WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon pollutants salinity

  1. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  3. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  4. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  5. Determine the Efficacy of Salinity on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil by Phenanthrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ravanipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenanthrene is one of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs that are formed during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil pollution and different process of oil and gas plants. PAHs-contaminated area have increased a health risk to humans and environments due to toxicity, carcinogenicity, hydrophobicity and their tendency to accumulation in soil and sediment and their entrance to food chain. Bioremediation is an effective method for removing toxic pollutants from soils such as Phenanthrene. The main object of this study is the assessment of the effects of salinity on the efficacy of the process of bioremediation on polluted soils by Phenanthrene. Methods: The bare soil of any organic and microbial pollution was first polluted artificially to the phenanthrene then a nutrient solution with two minimum and maximum concentrations of salinity were added to it in order to have the proportion of 10% w:v (soil: water. After that a microbial mixture which was enable degradation the phenanthrene added to the slurry and aerated. After the extraction of phenanthrene by ultrasonic, the residual concentration in the soil was analyzed by GC. Results: In the conditions that salinity concentration was maximum, the microbial growth has a longer lag phase than the minimum salinity. The findings from extraction process by GC depict the removal percentage of maximum and minimum salinity in 56th %70.5 day and %71.8, respectively. Conclusion: In In spite of the longer log phase of maximum concentration of salinity and according to GC results, there was just a little difference between two solutions. Therefore it reveals that salinity can increase the lag phase but haven't any inhibitory effect on Phenanthrene removal.

  6. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  7. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  8. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  9. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  10. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  11. Bioremediation of a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Polluted Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of field cells involving a control and five treatment cells were evaluated under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil over a six-week period. Previous works have indicated that crude oil contamination of soils depletes oxygen reserves in the soils and slows ...

  12. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  13. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic regimes of the ecosystem. Several remediation alternatives have been in use for the restoration of ... In this paper, we present an overview of bioremediation alternative vis-à-vis other ...

  14. Effective bioremediation of a petroleum-polluted saline soil by a surfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria able to produce biosurfactants can use petroleum-based hydrocarbons as a carbon source. Herein, four biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, isolated from oil-contaminated saline soil, were combined to form a bacterial consortium. The inoculation of the consortium to contaminated soil alleviated the adverse effects of salinity on biodegradation and increased the rate of degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon approximately 30% compared to the rate achieved in non-treated soil. In saline condition, treatment of polluted soil with the consortium led to a significant boost in the activity of dehydrogenase (approximately 2-fold. A lettuce seedling bioassay showed that, following the treatment, the soil's level of phytotoxicity was reduced up to 30% compared to non-treated soil. Treatment with an appropriate bacterial consortium can represent an effective means of reducing the adverse effects of salinity on the microbial degradation of petroleum and thus provides enhancement in the efficiency of microbial remediation of oil-contaminated saline soils.

  15. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous effluents since they need to be processed by a modeling. This research presents an experimental measurement system based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy for aqueous effluents containing hydrocarbons and capable of displaying excellent values of pollutant concentrations even in instable conditions; the system is able to detect pollutants either in laminar or turbulent flow. The results show the possibility of avoiding the use of "Pitot tube" that is employed to create a stagnation point in order to convert kinetic energy into potential one. This conversion allows the transformation of a turbulent flow in a laminar flow making easy measurement of pollutants included in an aqueous effluent. Obviously, "Pitot tube" is also used for other fluid effluents. The obtained results have been compared with those produced by means of sophisticated IR instrumentation for laboratory applications.

  16. Natural attenuation of hydrocarbon polluted soils in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Linares, L.; Rojas-Avelizapa, N.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Islas-Ramirez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil and hydrocarbon by-proudcts are the most common pollutants in Mexico. In the last years, the two terms, contamination and remediation have being re-defined; also, based on both the scientific advancement and the human risk, the sustentability of remediation technologies and the definition of cleaning levels has been taking place. In this context, the Natural Attenuation of soils is a viable and low cost remediation choice, defined as the degradation of organic compounds without artificial stimulation, through microbial activity including physical processes, such as volatilization, dilution, sorption, and hydraulic dispersion. (Author)

  17. Filamentous fungi remove weathered hydrocarbons from polluted soil of tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ-ARMENDÁRIZ, Beatriz; MARTÍNEZ-CARRERA, Daniel; CALIXTO-MOSQUEDA, María; ALBA, Joel; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, Refugio

    2010-01-01

    Weathered hydrocarbons from worldwide petrolic activities become more recalcitrant over time. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from a polluted soil [65,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)/kg soil], which had been exposed to tropical environmental conditions for more than 20 years in southeast Mexico, was studied using filamentous fungi. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors (60 mL) containing a substrate consisting of polluted soil and sugar cane bagasse pith as bulk agent...

  18. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation of some toxic hydrocarbon pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshahawy, M.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    samples were collected from the same location in Suez Gulf during the period from June, 2004 to April 2006 then microbiologically and chemically analyzed . the TPH levels ranged from 55 to 86 ppm and exceeded the known permissible limits referring to a settled situation of chronic hydrocarbon pollution in the studied area. on the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts cfu clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon . the ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones ranged between 26 and 50% over the period of collection. the biodegradation potentials of suez gulf consortia were studied at different concentrations of phenanthrene as a sole carbon source. it was found that the degradation kinetics of phenanthrene either due to biotic or abiotic factors is affected with the initial concentration of PAHs. twenty PAHs degraders were isolated from Suez Gulf consortia after different adaptation periods on phenanthrene.ten isolates were selected to be promising due to their ability to tolerate high base oil concentrations, grow at wide range of temperatures and their short incubation period on MSO. the biodegradation kinetics of 200 ppm phenanthrene by the selected isolates was monitored by HPLC

  19. Bioremediation and detoxification of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao Ping.

    1991-01-01

    As a cleanup alterative, the bioremediation potential of soil, contaminated by spills of three medium petroleum distillates, jet fuel heating oil (No. 2 fuel oil) and diesel fuel was evaluated in controlled-temperature laboratory soil columns and in outdoor lysimeters. Solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC) was used routinely for analysis of fuel residues. Occasionally, class separation and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also used in residue characterization. The decrease in toxic residues was evaluated by Microtox and Ames tests. Seed germination and plant growth bioassays were also performed. Persistence and toxicity of the fuels increased in the order of jet fuel < heating oil < diesel fuel. Bioremediation consisting of liming, fertilization and tilling decreased the half-lives of the pollutants in soil by a factor of 2-3. Biodegradation was faster at 27C than at 17 or 37C, but hydrocarbon concentration and soil quality had only modest influence on biodegradation rates and did not preclude successful bioremediation of these contaminated soils within one growing season. Microbial activity measurements by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay confirmed that microbial activity was the principal force in hydrocarbon elimination. Bioremediation was highly effective in eliminating also the polycyclic aromatic components of diesel fuel. The bioremediation and detoxification of fuel-contaminated soil was corroborated by Microtox, Ames and plant growth bioassays

  20. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motenko, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motenko, R.G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geocryology; Grechishcheva, E.S. [Fundamentproek, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil by wild ornamental Iridaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijuan; Wang, Yanan; Cai, Zhang; Liu, Jie; Yu, Binbin; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-03-04

    As a green remediation technology, phytoremediation is becoming one of the most promising methods for treating petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)-contaminated soil. Pot culture experiments were conducted in this study to investigate phytoremediation potential of two representative Iridaceae species (Iris dichotoma Pall. and Iris lactea Pall.) in remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkali soil from the Dagang Oilfield in Tianjin, China. The results showed that I. lactea was more endurable to extremely high concentration of PHCs (about 40,000 mg/kg), with a relatively high degradation rate of 20.68%.The degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils contaminated with 10,000 and 20,000 mg/kg of PHCs was 30.79% and 19.36% by I. dichotoma, and 25.02% and 19.35% by I. lactea, respectively, which improved by 10-60% than the unplanted controls. The presence of I. dichotoma and I. lactea promoted degradation of PHCs fractions, among which saturates were more biodegradable than aromatics. Adaptive specialization was observed within the bacterial community. In conclusion, phytoremediation by I. dichotoma should be limited to soils contaminated with ≤20,000 mg/kg of PHCs, while I. lactea could be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soils by PHCs with at least 40,000 mg/kg.

  3. Detecting the effects of hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest using hyperspectral satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Boyd, Doreen S.

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for fossil energy is triggering oil exploration and production projects in remote areas of the world. During the last few decades hydrocarbon production has caused pollution in the Amazon forest inflicting considerable environmental impact. Until now it is not clear how hydrocarbon pollution affects the health of the tropical forest flora. During a field campaign in polluted and pristine forest, more than 1100 leaf samples were collected and analysed for biophysical and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that tropical forests exposed to hydrocarbon pollution show reduced levels of chlorophyll content, higher levels of foliar water content and leaf structural changes. In order to map this impact over wider geographical areas, vegetation indices were applied to hyperspectral Hyperion satellite imagery. Three vegetation indices (SR, NDVI and NDVI 705 ) were found to be the most appropriate indices to detect the effects of petroleum pollution in the Amazon forest. - Highlights: • Leaf biochemical alterations in the rainforest are caused by petroleum pollution. • Lower levels of chlorophyll content are symptom of vegetation stress in polluted sites. • Increased foliar water content was found in vegetation near polluted sites. • Vegetation stress was detected by using vegetation indices from satellite images. • Polluted sites and hydrocarbon seepages in rainforest can be identified from space. - Hydrocarbon pollution in the Amazon forest is observed for first time from satellite data

  4. Prospects of using leguminous species in phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the plant species to grow on aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils is an important factor for a successful phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a green technology that can become a promising solution for decontaminating polluted soils and ecological restoration of the landscape. Our comparative studies evaluate the effect of oil hydrocarbon pollution with high initial concentration on the growth leguminous plant species: Vicia sativa and Glycine max. The experimental block contains control variants, polluted soil unfertilized / fertilized with municipal sludge anaerobically stabilized in absence/presence of modified volcanic tuff amendment. After period of time the experiment’s soil in which plant species had grown well was sampled and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons removal. Both species showed promising efficiency in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon highly polluted soils but a reduced growth of the surveyed plants was noticed. The efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons diminution is increased in the case of the addition of fertilizer 16.6 % for Vicia sativa and 30 % for Glycine max vs. the initial quantity. In the case of the phytoremediation of polluted soils treated with fertilizer and volcanic tuff, the efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons reduction was 72.9 % for Vicia sativa and 53.7 % for Glycine max.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  6. Monetary valuation of salinity impacts and microbial pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper estimates costs associated with water pollution in the Olifants River Water Management Area (WMA) in South Africa, and, more specifically, the area represented by the Loskop Dam Water User Association. We focus on the impacts of salinisation on commercial irrigated agriculture, and of microbial pollution on ...

  7. Biosurfactant production by yeasts isolated from hydrocarbon polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Sangwan, Seema; Kaur, Harpreet

    2017-11-03

    Thirty-two yeast isolates were retrieved from four soil samples collected from hydrocarbon-polluted locations of Hisar, Haryana, using enrichment culture technique with 1% (v/v) diesel as carbon source. Total nine isolates showing blood agar haemolysis were screened further for biosurfactant production. Yeast isolate, YK32, gave highest 8.4-cm oil displacement which was found to be significantly higher as compared to positive control, 0.2% (w/v) SDS (6.6 cm), followed by 6.2 and 6.0 cm by isolates YK20 and YK21, respectively. Maximum emulsification index was obtained in case of isolates YK20 and YK21 measuring 53.8%, after 6 days of incubation utilizing glucose as carbon source, whereas isolate YK32 was found to be reducing surface tension up to 93 dynes/cm and presented 99.6% degree of hydrophobicity. Olive oil has supported maximum surface tension reduction in isolates YK32 and YK21 equivalent to 53 and 48 dynes/cm and gave 88.3 and 88.5% degree of hydrophobicity, respectively. Diesel was not preferred as carbon source by most of the isolates except YK28 which generated 5.5-cm oil displacement, 25% emulsification index, reduced surface tension to the level of 38 dynes/cm and presented 89% degree of hydrophobicity. Conclusively, isolates YK20, YK21, YK22 and YK32 were marked as promising biosurfactant producers and were subjected to identification. Based on microscopic examination and biochemical peculiarities, isolates YK21 and YK22 might be identified as Candida spp., whereas, isolates YK20 and YK32 might be identified as Saccharomycopsis spp. and Brettanomyces spp., respectively. Interestingly it is the first report indicating Saccharomycopsis spp. and Brettanomyces spp. as a potential biosurfactant producer.

  8. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  9. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, E; Berney, C; Ekelund, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however...

  10. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biofilm comprising phototrophic, diazotrophic, and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria: a promising consortium in the bioremediation of aquatic hydrocarbon pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Kansour, Mayada K; Rayan, Rehab; Radwan, Samir S

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms harboring simultaneously anoxygenic and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, diazotrophic bacteria, and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were established on glass slides suspended in pristine and oily seawater. Via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis on PCR-amplified rRNA gene sequence fragments from the extracted DNA from biofilms, followed by band amplification, biofilm composition was determined. The biofilms contained anoxygenic phototrophs belonging to alphaproteobacteria; pico- and filamentous cyanobacteria (oxygenic phototrophs); two species of the diazotroph Azospirillum; and two hydrocarbon-utilizing gammaproteobacterial genera, Cycloclasticus and Oleibacter. The coexistence of all these microbial taxa with different physiologies in the biofilm makes the whole community nutritionally self-sufficient and adequately aerated, a condition quite suitable for the microbial biodegradation of aquatic pollutant hydrocarbons.

  12. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  13. THE POLLUTION OF THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTSIN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA HYDROCARBONS AND PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The pollution of the bottom sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. Location.Caspian Sea. Methods. The materials for this article is based on the results of monitoring conducted in 2012-2013 years. Results. Sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian Sea as a whole slightly contaminated YV and SOZ, although localized areas of high pollution are marked, especially characteristic of the Middle Caspian. Mainconclusions.The studies were showed, PAY in the sediments are mixed genesis, but most of them, in all probability, were petroleum origin. The not weathered hydrocarbons are presented in sediments, which indicates to the presence of the local sources of the fresh oil pollution on the surveyed area.

  14. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  15. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated

  16. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun, E-mail: o.adelaja@my.westminster.ac.uk; Keshavarz, Tajalli, E-mail: t.keshavarz@westminster.ac.uk; Kyazze, Godfrey, E-mail: g.kyazze@westminster.ac.uk

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m{sup 2} maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m{sup 2}, 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  17. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m 2 maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m 2 , 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil - Improvement of in situ bioremediation by bioaugmentation with endogenous and exogenous strains

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage tanks and pipelines, increase over time. The evolution of Legislation concerning soil pollution has led to the need of efficient techniques able to restore the polluted ground. Unfortunately, these techniques are expensive. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils has been recognized as...

  19. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  20. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation

  1. Experimental infrared measurements for hydrocarbon pollutant determination in subterranean waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Palamara, I.; Caratelli, D.; Morabito, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Subterranean waters are often polluted by industrial and anthropic effluents that are drained in subsoil. To prevent and control pollution, legislations of different developed countries require an online monitoring measurement, especially for detecting organic solvents (chlorinated and unchlorinated ones). Online measurements include both real-time and no real-time measurements. In general, it is difficult to implement real-time measurements in stricto sensu for online acquisitions on aqueous...

  2. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  3. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63...... for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...

  4. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thalassografic Inst.); Magazzu, G. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology); Puglisi, A. (Mediterranean Oceanological Centre (CEOM), Palermo (Italy)); La Rosa, A. (Air-Survey, Italy s.r.l., Catania (Italy))

    1994-10-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  5. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E.; La Rosa, A.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  6. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  7. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  9. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...

  10. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Criste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has received a great deal of attention, and bacteria isolated from polluted soil can be usedin that process. In this study, we performed an evaluation of the physiological groups of microorganisms fromsoil contaminated with petroleum. Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil using the selectiveenrichment technique. Minimal Salt Media was used for serial dilutions to determine viable cell count. Thenumber of total viable cells and different types of microorganisms in the original sample was determined by serialdilution, agar plating procedure using selective media. The plates were incubated at 300C for 24-72 hours. Distinctcolonies growing on each plate were selected, and stored at freezing temperatures. The bacterial colonies werethen identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. Following our research, it was observed that although thetotal microbial load of soil is relatively close in value, there are differences regarding the physiological group ofmicroorganisms. In the oil contaminated soil sample the largest group of microorganisms was the nitrous nitrifyingbacteria followed by nitrate bacteria. All bacterial strains that were isolated from soil samples contaminated withhydrocarbons but also the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtillis strains can use diesel fuel as a food source.With the increase of diesel fuel concentration from culture medium, the majority of the bacterial strains that wereused in our experiments showed an increased value of absorbance. This fact suggests that these strains can be usedin bioremediation processes.

  13. The reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil under saline conditions using ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, D. [SNC-Lavallin, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and salts are two of the most common soil contaminants found at oil and gas extraction sites. High concentrations of salt from brine spills may amplify the challenges of soil remediation by reducing bioavailability for remediation. This PowerPoint presentation described an ultrasonic soil flushing technology that used sonic cavitation to break down contaminants. Long chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with complex structures were broken down by the direct oxidation under high temperature and pressure environments created by the sonic cavitation process. The cavitation waves broke up the aggregates of solid particles and increased the turbulence and transportation of the contaminants. A laboratory study evaluated the ability of the treatment process to remediate salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples. The adsorption isotherms of the samples were analyzed. Sand, clay, and muskeg samples were treated. Results of the study suggested that the treatment is more effective when treating granular soils with high hydraulic conductivity. Even small amounts of salt were found to have a negative impact on the reduction of hydrocarbon contaminants. tabs., figs.

  14. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment.

  16. The bacterial community structure of hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments as the basis for the definition of an ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S; Commendatore, Marta G; Gil, Mónica N; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities.

  17. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  18. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3......) in the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background air...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people....

  19. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  20. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  1. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  2. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution characterisation. By the

  3. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2011-01-01

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 μg/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with 14 C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added 14 C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: → Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. → Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. → Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. → Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. → Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  5. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain); Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio, E-mail: jjortega@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 {mu}g/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with {sup 14}C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added {sup 14}C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: > Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. > Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. > Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. > Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. > Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  6. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons

  7. Use of antioxidant enzymes of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yadong; Xiao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The typical organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene was selected as a contaminant to investigate its effects on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The results show that SOD, CAT and GSH-Px had diff erent induction and inhibition reactions to anthracene stress, and that three diff erent organs in R. philippinarum (visceral mass, muscle tissue and mantle) had diff erent sensitivities to anthracene stress. This study suggest that SOD activities of the visceral mass, CAT activitities of the mantle and the visceral mass, and GSH-Px activity of the muscle tissue could be used as sensitive indicators of anthracene stress in R. philippinarum.

  8. Interactions between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants affect human semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, L J S; Lundberg, P J; Spanò, M

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect male reproductive function. Many dioxin-like POPs exert their effects by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway. We analysed whether gene-environment interactions between polymorphisms in AHR (R554K) and AHR repressor (...

  9. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  10. Environmental biotechnology for the eco-efficient decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstin, S.; Andreas, P. L.; Hildegard, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Pollution of soil and ground water with petroleum hydrocarbons is a major environmental problem in many oil producing regions of the New Independent States. Decontamination of these areas using conventional technologies based on physical, chemical and / or thermal pollutant removal would require major financial resources and represent a great economical burden for these regions. Thus, contaminated land management (CLM) has to focus on efficient yet low-cost strategies yielding the optimum ecological outcome. Approaching such eco-efficient, i.e ecologically sound and economically feasible solutions includes the consideration of technical, scientific and socio-economic aspects. A comprehensive risk assessment states the basis for these CLM strategies, which considers both technical (e.g. soil type, groundwater characteristics) and regional aspects (e.g. demographic and socio-economic details). This requires a holistic understanding of these capacious problems and its communication to and the involvement of the stakeholders. Such eco-efficient technologies that are suitable for the clean-up of soils and aquifers polluted with organic chemicals (e.g. crude oil and its derivatives) are offered by environmental biotechnology. Decontamination techniques such as bioremediation, based on the engineered promotion of the soil's intrinsic microbiological capability to recover from environmental stresses, are fit to re-establish acceptable environmental conditions on a reasonable time-scale while requiring comparably little resources. Bioremediation techniques may be applied after excavation of the polluted soil (ex situ) or on the site as is, leaving contaminated material in place (in situ). Surface, ex situ, treatment (biopiles, landfarming) facilitates the homogenous addition of additives such as surfactants, nutrients or pollutant degrading microorganisms. By contrast, in situ technologies (e.g. bioventing, biosparging) are, as they do not require soil

  11. Studies concerning the decontamination of hydrocarbons- polluted soil areas using bioremediation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, C.; Barbulescu, A.; Gligor, A.; Bibu, M.; Petrescu, V.

