) constitutive Gαi3 activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [35S]GTPγS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Gαi3 activation and leads to protean agonist properties of 5-HT: that is a switch to inhibition of Gαi3. PMID:12684263

  14. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated constitutive Galphai3-protein activation in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells: an antibody capture assay reveals protean efficacy of 5-HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier; Marini, Laetitia; Touzard, Manuelle; Millan, Mark J

    2003-03-01

    1. Serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptors couple to G-proteins of the Gi/o family. However, their activation of specific G-protein subtypes is poorly characterised. Using an innovative antibody capture/guanosine-5'-0-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding strategy, we characterised Galpha(i3) subunit activation by h5-HT(1B) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 2. The agonists, 5-HT, alniditan and BMS181,101, stimulated Galpha(i3), whereas methiothepin and SB224,289 behaved as inverse agonists. The selective 5-HT(1B) receptor ligand, S18127, modestly stimulated Galpha(i3) and reversed the actions of both 5-HT and methiothepin. S18127 (1 micro M) also produced parallel, dextral shifts of the 5-HT and methiothepin isotherms. 3. Isotopic dilution experiments ([(35)S]GTPgammaS versus GTPgammaS) revealed high-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding to Galpha(i3) subunits in the absence of receptor ligands indicating constitutive activity. High-affinity [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was increased 2.8-fold by 5-HT with an increase in the affinity of GTPgammaS for Galpha(i3) subunits. In contrast, methiothepin halved the number of high-affinity binding sites and decreased their affinity. 4. h5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated Galpha(i3) subunit activation was dependent on the concentration of NaCl. At 300 mM, 5-HT stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding, basal Galpha(i3) activation was low and methiothepin was inactive. In contrast, at 10 mM NaCl, basal activity was enhanced and the inverse agonist activity of methiothepin was accentuated. Under these conditions, 5-HT decreased Galpha(i3) activation. 5. In conclusion, at h5-HT(1B) receptors expressed in CHO cells: (i) inverse agonist induced inhibition of Galpha(i3), and its reversal by S18127, reveals constitutive activation of this Galpha subunit; (ii) constitutive Galpha(i3) activation can be quantified by isotopic dilution [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding and (iii) decreasing NaCl concentrations enhances Galpha(i3

  15. Comparison of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds in human and mouse cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A K; Nebert, D W; Eisen, H W

    1985-08-01

    The human MCF-7 and the mouse Hepa-1 cell culture lines were compared for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and TCDD- and BA-specific binding in the cytosol and nucleus. The effective concentration of BA in the growth medium required to induce either enzyme to 50% of its maximally inducible activity (EC50) was the same (5-11 microM) in both MCF-7 and Hepa-1 cells. On the other hand, the EC50 for TCDD in MCF-7 cells (5-25 nM) was more than 40-fold greater than that in Hepa-1 cells (0.4 to 0.6 nM). P1-450- and P3-450-specific mouse cDNA probes were used to quantitate mRNA induction in the Hepa-1 cell line. P1-450 mRNA was induced markedly by TCDD and benzo[a] anthracene, whereas P3-450 mRNA was induced negligibly. A P1-450-specific human cDNA probe was used to quantitate P1-450 mRNA induction in the MCF-7 cell line. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility by TCDD or BA always paralleled P1-450 mRNA inducibility in either the mouse or human line. Although the cytosolic Ah receptor in Hepa-1 cells was easily detected by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, gel permeation chromatography, and anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, the cytosolic receptor cannot be detected in MCF-7 cells. Following in vivo exposure of cultures to radiolabeled TCDD, the intranuclear concentration of inducer-receptor complex was at least fifty times greater in Hepa-1 than MCF-7 cultures. The complete lack of measurable cytosolic receptor and almost totally absent inducer-receptor complex in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells was, therefore, out of proportion to its capacity for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility. This MCF-7 line should provide an interesting model for a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug-metabolizing enzyme induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds, including the Ah receptor-mediated mechanism.

  16. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  17. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  18. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  19. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  20. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  1. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  2. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  3. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  4. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Evaluation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Tehran’s Districts Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pardakhti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Tehran’s drinking water was evaluated for the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbons during spring and summer of 2009. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that cause adverse health effects on human’s kidney, liver and central nervous systems. In this study six water districts were selected for taking drinking water samples in the city of Tehran as well as one location outside the city limits. The samples were analyzed by GC/MS using EPA method 8260. The average concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2 Dichloromethane, Tetra chloromethane, Trichloroethylene and tetra chloroethylene were determined during a 7 month period and the results were 0.04ppb, 0.52ppb, 0.01ppb, 0.24ppb, 0.03ppb respectively. The highest concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbon observed in Tehran’s drinking water was Trichloroethylene and the lowest concentration was Tetra chloromethane. Districts 5 and 6 showed the highest concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the city of Tehran.