    2016-11-01

    The accidental or historic contamination of soils with hydrocarbons, in areas crossed by oil pipelines or where oil- or gas-extraction installations are located, is a major concern and has significant financial and ecological consequences, both for the owners of those areas and for the oil transportation or exploitation companies. Therefore it is very important to find the optimal method for removing the pollution. The current paper presents measures, mainly involving bioremediation, recommended and applied for the depollution of a contaminated area in Romania. While the topic of dealing with polluted soils is well-established in the Romanian speciality literature, bioremediation is a relatively novel approach and this paper presents important considerations in this regard. Contaminated soil samples were taken from 10 different locations within the targeted area and subjected to a thorough physical and chemical analysis, which led to determining a specific scoring table for assessing the bioremediation potential of the various samples. This has allowed the authors to establish for each of the sampled areas the best mix of factors such as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), gypsum, microelements etc., that would lead to obtaining the best results in terms of the contaminants' biodegradation.

  12. Hydrocarbon Pollution and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Oturuba Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekwe Clinton Ifeanyichukwu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the impact of oil pollution from artisanal oil refineries on the Oturuba river ecosystem using active river bottom sediment. Specific objectives included to determine the level of hydrocarbons and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, V and Mg in the sediments and to relate this with general ecosystem health. The study found elevated concentrations of both hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the range above most sediment quality guidelines exceeding the respective Threshold Effects Level and Probable Effects. Level guideline values and occurring at levels where impairment to biological communities is certain an d where toxicity levels can lead to negative impacts on benthic animals or infaunal communities. Heavy metal geochemical accumulation index and potential ecological risk analysis also returned anomalously high concentrations in the range of very highly polluted sediment environments with very high ecological risk indices, thereby ranking the Oturuba Creek as one of the most polluted coastal river systems in the world.

  13. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  14. Decontamination of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from slag-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisone, Sara; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Metallurgy is an industrial activity that is one of the largest contributors to soil contamination by metals. This contamination is often associated with organic compound contamination; however, little research has been aimed at the development of simultaneous processes for decontamination as opposed to treatments to heavy metals or organic compounds alone. This paper presents an efficient process to decontaminate the soils polluted with smelting by-products rich in Cu, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A simultaneous treatment for metals and PAHs was also tested. The process is mainly based on physical techniques, such as crushing, gravimetric separation and attrition. For the finest particle size fractions, an acid extraction with H2SO4 was used to remove metals. The PAH removal was enhanced by adding surfactant during attrition. The total metal removals varied from 49% to 73% for Cu and from 43% to 63% for Zn, whereas a removal yield of 92% was measured for total PAHs. Finally, a technical-economic evaluation was done for the two processes tested.

  15. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from polluted soils with binary and ternary supercritical phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, J.; Shneine, J.; Dott, W.; Heinzel, M.; Hagemann, H.W.; Gotz, G.K.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes how supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) using carbon dioxide and modifiers (n-hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether, methoxybenzene, dichloromethane, propanone, pyridine, methanol) as well as modifier mixtures (methanol-containing diethylamide, 2-aminoethan-1-ol, acetic acid) were performed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from real environmental samples polluted to a minor extent by mineral oil products and highly contaminated by brown coal tar. Comparing the results with those from Soxhlet extraction utilizing dichloromethane and SFE using pure carbon dioxide show that acidic or basic co-solvents give the highest PAH yields. Extraction efficiency decreases with reduced polarity of the modifier used and increases at higher concentrations of co-solvent. To explain the SFE results, several mechanisms of disruption of matrix-PAH interactions are considered: the competition between the modifier molecules and the active sites of soil's organic and inorganic matter to interact with non-covalent bondings to the analytes; and the splitting of electron donor-acceptor complexes between humic substances and PAHs induced by Lewis acids or Lewis bases

  16. Evolution of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbon and 3,4 benzopyrene content in mussels from a coastal zone polluted by a fuel spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J; Peltier, J C; Fleckinger, R

    1969-05-03

    After an oil spill, a coastal zone was polluted and wild mussels were contaminated by paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons and 3,4-benzopyrene. The evolution of this contamination was followed. Normal levels were re-established after a month and a half. Normal paraffins were metabolized faster than other hydrocarbons.

  17. Tackling the salinity-pollution nexus in coastal aquifers from arid regions using nitrate and boron isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, V; Sacchi, E

    2017-05-01

    Salinization and nitrate pollution are generally ascertained as the main issues affecting coastal aquifers worldwide. In arid zones, where agricultural activities also result in soil salinization, both phenomena tend to co-exist and synergically contribute to alter groundwater quality, with severe negative impacts on human populations and natural ecosystems' wellbeing. It becomes therefore necessary to understand if and to what extent integrated hydrogeochemical tools can help in distinguishing among possible different salinization and nitrate contamination origins, in order to provide adequate science-based support to local development and environmental protection. The alluvial plain of Bou-Areg (North Morocco) extends over about 190 km 2 and is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the coastal Lagoon of Nador. Its surface is covered for more than 60% by agricultural activities, although the region has been recently concerned by urban population increase and tourism expansion. All these activities mainly rely on groundwater exploitation and at the same time are the main causes of both aquifer and lagoon water quality degradation. For this reason, it was chosen as a case study representative of the typical situation of coastal aquifers in arid zones worldwide, where a clear identification of salinization and pollution sources is fundamental for the implementation of locally oriented remedies and long-term management strategies. Results of a hydrogeochemical investigation performed between 2009 and 2011 show that the Bou-Areg aquifer presents high salinity (often exceeding 100 mg/L in TDS) due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The area is also impacted by nitrate contamination, with concentrations generally exceeding the WHO statutory limits for drinking water (50 mg/L) and reaching up to about 300 mg/L, in both the rural and urban/peri-urban areas. The isotopic composition of dissolved nitrates (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO ) was used to constrain

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  19. Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing

    2003-02-01

    Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic kitchens, where 2- and 3-ring PAHs were predominant, especially naphthalene. The BaP levels in domestic kitchens were 0.0061-0.024 microg/m3 and 0.15- 0.44 microg/m3 in commercial kitchens. Conventional Chinese cooking methods were responsible for such heavy PAHs pollution. The comparative study for PAH levels in air during three different cooking practices: boiling, broiling and frying were conducted. It was found that boiling produced the least levels of PAHs. For fish, a low-fat food, frying it produced a larger amount of PAHs compared to broiling practice, except pyrene and anthracene. In commercial kitchens, PAHs came from two sources, cooking practice and oil-fumes, however the cooking practice had a more predominant contribution to PAHs in commercial kitchen air. In domestic kitchens, except for cooking practice and oil-fumes, there were other PAHs sources, such as smoking and other human activities in the domestic houses, where 3-4 ring PAHs mainly came from cooking practice. Naphthalene (NA, 2-ring PAHs) was the most predominant kind, mostly resulting from the evaporation of mothball containing a large quantity of NA, used to prevent clothes against moth. A fingerprint of oil-fumes was the abundance of 3-ring PAHs. Heating at the same temperature, the PAHs concentrations in different oil-fumes were lard > soybean oil > rape-seed oil. An increase in cooking temperature increased the levels of PAHs, especially acenaphthene.

  20. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Fagnano, Massimo, E-mail: fagnano@unina.i [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O{sub 3} damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O{sub 3} tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O{sub 3} (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m{sup -1} reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O{sub 3} uptake, thus linearly reducing O{sub 3} effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O{sub 3} on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  1. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto; Fagnano, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O 3 damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O 3 tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O 3 (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m -1 reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O 3 uptake, thus linearly reducing O 3 effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O 3 on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  2. Bio-hillock treatment of a soil polluted by hydrocarbons; Traitement par biotertre d'un sol pollue par des HAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hecho, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS, 64 - Pau (France). Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Inorganique et Environnement; Savary, V.; Pallares, F.; Lors, C. [Centre National de Recherche Sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 59 - Douai (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a bio-hillock treatment of polluted soils by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The influence of the treatment on the pollutants localization and mobility has been studied in order to evaluate a potential residual danger after the treatment and before a new utilization of the soils. (A.L.B.)

  3. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted seawater by a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain immobilized on chitin and chitosan flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentili, A.R.; Cubitto, M.A.; Ferrero, M.; Rodriguez, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this laboratory-scale study, we examined the potential of chitin and chitosan flakes obtained from shrimp wastes as carrier material for a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain. Flakes decontamination, immobilization conditions and the survival of the immobilized bacterial strain under different storage temperatures were evaluated. The potential of immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain for crude oil polluted seawater bioremediation was tested in seawater microcosms. In terms of removal percentage of crude oil after 15 days, the microcosms treated with the immobilized inoculants proved to be the most successful. The inoculants formulated with chitin and chitosan as carrier materials improved the survival and the activity of the immobilized strain. It is important to emphasize that the inoculants formulated with chitin showed the best performance during storage and seawater bioremediation. (author)

  4. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  5. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  6. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    L-1), although the chloride comprises only a fraction of the total dissolved salts in water. The Cl/TDS ratio varies from 0.1 in nonmarine saline waters to ˜0.5 in marine-associated saline waters. Water salinity is also defined by electrical conductivity (EC). In soil studies, the electrical conductivity and the ratio of Na/√(Ca+Mg) (SAR) are often used as an indirect measure of soil salinity. In addition to chloride, high levels of other dissolved constituents may limit the use of water for domestic, agriculture, and industrial applications. In some parts of Africa, China, and India, for example, high fluoride content is associated with saline groundwater and causes severe dental and skeletal fluorosis (Shiklomanov, 1997). Hence, the "salinity" problem is only the "tip of the iceberg," as high levels of salinity are associated with high concentrations of other inorganic pollutants (e.g., sodium, sulfate, boron, fluoride), and bioaccumulated elements (e.g., selenium, and arsenic) (see Chapter 9.03).The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the chloride concentration of the water supply for human consumption should not exceed 250 mg L-1. Agriculture applications also depend upon the salinity level of the supplied water. Many crops, such as citrus, avocado, and mango, are sensitive to chloride concentration in irrigation water (an upper limit of 250 mg L-1). In addition, long-term irrigation with water enriched with sodium results in a significant reduction in the hydraulic conductivity and hence the fertility of the irrigated soil. Similarly, the industrial sector demands water of high quality. For example, the high-tech industry requires a large amount of water with low levels of dissolved salts. Hence, the salinity level of groundwater is one of the limiting factors that determine the suitability of water for a variety of applications.The salinity problem is a global phenomenon but it is more severe in water-scarce areas, such as arid and semi

  7. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  8. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E., E-mail: mwalsh2@dal.ca

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  9. Impact of salinity and dispersed oil on adsorption of dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons by activated carbon and organoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, Jessica M.; Walsh, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Powdered activated carbon (PAC) outperformed organoclay for dissolved aromatics removal • Dispersed oil reduced the adsorption capacity of PAC but not organoclay • Salinity did not affect phenol or naphthalene removal by PAC or BTMA-organoclay • Commercial organoclay had reduced adsorption capacity in saline water due to aggregation • PAC performed better in single solute systems than multi-solute systems - Abstract: Adsorption capacity of phenol and naphthalene by powdered activated carbon (PAC), a commercial organoclay (OC) and a lab synthesized organoclay (BTMA) was studied using batch adsorption experiments under variable feed water quality conditions including single- and multi- solute conditions, fresh water, saline water and oily-and-saline water. Increasing salinity levels was found to reduce adsorption capacity of OC, likely due to destabilization, aggregation and subsequent removal of organoclay from the water column, but did not negatively impact adsorption capacity of PAC or BTMA. Increased dispersed oil concentrations were found to reduce the surface area of all adsorbents. This decreased the adsorption capacity of PAC for both phenol and naphthalene, and reduced BTMA adsorption of phenol, but did not negatively affect naphthalene removals by either organoclay. The presence of naphthalene as a co-solute significantly reduced phenol adsorption by PAC, but had no impact on organoclay adsorption. These results indicated that adsorption by PAC occurred via a surface adsorption mechanism, while organoclay adsorption occurred by hydrophobic or pi electron interactions. In general, PAC was more sensitive to changes in water quality than either of the organoclays evaluated in this study. However, PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for phenol and naphthalene compared to both organoclays even in adverse water quality conditions.

  10. Feasibility Of Coupling Permeable Bio-Barriers And Electrokinetics For The Treatment Of Diesel Hydrocarbons Polluted Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, Esperanza Mena; Jiménez, Cristina Sáez; Camacho, José Villaseñor; Rodrigo, Manuel A.Rodrigo; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrokinetics and a biobarrier were combined to remediate of a diesel polluted soil. • pH gradients did not affect the biobarrier activity located in soil central position. • Microorganisms were partially detached from the biobarrier and moved across the soil. • An anionic surfactant helped the contact between pollutant and microorganisms. • A 39% of the diesel biodegradable fraction was homogeneously removed across the soil. - Abstract: In this study, the remediation of a diesel hydrocarbon-polluted clay soil using an electrochemical-biological combined technology is assessed. The polluted soil was subjected to an electrokinetic (EK) treatment with a biological permeable reactive barrier. A lab-scale electrochemical cell for soil treatment was used. The biological barrier placed in the soil was a biofilm reactor previously adapted for diesel degradation. A batch experiment of 336 h was conducted in a synthetic clay soil spiked with 10 g·kg −1 of diesel and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 V cm −1 . Sodium dodecyl sulphate was used as an anionic surfactant in the cathodic well to allow for hydrocarbon emulsification during the treatment. At the end of the experiment, extreme pH values were observed near the electrodes. However, the pH remained constant at approximately 7.7 in the central biobarrier zone, which allowed for biological processes. Biological growth was observed in the biobarrier, and a part of the biofilm was detached and transported through the soil in both directions. Furthermore, the surfactant was transported across the soil due to electromigration and electroosmosis, which resulted in diesel emulsification. The combination of biological and EK phenomena finally resulted in a homogenous hydrocarbon removal of approximately 27% in the polluted soil, which indicated a 39% removal of the diesel biodegradable fraction. Due to the electroosmotic flow and the biological degradation, some of the water, surfactant and

  11. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  12. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  13. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum HydrocarbonPolluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  14. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  15. Heavy metal, trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the Arabian Gulf: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Afnan Mahmood Freije

    2015-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf environmental status was assessed based on studies conducted in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 1983–2011. This review examines all sorts of pollutions in the Arabian Gulf area over the last three decades. Approximately 50 published studies were reviewed in order to determine the pollution status in the Arabian Gulf regarding heavy metals and organic substances. Three types of environmental pollutions including marine and coas...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted dredged peat sediments and earthworms: a mutual interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Jonge, de S.; Muijs, B.; Slijkerman, D.; Gestel, van C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In lowland areas of the Netherlands, any peat sediments will gradually become enriched with anthropogenically derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Due to Dutch policy standards these (anaerobic) sediments are not allowed to be dredged and placed onto land. Under aerobic conditions, however,

  17. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  18. Molecular epidemiology studies of carcinogenic environmental pollutants. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Peter B; Singh, Rajinder; Kaur, Balvinder; Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Kalina, Ivan; Popov, Todor A; Garte, Seymour; Taioli, Emanuela; Gabelova, Alena; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental air pollution is known to be associated with an increased carcinogenic risk. The individual contribution to this risk derived from specific carcinogenic chemicals within the complex mixture of air pollution is less certain, but may be explored by the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. Measurements of biomarkers of exposure, of effect and of susceptibility provide information of potential benefit for epidemiological and cancer risk assessment. The application of such techniques has been mostly concerned in the past with the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) that are associated with particulate matter in air pollution, and has showed clear evidence of genotoxic effects, such as DNA adducts, chromosome aberrations (CA) and ras oncogene overexpression, in environmentally exposed Czech and Polish populations. We are currently extending these studies by an investigation of populations exposed to environmental pollution in three European countries, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Bulgaria. This pays particular attention to PAHs, but also investigates the extent of radically induced (oxidative) DNA damage in the exposed populations. Policemen, bus drivers and controls, who carried personal monitors to determine their exposures to PAHs have been studied, and blood and urine were collected. Antioxidant and dietary status were assessed in these populations. Stationary monitors were also used for ambient air monitoring. Amongst the parameters studied in the biological samples were: (a) exposure biomarkers, such as PAH adducts with DNA, p53 and p21(WAF1) protein levels, (b) oxidative DNA damage, (c) the biological effect of the exposure by measurement of chromosome damage by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or conventional methods, and (d) polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolising and DNA repair enzymes. Repair ability was also measured by the Comet assay. In vitro systems are being evaluated to

  19. Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:25360680

  20. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  1. Hydrocarbon Degradation and Lead Solubility in a Soil Polluted with Lead and Used Motor Oil Treated by Composting and Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarado, L F; Vaca-Mier, M; López, R; Rojas-Valencia, M N

    2018-02-01

    Used lubricant oils and metals can be common soil pollutants in abandoned sites. When soil is contaminated with various hazardous wastes, the efficiency of biological treatments could be affected. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of combining phytoremediation and composting on the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation and lead solubility in a soil contaminated with 31,823 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from used motor oil and 8260 mg/kg of lead. Mexican cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) and yard trimmings were added in the composting process, and lucerne (Medicago sativa) was used in the phytoremediation process. After a 9 week composting process, only 13% of the initial TPH concentration was removed. The following 20 week phytoremediation process removed 48% of TPH. The highest TPH degradation percentage (66%), was observed in the experiment with phytoremediation only. This work demonstrates sustainable technologies, such as biological treatments, represent low-cost options for remediation; however, they are not frequently used because they require long periods of time for success.

  2. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  3. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soils: using the [13C]/[12C] ratio to characterize microbial products of oil hydrocarbon biodegradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakun, A M; Brodskiĭ, E S; Baskunov, B P; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Filonov, A E; Vetrova, A A; Ivanova, A A; Boronin, A M

    2014-01-01

    We compared data on the extent of bioremediation in soils polluted with oil. The data were obtained using conventional methods of hydrocarbon determination: extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, extraction IR spectroscopy, and extraction gravimetry. Due to differences in the relative abundances of the stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in oil and in soil organic matter, these ratios could be used as natural isotopic labels of either substance. Extraction gravimetry in combination with characteristics of the carbon isotope composition of organic products in the soil before and after bioremediation was shown to be the most informative approach to an evaluation of soil bioremediation. At present, it is the only method enabling quantification of the total petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted soil, as well as of the amounts of hydrocarbons remaining after bioremediation and those microbially transformed into organic products and biomass.

  4. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  5. Simple Bioremediation Treatments for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Polluted Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gounaim, Marzooq Yousuf; Abu-Shady, Abdulsatar

    2004-01-01

    A soil microcosm test was designed to evaluate the influence of mixing polluted desert soil with clay soil (which is used as an amendment material and for immobilization of bacterial cells) on the biodegradation of petroleum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Residual PAHs in this type of polluted soil were quantified by using GC analysis. At the begining of experiment 16 PAHs were resolved, of which the mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds flouranthene and pyrene were more frequent than the otherPAHs (14% and 12.4% respectively). Results of total PAH biodegradation show that mixing this polluted desert soil with clay soil or its water extract stimulated the biodegradation of 85.8%-89.1% of these compounds. This is contrast to 61.7%-75.5% in the absence of clay soil. Moreover when the mixed bacterial culture was immobilized in this clay soil 94.4% of total of total PAHs were degraded. On the other hand, the free cells of mixed culture succeeded to remove only 75.5% of these compounds. In this study the six-ranged PAHs were completely degraded in the presence of clay soil. A particularly notable distinction between the immobilized culture (T3) and other treatment in this biodegradation study is the greater efficiency of the immobilized culture to degrade the individuals of the 16 PAHs, especially the carcinogenic compounds: flouranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a) pyrene and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene. These results lead to the conclusion that mixing the polluted desert soil with clay soil and/or its water extract seems to be a simple cost effective bioremediation method. (author)

  6. Effects of environmental pollution with aromatic hydrocarbons on endocrine and metabolic functions of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Waldemar; Radowicki, Stanisław; Bojar, Iwona; Pinkas, Jarosław

    2018-03-14

    Phenol and 1-hydroxypyrene are biological markers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that have certain negative effects on parenchymal organs such as the human placenta. The literature presents only few reports regarding the effects of elevated PAH levels on the functions of the human placenta. The aim of the work is to assess the effects of elevated PAH levels in excreted urine on the endocrine and metabolic functions of the human placenta obtained from a normal pregnancy. Tissue material from 50 afterbirths from Płock constituted a study group, whereas 50 afterbirths from Kutno constituted a control group. Immunohistochemical reactions with the peroxidase method using LSAB kits (DAKO, Denmark) were performed. The extent and intensity of reactions were analysed. The levels of phenols and 1-hydroxypyrene in the excreted urine of pregnant women (undergoing delivery) were detected using gas chromatography and colorimetry. The statistical analysis used the PQStat v.1.6.2 software; moreover, t-student and chi-square tests were used. Differences were considered to be significant at the significance level of 95% (p<0.05). The levels of phenol and 1-hydroxypyrene in the excreted urine were demonstrated to be statistically significantly higher in patients living in the area of Płock. Statistically lower expression of placental glutathione transferase and lower immunohistochemical demonstration of the placental phosphatase activity were observed in placentas from Płock. It has been demonstrated that the expression of the oestrogen receptor activity and placental gonadotropin is significantly higher in placentas from areas not contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons (Kutno). The course of pregnancy in the environment with elevated levels of aromatic hydrocarbons leads to impaired placental functioning and reduced endocrine and metabolic activity of the placenta.