  7. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Guo, Abra; Zhang, Shelley; Jagannathan, Desikan; Toldo, Luca; Tao, Cui; Smith, Barry

    2014-01-01

    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term 'adverse event' denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of adverse events and of the factors (e

  8. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  10. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, whic...

  11. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Carver; Charles S. Carver; Sheri L Johnson; Sheri L Johnson; Michael E McCullough; Daniel E Forster; Jutta eJoormann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which w...

  12. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  13. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  17. Childhood adversity and insomnia in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Raffeld, Miriam R; Slopen, Natalie; Hale, Lauren; Dunn, Erin C

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia, with an emphasis on the role of adversity type, timing, and accumulation (i.e., the number of specific types of adversities the child reported being exposed to). Our analytic sample comprised 9582 adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined the association between 18 different types of retrospectively reported adversities (capturing interpersonal violence, accidents and injuries, social network or witnessing events, and other adverse events) and risk of self-reported past-year insomnia. We also examined whether the age at first exposure to adversity was associated with the risk of insomnia, and whether exposure to a greater number of different types of adversities (ie, accumulation) conferred an elevated risk of insomnia. In addition, we performed a sensitivity analysis excluding adolescents with a past-year diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or generalized anxiety disorder. Almost one-third of adolescents reported insomnia, with a higher prevalence among girls and those from racial/ethnic minority groups. Adolescents exposed to at least one childhood adversity of any type (59.41%) were more likely than their nonexposed peers to experience insomnia (across adversities, prevalence ratios (PRs) ranged from 1.31 to 1.89). Risk of insomnia differed based on the age at first exposure to adversity as well as the type of adversity. Adolescents exposed to a greater number of different types of adversities had a higher risk of insomnia compared to those experiencing fewer adversities. These results were similar, by and large, to those obtained after excluding adolescents with at least one of the four past-year psychiatric disorders. Exposure to adversity confers an elevated risk of insomnia. This association varied by type

  18. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  19. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  20. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  1. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  2. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  3. 16 CFR 901.7 - Adverse determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse determination. 901.7 Section 901.7... APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT § 901.7 Adverse determination. (a) If, after... of the information before it that it cannot make a favorable determination in connection with the...

  4. Etanercept An Overview of Dermatologic Adverse Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, Lidian L. A.; Dowlatshahi, Emmilia A.; Limpens, C. E. Jacqueline M.; de Rie, Menno A.; Bos, Jan D.; Spuls, Phyllis I.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of dermatologic adverse events of etanercept described in the literature (including all study types, case reports, and surveys) and to present information on the occurrence, severity, treatment, and course of these adverse events. Data Sources: MEDLINE

  5. Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, T.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis is formulated about the mechanisms causing adverse reactions to contrast media. Contrast media act in two ways. They stimulate the mast cells to release histamine and leukotrienes, and they inhibit the enzymes which otherwise degrade leukotrienes. Thus individuals, especially those with a history of allergy, are easily exposed to undue amounts of leukotrienes and these are responsible for the adverse reactions. (orig.)

  6. Impact of hydrocarbon type, concentration and weathering on its biodegradability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, Snežana P; Dalmacija, Božo D; Rončević, Srđan D; Agbaba, Jasmina R; Perović, Svetlana D Ugarčina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of the hydrocarbon type and concentration, as well as the total effect of the natural weathering process to hydrocarbon biodegradability in sandy soil and the environment. In this experiment, sandy soil was separately contaminated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.5% of diesel and crude oils. Oil contaminated soil was taken from the Oil Refinery dumping sites after 9 years of weathering, and its concentration was adjusted to the above-mentioned levels. The biodegradation process was monitored by measuring CO(2), evolution rate, hydrocarbon degradation rate and dehydrogenase activity. The favourable concentration ranges for the soil contaminated with diesel oil were 1.0%, with concentrations at about 2.0% causing slightly adverse effects to CO(2) production which was overcome after 2 weeks, and with 3.5% diesel oil causing significant toxicity. For soil contaminated with crude oil, 2.0% was found to be optimum for effective biodegradation, with 3.5% crude oil also causing adverse effects to CO(2) production, although less so than the same concentration of diesel oil. No adverse effect was obtained for any concentration of the weathered oil, as after the weathering process, the remaining contaminants in the soil were mostly poorly degradable constituents like asphaltenes, resins etc. It has been proposed that such residual material from oil degradation is analogous to, and can even be regarded as, humic material. Due to its inert characteristics, insolubility and similarity to humic materials it is unlikely to be environmentally hazardous.