  7. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  8. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of the Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L. Karst.) grown in saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Galvis, Liliana A; Carrillo, Hernando; Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated alkaline saline soil with phreatophyte or "water loving plants" was investigated by spiking soil from the former lake Texcoco with 100 mg phenanthrene (Phen) kg(-1) soil, 120 mg anthracene (Ant)kg(-1) soil and 45 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kg(-1) soil and vegetating it with Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L Karst.). The growth of the Athel tamarisk was not affected by the PAHs. In soil cultivated with Athel tamarisk, the leaching of PAHs to the 32-34 cm layer decreased 2-fold compared to the uncultivated soil. The BaP concentration decreased to 39% of the initial concentration at a distance smaller than 3 cm from the roots and to 45% at a distance larger than 3cm, but 59% remained in unvegetated soil after 240 days. Dissipation of Ant and Phen decreased with depth, but not BaP. The biodegradation of PAHs was affected by their chemical properties and increased in the presence of T. aphylla, but decreased with depth.

  9. Hydrocarbon pollutants alter short-term recruitment in the barnacle Balanus eburneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, D.L.; Brown, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    We examined barnacle recruitment to oil-treated clay tiles at two coastal and two protected sites along the Louisiana coast. Tiles exposed to crude oil and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) had diminished barnacle recruitment after 3 weeks, in comparison with non-treated tiles. Effects were most obvious at the exposed coastal sites. After a 6-week immersion, however, treatment effects were no longer consistent. In later experiments, Balanus eburneus recruitment was higher on weathered WSF tiles (exposed, and leached in seawater before immersion in the field) than on WSF tiles, but not different from control tiles. Hydrocarbons depress recruitment initially, but may be removed later by leaching or by hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, and the remaining biofilm may facilitate recruitment. While barnacle recruitment was generally higher at exposed sites, as expected from the literature, local factors caused significant variation in recruitment within exposure categories as well. Barnacles also grow to larger sizes at open-coast sites, probably because of increased water flow and planktonic food delivery. Naupliar abundances varied tremendously among sites and dates and were poor predictors of eventual recruitment. (author)

  10. [Pollution characteristics and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riparian soils along urban rivers of Wenzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie-Cheng; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Wang, Lu; Xu, Shi-Yuan; Pan, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Twenty one riparian soil samples along Jiushanwai River and Shanxia River of Wenzhou city were collected in August 2010 to investigate the pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE), purified by a purification column and determined by GC-MS. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the riparian soils ranged from 60.7 ng x g(-1) to 3 871.3 ng x g(-1), and the concentrations of sigma PAHs in soils along the Shanxia River were significantly lower than the levels along Jiushanwai River. The dominant compounds were 2 to 3 rings in the riparian soils along both rivers, which in average accounted for 62.47% - 72.51% in sigma PAHs. Compared with the PAHs concentrations in soils of other areas in the world, the riparian soils of the studied rivers were moderately polluted by PAHs, but the concentrations of BaP in three soil samples were much higher than the soil standard value of the former Soviet Union, which should be paid more attention. Based on the ratios of Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Fla/(Fla + Pyr) and principal component analysis results, PAHs in riparian soils of the studied rivers were mainly derived from both the petroleum and combustion.

  11. Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic pollutants in the air particles of subway stations in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Prats, Raimon M; Reche, Cristina; Minguillón, MariCruz; Querol, Xavier; Grimalt, Joan O; Moreno, Teresa

    2018-06-09

    Underground subways transport large numbers of citizens in big cities, which must breathe air with limited ventilation. These atmospheric conditions may enhance the concentration of air pollutants from both outdoor and indoor air. The influence of ventilation conditions and maintenance activities on the concentrations of air pollutants have been studied. Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in indoor air was sampled in ten platforms of nine subway stations of the metropolitan area of Barcelona in 2015 and 2016. These particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organic tracer compounds. The concentrations of PAH were in the range of the street air levels with higher PAH values in the colder period. No influence of nighttime maintenance activities was observed on the platform air quality during daytime. Source apportionment analysis using the concentrations of hopanes, nicotine and levoglucosan as molecular tracer compounds showed that 75% of the detected PAH at the platforms have an outdoor PM origin. The modern subway stations, with advanced ventilation and platform screen doors that separate the subway system from the platform, showed lowest PAH and PM concentrations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo; John Chi-Wei Lan; Wen-Chang Lu; Yong-Yuan Ku

    2007-01-01

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO x , particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h -1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h -1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  13. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo [Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Management; John Chi-Wei Lan [Yuan Ze University (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Wen-Chang Lu [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China). New Energy Div.; Yong-Yuan Ku [Automotive Research and Testing Center, Chunhwa (China). Diesel Vehicle Section

    2007-11-15

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO{sub x}, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  14. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  15. The use of rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus as a sentinel species to assess petroleum hydrocarbons pollution: A case study in Quanzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jun; Zheng, Ronghui; Kuang, Weiming; Hong, Fukun; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Yusheng

    2017-11-30

    To monitor the biological effects of marine pollution, choosing a native fish species and establishing suitable biomarkers are required. In this study, the full-length cDNA of cyp1a1 was cloned from Sebastiscus marmoratus (SM-CYP1A1). Then the dose-response and time-course induction of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA by the crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF) were determined. Subsequently, SM-CYP1A1 mRNA was applied to investigate the biological effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in Quanzhou Bay, China. The transcription levels of hepatic CYP1A1 were significantly elevated in fish caged in the polluted sites for 2weeks compared with those of the reference site, which were correlated with the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the surface seawaters. The results suggest that S. marmoratus is a potential sentinel organism to monitor marine pollutants and the hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA can serve as a sensitive biomarker to organic xenobiotics in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pollution characteristics and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban rivers of Wenzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Bi, Chun-Juan; Lü, Jin-Gang; Xu, Shi-Yuan; Pan, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and surface sediments collected from the urban rivers of Wenzhou city in spring and summer were measured by GC-MS. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations in water and sediments of the studied rivers varied in ranges of 146.74-3 047.89 ng x L(-1) and 21.01-11 990.48 ng x g(-1), respectively. Higher concentrations occurred in spring. The low and middle rings of 2-4-ring were dominant in both water and sediments, but the concentrations of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs in sediments were relatively higher than those in water. The EBaP values of PAHs in water of the studied rivers in spring and summer were 1.69-51.95 ng x L(-1) and 0-3.03 ng x L(-1), respectively. Eighty percent of water samples in spring surpassed the limits of BaP in surface water of China. The concentrations of sigma PAHs in the sediments both in spring and summer were lower than the ERM value, but part of the components of PAHs had values higher than the ERM, suggesting possible toxic effect on living organisms. Based on the PAHs molecule ratios and principal component analysis, a mixed PAHs source of petroleum and combustion in water and sediments was diagnosed, while sediments showed a greater proportion of combustion sources.

  17. Distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in dustfall samples from a coal-mining area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ce; Zhong Ning-ning; Chen Dang-yi; Li yan; Liu Shuang [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation

    2007-07-01

    Dustfall samples from the Shilong coal-mining area, Pingdingshan, Henan, China, were tested containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of GC-MS technology, which damage the health of human. One hundred and sixty-nine PAHs have been identified in the samples, including 13 US EPA PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs are different in different dustfall samples from various site, which change from 0.017 to 0.188 mg/g, and the mean value is 0.079 mg/g. Of all the PAHs with 2-7 rings, PAHs with 3 rings are the most abundant. Considering organic geochemical parameters such as MP/P, MPI1, FL/PY and biomarkers, we conclude that lots of coalmines and coal industry plants, which locate in the small area, could have direct effect on the ambient atmosphere. Coal dust and coal combustion products influence the component of PAHs in the atmosphere. In addition, straw and wood combustion are small sources for PAHs. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Modelling pollutants dispersion and plume rise from large hydrocarbon tank fires in neutrally stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, C. D.; Sideris, G. M.; Christolis, M. N.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Markatos, N. C.

    2010-02-01

    Petrochemical industries normally use storage tanks containing large amounts of flammable and hazardous substances. Therefore, the occurrence of a tank fire, such as the large industrial accident on 11th December 2005 at Buncefield Oil Storage Depots, is possible and usually leads to fire and explosions. Experience has shown that the continuous production of black smoke from these fires due to the toxic gases from the combustion process, presents a potential environmental and health problem that is difficult to assess. The goals of the present effort are to estimate the height of the smoke plume, the ground-level concentrations of the toxic pollutants (smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs, VOCs) and to characterize risk zones by comparing the ground-level concentrations with existing safety limits. For the application of the numerical procedure developed, an external floating-roof tank has been selected with dimensions of 85 m diameter and 20 m height. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that for all scenarios considered, the ground-level concentrations of smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs and VOCs do not exceed the safety limit of IDLH and there are no "death zones" due to the pollutant concentrations.

  19. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  20. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution in Soil and Surface Water by Public Oil Fields in Wonocolo Sub-district, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Lova Sari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Public crude oil fields in Wonocolo sub-district were active from 1942 until now and have inadequately operated. The aims of this research were to measure the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH pollution and their distribution in soil and surface water at the Wonocolo public crude oil fields. Twelve composite soil samples were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated sites of old well (OW, transportation line (T, and refinery area (R at the depths of 0–30 cm, 30–60 cm, and 60–90 cm. The composite surface water sample was obtained from two points with different distances from the river side. TPH from soil and surface water samples were extracted using soxhlet and gravimetric method. Quantification of TPH was performed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR Spectrometer. From the results of this study, it was concluded that soils and surface water are contaminated by TPH of 119.80–107,190 µg/g and 211,025.73 µg/L, respectively. TPH is clearly located in the upper of 0–30 cm depth at OW, T, and R sites (52,328.14–107,189.63 µg/g. These concentrations exceeded the soil quality standard of TPH and classified as category A for human hazard risk. The findings from this study show that there are considerable health risks which are potentially poisonous to humans in the local area. We recommend that remediation could be conducted using biological methods to reduce TPH pollution level.

  1. [Pollution of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Particulate Matters of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-lin; Chang, Wen-jing; Chen, Zheng-xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( HPAHs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from Shenzhen were determined using GC-MS. Total concentrations of nine HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 118 to 1,476 pg · m(-3) and 89 to 407 pg · m(-3), respectively. In PM10 and PM(2.5) samples, the concentration of 9-BrAnt was the highest, followed by 7-BrBaA and 9, 10-Br2Ant. Seasonal levels of total HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen decreased in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer, whereas concentrations of individual HPAHs showed different seasonal levels. Meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, might be important factors affecting the seasonal levels of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 In addition, there were significant correlations between concentrations of HPAHs and parent PAHs. Finally, the toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) of HPAHs were estimated. The TEQs of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 17.6 to 86.2 pg · m(-3) and 14.6 to 70.4 pg · m(-3), respectively. Among individual HPAHs, 7-BrBaA contributed greatly to the total TEQs of HPAHs. Our results indicated that the total TEQs of HPAHs were lower than parent PAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen.

  2. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  3. Nutrients can enhance the abundance and expression of alkane hydroxylase CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass planted in hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arslan

    Full Text Available Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.

  4. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms (Eisenia andrei, Oligochaeta) in field-polluted soils and soil-sediment mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Baerselman, Rob; Dijkman, Ellen; de Groot, Arthur C; Hogendoorn, Elbert A; de Jong, Ad; Kruitbosch, Jantien A W; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2003-04-01

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for earthworms (Eisenia andrei) was experimentally determined in seven field-polluted soils and 15 soil-sediment mixtures. The pore-water concentration of most PAHs was higher than predicted. However, most of the compound was associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and not directly available for uptake by earthworms. The apparent sorption could be reasonably predicted on the basis of interactions with DOC; however, the biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) for earthworms were up to two orders of magnitude lower than predicted by equilibrium partitioning. The large variability between sites was not fully explained by differences in sorption. Experimental results indicate that the pool of freely dissolved PAHs in the pore water became partially depleted because of uptake by the earthworms and that bioaccumulation is thus also influenced by the kinetics of PAH desorption and mass transport. A pilot study with Lumbricus rubellus showed that steady-state body residues were well correlated to E. andrei. Current results show that depositing dredge spoil on land may lead to increased bioavailability of the lower-molecular-weight PAHs. However, risk assessment can conservatively rely on equilibrium partitioning, but accurate prediction requires quantification of the kinetics of bioavailability.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND CORRESPONDING CODING GENES OF HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIAL STRAINS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS USEFUL IN BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Al Zahraa Omar

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum-derived contamination events constitute one of the most dominant sources of environmental deterioration in the industrialized countries. Hydrocarbon compounds are recognized as toxic and carcinogenic organic pollutants and environmentally persistent. Bioremediation efforts aim to confine, restrain and mitigate the magnitude of contamination, in order to prevent additional decline of the environment and to protect all life forms from exposure to hazardous materials. The aim of this p...

  6. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  7. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the Antarctic pack ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted near the Russian Antarctic stations in May, 2001 in the Pridz Bay and coastal part of the Davies Sea to examine the content of dissolved and suspended forms of aliphatic hydrocarbons in melted snow samples, pack ice and ice cores. The site included clean control areas and polluted test areas. A spill was performed by covering the bare ice surface with marine diesel fuel. The different physical characteristics of clean and polluted ice were measured. This included radiation balance, reflected solar radiation, integral albedo radiation, surface temperature, seawater temperature, salinity at depth, and ice salinity. The study showed that accumulation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon took place in the ice-water barrier zone, mostly in suspended form. It was concluded that for oil spills in pack Antarctic ice, the mechanism of filtration due to convection-diffusion plays an important role in the transformation of diesel fuel. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  9. Bacterial diversity exploration in hydrocarbon polluted soil: metabolic potential and degrader community evolution revealed by isotope labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds produced by incomplete combustion of organic matter. They are a source of environmental pollution, especially associated to oil product exploitation, and represent a threat for living organisms including human beings because of their toxicity. Many bacteria capable of degrading PAHs have been isolated and studied. However, since less than 5% of soil bacteria can be cultivated in the laboratory, bacterial species able to degrade PAHs in situ have been poorly studied. The first goal of this study was to identify bacteria that degrade PAHs in soil using culture-independent molecular methods. To this end, a strategy known a stable isotope probing has been implemented based on the use of phenanthrene, a three rings PAH, in which the natural isotope of carbon was replaced by 13 C. This molecule has been introduced as a tracer in microcosms containing soil from a constructed wetlands collecting contaminated water from highway runoff. Bacteria having incorporated the 13 C were then identified by 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis after PCR amplification from labeled genomic DNA extracted from soil. The results show that so far little studied Betaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Rhodoferax, Hydrogenophaga and Thiobacillus, as well as Rhodocyclaceae, were the key players in phenanthrene degradation. Predominance of Betaproteobacteries was established thanks to quantitative PCR measurements. A dynamic analysis of bacterial diversity also showed that the community structure of degraders depended on phenanthrene bioavailability. In addition, the phylogenetic diversity of ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases, enzymes involved in the first step of PAH degradation, has been explored. We detected new sequences, mostly related to di-oxygenases from Sphingomonadales and Burkholderiales. For the first time, we were able to associate a catalytic activity for oxidation of PAHs to partial gene sequences

  10. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM 2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaP eq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaP eq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0 -6 ), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaP eq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in penguins of the genus Pygoscelis in Admiralty Bay - An Antarctic specially managed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, Rosalinda C; Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Martins, César C; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Z; Barroso, Hileia S; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia C; Weber, Rolf R

    2016-05-15

    Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in fat samples of the Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), Chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins collected during the austral summers of 2005/06 and 2006/07 in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The predominant organic pollutants were PCB (114 to 1115), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (60.1 to 238.7), HCB (penguins. Chicks of all three species showed similar profiles of PCB congeners, with predominance of lower chlorinated compounds. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all birds, with a predominance of naphthalene and alkyl-naphthalene, which are the main constituents of arctic diesel fuel. These data contribute to the monitoring of the continued exposure to organic pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment and source identification of pollution risk for touristic ports: Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of 4 marinas of the Apulia region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Piccinni, Alberto Ferruccio

    2017-01-30

    The Apulia region in Italy has the longest Adriatic coastline; thus, maritime tourism is the driving force for its economic development. Pollution risk for four representative touristic ports of the region was assessed by determining the concentrations of 10 metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) congeners, and the main nutrients. The cumulative mean Effects Range-Median quotient (mERMq) was used to assess the hazard degree, while the distribution patterns and content ratios of different PAH sediment concentrations were investigated to identify the pollution sources. Principal component analyses indicated an anomalous pollution trend for one of the small touristic ports assessed; this trend emerged from contamination by heavy metals and PAHs to a larger extent than expected, considering the main activity in this port, especially in its inner basin. The reason of this anomaly is thought to be the hydrodynamic and/or other stress factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  16. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  18. Molecular application for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading bacteria (PAHD) species isolated from oil polluted soil in Dammam, Saud Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Al-Turki, Ameena; Al-Sewedi, Dona; Arif, Ibrahim A; El-Gaaly, Gehan A

    2015-09-01

    Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbon products such as diesel and engine oil is becoming one of the major environmental problems. This study describes hydrocarbons degrading bacteria (PHAD) isolated from long-standing petrol polluted soil from the eastern region, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The isolated strains were firstly categorized by accessible shape detection, physiological and biochemistry tests. Thereafter, a technique established on the sequence analysis of a 16S rDNA gene was used. Isolation of DNA from the bacterial strains was performed, on which the PCR reaction was carried out. Strains were identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, As follows amplified samples were spontaneously sequenced automatically and the attained results were matched to open databases. Among the isolated bacterial strains, S1 was identified as Staphylococcus aureus and strain S1 as Corynebacterium amycolatum.

  19. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C 10 -C 35 ) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  20. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  1. The wood-electricity: development perspectives for the wood-based production of energy in France by 2015. Soil pollution. Soil contamination by hydrocarbon effluents: rehabilitation market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    1996-09-01

    A report proposes an economical analysis of the wood-based production of electricity in France, describes the different stages of this process, from supply (crop, tearing, transport, storage) through conversion (technologies, combustion or gasification) and to the output kWh (cost sensitivity analysis with respect to the evolution of other parameters). It describes the environmental impacts of wood-based electricity production and compares the quantities of pollutants emitted by this process with those emitted by other processes based on fossil energies. It identifies the main obstacles to the development of wood-based electricity production and proposes political and institutional measures inspired by the Danish experience. A second article is aimed at presenting an economic analysis of the cost of decontamination of hydrocarbon polluted sites in France (a majority of which are gas stations and storage sites)

  2. Novel apparatus permitting the recovery of polluting products such as hydrocarbons and fuel oil spilled onto the surface of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-26

    This apparatus for the recovery of oil spills consists of a chassis equipped at both ends with drums rotating and carrying a closed loop of a conveyor belt made of a sponge-like or foam-like absorbing substance which resists the effect of hydrocarbons, oils, oxidants and alkaline materials, while its water absorption power is practically zero. This material is glued or cast on a fabric core or on a large mesh material. A cleaning drum associated with the belt compresses the belt and causes the polluting material to be squeezed into a vat. The chassis is mounted on a ship with shallow draft or on an amphibious vehicle. This apparatus is applicable to all cases where a polluting product spilled onto the surface of the water must be eliminated.