  7. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  8. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  9. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  10. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  11. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  12. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  13. Integrity management, hydrocarbons transport: NAG 100-RES 1460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Soula, Gerardo [GIE S.A., Lima (Peru)

    2009-12-19

    In May, 2007, a series of tasks were implemented in the actives of the client at Patagonia, Argentina, with the purpose of applying a Pipeline Integrity System. The purpose of this system is to effectively operate their facilities in such a way that no adverse effects are suffered by their employees, the environment, or the public at large, which is one of the main goals followed by any oil pipeline operator. In this paper, all tasks, inspections, controls and records made by the operator about gas and liquid hydrocarbons Pipelines contemplated by local requirements, NAG 100 and Resolution 1460 are described. Firstly, a description of gas and liquid hydrocarbons transport systems was made. This description consisted in the recollection of basic information about construction, maintenance, operation and inspection. Later, tasks to complete the ILI process started by the company in the past were implemented. This implementation consisted in the analysis of inspections that were made, priority of anomalies to verify, definition of verifications, direct assessment and analysis of the results. A gap analysis was made with the purpose of stating the compliance level of the normative requirements for each system. This analysis consisted in the determination of the company's practices about applicable regulations. As a result of this, a series of duties were developed from the collection and integration of information, using the database that was already implemented by the company. A risk analysis was also made, based on the determination of the kind of events or adverse conditions that can make an impact in the oil pipeline, the possibilities that these events or condition can conduct to a failure, and the seriousness of the possible consequences that these failures can produce. With the results of the risk analysis, the Inspection plan developed by the company was refreshed and it resulted in an improvement Plan in data collection and identification of sensitive

  14. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  15. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  16. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  18. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  19. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  20. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  1. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  2. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  3. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  4. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  5. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  6. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  7. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  9. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  10. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  11. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  12. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  14. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  15. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  16. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  17. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  18. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  19. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  20. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  1. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  2. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  3. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  4. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  5. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  6. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  7. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  8. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  9. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  10. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  11. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Altman, Russ B

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs

  12. Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...

  13. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  14. In vitro function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor predicts in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among species and taxa presents a major challenge to ecological risk assessments. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs in vertebrates. Prior investigations demonstrated that sensitivity to activation of the AHR1 (50% effect concentration; EC50) in an in vitro luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was predictive of the sensitivity of embryos (lethal dose to cause 50% lethality; LD50) across all species of birds for all DLCs. However, nothing was known about whether sensitivity to activation of the AHR is predictive of sensitivity of embryos of fishes to DLCs. Therefore, this study investigated in vitro sensitivities of AHR1s and AHR2s to the model DLC, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), among eight species of fish of known sensitivities of embryos to TCDD. AHR1s and AHR2s of all fishes were activated by TCDD in vitro. There was no significant linear relationship between in vitro sensitivity of AHR1 and in vivo sensitivity among the investigated fishes (R2 = 0.33, p = 0.23). However, there was a significant linear relationship between in vitro sensitivity of AHR2 and in vivo sensitivity among the investigated fishes (R2 = 0.97, p = fishes was compared to the previously generated linear relationship between in vitro s

  15. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in South China sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Ab Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Wee Boon Siong; Nazaratul Ashifa; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Ab Rahman; Ariffin Talib

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (Hcp) consist of three major components namely alkanes, cyclo-alkanes and aromatics. HCP are pollutant and can cause adverse effect to the marine organisms. The study was done to identify the source of pollution in the South China Sea coastal area. The South China Sea is one of the major oil production area in Malaysia. Sampling was done at 15 stations along the coastal area of South China Sea off Peninsular Malaysia, which involved two zone namely coastal (zone 1) and offshore (zone 2) areas. Samples were analyzed using GC-MS for determination of HCP. The results showed, that concentration of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon at coastal area, range from 0.51 - 1.31 mg/g and 0.18 - 0.42 mg/g dry weight, respectively whilst, concentration of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon at offshore area, range from 0.44 - 1.09 mg/g and 0.20 - 0.49 mg/g dry weight, respectively. SHCP (Aliphatic + PAH) concentration in the sediment at the study area range from 0.64 - 1.68 mg/g dry weight. In this study, it was found that, pollution source for the South China Sea off Peninsular Malaysia was originated from pyrolytic sources (combustion fossil fuel), while some other area had been polluted by pyrolytic or petrogenic (unburned fossil) sources. (Author)

  17. Natural revegetation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in semi-arid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizecki Robson, D.; Knight, J. D.; Farrell, R. E.; Germida, J. J. [University of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Soil Science, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to degrade and contain soil contaminants is considered a cost-effective decontaminant for sites contaminated by spills in the oil and gas producing areas of Western Canada. The objective of this study was to determine if contamination by hydrocarbons changes soil properties, species composition, and species abundance when compared with uncontaminated plots, and to identify species and functional groups unique to contaminated sites that may be further screened for their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. In pursuit of these objectives the effect of contamination on coverage, litter and bare ground was examined, differences in species composition between contaminated and uncontaminated sites were assessed, and the ability to fix nitrogen, and form mycorrhiza, life form, pollination mode, seed dispersal and reproduction mode of each species was determined. Results showed less vegetation and litter cover in contaminated plots, and significantly higher soil carbon to nitrogen ratios. Species diversity was also lower on contaminated sites, although species richness was not significantly different. Self-pollinated species were significantly more common on contaminated sites. Five grasses and three forbs were identified as tolerant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, with two grasses -- Agropyron smithii, and Agropyron trachycaulum -- being the most promising for reclamation. The low vegetation cover on contaminated plots is attributed to high pH and carbon to nitrogen ratios, and low nitrogen and phosphorus that results from soil disturbance. High electrical conductivity is also considered to adversely affect vegetation and litter cover on contaminated sites. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  19. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  20. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  1. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  2. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  3. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  4. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  5. Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Clark, C; Smuk, M; Power, C; Davidson, T; Rodgers, B

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood. Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29-5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90-11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI -7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97-27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40-38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years. Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive

  6. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  8. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  9. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  10. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  12. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  13. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  14. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  16. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  17. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  18. Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Behrman, E. L.; Bergland, A. O.; Petrov, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Schmidt, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-80 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * Drosophila * experimental evolution * spatiotemporal variation * thermal plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12988/full

  19. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  20. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  1. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  2. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  4. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  5. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  6. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  7. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  9. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  10. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  11. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task , related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

  13. Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  15. Sources and distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical marine protected area estuary under influence of sugarcane cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Santos, Roxanny Helen de; Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete

    2018-05-15

    Goiana estuary is a well preserved marine protected area (MPA) located on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Despite its current state, human activities in the watershed represent a potential threat to long term local preservation. Dissolved/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water and sediments across the estuarine salt gradient. Concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons was low in all samples. According to results, aromatic hydrocarbons are associated to suspended particulate matter (SPM) carried to the estuary by river waters. An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) was identified in the upper estuary, indicating that both sediments and contaminants are trapped prior to an occasional export to the adjacent sea. PAHs distribution in sediments were associated with organic matter and mud content. Diagnostic ratios indicated pyrolytic processes as the main local source of PAHs that are probably associated with sugarcane burning and combustion engines. Low PAH concentrations probably do not cause adverse biological effects to the local biota although their presence indicate anthropogenic contamination and pressure on the Goiana estuary MPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  17. Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood. ... childhood adversity have similar levels of depression, acute and chronic health. ... to explain the pathways linking childhood adversity to physical health in adulthood.

  18. The association between cumulative adversity and mental health: considering dose and primary focus of adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Giora; Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov

    2012-09-01

    The study addressed the dose-response model in the association of cumulative adversity with mental health. Data of 1,725 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, distress (lifetime depression, depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, optimism/hope). The maximal effect of cumulative trauma emerged in the contrast between 0-2 and 3+ events, where the higher number of events related to higher distress but also to higher well-being. While self-oriented adversity revealed no, or negative, association with well-being, other-oriented adversity revealed a positive association. The study suggests an experiential dose of cumulative adversity leading to a co-activation of distress and well-being. The source of this co-activation seems to be other-oriented adversity.

  19. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  20. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  1. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  2. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  3. Adverse events while awaiting myocardial revascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Stuart J.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Beumer, Berend

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to estimate adverse event rates while awaiting myocardial revascularization and review criteria for prioritizing patients. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed on 19 January 2015, to identify English-language, original, observational studies reportin...

  4. .Network analytics for adverse outcome pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) organize toxicological knowledge from the molecular level up to the population level, providing evidence-based causal linkages at each step. The AOPWiki serves as a repository of AOPs. With the international adoption of the AOP framework, the AOPw...

  5. Eccentric vision : adverse interactions between line segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.J.; Bouma, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with adverse interactions between line stimuli ineccentric vision. Bothcontrast thresholdandjust noticeable difference of slanthave been measured for a test line as a function of the distance from a number of surrounding lines. Test lines were either parallel or perpendicular to the

  6. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  7. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  8. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  9. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  10. Rethinking childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.

  11. Formulation and optimization of oxaliplatin immuno-nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design and cytotoxicity assessment for synergistic and receptor-mediated targeting in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Shashank; Gowthamarajan, K; Satish Kumar, M N; Praveen, T K; Yamjala, Karthik; Tripuraneni, Naga Srinivas; Prakash, Ashwati

    2016-12-01

    Conventional chemotherapy majorly lacks clinical application attributed to its inspecificity, adverse effects and inability to penetrate into tumor cells. Hence, the aim of the study was to prepare oxaliplatin solid lipid nanoparticles (OP-SLN) by microemulsion method optimizing it by Box-Behnken design and then covalently conjugated to TRAIL (CD-253) monoclonal antibody (TR-OP-SLN) for targeting colorectal cancer cells. The optimized OP-SLN3 has shown an appreciable particle size (121 ± 1.22 nm), entrapment efficiency (78 ± 0.09%) and drug loading (32 ± 1.01%). Fluorescence study and the Bradford assay further confirmed the binding of the protein. A 1.5-fold increase in cytotoxicity of immuno-nanoparticles (4.9 μM) was observed.