  3. Patterns of traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in mountain areas can be revealed by lichen biomonitoring: a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Tretiach, Mauro; Corana, Federica; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Kodnik, Danijela; Dainese, Matteo; Mannucci, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    In mountain areas of touristic interest the evaluation of the impact of human activities is crucial for ensuring long-term conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, functions and services. This study aimed at verifying the biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to traffic along the roads leading to seven passes of the Dolomites (SE Alps), which were recently declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, collected at increasing distances from the roads, were used as biomonitors. Our study revealed a gradient of decreasing PAH pollution within 300 m from the roads. Differences among passes were evident mainly for samples collected nearest to the roads, but PAH concentrations at 300 m were almost always higher than those of undisturbed reference sites, indicating that traffic PAH pollution may impact natural ecosystems and lichen diversity at relatively long distances from the emission source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  5. pH is the primary determinant of the bacterial community structure in agricultural soils impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhenfa; Lin, Xiangui

    2017-01-01

    Acidification and pollution are two major threats to agricultural ecosystems; however, microbial community responses to co-existed soil acidification and pollution remain less explored. In this study, arable soils of broad pH (4.26–8.43) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) gradients (0.18–20.68 mg kg−1) were collected from vegetable farmlands. Bacterial community characteristics including abundance, diversity and composition were revealed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen contents, suggesting the control of nutrients accessibility on bacterial abundance. The bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH, with higher diversity in neutral samples and lower in acidic samples. Soil pH was also identified by an ordination analysis as important factor shaping bacterial community composition. The relative abundances of some dominant phyla varied along the pH gradient, and the enrichment of a few phylotypes suggested their adaptation to low pH condition. In contrast, at the current pollution level, PAH showed marginal effects on soil bacterial community. Overall, these findings suggest pH was the primary determinant of bacterial community in these arable soils, indicative of a more substantial influence of acidification than PAH pollution on bacteria driven ecological processes. PMID:28051171

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  7. pH is the primary determinant of the bacterial community structure in agricultural soils impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhenfa; Lin, Xiangui

    2017-01-01

    Acidification and pollution are two major threats to agricultural ecosystems; however, microbial community responses to co-existed soil acidification and pollution remain less explored. In this study, arable soils of broad pH (4.26-8.43) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) gradients (0.18-20.68 mg kg-1) were collected from vegetable farmlands. Bacterial community characteristics including abundance, diversity and composition were revealed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen contents, suggesting the control of nutrients accessibility on bacterial abundance. The bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH, with higher diversity in neutral samples and lower in acidic samples. Soil pH was also identified by an ordination analysis as important factor shaping bacterial community composition. The relative abundances of some dominant phyla varied along the pH gradient, and the enrichment of a few phylotypes suggested their adaptation to low pH condition. In contrast, at the current pollution level, PAH showed marginal effects on soil bacterial community. Overall, these findings suggest pH was the primary determinant of bacterial community in these arable soils, indicative of a more substantial influence of acidification than PAH pollution on bacteria driven ecological processes.

  8. Air pollution in relation to US cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.B. [Sunlight Nutrients & Health Research Center SUNARC, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    There are large geographical variations of cancer mortality rates in the United States. In a series of ecological studies in the U.S., a number of risk-modifying factors including alcohol, diet, ethnic background, poverty, smoking, solar ultraviolet-B (UVB), and urban/rural residence have been linked to many types of cancer. Air pollution also plays a role in cancer risk. Cancer mortality rates averaged by state for two periods, 1950-1969 and 1970-1994, were used in multiple-linear regression analyses with respect to many, of the risk-modifying factors mentioned with the addition of an air pollution index in the form of a map of acid deposition in 1985. This index is correlated with emissions from coal-fired power plants. In addition, lung cancer mortality rates for five-Year periods from 1970-74 to 1990-94 were used in multiple linear regression analyses including air pollution and cigarette smoking. The air pollution index correlated with respiratory, digestive tract, urogenital, female, blood and skin cancer. Air pollution was estimated to account for 5% of male cancer deaths and 3% of female cancer deaths between 1970-1994. Solar UVB was inversely correlated with all these types of cancer except the respirator, skin and cervical cancer. Cigarette smoking was directly linked to lung cancer but not to other types of cancer in this study. Combustion of coal, diesel fuel and wood is the likely source of air pollution that affects cancer risk on a large scale, through production of black carbon aerosols with adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  10. Assessment of the biodegradability of selected sulfa drugs in two polluted rivers in Poland: Effects of seasonal variations, accidental contamination, turbidity and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Ewa; Baran, Wojciech; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2016-08-05

    The aim of our study was to assess the aerobic biodegradation of four selected sulfonamides (sulfanilamide, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfathiazole) using water samples drawn from highly polluted rivers. Additionally, we aimed to identify the factors that have a significant effect on the process efficiency. The 19 water samples were collected from Brynica and Czarna Przemsza rivers (in Poland) at the same location at approximately monthly intervals. A characteristic feature of the results is the presence of significant differences between the rates of sulfonamides biodegradation in particular samples. The sulfonamide most resistant to biodegradation was sulfamethoxazole, whereas sulfathiazole was most biodegradable. Seasonal variations and related microbial population changes had the most significant effects on sulfonamides biodegradation, e.g., the studied process was highly inhibited during wintertime. A decrease in the biodegradation rate in the river water could be caused by an accidental water pollution by industrial wastewater with heavy metals, an increase in salinity and a decrease in pH, and turbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytoremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Artificially Polluted Using Plant-Associated-Endophytic Bacteria and Dactylis glomerata as the Bioremediation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka, Ann; Gałązka, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of soil microorganisms to the contamination of soil artificially polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in pot experiments. The plant used in the tests was cock's foot (Dactylis glomerata). Three different soils artificially contaminated with PAHs were applied in the studies. Three selected PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were used at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil and diesel fuel at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil. For evaluation of the synergistic effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria, the following strains were selected: associative Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas stutzerii. Additionally, in the bioremediation process, the inoculation of plants with a mixture of the bacterial strains in the amount of 1 ml suspension per 500 g of soil was used. Chamber pot-tests were carried out in controlled conditions during four weeks of plant growth period. The basic physical, microbiological and biochemical properties in contaminated soils were determined. The obtained results showed a statistically important increase in the physical properties of soils polluted with PAHs and diesel fuel compared with the control and also an important decrease in the content of PAHs and heavy metals in soils inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and P. stutzeri after cock's foot grass growth. The bioremediation processes were especially intensive in calcareous rendzina soil artificially polluted with PAHs.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  13. Diagnosis of soils polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons; Diagnostic de sols pollues par des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) a l'aide de la spectrophotometrie UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, M

    2000-01-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were produced by many pyrolytic or combustion processes. They were found in soils, often in high concentrations. Remediation of industrial sites contaminated by PAHs requires an initial diagnosis of the pollution. In this perspective, an analytical procedure based on UV spectrophotometry was developed and validated with about 80 soil samples. Different exploitation methods of the samples UV spectra enable to develop simple and rapid characterisation tools. A PAH UV index is proposed for the estimation of global PAH concentration. A more accurate exploitation of the spectra gives an indication on the presence or the absence of some individual PAH like benzo[a]pyrene. A maturity index based on a two wavelength approach constitutes an indicator of the potential evolution of soil contamination in natural conditions. Laboratory methodology was adapted to field analyses and a test kit was designed for this purpose. The test duration is 20 minutes. (author)

  14. Diagnosis of soils polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons; Diagnostic de sols pollues par des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) a l'aide de la spectrophotometrie UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, M.

    2000-01-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were produced by many pyrolytic or combustion processes. They were found in soils, often in high concentrations. Remediation of industrial sites contaminated by PAHs requires an initial diagnosis of the pollution. In this perspective, an analytical procedure based on UV spectrophotometry was developed and validated with about 80 soil samples. Different exploitation methods of the samples UV spectra enable to develop simple and rapid characterisation tools. A PAH UV index is proposed for the estimation of global PAH concentration. A more accurate exploitation of the spectra gives an indication on the presence or the absence of some individual PAH like benzo[a]pyrene. A maturity index based on a two wavelength approach constitutes an indicator of the potential evolution of soil contamination in natural conditions. Laboratory methodology was adapted to field analyses and a test kit was designed for this purpose. The test duration is 20 minutes. (author)

  15. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage (EXPAH project): description of the population under study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J; Garte, Seymour; Kalina, Ivan; Popov, Todor A; Farmer, Peter B

    2007-07-01

    The EXPAH project was a molecular epidemiology study whose aims were to evaluate the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major source of genotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with air pollution. Biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility, and oxidative DNA damage were measured in three PAH-exposed populations from Prague (Czech Republic), Kosice (Slovakia) and Sofia (Bulgaria). Control populations were included from each city. In total 356 individuals were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to determine life style/dietary factors. Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary monitoring, and personal exposure monitoring was also carried out. The characteristics of the population are described in this paper together with their personal exposure to carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs). The dose of c-PAH exposure was found to vary between the occupationally exposed (e.g. policemen and bus drivers) and the control populations in each country, and also varied from country to country.

  16. The bioremediation, solution at the land´s pollution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil Refinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanco Valdivia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The land´s polution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil refinery constituted a problem for the technicians of this entity that in coordination with the Petroleum Investigations Center (CEINPET, carried out a study for the application of the bioremediation in the company. The area to this purpose was determined and the soil impacted was deposit on it, this soil was homogenized with an appropriate equipment (agricultural tractor. The fertilizers were added and the removal stage was made in order to help the soil oxygenation. They were carried out samples and analysis obtaining satisfactory results with the application of the bioremediation in the company.

  17. Air pollution effect of SO2 and/or aliphatic hydrocarbons on marble statues in Archaeological Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelakopoulou, T; Metaxa, E; Karagianni, Ch-S; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, F

    2009-09-30

    This study allowed the identification of the main physicochemical characteristics of deterioration of the materials used in the construction of Greek ancient statues in order to plan a correct methodology of restoration. The method of Reversed-Flow Inverse Gas Chromatography is appropriate to investigate the influence of air pollutants on authentic pieces from the Greek Archaeological Museum of Kavala, near Salonica. Six local physicochemical quantities which refer to the influence of one or two pollutants (synergistic effect) were determined for each system. These quantities answer the question "when, why and how materials of cultural heritage are attacked".

  18. Atenuación natural y remediación inducida en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos Natural attenuation and induced remediation in hydrocarbon polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Romaniuk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los hidrocarburos derivados del petróleo constituyen la principal fuente de energía para la humanidad y son, a su vez, importantes contaminantes ambientales. En esta experiencia, se estimó y comparó la tasa de descomposición de dos tipos de hidrocarburos (gasoil y aceite de carter por medio de las técnicas de atenuación natural y de la incorporación de un producto comercial específico en un suelo franco extraído del horizonte A de un Argiudol típico. Simultáneamente se evaluó el efecto de dichas prácticas tecnológicas sobre algunas variables edáficas. Los tratamientos fueron: [suelo sin contaminante testigo], [suelo + gasoil] [suelo + aceite de carter], [suelo + gasoil + producto], [suelo + aceite de carter + producto] y [suelo + producto]. La toma de muestra se realizó en la siguiente serie de tiempo [0;15; 30; 60; y 180 días]. La tasa de degradación de los hidrocarburos presentes en el gasoil y aceite de carter por la técnica de atenuación natural fue más lenta y menos efectiva que la obtenida al incorporar el producto comercial, alcanzando en este caso los valores finales más bajos de hidrocarburos totales de petróleo. Entre las variables edáficas, el carbono oxidable y la respiración de la biomasa del suelo mostraron los mayores valores medios en los tratamientos de suelo contaminado. La incorporación del producto comercial produjo una disminución significativa en dichos valores, un aumento en la conductividad eléctrica, pero no influyó sobre el pH y el fósforo extractable del suelo.The petroleum derived hydrocarbons represent the main energy source for the humanity and they are in turn, an important environmental polluting source. In this experience it was estimated and compared the rate of decomposition of two hydrocarbons (diesel and crankcase oil, by natural attenuation, and with the incorporation of a specific commercial product in a Typic Argiudoll. The effect of these practices was also evaluated on some

  19. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  1. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O 2  M -2 S -1 ). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  3. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  4. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  5. Adsorption and wetting mechanisms at the surface of aqueous hydrocarbon solutions as a possible source of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiki, M.; Quentel, F.; Elleouet, C.; Olier, R.; Privat, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbons in solutions have been the subject of very few investigations despite their relevance, in particular, in situations where environmental mechanisms are involved. We present, here, a synthesis of several studies conducted within our laboratory about the adsorption, at the water surface, of benzene and cyclohexane from under-saturated solutions. The co-adsorption of lead nitrate is also evidenced, though it does not adsorb in absence of organic molecules in the surface. Most of the data reported here were collected from series of measurements made with a very uncommon method: the bubble column; this technique, though being very time-demanding and lacking of user-friendliness, proved its usefulness and relevance in the study of such weakly adsorbable, surface-tension inactive compounds. The study of mixtures is simple and requires no model, which is precious in environmental research. The gathered data demonstrate that, through mechanical mechanisms such as bubbling, co-adsorption can lead to the passing from water to the atmosphere of harmful non-soluble, poorly surface-active, components. (authors)

  6. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from power plant lignite ash--influence of parameters important for environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergal, Miodrag M; Relić, Dubravka; Tešić, Zivoslav Lj; Popović, Aleksandar R

    2014-03-01

    Nikola Tesla B power plant (TENT B), located at the Sava River, in Obrenovac, 50 km west from the Serbian's capital, Belgrade, is the second largest coal-fired power plant in the country, consisting of two blocks, each of 620 MW capacity. In order to investigate the threat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from deposited coal ash, obtained by coal combustion in this power plant, can represent for the surrounding environment, samples of coal ash were submitted to extraction with river water used for transport of coal ash to the dump, as well as with water of different ionic strength and acidity. It was found that, out of 16 EPA priority PAHs, only naphthalene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were found in measurable concentrations in the different extracts. Their combined concentration was around 0.1 μg/L, so they do not, in terms of leached concentrations, represent serious danger for the surrounding environment. In all cases of established (and leached) PAH compounds, changes of ionic strength, acidity, or the presence of organic compounds in river water may to some extent influence the leached concentrations. However, under the examined conditions, similar to those present in the environment, leached concentrations were not more than 50 % greater than the concentrations leached by distilled water. Therefore, water desorption is likely the most important mechanism responsible for leaching of PAH compounds from filter coal ash.

  7. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hao; Zhu Lizhong; Chen Shuguang

    2008-01-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM 2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM 2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM 10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10 -3 life-time lung cancer risk

  8. Heavy metal water pollution associated with the use of sewage sludge compost and limestone outcrop residue for soil restoration: effect of saline irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gimeno, Ana; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Gómez, Ignacio; Belén Almedro-Candel, María; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    The use of composted sewage sludge and limestone outcrop residue in soil restoration and technosol making can influence the mobility of heavy metals into groundwater. The use of compost from organic residues is a common practice in soil and land rehabilitation, technosol making, and quarry restoration (Jordán et al. 2008). Compost amendments may improve the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils (Jordão et al. 2006; Iovieno et al. 2009). However, the use of compost and biosolids may have some negative effects on the environment (Karaca 2004; Navarro-Pedreño et al. 2004). This experiment analyzed the water pollution under an experimental design based on the use of columns (0-30 cm) formed by both wastes. Two waters of different quality (saline and non-saline) were used for irrigation. The presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the leachates was checked under controlled conditions inside a greenhouse (mean values: 20°±5°C and around 60% relative humidity). Sixteen 30-cm tall columns made of PVC pipe with internal diameters of 10.5 cm were prepared. The columns were filled with one of these materials: either sewage sludge compost (SW) or limestone outcrop residue (LR), fraction (determine if the accumulation of heavy metals in waters may be determinant for future pollution. References: Iovieno P, Morra L, Leone A, Pagano L, Alfani A (2009) Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil respiration and enzyme activities of two Mediterranean horticultural soils. Biol Fert Soils doi:10.1007/s00374-009-0365-z. Jordán MM, Pina S, García-Orenes F, Almendro-Candel MB, García-Sánchez E (2008) Environmental risk evaluation of the use of mine spoils and treated sewage sludge in the ecological restoration of limestone quarries. Environ Geol doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0991-4. Jordão CP, Nascentes CC, Cecon PR, Fontes RLF, Pereira JL (2006) Heavy metal availability in soil amended with composted urban solid wastes. Environ Monit

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Okuba, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2001-01-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and offshore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analysed for hopanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east cost seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photo-oxidation. (Author)

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  11. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Duan Xiaoli; Tao Shu; Qiu Weixun; Liu Di; Wang Yilong; Wei Siye; Wang Bin; Jiang Qiujing; Lu Bin; Song Yunxue; Hu Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]P eq ) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m 3 , respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]P eq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10 −6 , with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  12. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  13. The impact of weather and ocean forecasting on hydrocarbon production and pollution management in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, the vulnerability of offshore production in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has been brought to light by extensive damage to oil and gas facilities and pipelines resulting from Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, and Rita. The occurrences of extreme weather regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. Loop currents and eddies can also impact offshore operations and delay installation and drilling activities and reduce the effectiveness of oil spill response strategies. The purpose of this paper is to describe how weather and ocean forecasting impact production activities and pollution management in the GOM. Physical outcome and decision models in support of production and development activities and oil spill response management are presented, and the expected economic benefits that may result from the implementation of an integrated ocean observation network in the region are summarized. Improved ocean observation systems are expected to reduce the uncertainty of forecasting and to enhance the value of ocean/weather information throughout the Gulf region. The source of benefits and the size of activity from which improved ocean observation benefits may be derived are estimated for energy development and production activities and oil spill response management

  14. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  15. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from lake Lille Lungegårdsvannet in Bergen, western Norway; appraising pollution sources from the urban history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malin; Klug, Martin; Eggen, Ola Anfin; Ottesen, Rolf Tore

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to determine the temporal character and concentration variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) during the last 5,400 years in urban lake sediments through a combination of dating and chemo-stratigraphical correlation. We investigate the chemical history of the city of Bergen and determine the effect of specific point sources, as well as diffuse sources, and also help assess the risk of remediation plans. By using several organic compounds, metals and cyanide, we demonstrate the more accurate timing of sedimentation. The PAH results display very low concentrations in pre-industrial times, followed by a general increase that is punctuated by a few significant concentration increases. These most probably correspond to urban fires, domestic heating, gaswork activity and most recently due to traffic pollution. At the same depth as a significant rise in concentration from background levels occurred, the high relative occurrence of low-molecular-weight PAH-compounds, such as naphthalene, were replaced by heavier compounds, thus indicating a permanent change in source. The general observation, using ratios, is that the sources have shifted from pre-industrial pure wood and coal combustion towards mixed and petrogenic sources in more recent times. The (14)C dating provides evidence that the sedimentation rate stayed more-or-less constant for 4,500 years (from 7200 to 2700 calibrated years before present (calyr BP)), before isostatic uplift isolated the water body and the sedimentation rate decreased or sediments were eroded. The sediment input increased again when habitation and industrial activities encroached on the lake. The (14)C dating does not provide consistent data in that period, possibly due to the fact that the lake has been used as a waste site throughout the history of Bergen city. Therefore, results from (14)C dating from anthropogenically influenced sediments should be used with caution. © 2013.

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  18. Estimation of the Pollution Level in El Timsah Lake, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.; Hassan, H.B.; Hamza, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The wide range of activities surrounding El Timsah Lake and the discharge effluent at the north and eastern parts of the lake led to high level of anthropogenic pollution in lake water more than the navigation activities. Heavy metals concentration increases in low salinity water toward the land from the discharging effluent. Whereas, oil hydrocarbon and water salinity increase toward Suez Canal current water. This indicates some dispersion of oil ballast water of shipping tankers or from petroleum companies during transportation in the Suez Canal. Chemical and isotopic results indicate lake water stratification, low mixing rate due to slow current of lake water. This led to long residence time of the pollution load enhancing accumulation and precipitation of the heavy metals to the bottom sediment near the boundaries of the lake

  19. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  20. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  1. Ex-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Bendix; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are regarded as environmental pollutants. A promising approach to reduce PAH pollution is based on the implementation of the natural potential of some microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons. In this study Proteiniphilum acetatigenes was used for bioaugmentat...