  12. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  13. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  14. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  15. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  16. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  17. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)

  19. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  20. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shantanu

    2005-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important com- ponent of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They are being used as probes for understanding of process and conditions of different astrophysical environments. The understanding of their IR spectra and its variations with PAH size and ionization state is useful in characterizing the ISM. Spectral features of model graphene sheets and also that of smaller PAH molecules are reported. The variation of intensity with charge state of the molecule shows that cations give a better correlation with observations. The relationship between changes in charge distribution with intensity changes upon ionization has been probed.

  2. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  3. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  4. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method of cleansing and refining of liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C A; Nielsen, H

    1934-10-11

    A process is described for cleaning and refining liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives by utilization of acids, followed by washing partly with a basic solution, partly with clean water. The process is characterized by using, in connection with the acid solutions mentioned, a strong solution of a mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.

  7. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  8. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  9. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  10. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This study, which builds on previous research demonstrating that drinking motives are associated with adverse consequences, investigates the associations between drinking motives and non-alcohol-attributed adverse consequences and disentangles alcohol-related and direct......, differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... indirect effects (via alcohol use) on injuries and academic problems; the association was negative for conformity motives. The direct effect, that is, the effect above and beyond alcohol use, indicated more negative consequences among those who tended to drink more frequently for coping motives. More...

  11. Adverse selection model regarding tobacco consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of introducing a tax on tobacco consumption can be studied trough an adverse selection model. The objective of the model presented in the following is to characterize the optimal contractual relationship between the governmental authorities and the two type employees: smokers and non-smokers, taking into account that the consumers’ decision to smoke or not represents an element of risk and uncertainty. Two scenarios are run using the General Algebraic Modeling Systems software: one without taxes set on tobacco consumption and another one with taxes set on tobacco consumption, based on an adverse selection model described previously. The results of the two scenarios are compared in the end of the paper: the wage earnings levels and the social welfare in case of a smoking agent and in case of a non-smoking agent.

  12. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  13. 4-tert-Octylphenol stimulates the expression of cathepsins in human breast cancer cells and xenografted breast tumors of a mouse model via an estrogen receptor-mediated signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathepsins B and D were markedly enhanced by octylphenol (OP) in MCF-7 cells. ► OP may accelerate breast cancer cell growth and cathepsins via ER-mediated signaling. ► Breast cancer cells exposed with OP to mouse model were more aggressive. ► OP can promote metastasis through the amplification of cathepsins B and D via ER-mediated signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are defined as environmental compounds that modulate steroid hormone receptor-dependent responses an abnormal manner, resulting in adverse health problems for humans such as cancer growth and metastasis. Cathepsins are proteases that have been implicated in cancer progression. However, there have been few studies about the association between cathepsins and estrogenic chemicals during the cancer progression. In this study, we examined the effect(s) of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), a potent EDC, on the expression of cathepsins B and D in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a xenograft mouse model. Treatment with OP significantly induced the proliferation MCF-7 cells in an MTT assay. In addition, the expression of cathepsins B and D was markedly enhanced in MCF-7 cells at both the transcriptional and the translational levels following treatment with E2 or OP up to 48 h. These results demonstrated the ability of OP to disrupt normal transcriptional regulation of cathepsins B and D in human breast cancer cells. However, the effects of OP on cell growth or overexpression of cathepsins by inhibiting ER-mediated signaling were abolished by an ER antagonist and siRNA specific for ERα. In conclusion, our findings suggest that OP at 10 −6 M, like E2, may accelerate breast cancer cell proliferation and the expression of cathepsins through an ER-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, the breast cancer cells exposed with OP to a xenograft mouse model were more aggressive according to our histological analysis and showed markedly increased expression of

  14. Pengaruh Negative Framing dan Adverse Selection terhadap Eskalasi Komitmen

    OpenAIRE

    Arimawan, Muhammad Sandi; Sukirno, Sukirno

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui: (1) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (2) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (3) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection secara bersama-sama terhadap eskalasi komitmen, (4) Pengaruh negative framing terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (5) Pengaruh adverse selection terhadap eskalasi komitmen dimoderasi locus of control, (6) Pengaruh negative framing dan adverse selection se...

  15. The lesser of two adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chayan; Egan, John

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to complex systems are interconnected processes involved in providing high-quality patient care. A case study and a root cause analysis (RCA) illustrate a patient safety effort with unintended consequences. A 38-year-old woman presented to the hospital for odynophagia and vomiting. The patient developed Mobitz type 2, second-degree heart block temporally associated with the administration of intravenous ondansetron. RESPONSE TO THE EVENT: An Ishikawa, or fishbone, diagram conducted to enumerate potential contributing factors indicated that a key factor appeared to be an institutional restriction against using intravenous (i.v.) promethazine, which resulted in ondansetron being the only readily available i.v. anti-emetic on formulary. The anesthesia department requested that i.v. promethazine be removed from all operating and recovery room automated medication dispensing machines. The pharmacy department, given the realization that individual departments were taking independent action regarding promethazine, discussed the matter with the medical director, who issued a memo banning the use of i.v. promethazine. An institutional ban on i.v. anti-emetics such as promethazine may have resulted in an increase in the use of ondansetron and contributed to this adverse reaction. The reason to restrict promethazine is not well reported in the literature. In limiting the use of promethazine for patient safety concerns, the inadvertent increase in adverse reactions of the alternative medication, ondansetron, may have been overlooked. The resultant RCA underscores the need for careful cataloguing of adverse medication effects. Stakeholders should anticipate as many "downstream effects" of quality and patient safety improvements as possible. Comprehensive reporting of adverse medication effects will augment the emerging science of patient safety.

  16. The pharmacist and adverse drug reaction reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K

    1982-08-01

    During premarketing trials, the number of patients exposed to a drug and the length of exposure to a drug are both limited. After marketing, many thousands, frequently millions, of patients are exposed to the drug over considerably longer periods of time, and adverse drug reactions not previously recognized appear. Because of these factors, postmarketing surveillance is extremely important. Pharmacists can contribute to drug safety and improved patient care by understanding and actively participating in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting Program.

  17. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  19. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  20. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  1. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  2. Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants―A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KOH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R indusries have come full circle since the beginning of the industrialrevolution. With concern on issues relating to the environment such as the global warming and climate change issues, we should finda better alternative than to continue using these refrigerants that cause global warming and ozone depletion. AC&R industryplayers have blended in by introducing some new equipment and components that are specificallydesigned for hydrocarbon (HC use. Mostnew refrigerators sold in Malaysia are already equipped with isobutane [a hydrocarbon designated as R-600a by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE standards]as refrigerants. Malaysia has ratifiedthe Montreal Protocol and targetted a 10% reduction in hydrochlorofluorocarbon(HCFC consumption, beginning 2016 with the banning of 2.5 horsepower (hp and below in air-conditioning (AC equipment to be used. Instead,hydrofluorocarbon(HFC R-410a was introduced as a replacement for HCFC- 22, whereas in other countries this HFC has been phased down. This article was initiated  because of the difficultin findinga replacement for HCFC. Also, the possibilities of using HC as an alternative to replace HCFC insteadof using HFC as a transitional refrigerant in place of HCFC is reviewed in this article. The performance of HC is very similar to HCFC and flmmability issues could be easily overcome with the use of an effectivedesign. Their use could be facilitated with the adaptation of specific standards and properly enacted legislatio

  3. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  4. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  5. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to enhance EDC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, which organizes information concerning measureable changes that link initial biological interactions with a chemical to adverse effects that are meaningful to risk assessment and management, can aid this process. This presentation outlines the ways in which the AOP framework has already been employed to support EDSP and how it may further enhance endocrine disruptor assessments in the future. Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway

  6. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Segebladh, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    In spite of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) having been available for more than 50 years, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of truly COC-related adverse mood symptoms and about the underlying biological mechanisms of proposed changes in mood and affect. Precise estimates of COC-related adverse mood symptoms are not available due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. In prospective trials the frequency of women who report deteriorated mood or deteriorated emotional well-being varies between 4 and 10%, but it can be assumed that the causal relation in these prevalence rates is overestimated. Adverse mood symptoms and somatic symptoms are most pronounced during the pill-free interval of the treatment cycles, but whether extended COC regimens would be more favorable in this respect is not known. COCs with anti-androgenic progestagens, such as drospirenone and desogestrel, appear more favorable in terms of mood symptoms than progestagens with a more androgenic profile. Available data suggest that lower doses of ethinylestradiol could be beneficial. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  8. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  9. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.

  10. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A.; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2016-10-18

    The present invention is directed to the one step selective conversion of starch, cellulose, or glucose to molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. The invention is also directed to the conversion of those intermediates to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  11. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  12. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  13. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  16. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  17. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  18. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  19. Cuticular hydrocarbons for species determination of tropical termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Haverty; Lori J. Nelson; Barbara L. Thorne; Margaret S. Collins; Johanna P.E.C. Darlington; Marion Page

    1992-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons can be used to discriminate species in Coptotermes and Nasutitermes, here discussed for selected species from locations in the Pacific Rim and several Caribbean islands. We recently reexamined the cuticular hydrocarbons of Coptotermes formosanus and identified several dimethylalkanes that...