  2. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Disi, Zulfa; Jaoua, Samir; Al-Thani, Dhabia; Al-Meer, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16) to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25) and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time. PMID:28243605

  3. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Al Disi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16 to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25 and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source

  6. Characterization of Bacterial Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential in the Red Sea Through Metagenomic and Cultivation Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Prokaryotes are the main actors in biogeochemical cycles that are fundamental in global nutrient cycling. The characterization of microbial communities and isolates can enhance the comprehension of such cycles. Potentially novel biochemical processes can be discovered in particular environments with unique characteristics. The Red Sea can be considered as a unique natural laboratory due to its peculiar hydrology and physical features including temperature, salinity and water circulation. Moreover the Red Sea is subjected to hydrocarbon pollution by both anthropogenic and natural sources that select hydrocarbon degrading prokaryotes. Due to its unique features the Red Sea has the potential to host uncharacterized novel microorganisms with hydrocarbondegrading pathways. The focus of this thesis is on the characterization at the metagenomic level of the water column of the Red Sea and on the isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading species and genomes adapted to the unique environmental characteristics of the basin. The presence of metabolic genes responsible of both linear and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation has been evaluated from a metagenomic survey and a meta-analysis of already available datasets. In parallel, water column-based microcosms have been established with crude oil as the sole carbon source, with aim to isolate potential novel bacterial species and provide new genome-based insights on the hydrocarbon degradation potential available in the Red Sea.

  7. An approach to rehabilitation objectives. Example of hydrocarbon polluted sites; Approche des objectifs de rehabilitation. Exemple des sites pollues par des hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B. [Union Francaise des Industries Petrolieres (UFIP), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The UFIP (French Petroleum Industry Association) studies concerning polluted sites and soils and their rehabilitation are presented: characterization of the admissible maximum fuel or gas oil content in the ground, the issue of time effects, and the risks it may induce for public health; study on the various pollutant impacts on the environment (underground waters, biotope...); approach to the development of a dynamical model describing these phenomena and their influence on man, in order to derive consistent and reasonable decontamination objectives

  8. An approach to rehabilitation objectives. Example of hydrocarbon polluted sites; Approche des objectifs de rehabilitation. Exemple des sites pollues par des hydrocarbures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B [Union Francaise des Industries Petrolieres (UFIP), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The UFIP (French Petroleum Industry Association) studies concerning polluted sites and soils and their rehabilitation are presented: characterization of the admissible maximum fuel or gas oil content in the ground, the issue of time effects, and the risks it may induce for public health; study on the various pollutant impacts on the environment (underground waters, biotope...); approach to the development of a dynamical model describing these phenomena and their influence on man, in order to derive consistent and reasonable decontamination objectives

  9. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg -1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm -1 . Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  10. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  11. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Reinforced microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from polluted soil samples using an in-needle coated fiber with polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Mina; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The surface of a stainless-steel wire was platinized using electrophoretic deposition method to create a high-surface-area with porous and cohesive substrate. The platinized fiber was coated by the polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite by electropolymerization and accommodated into a stainless-steel needle to fabricate an in-needle coated fiber. The developed setup was coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and applied to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) in complicated solid matrices, along with reinforcement of the extraction by cooling the sorbent, using liquid carbon dioxide. To obtain the best extraction efficiency, the important experimental variables including extraction temperature and time, temperature of cooled sorbent, sampling flow rate, and desorption condition were studied. Under the optimal condition, limits of detection for five studied analytes were in the range of 0.2-0.8 pg/g. Linear dynamic ranges for the calibration curves were found to be in the range of 0.001-1000 ng/g. Relative standard deviations obtained for six replicated analyses of 1 ng/g of analytes were 4.9-13.5%. The reinforced in-needle coated fiber method was successfully applied for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  14. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  15. Nanoparticle-organic pollutant interaction dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset presents concentrations of organic pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, in water samples. Water samples of known volume and concentration...

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Fernando J.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Borglin, Sharon; Brislawn, Colin J.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Carroll, Jolynn; Sjoling, Sara; Lozada , Mariana

    2018-01-02

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  17. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shing, R.; Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Georgieva, T.; Garte, S.; Taioli, E.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 83-92 ISSN 0027-5107 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000-00091; EU(GB) G0100873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * PAHs * oxidative DNA damage Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  19. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  20. A novel approach for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Scofield, Arthur de Lemos; Meniconi, Maria de Fatima Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    A novel multivariate method based on principal component analysis of pre-processed sections of chromatograms is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Five distinct sources of 3- to 6-ring PAHs could be revealed. The harbour is the most contaminated site in the bay, its plume stretches in a South West to North East direction and the chemical profile indicates mainly pyrogenic sources mixed with a fraction of high-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs. Rio Sao Joao de Meriti is the second largest source of PAHs, and introduces mainly a fraction of low-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs from the western region of Rio de Janeiro. The sites close to the ruptured pipeline at the Duque de Caxias Refinery show a distinctive pollution pattern indicating a heavy petroleum fraction. The method also led to the identification of new potential indicator ratios also involving coeluting peaks (e.g., triphenylene and chrysene). - A novel multivariate method is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil.

  1. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution after the tasman spirit oil spill of coastal/deep sea sediment along the clifton beach karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Ansari, F.A.; Siddiqi, H.A.; Zeeshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    An oil tanker,Tasman Spirit, carrying 67000 to nsc rude oil, got damaged near the Clifton Beach of Karachi, Pakistan and approx. 31,000 ton oil spilled into the sea. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in deep sea and surface sediment collected at 12 stations along the Clifton beach of Karachi, following the oil spill. Sampling was performed during 2003-2006, starting just after the accident of the oil tanker. Concentrations of PAHs (sigma 16 parent components) and aliphatics were in the range of 0.09-560 macro g/kg dw and 0.12-685 macro g/kg dw, respectively, since the date of accident and after bio remedial measures. The highest concentrations were found within the radius of 50 km around the site, the area most heavily impacted by the spill, whereas at the stations, away from the ship, the concentrations were in the lower range without alkylated compounds Addition of increasing amounts of ship fuel oil (taken from a Pakistani ship) to a representatives sediment samples showed that measurable concentration of the Tasman Spirit oil was > 1 g/kg of sediment The toxicity of selected samples of surface sediment from the coastal area near oil spill showed higher PAH concentrations the average number of dead fauna was 90-95% within 3 days of oil spill which gradually decreased with the time. (author)

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1 were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel. Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500. The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH; carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ; mutagenic equivalent (MEQ; and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ were much higher in the winter (heating season than in the summer (non-heating one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area.

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  6. Bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in coastal regions; Bioremediation des hydrocarbures en milieu cotier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyoneaud, R. [IBEAS, LEM - Lab. d' Ecologie Moleculaire - JE 159, 64 - Pau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coasts are exposed to chronic or accidental pollutions by hydrocarbons. The aim of this study is to show the importance of the microbial layers (stratified sedimentary systems) in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. (A.L.B.)

  7. Remobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter in seawater during sediment resuspension experiments from a polluted coastal environment: Insights from Toulon Bay (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Dang, Duc Huy; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Garnier, Cédric; Goutx, Madeleine

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter contents were measured in seawater during resuspension experiments using sediments collected from Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). The studied sediments were very highly contaminated in PAHs, especially in 4-ring compounds emitted from combustion processes. The sediments used for resuspension experiments were collected at 0-2 cm (diagenetically new organic matter, OM) and 30-32 cm depths (diagenetically transformed OM). They were both mostly composed of fine particles (seawater up to 10-, 1.3-, 4.4- and 5.7-fold, respectively. The remobilization in seawater was higher for 4-6 ring PAHs, especially benzo(g,h,i)perylene, whose concentration exceeded the threshold values of the European Water Framework Directive. This noted the potential harmful effects of sediment resuspension on marine biota. From these sediment resuspension experiments, we determined OC-normalized partition coefficients of PAHs between sediment and water (K oc ) and found that during such events, the transfer of PAHs from sediment particles to seawater was lower than that predicted from octanol-water partition coefficients (K ow ) (i.e., measured K oc  > K oc predicted from K ow ). The results confirmed the sequestration role of sedimentary OC quality and grain size on PAHs; the OM diagenetic state seemed to impact the partition process but in a relatively minor way. Furthermore, differences were observed between 2-4 ring and 5-6 ring PAHs, with the latter displaying a relatively higher mobility towards seawater. These differences may be explained by the distribution of these two PAH pools within different OM moieties, such as humic substances and black carbon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  9. Spatial variability in persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in beach-stranded pellets along the coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Satie; Colabuono, Fernanda I.; Dias, Patrick S.; Oliveira, Renato; Fisner, Mara; Turra, Alexander; Izar, Gabriel M.; Abessa, Denis M.S.; Saha, Mahua; Hosoda, Junki; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Lourenço, Rafael A.; Magalhães, Caio A.; Bícego, Márcia C.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2016-01-01

    High spatial variability in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs, and polybrominated diphenylethers was observed in plastic pellets collected randomly from 41 beaches (15 cities) in 2010 from the coast of state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The highest concentrations ranged, in ng g −1 , from 192 to 13,708, 3.41 to 7554 and < 0.11 to 840 for PAHs, PCBs and DDTs, respectively. Similar distribution pattern was presented, with lower concentrations on the relatively less urbanized and industrialized southern coast, and the highest values in the central portion of the coastline, which is affected by both waste disposal and large port and industrial complex. Additional samples were collected in this central area and PCB concentrations, in ng g − 1 , were much higher in 2012 (1569 to 10,504) than in 2009/2010 (173 to 309) and 2014 (411), which is likely related to leakages of the PCB commercial mixture. - Highlights: •Organic pollutant amounts adsorbed in plastic pellets showed high variability. •Contamination suggests the influence of local sources and their transport to other sites. •Temporal changes of PCB amount are related to leakages of the commercial mixture.

  10. Modulation of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing two to four rings: implications in biomonitoring aquatic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K

    2010-08-01

    Despite ubiquity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tropical environments, little information is available concerning responses of tropical fish to PAHs and associated toxicity. In the present study, effects of five PAHs containing two to four aromatic rings on hepatic CYP1A dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities in Nile tilapia, a potential fish species for biomonitoring pollution in tropical waters, were evaluated. Results showed that EROD activities were induced by the PAHs containing four aromatic rings (pyrene and chrysene) in a dose dependent manner. However PAHs with two to three aromatic rings (naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) caused no effect or inhibition of EROD activities depending on the dose and the duration. Fluoranthene was the most potent inhibitor. SDH results demonstrated that high doses of fluoranthene induced hepatic damage. GST activity was induced by the lowest dose of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and chrysene but high doses had no effect. The results indicate that induction of EROD enzyme in Nile tilapia is a useful biomarker of exposure to PAHs such as pyrene and chrysene. However EROD inhibiting PAHs such as fluoranthene in the natural environment may modulate the EROD inducing potential of other PAHs thereby influencing PAH exposure assessments.

  11. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  12. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  13. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  14. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  15. The use of cork waste as a biosorbent for persistent organic pollutants-Study of adsorption/desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, Maria À; Jové, Patrícia; Oliveras, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sorption-desorption behavior of a mixture of thirteen aqueous PAHs on cork waste at a particle of size 0.25-0.42 mm obtained from the remains of cork strips. The final purpose is to use this natural adsorbent as an alternative to activated carbon in an innovative approach for the removal of this class of toxic compounds, and significantly reduce the regeneration costs of the process. The chemical composition of the selected cork revealed that suberin (38.5 %) and lignin (31.6 %) were the main structural components of the cell wall. The high efficiency of cork as a biosorbent of PAHs is shown by the fact that just over 80 % of adsorption occurred during the first two minutes of contact time. Both Freundlich's and Langmuir's isotherms gave good fits to the sorption process. The highest adsorption affinities were exhibited for pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene. Desorption studies indicate a high degree of irreversibility for all PAHs, and especially so in the case of high molecular PAHs. The correlation with K(F) and low molecular weight PAHs was the most significant. The quantity of cork required to reduce water pollution was estimated to be between 3 and 15 times less than the quantities required in the case of other materials (i.e. aspen wood and leonardite). This study demonstrates for the first time that cork is a potential biosorbent for PAHs and may have relevance in the future treatment of PAH-contaminated waters.

  16. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  17. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  18. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  19. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  20. A review of case histories of induced seismicity caused by hydrocarbon production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo Fernández, L.; Fernández Naranjo, F.J.; Rodríguez Gómez, V.; López Gutiérrez, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we review the stress-strain relationships that take place in the crust during some of the main hydrocarbon production and storage processes: gas extraction; water injection in wells to stimulate the extraction of oil (EOR); unconventional hydrocarbon production by hydraulic fracturing (fracking); disposal of wastewater (saline water) from the extraction of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbons such as saline water return (flowback) of hydraulic fracturing, both with TDS higher than 40000 mg/L. In addition, the type of faults that are more likely to slip and the induced seismicity related to the production and extraction of hydrocarbons are analysed. [es

  1. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  2. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  3. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  4. Flow cytometry detection of planktonic cells with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sorbed to cell surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Cerezo, Maria I.; Linden, Matthew; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very important components of oil pollution. These pollutants tend to sorb to cell surfaces, exerting toxic effects on organisms. Our study developed a flow cytometric method for the detection of PAHs sorbed

  5. perspectives of bioremediation as a panacea for ecological pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    the area of contaminated land and water by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon has ... KEYWORDS: Bioremediation, environmental pollution, phytoremediation, rhizosphere, ..... Biotechnology and bioremediation: successes and.

  6. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  7. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  8. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  11. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  12. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Bioremediation of oil-based drill cuttings by a halophilic consortium isolated from oil-contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Somee, Maryam; Shavandi, Mahmoud; Dastgheib, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali

    2018-05-01

    Oil-based drill cuttings are hazardous wastes containing complex hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and brine. Their remediation is a crucial step before release to the environment. In this work, we enriched a halophilic consortium, from oil-polluted saline soil, which is capable of degrading diesel as the main pollutant of oil-based drill cuttings. The degradation ability of the consortium was evaluated in microcosms using two different diluting agents (fine sand and biologically active soil). During the bioremediation process, the bacterial community dynamics of the microcosms was surveyed using PCR amplification of a fragment of 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diesel degradation rates were monitored by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurement and the total count of heterotrophic and diesel-degrading bacteria. After 3 months, the microcosm containing fine sand and drill cuttings with the ratio of 1:1 (initial TPH of 36,000 mg/kg) showed the highest TPH removal (40%) and its dominant bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Dietzia, Arthrobacter , and Halomonas . DGGE results also confirmed the role of these genera in drill cuttings remediation. DGGE analysis of the bacterial diversity showed that Propionibacterium, Salinimicrobium, Marinobacter , and Dietzia are dominant in active soil microcosm; whereas Bacillus, Salinibacillus , and Marinobacter are abundant in sand microcosm. Our results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy would be more successful if the diluting agent does not contain a complex microbial community.

  15. Naphthalene degradation in seawater by UV irradiation: The effects of fluence rate, salinity, temperature and initial concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Zheng, Jisi; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The removal of naphthalene follows first order kinetics in seawater. • Irradiance and temperature are the most influential factors. • An increase in irradiance can linearly promote photodegradation. • High salinity suppresses the photodegradation of naphthalene. - Abstract: A large amount of oil pollution at sea is produced by the operational discharge of oily wastewater. The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from such sources using UV irradiation has become attractive, yet the photolysis mechanism in seawater has remained unclear. This study examines the photodegradation kinetics of naphthalene in natural seawater through a full factorial design of experiments (DOE). The effects of fluence rate, salinity, temperature and initial concentration are investigated. Results show that fluence rate, temperature and the interaction between temperature and initial concentration are the most influential factors. An increase in fluence rate can linearly promote the photodegradation process. Salinity increasingly impedes the removal of naphthalene because of the existence of free-radical scavengers and photon competitors. The results will help understand the photolysis mechanism of PAHs and develop more effective methods for treating oily seawater generated from offshore industries

  16. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  17. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-utilizing Bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    environmentally friendly technology clean-up of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted sites in the ... error is the main cause of water and soil pollution. ... can not be over emphasized. ... chemicals limited, Poole England. ... which included Grams staining, motility, methyl-red, ... addition of 500µl of fungal/bacterial DNA wash.

  19. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  20. Monitoring of pollution in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee I. Abdallah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs were analyzed in surface sediments collected from Suez till Hurgharda coasts to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated identification of anthropogenic activities, petrogenic and biogenic. AHs for all samples were dominated by unresolved complex mixture (UCM, and petrogenic mixed with biogenic sources. Results also revealed that sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from pyrolysis sources.

  1. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  2. Effects of Pollutants on Marine Life Probed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research activities conducted by scientists from the United State of America, Canada, and the United Kingdom to determine the long-term effects on natural marine ecosystems, especially plankton communities, of such pollutants as heavy metals, synthetic hydrocarbons, and petroleum hydrocarbons. (CC)

  3. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  4. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Pavitran; C.B. Jagtap; S. Bala Subramanian; Susan Titus; Pradeep Kumar; P.C. Deb

    2006-01-01

    Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-...

  5. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  6. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  7. Documentation of the ground along the Morava river - Slapanov segment of the Druzba oil pipeline and along the Slapanov - Nove Mesto segment of the petroleum product pipeline with respect to pollution with oil hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kult, L.; Sara, V.

    1993-12-01

    Oil leaks from the Druzba pipeline between the Morava river and the Nove Mesto or Moutnice towns were examined by aerial photographing and soil sampling. The intensity of pollution was found to lie below regulatory limits. Suspect sites with respect to their pollution by oil substances were entered into maps. (J.B.). 3 tabs., 27 figs

  8. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Overview and descriptive data from a molecular epidemiology study on populations exposed to moderate-to-low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the AULIS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.; Autrup, H.

    2001-01-01

    studies may serve as complementary tools providing a better understanding of the relative contribution of ambient atmospheric pollution to the overall genotoxic burden suffered by city dwellers. However, past efforts to apply biomarkers to studies of low levels exposure to urban air pollution have given......-based population studies to aid the assessment of the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution is reviewed by reference to the achievements and limitations of earlier reported studies. The design and methodology adopted in a recently completed large-scale population study, carried out......Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to high pollution levels is associated with increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, under conditions of moderate or low air pollution, epidemiologic evidence does not permit reliable conclusions. Biomarker-based population...

  9. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  10. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  11. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  12. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  13. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  14. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  15. influence of salinity and fungal prevalence on bioremediation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uduak Jimmy

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES VOL 10, NO.1 & 2, 2011: 23-28. COPYRIGHT© ... the soil samples examined showed that the total hydrocarbon (THC) co ntent increased with the oil pollution ... in oil producing and processing areas in Nigeria ... each and 5 metre apart from each other were selected ...

  16. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  17. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  18. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  19. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  20. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  1. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  2. The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

  3. On - road mobile source pollutant emissions : identifying hotspots and ranking roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A considerable amount of pollution to the air in the forms of hydrocarbons, carbon : monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and air toxics comes : from the on-road mobile sources. Estimation of the emissions of these pollutants...

  4. Ex-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Larsen, S.B.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are naturally occurring organic compounds. As a result of anthropogenic activities, PAH concentration has increased in the environment considerably. PAH are regarded as environmental pollutants because they have toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on l...

  5. Alkanes as Components of Soil Hydrocarbon Status: Behavior and Indication Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of soils on three key plots with different climatic conditions and technogenic impacts in Volgograd, Moscow, and Arkhangelsk oblasts have showed that alkanes in the soil exchange complex have some indication potential for the identification of soil processes. The following combinations of soil-forming factors and processes have been studied: (a) self-purification of soil after oil pollution; (b) accumulation of hydrocarbons coming from the atmosphere to soils of different land use patterns; and (c) changes in the soil hydrocarbon complex beyond the zone of technogenic impact due to the input of free hydrocarbon-containing gases. At the injection input of hydrocarbon pollutants, changes in the composition and proportions of alkanes allow tracing the degradation trend of pollutants in the soil from their initial content to the final stage of soil self-purification, when the background concentrations of hydrocarbons are reached. Upon atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons onto the soil, from the composition and mass distribution of alkanes, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of toxicants on biogeochemical processes in the soil, including their manifestation under different land uses. Composition analysis of soil alkanes in natural landscapes can reveal signs of hydrocarbon emanation fluxes in soils. The indication potentials of alkanes in combination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other components of soil hydrocarbon complex can also be used for the solution of other soil-geochemical problems.

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Predrag R.; Čalenić Aleksandar I.; Polomčić Dušan M.; Bajić Dragoljub I.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric bor...

  7. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  8. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  9. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  10. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  11. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Electrochemical masstransfer of oil hydrocarbons in dispersed soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrasova, M.A.; Zvolinsky, V.P.; Kanev, M.V. [Russian Friendship Peoples Univ., Dept. of Eecological Monitoring and Forecasting, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A large-scale pollution of the geological environment is a result of imperfect processes of mining, refining, haul of oil and irrational use of petroleum. The processes of masstransfer of hydrocarbons in dispersed soils and the problems of forming of a dual electric layer (DEL) on the demarcations 'water-oil' and 'mineral-water' are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, one of the most important problems in the field of the ecological geology is the analysis of ways of cleaning of soils from hydrocarbons. The kaolinitic clay from the Tirlianskoye deposit (K{sub 2}, st. Jabik, Bashkiria) and average polymineral loam (prlllkl, Moscow region, the south-east of town Zvenigorod) was chosen as the objects of the experimental study. The mixture of West Siberian oils was used for model pollution. The experimental laboratory researches of electrochemical migration of hydrocarbons were carried out on dispersiblis clayey soils. (orig.)

  14. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  15. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. AGRONOMIC OPTIMIZATION FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost method of using plants to degrade, volatilize or sequester organic and metal pollutants that has been used in efforts to remediate sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refinery wastes. Non-native plant species aggressivel...

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degradation potentials of bacteria isolated from spent lubricating oil contaminated soil. ... This study has shown that resident bacteria strains in lubricating oil contaminated soils have potential application in the bioremediation of oil polluted sites and enhance the possibility of developing models and strategies ...

  18. Interpreting residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Coon, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This report is the first publication in the field of environmental-contaminant effects on wildlife to tell the reader how to interpret the results of analytical chemical results. Specifically, the publication describes how to interpret residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in wildlife tissues. Pollutant oil residues in avian species are emphasized

  19. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in

  20. Growth of fungi on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: environmental technology perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The present study aimed the better understanding of the catabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. This knowledge can be used to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX pollutants. Fungi with the capacity of using toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated by enriching

  1. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobycco smoke and other parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, Jan; Stoikidou, M.; Kaila, S.; Gioka, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2001), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant - others:EU(XC) ENV4V-CT96-0203; EU(XC) IC20CT960063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomarkers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2001

  2. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  3. Natural attenuation of diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Antonio; Gallego, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A diesel fuel spill at a concentration of 1 L m -2 soil was simulated on a 12 m 2 plot of agricultural land, and natural attenuation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was monitored over a period of 400 days following the spill after which the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be below the legal contamination threshold for soil. The main fraction of these compounds (95%) remained at the surface layer (0-10 cm). Shortly after the spill (viz. between days 0 and 18), evaporation was the main origin of the dramatic decrease in pollutant concentrations in the soil. Thereafter, soil microorganisms used aliphatic hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy, as confirmed by the degradation ratios found. Soil quality indicators, soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity, regained their original levels about 200 days after the spill. - The effect of aliphatic hydrocarbons contamination on soil quality was monitored over a period of 400 days after a Diesel fuel spill

  4. Phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Patricia J; Campanella, Bruno F; Castro, Paula M L; Harms, Hans; Lichtfouse, Eric; Schäffner, Anton R; Smrcek, Stanislav; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies based on the combined action of plants and the microbial communities that they support within the rhizosphere hold promise in the remediation of land and waterways contaminated with hydrocarbons but they have not yet been adopted in large-scale remediation strategies. In this review plant and microbial degradative capacities, viewed as a continuum, have been dissected in order to identify where bottle-necks and limitations exist. Phenols, anilines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as the target classes of molecule for consideration, in part because of their common patterns of distribution, but also because of the urgent need to develop techniques to overcome their toxicity to human health. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the pollutant, the emerging picture suggests that plants will draw pollutants including PAHs into the plant rhizosphere to varying extents via the transpiration stream. Mycorrhizosphere-bacteria and -fungi may play a crucial role in establishing plants in degraded ecosystems. Within the rhizosphere, microbial degradative activities prevail in order to extract energy and carbon skeletons from the pollutants for microbial cell growth. There has been little systematic analysis of the changing dynamics of pollutant degradation within the rhizosphere; however, the importance of plants in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the rhizosphere via fine roots, and of the beneficial effect of microorganisms on plant root growth is stressed. In addition to their role in supporting rhizospheric degradative activities, plants may possess a limited capacity to transport some of the more mobile pollutants into roots and shoots via fine roots. In those situations where uptake does occur (i.e. only limited microbial activity in the rhizosphere) there is good evidence that the pollutant may be metabolised. However, plant uptake is frequently associated with the inhibition of plant growth and an

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  6. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics,

  7. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  8. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  9. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  10. Sanitation of overburden dumps containing organic pollutants. Soil pollution obstructs removal of overburden dumps at Ronneburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, R.; Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of mineral oil hydrocarbons is a common problem in soil sanitation, and classic methods are employed as a rule. In one case, radioactivity of the polluted rock material, a wide spectrum of pollutants and a high pollutant level necessitated adapted solutions. The task was tackled in a joint effort by builder-owners, authorities, sanitation experts and scientific experts in consideration of economic and ecological aspects [de

  11. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  12. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT) [de

  13. Microbial degradation of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in case of limited pollutant availability with nitrate as a potential electron acceptor; Der mikrobielle Abbau mono- und polyzyklischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe bei einer begrenzten Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit mit Nitrat als potentiellem Elektronenakzeptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, C.

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of using natural degradation processes for long-term remediation of tar oil contaminated sites was investigated. Field studies have shown that microbial decomposition of pollutants does take place in many sites but that it is limited by limited availability of pollutants and oxygen in soil. The investigations focused on the activation of BTEX and PAH degradation in situ by nitrate in the absence or in the presence of oxygen. Tensides should be used in order to enhance the availability of pollutants in water, especially in the case of hardly water-soluble PAH. A large-scale experiment was carried out on tar oil contaminated terrain; it was found that the availability of oxygen and not of PAH is the limiting factor so that adding of surfactants will not improve pollutant degradation. In contrast, the adding of tensides would mean even higher concentrations of oxygen-depleting substances in soil. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden im Hinblick auf langfristige Sanierungsstrategien fuer teeroelkontaminierte Standorte Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung natuerlicher Abbauvorgaenge untersucht. Zahlreiche Feldstudien belegen, dass ein mikrobieller Schadstoffabbau an vielen Standorten stattfindet, dieser jedoch sowohl durch eine begrenzte Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit als auch durch den im Untergrund nur begrenzt zur Verfuegung stehenden Sauerstoff limitiert wird. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es abzuklaeren, inwiefern ein BTEX- und PAK-Abbau in situ auch in Abwesenheit von Sauerstoff durch Nitrat allein oder durch Nitrat in Kombination mit Sauerstoff aktiviert werden kann. Um insbesondere fuer die schlecht wasserloeslichen PAK eine ausreichende Schadstoffverfuegbarkeit zu gewaehrleisten, sollten auch Tenside zur Erhoehung der im Wasser vorliegenden Schadstoffmenge eingesetzt werden. Aufbauend auf die Laboruntersuchungen wurde im Rahmen von VEGAS{sup ix} ein Grossversuch zum mikrobiellen PAK-Abbau im Abstrom einer simulierten Teeroelkontamination durchgefuehrt

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, and epigenetic remodeling in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, E. C.; Hew, K. M.; Nygaard, U. C.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental determinants including aerosolized pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco smoke have been associated with exacerbation and increased incidence of asthma. The influence of aerosolized pollutants on the development of immune dysfunction in asthmatics has been suggested to be mediated through epigenetic remodeling. Genome accessibility and transcription are regulated primarily through DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA transcript silencing. Epigenetic remodeling has been shown in studies to be associated with Th2 polarization and associated cytokine and chemokine regulation in the development of asthma. This review will present evidence for the contribution of the aerosolized pollutants PAH and environmental tobacco smoke to epigenetic remodeling in asthma. PMID:24760221

  15. Isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading euryhaline consortia from crude oil and mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedad Díaz, M; Grigson, S J; Peppiatt, C J; Burgess, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater (35 g/L NaCl) and synthetic media containing 0 to 100 g/L NaCl (1.7 M). Salinities over twice that of normal seawater decreased the biodegradation rates. However, even at the highest salinity biodegradation was significant. Ratios of nC17 to pristane and nC18 to phytane were significantly lowered across the range of salinity. The lowest values were at 0 and 20 g/L (0.34 M). Phytane was degraded in preference to pristane. The degradation of these compounds was constant over the salinity range, with evidence of a slight increase for consortium MPD-M with increasing salinity. In general, the consortium isolated from mangrove root sediments was more efficient in metabolizing North Sea crude oil than the consortium isolated from Cormorant crude oil. The 5 strains that comprise MPD-M have been tentatively identified as species of the genera Marinobacter, Bacillus, and Erwinia. This is the first report of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia isolated from crude oil and mangrove sediments that are capable of treating oily wastes over such a wide range of salinity.

  16. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  17. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  18. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  1. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  2. Oil pollution identification and dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muet, B.; L'Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P.

    2005-01-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  3. Oil pollution identification and dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muet, B.; L' Ecluse, J.; Jaegher de, P. [Gallia Sana, 59 - Lille (France)

    2005-07-01

    GALLIA SANA is an environmental engineering office, specialized (among other things) in soil pollution. Currently confronted with specific questions about responsibilities of current and former owners, we seek and develop decisional tools regarding pollution origins. This article is about an expertise on a soil polluted by hydrocarbons. It explains strategy, tools and methods Gallia Sana used to identify the nature, the source and the age of the pollution. The source is identified by the nature of the pollution. With chromatographic analysis, it is possible to see differences between heating fuel, motor oil and other compounds distilled from petroleum and so to see where hydrocarbons come from. The relative age determination (one pollution is older than the other) allows experts to determine the way hydrocarbons have migrated through the soil: due to one isolated accident or to a continuous flow. This difference may be important in the case of fuel tanks for insurance reasons. The pollutants studied here are motor oil and heating fuel (the method is also applicable on other hydrocarbons). This article is not exhaustive, only some of the results are shown. The polluted soil is in a garden between two houses, near a garage and an underground fuel tank, so Gallia Sana considered three hypotheses according to the configuration of the zone: heating fuel, motor oil, heating fuel and motor oil mixed. Motor oil and heating fuel are both produced from petroleum distillation. Their chromatographic profiles are comparable as far as their form (like a Gaussian) is concerned, but their elution time is different: the heating fuel analysis is quicker than the motor oil one. Every distillation is different so every oil or every fuel from a different distillation is different. Some compounds can be used as tracers to compare hydrocarbons of the same nature, their composition in non-linear alkanes and PAH being slightly different. The Nordtest Method CHEM 001 can be used to compare

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by marine-derived basidiomycetes: optimization of the degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gabriela A L; Magrini, Mariana Juventina; Bonugli-Santos, Rafaella C; Rodrigues, Marili V N; Sette, Lara D

    2018-05-03

    Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08mgmL -1 ) after 48h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  8. Hydrocarbons (aliphatic and aromatic) in the snow-ice cover in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.; Kluvitkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented the concentration and composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice-infested waters in the France-Victoria trough in the northern Barents Sea and in the Mendeleev ridge in the Amerasian basin of the Arctic Ocean. Extreme conditions such as low temperatures, ice sheets and the polar nights render the arctic environment susceptible to oil spills. Hydrocarbons found in these northern seas experience significant transformations. In order to determine the sources, pathways and transformations of the pollutants, it is necessary to know their origin. Hydrocarbon distributions is determined mostly by natural hydrobiological and geochemical conditions. The regularity of migration is determined by natural factors such as formation and circulation of air and ice drift. There is evidence suggesting that the hydrocarbons come from pyrogenic sources. It was noted that hydrocarbons could be degraded even at low temperatures. 17 refs., 1 tab

  9. Measurement error potential and control when quantifying volatile hydrocarbon concentrations in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Due to their widespread use throughout commerce and industry, volatile hydrocarbons such as toluene, trichloroethene, and 1, 1,1-trichloroethane routinely appears as principal pollutants in contamination of soil system hydrocarbons is necessary to confirm the presence of contamination and its nature and extent; to assess site risks and the need for cleanup; to evaluate remedial technologies; and to verify the performance of a selected alternative. Decisions regarding these issues have far-reaching impacts and, ideally, should be based on accurate measurements of soil hydrocarbon concentrations. Unfortunately, quantification of volatile hydrocarbons in soils is extremely difficult and there is normally little understanding of the accuracy and precision of these measurements. Rather, the assumptions often implicitly made that the hydrocarbon data are sufficiently accurate for the intended purpose. This appear presents a discussion of measurement error potential when quantifying volatile hydrocarbons in soils, and outlines some methods for understanding the managing these errors

  10. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial ...

  11. Death signals by environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Life and death are directly involved in the normal development of all multicellular organisms. Defects in the regulation of the mechanism of programmed cell death (apoptosis) contribute to many diseases as well as in the toxic effects of xenobiotics. Here it is described which elements of the apoptotic machinery are possible targets of hydrocarbons and metal compounds, prominent environmental pollutants. Moreover, it is shown that cytotoxic rather than cytostatic therapies might be most effective in treatment of cancer. (orig.)

  12. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  13. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  14. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  15. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Grantham, Theodore E.; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm −1 ) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm −1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm −1 . ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  16. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Desilva, C.; Badesab, S.

    anthropogenic activities is absorbed by marine organisms because of its low degradability and persistence (Vandermeulen et al., 1985). The manifestation of petroleum hydrocarbon in sea food is a serious human health hazard and needs to be studied in detail... of common pollutants causing marine pollution on the Indian coast is worked out to demonstrate whether the concentrations of these pollutants can pose problem of health hazards to common man in the coastal areas. Such information becomes handy in future...

  17. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  18. Seasonal pattern of anthropogenic salinization in temperate forested headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Anthony J; Zipper, Carl E; Soucek, David J; Schoenholtz, Stephen H

    2018-04-15

    Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation. Effective management of salinization requires tools to accurately monitor and predict salinity while accounting for temporal variability. Toward that end, high-frequency SC data were collected within the central Appalachian coalfield over 4 years at 25 forested headwater streams spanning a gradient of salinity. A sinusoidal periodic function was used to model the annual cycle of SC, averaged across years and streams. The resultant model revealed that, on average, salinity deviated approximately ±20% from annual mean levels across all years and streams, with minimum SC occurring in late winter and peak SC occurring in late summer. The pattern was evident in headwater streams influenced by surface coal mining, unmined headwater reference streams with low salinity, and larger-order salinized rivers draining the study area. The pattern was strongly responsive to varying seasonal dilution as driven by catchment evapotranspiration, an effect that was amplified slightly in unmined catchments with greater relative forest cover. Evaluation of alternative sampling intervals indicated that discrete sampling can approximate the model performance afforded by high-frequency data but model error increases rapidly as discrete sampling intervals exceed 30 days. This study demonstrates that intra-annual variation of salinity in temperate forested headwater streams of Appalachia USA follows a natural seasonal

  19. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  20. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  1. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  2. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  3. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  4. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of the carcinogenic, toxic and genotoxic activities of the air pollutants SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/, separately and in combination with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, W J; Klein, R G; Pool, B L; Schmezer, P; Horsch, F; Filby, W G; Fund, N; Gross, S; Hanisch, B; Kilz, E; Seidel, A [comps.

    1988-04-01

    In the course of our studies directed at elucidating biological effects of the air pollutants SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ it was found, that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is inhibited by SO/sub 2/. This effect was observed in vitro and in vivo and is based on a sulfite- and not on a sulfate-mediated action. NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ reduce DNA single strand breaks induced by B(a)P in fetal hamster lung cells in vitro and SO/sub 2/ reduces DNA single strand breaks induced by AMMN in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. The postulated mechanisms of action are discussed. Sulfite itself induces DNA-amplification in SV40 transformed CO60 cells; but an increase in the amplification rate induced by B(a)P or 7,12-DMBA was not observed. The in vitro genotoxicity (DNA single strand breaks) of 3 nitrosamines (AMMN, NDMA, NMBzA) is reduced in rat hepatocytes from donor animals pretreated with 50 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2 weeks. Inhalation of NO/sub x/ by rats reduced the activities of AHH, NDMA-D and GST in hepatocytes and of GST in lung cells. Following SO/sub 2/ inhalation NDMA-D activity in the liver is increased and GST activity in the lung is decreased. In a current in vivo long-term inhalation study of NDMA+-SO/sub 2/ or NO/sub x/ first tumors of the nasal cavity are already observed after a total dose of 2 mg NDMA/animal.

  6. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  7. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  8. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area.

  13. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  14. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  15. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  16. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  18. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  19. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  20. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  1. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  2. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorpe, F.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  3. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  4. Microbial processes in coastal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.G.; Bauer, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors describe the nature and range of some of the interactions that can occur between the microbiota and environmental contaminants in coastal areas. The implications of such interactions are also discussed. Pollutant types include inorganic nutrients, heavy metals, bulk organics, organic contaminants, pathogenic microorganisms and microbial pollutants. Both the effects of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons on natural microbial populations and the mitigation of contaminant effects by complexation and biodegradation are considered. Finally, several areas of emerging concerns are presented that involve a confluence of biogeochemistry, microbial ecology and applied and public health microbiology. These concerns range in relevance from local/regional to oceanic/global scales. 308 ref

  5. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  6. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Lüchmann, Karim Hahn; Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L"−"1 PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at salinity

  7. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacchi, Flávia Lucena; Lima, Daína; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício de [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Mattos, Jacó Joaquim [Aquaculture Pathology Research Center – NEPAQ, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Lüchmann, Karim Hahn [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology – LBBM, Fishery Engineering Department, Santa Catarina State University, Laguna (Brazil); Araújo de Miranda Gomes, Carlos Henrique [Laboratory of Marine Mollusks – LMM, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou [Laboratory of Marine Organic Chemistry – LABQOM, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso, E-mail: afonso.bainy@ufsc.br [Laboratory of Biomarkers of Aquatic Contamination and Immunochemistry − LABCAI, Federal University Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Salinity effect on Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene. • Higher transcription of biotransformation genes under hyposmotic condition. • Elevated transcription of oxidative stress-related genes under hyposmotic condition. • Amino acid metabolism-related genes changes according to salinity. • Phenanthrene does not affect amino acid metabolism-related genes. - Abstract: Euryhaline animals from estuaries, such as the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana, show physiological mechanisms of adaptation to tolerate salinity changes. These ecosystems receive constant input of xenobiotics from urban areas, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (PHE). In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. brasiliana exposed to PHE, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (35, 25 and 10) for 15 days and then exposed to 100 μg L{sup −1} PHE for 24 h and 96 h. Control groups were kept at the same salinities without PHE. Oysters were sampled for chemical analysis and the gills were excised for mRNA quantification by qPCR. Transcript levels of different genes were measured, including some involved in oxidative stress pathways, phases I and II of the xenobiotic biotransformation systems, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator putative gene. Higher transcript levels of Sulfotransferase-like gene (SULT-like) were observed in oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control (24 h and 96 h); cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP2-like1) were more elevated in oysters exposed for 24 h and CYP2-like2 after 96 h of oysters exposed to PHE at salinity 10 compared to control. These results are probably associated to an enhanced Phase I biotransformation activity required for PHE detoxification under hyposmotic stress. Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96 h) and GSTΩ-like (24 h) in oysters kept at

  8. Air pollution hazards in brick kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, M; Srivastava, R S; Minocha, A K; Gupta, R G [Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee (India)

    1994-02-01

    Three types of brick kiln - Bull's trench kiln of movable chimney type, Bull's trench kiln of fixed chimney type, and high draught kiln of normal capacity (25,000-30,000 bricks/day) fed manually with slack coal and other local fuels - were investigated for stack emissions. Dust and hydrocarbons were identified as chief pollutants. Particle size analysis of dust emitted from movable chimney kiln and its impact on ambient air quality were also studied. Based on these studies, recommendations have been drawn on their comparative pollution hazard and need for optimization of operational parameters to improve their thermal performance and reduce pollution emission. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Study of remobilization polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkessam, L.; Vessigaud, S.; Laboudigue, A.; Vessigaud, S.; Perrin-Ganier, C.; Schiavon, M.; Denys, S.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from many pyrolysis processes. They are widespread environmental pollutants because some of them present toxic and genotoxic properties. In coal pyrolysis sites such as former manufactured gas plants and coke production plants, coal tar is a major source of PAHs. The management of such sites requires better understanding of the mechanisms that control release of PAHs to the biosphere. Determining total PAH concentrations is not sufficient since it does not inform about the pollutants availability to environmental processes. The fate and transport of PAHs in soil are governed by sorption and microbial processes which are well documented. Globally, enhancing retention of the compounds by a solid matrix reduces the risk of pollutant dispersion, but decreases their accessibility to microbial microflora. Conversely, the remobilization of organics from contaminated solid matrices represents a potential hazard since these pollutants can reach groundwater resources. However the available data are often obtained from laboratory experiments in which many field parameters can not be taken into account (long term, temperature, co-pollution, ageing phenomenon, heterogenous distribution of pollution). The present work focuses on the influence assessment and understanding of some of these parameters on PAHs remobilization from heavily polluted matrices in near-field conditions (industrial contaminated matrices, high contact time, ..). Results concerning effects of temperature and physical state of pollution (dispersed among the soil or condensed in small clusters or in coal tar) are presented. (authors)

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor overexpression in miniaturized follicles in female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Martins, Ana Carolina Pereira; Silva, Márcia Guimarães da; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is still poorly understood. In addition to genetic and hormonal elements, environmental factors could be involved. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is expressed in keratinocytes and can be activated by environmental pollutants leading to alterations in the cell cycle, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here we demonstrate the overexpression of nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptors in miniaturized hair follicles in female pattern hair loss.