  20. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  1. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  2. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  3. Graph theory for alternating hydrocarbons with attached ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Properties of molecules of certain hydrocarbons give rise to difficult questions in graph theory. This paper is primarily devoted to the graph theory, but the physico-chemical motivation, which is somewhat speculative, is also presented. Molecules of unsaturated hydrocarbons exhibit alternating

  4. Performance estimation of ejector cycles using heavier hydrocarbon refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Jacek; Gil, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons was prepared. Investigation was focused on nine hydrocarbons: propane, butane, iso-butane, pentane, iso-pentane, hexane, heptane and octane. A series of calculations was carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Calculation results show that none of the hydrocarbons enables high efficiency of a cycle in a wide range of temperature. Each hydrocarbon has its own maximal entrainment ratio at its individual temperature of optimum. Temperatures of entrainment ratios optimum increase according to the hydrocarbon heaviness with simultaneous increase of entrainment ratio peak values. Peak values of the COP do not increase according to the hydrocarbons heaviness. The highest COP = 0.32 is achieved for iso-butane at 102 °C and the COP = 0.28 for pentane at 165 °C. Heptane and octane can be ignored. - Highlights: • Advantages of use of higher hydrocarbons as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of vapor generation for each hydrocarbon was calculated

  5. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil ... Kalpana1 D J Patil1 A M Dayal1. National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500606, India.

  6. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  7. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  8. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  9. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. Imaging fluid/solid interactions in hydrocarbon reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwins, P J; Baker, J C; Mackinnon, I D

    1993-08-01

    The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image liquid hydrocarbons in sandstones and oil shales. Additionally, the fluid sensitivity of selected clay minerals in hydrocarbon reservoirs was assessed via three case studies: HCl acid sensitivity of authigenic chlorite in sandstone reservoirs, freshwater sensitivity of authigenic illite/smectite in sandstone reservoirs, and bleach sensitivity of a volcanic reservoir containing abundant secondary chlorite/corrensite. The results showed the suitability of using ESEM for imaging liquid hydrocarbon films in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the importance of simulating in situ fluid-rock interactions for hydrocarbon production programmes. In each case, results of the ESEM studies greatly enhanced prediction of reservoir/borehole reactions and, in some cases, contradicted conventional wisdom regarding the outcome of potential engineering solutions.

  12. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  13. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  14. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  15. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  16. Serious adverse events with infliximab: analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Gartlehner, Gerald; Powell, Gregory E; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    Serious adverse events such as bowel obstruction, heart failure, infection, lymphoma, and neuropathy have been reported with infliximab. The aims of this study were to explore adverse event signals with infliximab by using a long period of post-marketing experience, stratifying by indication. The relative reporting of infliximab adverse events to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was assessed with the public release version of the adverse event reporting system (AERS) database from 1968 to third quarter 2005. On the basis of a systematic review of adverse events, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms were mapped to predefined categories of adverse events, including death, heart failure, hepatitis, infection, infusion reaction, lymphoma, myelosuppression, neuropathy, and obstruction. Disproportionality analysis was used to calculate the empiric Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (EB05, EB95) for adverse event categories. Infliximab was identified as the suspect medication in 18,220 reports in the FDA AERS database. We identified a signal for lymphoma (EB05 = 6.9), neuropathy (EB05 = 3.8), infection (EB05 = 2.9), and bowel obstruction (EB05 = 2.8). The signal for granulomatous infections was stronger than the signal for non-granulomatous infections (EB05 = 12.6 and 2.4, respectively). The signals for bowel obstruction and infusion reaction were specific to patients with IBD; this suggests potential confounding by indication, especially for bowel obstruction. In light of this additional evidence of risk of lymphoma, neuropathy, and granulomatous infections, clinicians should stress this risk in the shared decision-making process.

  17. Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trigger human skin cells aging through aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Du, Hong-Yang; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Ye; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression. Most important, we found that AhR antagonist efficiently revert the aging of skin cells. Thus our novel findings firstly revealed the mechanism of skin aging under PAH contamination and provided potential strategy for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environment by chemical treatments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Clemente, Ainhoa; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2014-04-15

    Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential, the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous environment using physical, biological and chemical processes has been studied by several researchers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning PAHs including their physico-chemical properties, input sources, occurrence, adverse effects and conventional and alternative chemical processes applied for their removal from water. The mechanisms and reactions involved in each treatment method are reported, and the effects of various variables on the PAH degradation rate as well as the extent of degradation are also discussed. Extensive literature analysis has shown that an effective way to perform the conversion and mineralization of this type of substances is the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Furthermore, combined processes, particularly AOPs coupled with biological treatments, seem to be one of the best solutions for the treatment of effluents containing PAHs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany

    Full Text Available Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia. The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions, with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of east coast peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Wee Boon Siong; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Ariffin Talib