  11. Exploration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria on Soils Contaminated by Crude Oil From South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon, A; Probowati, D S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3) sites of contaminated soil and treated using SB...

  12. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  13. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  14. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  15. Assessment of the advanced oxidation process , photo-fenton, on the degradation of polyaromatics hydrocarbons contained on the aqueous part of oil in superficial sea water; Avaliacao do processo oxidativo avancado, foto-fenton, na degradacao dos hidrocarbonetos poliaromaticos contidos na fracao soluvel do petroleo em agua superficial salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita C.R. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Paim, Ana Paula Silveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rocha, Otidene R.S. da; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pollution for oil has been one of the main ambient problems of the last decades. It exists an increasing interest in the study of the destination and forms of disappearance of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil aiming at the development of more efficient methods of removal of the same ones of the environment. With objective to evaluate the process photo-fenton, in the treatment of the contaminated saline superficial water with polyaromatics hydrocarbons (HPAs) contained in the crude oil, mounted an experiment using reactor of black light, the hydrogen peroxide as oxidant agent. After the degradation the samples had been submitted to the analysis in the GC-MS, and for the 31 specters it was observed that the best ones resulted had been gotten when mmol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 8 was used h of exposition to the irradiation and with pH of the equal system the 4. In the specter of this assay the characteristic peaks of the HPAs disappear completely or appear in a lowly intensities, proving that it had rupture of aromatical rings consequently and the degradation of the same ones or that its concentrations meet below of the limit of detention of the equipment. Soon, with the gotten results it can be concluded that the POAs, in special the process photo-fenton, is presented as a viable alternative in the contaminated saline superficial water treatment with the HPAs contained in the rude oil. (author)

  16. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  17. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  18. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  19. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Benjamin L., E-mail: bmcalexander@trihydro.com

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  20. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  1. Exploratory Hydrocarbon Drilling Impacts to Arctic Lake Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Joshua R.; Kokelj, Steven V.; Korosi, Jennifer B.; Cheng, Elisa S.; Desjardins, Cyndy; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.; Pisaric, Michael FJ.; Smol, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent attention regarding the impacts of oil and gas development and exploitation has focused on the unintentional release of hydrocarbons into the environment, whilst the potential negative effects of other possible avenues of environmental contamination are less well documented. In the hydrocarbon-rich and ecologically sensitive Mackenzie Delta region (NT, Canada), saline wastes associated with hydrocarbon exploration have typically been disposed of in drilling sumps (i.e., large pits excavated into the permafrost) that were believed to be a permanent containment solution. However, failure of permafrost as a waste containment medium may cause impacts to lakes in this sensitive environment. Here, we examine the effects of degrading drilling sumps on water quality by combining paleolimnological approaches with the analysis of an extensive present-day water chemistry dataset. This dataset includes lakes believed to have been impacted by saline drilling fluids leaching from drilling sumps, lakes with no visible disturbances, and lakes impacted by significant, naturally occurring permafrost thaw in the form of retrogressive thaw slumps. We show that lakes impacted by compromised drilling sumps have significantly elevated lakewater conductivity levels compared to control sites. Chloride levels are particularly elevated in sump-impacted lakes relative to all other lakes included in the survey. Paleolimnological analyses showed that invertebrate assemblages appear to have responded to the leaching of drilling wastes by a discernible increase in a taxon known to be tolerant of elevated conductivity coincident with the timing of sump construction. This suggests construction and abandonment techniques at, or soon after, sump establishment may result in impacts to downstream aquatic ecosystems. With hydrocarbon development in the north predicted to expand in the coming decades, the use of sumps must be examined in light of the threat of accelerated permafrost thaw, and the

  2. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  3. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  4. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the immune system of fish: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Deschaux, P.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. This review summarizes the diverse literature on the effects of these pollutants on innate and acquired immunity in fish and the mechanism of PAH-induced immunotoxicity. Among innate immune parameters, many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Macrophage respiratory burst appears especially sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Among acquired immune parameters, lymphocyte proliferation appears highly sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. However, the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on both specific and non-specific immunity are contradictory and depend on the mode of exposure, the dose used or the species studied. In contrast to mammals, fewer studies have been done in fish to determine the mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced toxicity. This phenomenon seems to implicate different intracellular mechanisms such as metabolism by cytochrome P4501A, binding to the Ah-receptor, or increased intracellular calcium. Advances in basic knowledge of fish immunity should lead to improvements in monitoring fish health and predicting the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish populations, which is a fundamental ecotoxicological goal

  5. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the immune system of fish: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine. UMR CNRS 5553. Universite Joseph Fourier. BP 53. 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France) and Laboratory of General and Comparative Immunophysiology, Science Teaching and Research Unit, 123, av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)]. E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr; Deschaux, P. [Laboratory of General and Comparative Immunophysiology, Science Teaching and Research Unit, 123, av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. This review summarizes the diverse literature on the effects of these pollutants on innate and acquired immunity in fish and the mechanism of PAH-induced immunotoxicity. Among innate immune parameters, many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Macrophage respiratory burst appears especially sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Among acquired immune parameters, lymphocyte proliferation appears highly sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. However, the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on both specific and non-specific immunity are contradictory and depend on the mode of exposure, the dose used or the species studied. In contrast to mammals, fewer studies have been done in fish to determine the mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced toxicity. This phenomenon seems to implicate different intracellular mechanisms such as metabolism by cytochrome P4501A, binding to the Ah-receptor, or increased intracellular calcium. Advances in basic knowledge of fish immunity should lead to improvements in monitoring fish health and predicting the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish populations, which is a fundamental ecotoxicological goal.

  6. Diatom, cyanobacterial and microbial mats as indicators of hydrocarbon contaminated Arctic streams and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.; Adeney, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nelson, J.A. [J.B. Services, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Murdock, E. [Nunavut Power, Iqaluit (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An environmental assessment conducted at Repulse Bay, Nunavut in the summer of 2001 revealed a recent diesel spill flowing from the groundwater into a creek. The spill had not been reported. When Arctic surface waters mix with hydrocarbon impacted groundwater and sediments, distinctive mats of diatom, cyanobacteria and other bacteria are formed. These mats have the potential for phytoremediation of hydrocarbons. This paper explained the apparent dominance of mats in contaminated Arctic waters and why they promote biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater are generally anaerobic. The higher dissolved carbon dioxide in polluted soils and groundwater can benefit photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatom found in oligotrophic, lower alkalinity Arctic waters. The anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can potentially take advantage of the hydrogen substrate and the nitrogen fixing abilities of the cyanobacteria. Zooplankton predators may be killed off by the toxicity of the polluted groundwater. The paper provides examples where a microbial mat reduced the sulfate content of a hydrocarbon-impacted Arctic stream by 100 ppm, and where a pond covered in a benthic microbial mat showed no evidence of hydrocarbons in the water overlying sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons at concentrations measured at 30,000 ppm. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Air-dust-borne associations of phototrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms: promising consortia in volatile hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms active in hydrocarbon bioremediation have been described earlier. The question arises: do similar consortia also occur in the atmosphere? Dust samples at the height of 15 m were collected from Kuwait City air, and analyzed microbiologically for phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, which were subsequently characterized according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The hydrocarbon utilization potential of the heterotrophs alone, and in association with the phototrophic partners, was measured quantitatively. The chlorophyte Gloeotila sp. and the two cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and Leptolyngbya thermalis were found associated with dust, and (for comparison) the cynobacteria Leptolyngbya sp. and Acaryochloris sp. were isolated from coastal water. All phototrophic cultures harbored oil vapor-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) g(-1). Each phototrophic culture had its unique oil-utilizing bacteria; however, the bacterial composition in Leptolyngbya cultures from air and water was similar. The hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were affiliated with Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas caviae, Alcanivorax jadensis, Bacillus asahii, Bacillus pumilus, Marinobacter aquaeolei, Paenibacillus sp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nonaxenic cultures, when used as inocula in batch cultures, attenuated crude oil in light and dark, and in the presence of antibiotics and absence of nitrogenous compounds. Aqueous and diethyl ether extracts from the phototrophic cultures enhanced the growth of the pertinent oil-utilizing bacteria in batch cultures, with oil vapor as a sole carbon source. It was concluded that the airborne microbial associations may be effective in bioremediating atmospheric hydrocarbon pollutants in situ. Like the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, the atmosphere contains dust-borne associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon

  8. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  9. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  11. Influence of water pollution on the growth and pigment concentration of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel, Elena V; Markina, Zhanna V; Aizdaicher, Nina A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the work was to study the influence of the water taken from one of the most polluted parts of the Peter the Great Bay (the Japan Sea), the Nakhodka Bay, on the growth and chlorophyll a concentration in the cells of microalga P. tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta). The estimation of the dynamics of cell number growth and chlorophyll a concentration in the cells of microalga grown in the water from the Nakhodka Bay was made. At the same time, in 2007-2008, the main hydrochemical parameters, such as water salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, BOD(5), organic and mineral phosphates concentration, anionic surfactants, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were determined. It is shown that in July 2007, when most hydrochemical parameters were lower than the maximum permissible level, the culture growth and chlorophyll a contents in the cells did not differ from the control for certain. In other seasons these indices differed greatly from the control. The positive correlation between the concentration of dissolved oxygen, phosphates, petroleum hydrocarbons, and the number of microalga cells, grown in the water from the Nakhodka Bay, was shown.

  12. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  14. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  15. Exposure to hydrocarbon concentrations while commuting or exercising in Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Gill, L W; McKevitt, R J; Broderick, B

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, several studies have monitored the air pollution due to traffic in both urban and rural environments. However, few studies have attempted to quantify the relative exposure to traffic derived HC pollutants between different modes of commuter transport. In this study, the difference in pollution exposure between bus and cycling commuters on a route in Dublin was compared by sampling for five vehicle related hydrocarbons: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetylene, ethane and ethylene. Samples were collected during both morning and afternoon rush hour periods using a fixed speed pump to gain representative concentrations across the whole journey. Journey times were also measured, as were typical breathing rates in order to calculate the overall dose of pollutant inhaled on the journey. Results clearly picked up significantly higher pollutant concentrations in the bus compared to cycling and also revealed elevated concentrations on the congested side of the road compared to the side moving against the traffic. However, when respiration rates and travel times were taken into account to reveal the mass of pollutants inhaled over the course of a journey, the pattern was reversed, showing slightly enhanced levels of hydrocarbons for the cyclist compared to the bus passenger. In addition, the concentrations of these compounds (excluding ethane), were ascertained at playing pitches in the vicinity of a heavily trafficked suburban motorway and in Dublin city centre. Although the concentrations were relatively low at all sites, when breathing rates were taken into consideration, the average inhaled weights of pollutants were, on occasion, higher than those average values observed for both bus and bicycle commuters.

  16. Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons derived from terrestrial and anthropogenic sources in the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was made in Suisun Bay, California, of the distributions of hydrocarbons in estuarine bed and suspended sediments and in the recently introduced asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Sediments and clams were contaminated with hydrocarbons derived from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Distributions of alkanes and of hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments and clams were similar, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons associated with sediments are bioavailable to Potamocorbula amurensis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and clams were derived mainly from combustion sources. Potamocorbula amurensis is therefore a useful bioindicator of hydrocarbon contamination, and may be used as a biomonitor of hydrocarbon pollution in San Francisco Bay.

  17. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  18. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  19. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  20. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  1. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtfouse, E.

    1997-01-01

    -fed by the plant, degrade organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (O.M.)

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:26339653

  6. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air

  7. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor ai...

  8. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: Identification of natural and anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchán, D., E-mail: d.merchan@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); Auqué, L.F.; Acero, P.; Gimeno, M.J. [University of Zaragoza — Department of Earth Sciences (Geochemical Modelling Group), C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Causapé, J. [Geological Survey of Spain — IGME, C/Manuel Lasala 44 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. - Highlights: • Salinization in Lerma Basin was controlled by the dissolution of soluble salts. • Water salinization and nitrate pollution were found to be independent processes. • High NO{sub 3}, fresh groundwater evolved to lower NO{sub 3}, higher salinity surface water. • Inverse and direct geochemical modeling confirmed the hypotheses. • Salinization was a natural ongoing process

  9. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  10. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  11. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  12. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  13. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  14. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  15. A meta-analysis of soil salinization effects on nitrogen pools, cycles and fluxes in coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Salinity intrusion caused by land subsidence resulting from increasing groundwater abstraction, decreasing river sediment loads and increasing sea level because of climate change has caused widespread soil salinization in coastal ecosystems. Soil salinization may greatly alter nitrogen (N) cycling in coastal ecosystems. However, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of soil salinization on ecosystem N pools, cycling processes and fluxes is not available for coastal ecosystems. Therefore, we compiled data from 551 observations from 21 peer-reviewed papers and conducted a meta-analysis of experimental soil salinization effects on 19 variables related to N pools, cycling processes and fluxes in coastal ecosystems. Our results showed that the effects of soil salinization varied across different ecosystem types and salinity levels. Soil salinization increased plant N content (18%), soil NH 4 + (12%) and soil total N (210%), although it decreased soil NO 3 - (2%) and soil microbial biomass N (74%). Increasing soil salinity stimulated soil N 2 O fluxes as well as hydrological NH 4 + and NO 2 - fluxes more than threefold, although it decreased the hydrological dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux (59%). Soil salinization also increased the net N mineralization by 70%, although salinization effects were not observed on the net nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in this meta-analysis. Overall, this meta-analysis improves our understanding of the responses of ecosystem N cycling to soil salinization, identifies knowledge gaps and highlights the urgent need for studies on the effects of soil salinization on coastal agro-ecosystem and microbial N immobilization. Additional increases in knowledge are critical for designing sustainable adaptation measures to the predicted intrusion of salinity intrusion so that the productivity of coastal agro-ecosystems can be maintained or improved and the N losses and pollution of the natural

  16. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  17. Management of the solid waste in perforation projects exploratory hydrocarbons; Manejo de los residuos solidos en proyectos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J.P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes de considerations for solid waste management in hydrocarbons exploration projects, as the serious environmental affectation as a function of soil contamination by leachate form the temporary storage of contaminated industrial waste hydrocarbons, altered by the presence of deposits landscaping waste materials, pollution of water and vegetation and the production of odors.

  18. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydorcarbons in slurried and consolidated sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Gool, van M.P.M.; Mentink, G.H.; Joziasse, J.; Bruning, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ripening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) polluted dredged sediment can be considered as a bioremediation technique. Aerobic biodegradation of PAH and TPH was studied in five previously anaerobic-slurried sediments during a 350-d laboratory incubation

  19. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  20. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  1. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  2. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  3. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  4. Landfill leachate as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Malaysian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Geik, Kho Hiaw; Lee, Wong Yoon; Hayet, Razahidi

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemicals of environmental concern are those with known or potentially deleterious effects on natural resources and humans. These compounds are referred to as micro-organic pollutants. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most important classes of anthropogenic micro-organic pollutants that have long been the interest of environmental chemists. This concern arises primarily from the fact that a small fraction of the PAHs generated and released to environment has been ...

  5. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  6. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  7. Natural hydrocarbon seeps observation with underwater gliders and UV fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, V.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons may leak to the near-surface from subsurface accumulations, from mature source rock, or by buoyancy along major cross-strata routes. The presence of migrating near-surface hydrocarbons can provide strong evidence for the presence of a working petroleum system, as well as valuable information on source, maturity, and migration pathways. Detection and characterization of hydrocarbons in the water column may then help to de-risk hydrocarbon plays at a very preliminary stage of an exploration program. In order to detect hydrocarbons in the water column, an underwater glider survey was conducted in an offshore frontier area. Driven by buoyancy variation, underwater gliders enable collecting data autonomously along the water column for weeks to months. Underwater gliders are regularly piloted from shore by satellite telemetry and do not require a surface supervising vessel resulting in substantial operational costs savings. The data compiled, over 700m depth of the water column, included temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and hydrocarbon components (phenanthrene and naphthalene) measured by "MINIFLUO" sensors to particularly target representative crude oil compounds Two gliders were deployed at sea, one from coast in shallow water and the other one offshore on the survey area. Both accurately squared the survey area following pre-defined lines and cross lines. Data files were transmitted by satellite telemetry in near real time during the performance of the mission for real time observations and appropriate re-positioning of the gliders. Using rechargeable underwater gliders increased reliability reducing the risk of leakage and associated logistics during operation at sea. Despite strong evidences of seabed seepages such as pockmarks, faults, etc, over the area of interest, no hydrocarbon indices were detected in the water column, which was confirmed later by seabed sample analysis. The use of glider platforms for hydrocarbon detection has

  8. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  10. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  11. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  13. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  16. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  17. Ecosystem Services and Community-Based Approaches to Wastewater and Saline Soils Reclamation in the Drylands of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderich, Kristina; Khujanazarov, Timur; Aralova, Dildora; Shuyskaya, Elena; Gismatulina, Liliya; Boboev, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    The working hypothesis of this article support an indication of declining water quality, increasing soils salinity and higher production costs in the Bukhara oasis- a borderline lands between the sandy Kyzylkum Desert and irrigated zone in the lower stream of Zarafshan River Basin. The pollution of waters and soils with toxic metals is the major environmental problem in these agro-ecological zones. Conventional remediation approaches usually do not ensure adequate results. The mobility of toxic pollutants can be highly facilitated by the chemical properties of soils and the aridity of the climate. The impact of these factors of land degradation induces reduction in biodiversity and yields losses of agricultural crops and wild desert plant communities. A recent survey showed that the chemical composition of the drainage effluents is sulfate-chloride-hydrocarbonate - magnesium-sodium-calcium with high level of mineralization 4200 - 18800 ppm. Concentration of chloride and sulfate, detected both in drainage effluents and ground water, is 10 times higher than maximum allowable concentration (MAC); and traces of heavy metals, such as strontium, selenium, arsenic, lead, zinc, uranium are 2 times higher than MAC. Distribution of boron showed a strong correlation with those of arsenic and antimony. Aluminum has a significant correlation with arsenic and lead distribution. Antimony correlates significantly with zinc and arsenic, while copper and iron (Fe57) also well correlate with each other. Because these metals rarely exist in natural environment, it is presumed that they are caused both by the usage of some chemicals at the agricultural field in harvest season and by the discharge of some technogenic chemicals from industry. The desalinated/treated wastewater were used to irrigate high value crops and the waste brine is transformed into a resource that was used to grow aquatic species (fish, algae) and irrigate halophytic species with benefits for livestock, farmers and

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  19. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  20. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin; Abd Jalil Hassan; Suriyani Awang; Liew Yuk San; Norbaya Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  1. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  2. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  3. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  4. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  5. Method of degrading pollutants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, Geralyne

    1994-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant.

  6. Safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, G F

    1972-10-25

    A safety installation for preventing pollution by pipelines, particularly those used for transporting liquid hydrocarbons, is described. It is applicable to any pipeline, but particularly to underground or submarine pipelines, whether made of steel, plastics, or any other material. The 4 essential objects of the invention are to insure reliable prevention of pollution of the environment due to leakage of a hydrocarbon through cracks in the pipe; to evacuate the leakage flow without delay to a vessel; to signal almost instantaneously the existence of a leak; and to effect remote control of operations by which the dynamic pressure in the pipe is cancelled. Each equipped section consists of a fluid-type jacket of plastic material which surrounds the pipe, which at its ends is sealed off. It is these seals which delimit the sections. (7 claims)

  7. Method of degrading pollutants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T.C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, G.

    1994-07-05

    Disclosed are a method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms. This is accomplished by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant. 5 figures.

  8. Complete genome of Martelella sp. AD-3, a moderately halophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changzheng; Li, Zhijie; Qian, Jiangchao; Shi, Jie; Huang, Ling; Tang, Hongzhi; Chen, Xin; Lin, Kuangfei; Xu, Ping; Liu, Yongdi

    2016-05-10

    Martelella sp. strain AD-3, a moderate halophilic bacterium, was isolated from a petroleum-contaminated soil with high salinity in China. Here, we report the complete genome of strain AD-3, which contains one circular chromosome and two circular plasmids. An array of genes related to metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halophilic mechanism in this bacterium was identified by the whole genome analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  10. Sources of hydrocarbons in urban road dust: Identification, quantification and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummullage, Sandya; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    Among urban stormwater pollutants, hydrocarbons are a significant environmental concern due to their toxicity and relatively stable chemical structure. This study focused on the identification of hydrocarbon contributing sources to urban road dust and approaches for the quantification of pollutant loads to enhance the design of source control measures. The study confirmed the validity of the use of mathematical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for source identification and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model for pollutant load quantification. Study outcomes identified non-combusted lubrication oils, non-combusted diesel fuels and tyre and asphalt wear as the three most critical urban hydrocarbon sources. The site specific variabilities of contributions from sources were replicated using three mathematical models. The models employed predictor variables of daily traffic volume (DTV), road surface texture depth (TD), slope of the road section (SLP), effective population (EPOP) and effective impervious fraction (EIF), which can be considered as the five governing parameters of pollutant generation, deposition and redistribution. Models were developed such that they can be applicable in determining hydrocarbon contributions from urban sites enabling effective design of source control measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  12. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...

  13. Association between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene and disseminated testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, Leon J S; Lundberg-Giwercman, Yvonne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon...

  14. Moss as bio-indicators of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Vicente J. Monleon

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of air pollutants linked to a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including asthma, cancers, cardiovascular disease, and fetal growth impairment. PAHs are emitted by combustion of organic matter (e.g. fossil fuels, plant biomass) and can accumulate in plant and animal tissues over time. Compared to criteria...

  15. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  16. Risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (Biesbosch, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (Biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. Exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated

  17. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  19. Biomass energy, air pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the negative effects on human health due to the use of biomass for energy. In addition to the emission of nitrogen oxides and of metals, these effects result largely from an incomplete combustion, generating various air pollutants: fine particles, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Four situations are discussed: indoor air pollution due to cooking in developing countries, residential wood combustion for heating, the use of biofuels, and waste incineration. In all cases, negative health effects have been demonstrated, but they can be prevented by appropriate strategies. (author)

  20. Petroleum pollution and mutation in mangroves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klekowski, E.J. Jr.; Corredor, J.E.; Morell, J.M.; Del Castillo, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorophyll-deficiency has often been used as a sensitive genetic end-point in plant mutation research. The frequency of trees heterozygous for nuclear chlorophyll-deficient mutations was determined for mangrove populations growing along the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. The frequency of heterozygotes was strongly correlated with the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the underlying sediment and with both acute and chronic petroleum pollution. Although epidemiological studies can seldom prove causation, a strong correlation is certainly compatible with a cause-effect relationship. Our results suggest that the biota of oil-polluted habitats may be experiencing increased mutation. (Author)

  1. Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Al-Omran, Laila

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the central part of the Gulf were measured using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Concentrations varied between 4.0 and 56.2 μg/g wet sediment (expressed as Kuwait Crude Oil equivalents), with an average of 12.3 μ/g. Highest concentrations were recorded in the north-west sector, with concentrations decreasing in a south-westerly direction. No significant correlations were observed between petroleum hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon (r-0.07), 'mud' content (r=0.09), 'sand' content (r= -0.08) or 'gravel' content (r= -0.12). Distributions of oil are considered to relate more closely to prevailing current and localized pollutant sources in the region. Despite the substantial inputs of oil to the Gulf, contamination can be considered comparatively low, possibly reflecting physical processes and biological degradation which accelerate removal of petroleum from this marine environment. (author)

  2. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  5. Foraminifers as indicators of marine pollution: A culture experiment with Rosalina leei

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.; Mazumder, A.; Nigam, R.

    In order to develop a viable foraminiferal proxy for heavy metal pollutants, juvenile specimens of Rosalina leei were subjected to different mercury concentrations (0 -180 ng/l). Initially considerable growth was observed in specimens kept in saline...

  6. The bio-remediation of the contamination with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Sandra J; Concha, Alexander; Alcalde, Osmar R; Alvarez, Juan C; Garcia, Juan G; Guerra, Fabio W

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the oil industry comprise many processes that represent environmental risks, usually the pollution of the ecosystems with hydrocarbons. When bulky spills occur, the first measure used for damage repair is the physical gathering, but scattered quantities of oil even remain. The last is typical of chronic leakage's when is necessary to make use of other procedures for the environmental restoration. The bioremediation is an effective and economic technique useful in these cases that rest upon natural processes of the detritivorous tropic chain in all the ecosystems. There are over one-hundred species of bacteria and fungi able to profit the hydrocarbons as energy source for feeding, diminishing the pollutant to levels harmless to the physical, chemical and biological properties of the ecosystems. The current weariest stock belongs to the bacteria species pseudomonas aeruginosa. To apply properly this technique is necessary to know the nature of the pollutant, the properties of the substratum and the indigenous microbiological communities. Moreover it is required to control the environmental conditions, mainly aeration, moisture, temperature, pH, and nutrients status of the substratum

  7. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  8. Laws of the electrochemical soils remediation from petroleum pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The man-caused petroleum pollution of humus and soils in places of oil production, and also the pollution of geological environment by petroleum is carried out in growing scales. Very much frequently of ground and soils become soiled by petroleum at failures during transportation of petroleum. The humus and clay soils polluted by petroleum causes destruction ecosystems and landscapes. Therefore finding - out of the nature and mechanisms of interaction water-saturated dispersed soils with the liquid hydrocarbons becomes one of priority problems in the field of ecological geology. The development of methods of electrochemical clearing soils from the liquid hydrocarbons pollution is the important task too. Therefore, the study of dependences of a double electrical layer (DEL) parameters of the water-petroleum-saturated caolinite clay and electrochemical migration in it of petroleum was the purpose of the present work. (orig.)

  9. In situ prompt gamma-ray measurement of river water salinity in northern Taiwan using HPGe-252Cf probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunnhsing Chao; Chien Chung

    1991-01-01

    A portable HPGe- 252 Cf probe dedicated to in situ survey of river water salinity was placed on board a fishing boat to survey the Tamsui River in northern Taiwan. The variation of water salinity is surveyed by measuring the 6111 keV chlorine prompt photopeak along the river. Results indicate that the probe can be used as a salinometer for rapid, in situ measurement in polluted rivers or sea. (author)

  10. Application of chemical tools to evaluate phytoremediation of weathered hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, H.; Kulakow, P.; Smart, D.R.; O'Reilly, K.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using phytoremediation methods to treat soils contaminated with hydrocarbons was tested in a three-year study at a site in northern California at a treatment pond for refinery process water. The treatment pond was drained several years ago and is targeted for cleanup. The petroleum hydrocarbons from the refinery waste were already highly degraded from natural weathering processes by the time the study began. The soil consists of about 23 per cent sand, 38 per cent silt, and 39 per cent clay. The study followed the Environmental Protection Agency's standardized field protocol and analytical approach. During the study, chemical data for several hydrocarbon parameters was gathered. Soil samples were Soxhlet-extracted in organic solvent and measured for oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons using gravimetric techniques. One of the objectives was to develop an accurate quantitative way to identify sites and conditions where phytoremediation will be effective to supplement decision-tree-type approaches. The focus of the study is the application of chemical data in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment process. Phytoremediation uses living plants for in situ remediation of polluted soils. The basic benefits of the techniques is that it is aesthetically pleasing, natural and passive. In addition, it is effective in cleaning up sites with low to moderate levels of pollution at shallow depths. A particular form of phytoremediation called rhizodegradation or enhanced rhizosphere biodegradation was the treatment used in this study. It is a treatment in which microorganisms digest organic substances and beak them down by biodegradation while being supported in the plant root structure. Test results indicate that the effects of phytoremediation treatments are subtle for highly weathered source material. It was noted that more statistical analysis will be performed with the data to determine compositional changes due to phytoremediation

  11. Analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil from view of bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mracnova, R.; Sojak, L.; Kubinec, R.; Kraus, A.; Eszenyiova, A.; Ostrovsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    The pollution of the environment by petroleum hydrocarbons is the most often pollution of them all. Nevertheless, hydrocarbons present in environment can be not only of petroleum or anthropogenic origin, but of biogenic as well. Typically the hydrocarbons are presented in the environment as very complex mixtures of individual compounds with very different chemical structure, wide range of the boiling points (∼800 0 C) as well as with the wide range of the number of carbon atoms. Immediately they are spread in any environmental matrix the complex physical, chemical and biochemical reactions start. A lot of methods have been developed and new are permanently in progress for the monitoring and control of petroleum hydrocarbons contamination and/or soils bioremediation. Generally, all methods by whose the hydrocarbons contaminants are determined in GC-FID system do not satisfied recommendations for enough accurate and precise results. Hyphenation of capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detector operated in the selective ion monitoring mode essentially allows detailed specification of non-polar extractable hydrocarbons. Isoprenoid alkanes, alkylhomologues of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic alkanes hopanes-like were investigated as markers for recognition of petroleum and biogenic contamination. C 30 17α(H)21β(H)-hopane (C 30 -hopane) seems to be a suitable marker to identify hydrocarbons origin, to determine composting rates for nonpolar extractable compounds and to calculate real content of non-polar extractable compounds in final composting status on the assumption that the contamination is of mineral oil type. This is the survey into the results obtained in this field published in the literature as well as reached in our laboratory. (author)

  12. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Chau Thuy; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x , PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO x and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  14. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  16. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  17. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  18. Groundwater salinity in coastal aquifer of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Sajjad, M.I.; Khan, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Potable groundwater salinity has become a problem of great concern in the Karachi Metropolis, which is not only the most populous and biggest industrial base but also the largest coastal dwelling of Pakistan. Stable isotope techniques [O/sup 18/ content of Oxygen in the water molecular and C/sup 13/ content of the Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TDIC)] have been used, in conjunction with physiochemical tools (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox electrical conductivity, salinity), to examine the quality of potable water and the source of salinity. Surface water samples (12 No.) were collected from polluted streams, namely: Layeri River, Malir River; Hub River/Hub Lake and the Indus River. Shallow groundwater samples (7 No. ) were collected from operating dug wells. Relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from operating dug wells, relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from pumping wells/tube-wells. Physicochemical analysis of water samples was completed in the field. In the laboratory, water samples were analyzed for O/sup 18/ content of oxygen in the water molecule and C/sup 13/ content of the TDIC, using specific gas extraction systems and a modified GD-150 gas source mass spectrometer. It is concluded from this preliminary investigation that the potable aquifer system in coastal Karachi hosts a mixture of precipitation (rainwater only) from hinterlands, trapped seawater in relatively deep aquifer system, as well as intruded seawater under natural infiltration conditions and/or induced recharge conditions (in shallow aquifers). (author)

  19. Bioassays with terrestrial and aquatic species as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Ortega, Lina; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-09-01

    In this study chemical analyses and ecotoxicity tests were applied for the assessment of a heavily hydrocarbon-contaminated soil prior and after the application of a remediation procedure that consisted in the stimulation of soil autochthonous populations of hydrocarbon degraders in static-ventilated biopiles. Terrestrial bioassays were applied in mixtures of test soils and artificial control soil and studied the survival and reproduction of Eisenia fetida and the avoidance response of E. fetida and Folsomia candida. Effects on aquatic organisms were studied by means of acute tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and Daphnia magna performed on aqueous elutriates from test soils. The bioremediation procedure led to a significant reduction in the concentration of hydrocarbons (from 34264 to 3074 mg kg(-1), i.e., 91 % decrease) and toxicity although bioassays were not able to report a percentage decrease of toxicity as high as the percentage reduction. Sublethal tests proved the most sensitive terrestrial bioassays and avoidance tests with earthworms and springtails showed potential as monitoring tools of hydrocarbon remediation due to their high sensitivity and short duration. The concentrations of hydrocarbons in water extracts from test soils were 130 and 100 μg L(-1) before and after remediation, respectively. Similarly to terrestrial tests, most aquatic bioassays detected a significant reduction in toxicity, which was almost negligible at the end of the treatment. D. magna survival was the most affected by soil elutriates although toxicity to the crustacean was associated to the salinity of the samples rather than to the concentration of hydrocarbons. Ecotoxicity tests with aqueous soil elutriates proved less relevant in the assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils due to the low hydrosolubility of hydrocarbons and the influence of the physicochemical parameters of the aquatic medium.

  20. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  1. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  2. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  3. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  4. Loads Limits Values of Soils with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Vladimirescu, Andreea

    2017-04-01

    The high demand for oil and associated products as a source of energy, resulting in increased oil exploitation, producing, refining, transportation, storage, marketing and use led to high levels of environmental pollution. The optimum bioremediation variant proved to be the one in which fertilizer (potassium humate in NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides) applied in a 650 l/ha dose was used together with the Zeba absorbent in 32 kg/ha dose, where the TPH level dropped by 58% in 45 days from the pollution with 3% crude oil. Most of these areas are affected by historical pollution. Many organic contaminants may undergo an ongoing process in the soil, whereby over time contaminant become less and less subject to decomposition even though relatively can still be detected in the laboratory analyses. In Romania about 50.000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The bioremediation was the main method of rehabilitation. The Regulation on the assessment of environmental pollution, the following are presented as guide values for total oil hydrocarbons content in soil: - normal: less than 100 mg/kg; - alert values for sensitive soils: 200 mg/kg; - alert values for less sensitive soils: 1000 mg/kg; - intervention values for sensitive soils: 500 mg/kg; - intervention values for less sensitive soils: 2000 mg/kg. Researches done in laboratory monitored the effect of various concentrations of oil (under 2000 mg/kg, 3000 mg/kg, 5000 mg/kg, 7000 mg/kg, 10 000 mg/kg) on germination of wheat seeds at 5 and 7 days after seeding and (fresh and dry) biomass production after 40 days. Tree experiments were done: one with recently contaminated light oil, one with recently contaminated heavy oil and one with old contamination. After 5 days from sowing, the largest number of germinated seeds was found in the experiments with old contamination. The fewest germinated seeds was found in the experience with light oil. The experience with heavy oil showed an intermediate number of

  5. Radionuclides and heavy metal uptake by lolium italicum plant as affected by saline water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Aly, A.I.; Helal, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The use of saline waters to grow crops on increasingly metal polluted soils is becoming a common practice in the arid regions. Nevertheless, the effects of soil and water salinity on radionuclides and heavy metal fluxes in polluted areas are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate in pot experiments the plant uptake of cesium-137, Co-60, Mn-54, Zinc, cadmium and copper from a polluted alluvial aridisol as affected by salt water irrigation. Fertilized soil material was planted in pots with L. Italicum for 18 weeks under greenhouse conditions. The plants were irrigated either with water or with salt solution of variable variable Na/Ca ratio and harvested every 5-7 weeks. In addition to elemental analysis of plants and soil extracts root length was determined by a gridline intersect method and the viable part of the roots was estimated by a root protein inex. Saline (Na) water irrigation increased cobalt-60, manganese-54 and heavy metal solubility in soil, reduced root viability and enhanced the uptake of Co-60, Mn-54, Cd, Cu, Zn and Na by L.italicum and reduced the uptake of Cs-137. Ca counteracted these effects partly. The presented results demonstrated a dual effect of salinity on radiouclides and heavy metal availability to plants and suggest a relationship between root mortality and the enhanced Co-60, Mn-54, and heavy metake ny salt stressed plants

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the samples of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, V.; Vybohova, E.; Bubenikova, T.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pAHs) represent one group of toxic organic substances in the environment. We determined PAHs in the samples of water and river sediments from river Zolna, in the samples of soils and plants from surrounding of Zolna. The river Zolna flows directly through word-processing factory area. The impregnation division together with associated impregnated materials store is considered the most important source of PAH contamination in the surrounding area. We analysed the 16 compounds (PAHs) by List of the priority pollutants by EPA by the HPLC method. (authors)

  7. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  8. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  10. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  11. Characterization of the vadose zone above a shallow aquifer contaminated with gas condensate hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, K.; Duncan, K.; Thoma, G.; Todd, T.

    2002-01-01

    A gas production site in the Denver Basin near Ft. Lupton, Colorado has leaked gas condensate hydrocarbons from an underground concrete tank used to store produced water. The leak has contaminated a shallow aquifer. Although the source of pollution has been removed, a plume of hydrocarbon contamination still remains for nearly 46 m from the original source. An extensive monitoring program was conducted in 1993 of the groundwater and saturated sediments. The objective was to determine if intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurred at the site at a rate that would support remediation. Geochemical indicators of hydrogen biodegradation by microorganisms in the saturated zone included oxygen depletion, increased alkalinity, sulfate depletion, methane production and Fe2+ production associated with hydrogen contamination. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens was also much higher in the contaminated sediments. Degraded hydrocarbon metabolites were found in contaminated groundwater. An extensive characterization of the vadose zone was conducted in which the vadose zone was sample in increments of 15 cm from the surface to the water table at contaminated and non contaminated sites. The samples were tested for individual C3+ hydrocarbons, methane, CO2, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The vadose zone consisted of an active and aerobic bioreactor fueled by condensate hydrocarbons transported into the unsaturated zone by evaporation of hydrocarbons at the water table. It was concluded that the unsaturated zone makes an important contribution to the natural attenuation of gas condensate hydrocarbons in the area. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  12. Water pollution of Sabarmati River--a harbinger to potential disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Soumya; Mandal, Subir Kumar; Thorat, R B; Goel, Sangita; Baxi, Krushnakant D; Parmer, Navalsang P; Patel, Vipul; Basha, S; Mody, K H

    2014-04-01

    River Sabarmati is one of the biggest and major river of Gujarat that runs through two major cities of Gujarat, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad and finally meets the Gulf of Khambhat (GoK) in the Arabian Sea. A study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of this river, as it could possibly be one of the major sources for filling up Kalpasar, the proposed man-made freshwater reservoir supposed to be the biggest one in the world. A total of nine sampling stations were established covering 163 km stretch of the river from upstream of Gandhinagar city to Vataman near Sabarmati estuary. Physicochemical (temprature, pH, salinity, chloride, total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, phenol, and petroleum hydrocarbons), biological (phytoplankton), and microbiological (total and selective bacterial count) analyses indicated that the river stretch from Ahmedabad-Vasana barriage to Vataman was highly polluted due to perennial waste discharges mainly from municipal drainage and industries. An implementation of sustainable management plan with proper treatment of both municipal and industrial effluents is essential to prevent further deterioration of the water quality of this river.

  13. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  14. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of bioaugumentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria, biostimulation with agricultural fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and tilling were employed as remedial options for 20 weeks in a crude oil polluted tidal plain dominated by mangrove (Rhizophora, Laguncularia and Avicenia) vegetation. Soil ...

  15. Applications of neutron activation analysis in chemistry and pollution fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, S.

    1978-01-01

    Some examples of applications of activation analysis are given such as: chemical analysis of precious metals, nuclear graphite and hydrocarbons; control of pollution of water and seawater, analysis of food and seafood, atmospheric, dust and hair for determination of impurities [fr

  16. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  18. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  19. Distribution and transport of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a river-influenced continental margin: the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P. L.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are particle-reactive and get preferentially sorbed on particulate organic carbon (POC), thus, the transport and fate of POC in aquatic systems plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of PAHs. In this study, we examine POC and PAHs in finer suspended particulate matter collected from the Louisiana coast, shelf and slope - progressively south-west transect along the direction of the Mississippi River plume, and also from a transect of Atchafalaya River. The concentrations of total particulate PAHs (ΣPAH43) varied between 0.92 to 7.04 ng/L, while POC varied between 4 to 131 µg/L. The concentrations of total particulate ΣPAH43 as well as individual PAH analytes were significantly positively correlated to the concentrations of POC which indicates that the concentrations and transport of POC plays an important role in distribution of PAHs in marine systems. The river influence, characterized by the change in salinity, had significant negative correlation with both the concentrations of particulate PAHs and POC. These results show that the Mississippi River derived particle influx can be an important vector in delivering particle-reactive hydrophobic organic pollutants such as PAHs into the river dominated continental ecosystems in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The underlying seafloor sediment PAHs' concentration and accumulation rates were not correlated to the water column particulate PAH and POC concentrations, which is attributed to re-mineralization during vertical transport, sediment resuspension/redistribution and different timescales of comparison.

  20. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  1. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.

  2. THE GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONING OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS RESULTING FROM SOIL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Lipińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization economy of oil mining and mineral waters is associated with planning the functions of spa treatment. Environmental protection of the spa areas also applies to preserve their technical and cultural heritage. This article attempts to determine the places of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon pollution substances