    2007-01-01

    The polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their persistent in the marine ecosystem, thus its can cause long-term adverse effect to the marine life. In this study the concentrations of PAHs in east coast Peninsular Malaysia sediments were determined. About ten stations along the east coast of the coastal area were selected to collect sediments sample using grab sampler. The PAHs from the sediment samples were soxhlet extracted using mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (DCM). Fractionation was done using the silica-alumina column. About 17 compounds of the PAHs were determined using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS model QP5050A). The Σ PAHs was found in the range between 0.26 μg/ g to 0.59 μg/ g dry weight. The data from the study signified that the main source of PAHs in the sediment of the east coast peninsular Malaysia is originated from the pyrolytic source. (author)

  3. Light hydrocarbon emissions from African savanna burnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsang, B.; Lambert, G.; Boissard, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A study was undertaken in West Africa to determine the background mixing ratio of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) during the dry season and to measure the composition of savanna burnings. The experiment was conducted from 13 to 22 January 1989 in the experimental station located at the border of the tropical rainforest and savanna. Samples were collected during aircraft flights at 2,400 m in the free troposphere, at 400 m in the haze layer and in a smoke plume at 200 m altitude. Samples representing the ground-level evolution of the local background were collected at 10 m altitude. Fire samples were collected at a short distance from the fires during the intensive experiments. Results are presented in tables and indicate that the effect of NMHC produced by biomass burning on the tropospheric photochemistry is limited to a few species, namely, C 2 -C 4 alkenes

  4. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  5. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  6. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  7. Hydrocarbon fermentation: kinetics of microbial cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goma, G [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse; Ribot, D

    1978-11-01

    Modeling of microbial growth using nonmiscible substrate is studied when kinetics of substrate dissolution is rate limiting. When the substrate concentration is low, the growth rate is described by an analytical relation that can be identified as a Contois relationship. If the substrate concentration is greater than a critical value S/sub crit/, the potentially useful hydrocarbon S* concentration is described by S* = S/sub crit//(1 + S/sub crit//S). A relationship was found between S/sub crit/ and the biomass concentration X. When X increased, S/sub crit/ decreased. The cell growth rate is related to a relation ..mu.. = ..mu../sub m/(A(X/S/sub crit/)(1 + S/sub crit//S) + 1)/sup -1/. This model describes the evolution of the growth rate when exponential or linear growth occurs, which is related to physico-chemical properties and hydrodynamic fermentation conditions. Experimental data to support the model are presented.

  8. Hydroprocessing using regenerated spent heavy hydrocarbon catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: contacting the feedstock with hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions with a hydroprocessing catalyst wherein the hydroprocessing catalyst contains a total contaminant metals build-up of greater than about 4 wt. % nickel plus vanadium, a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metals and Group VIII metals and is regenerated spent hydroprocessing catalyst regenerated by a process comprising the steps: partially decoking the spent catalyst in an initial coke-burning step; impregnating the partially decoked catalyst with a Group IIA metal-containing impregnation solution; and decoking the impregnated catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein the impregnated catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of about 600 degrees F to about 1400 degrees F

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  10. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  11. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  12. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  13. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  14. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  15. Disclosure of Adverse Events in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite increasing attention to issues of patient safety, preventable adverse events (AEs) continue to occur, causing direct and consequential injuries to patients, families, and health care providers. Pediatricians generally agree that there is an ethical obligation to inform patients and families about preventable AEs and medical errors. Nonetheless, barriers, such as fear of liability, interfere with disclosure regarding preventable AEs. Changes to the legal system, improved communications skills, and carefully developed disclosure policies and programs can improve the quality and frequency of appropriate AE disclosure communications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. [Adverse drug reaction reporting in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Kolia; Chassagnol, Isabelle; Brion, Nathalie; Cléro, Joël; Degrèze, Nathalie; Lambert, Yves

    2004-01-01

    A regional survey was performed between June and September 2002, to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians regarding adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting in a French district. 100 questionnaires completed by physicians working in emergency departments and/or mobile intensive care units were analysed. The frequency of ADRs encountered by emergency practitioners was estimated at > or = 0.73 per year and per physician. The ADR notification rate in emergency medicine was estimated at advertising ADR reporting procedures could help to improve the notification rate in emergency medicine.

  17. Psychiatric adverse effects of chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bogaczewicz; Tomasz Sobów

    2017-01-01

    Chloroquine is a prototype antimalarial drug, widely used in several branches of medicine. Antimalarial drugs are used in the treatment of various dermatological, immunological, rheumatological and infectious diseases. Examples of off-labelled indications for chloroquine analogues use include dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, polymorphous light eruption, disseminated granuloma annulare and porfiria cutanea tarda. There is a relatively small number of adverse effects related to chloroquine anal...

  18. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  19. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities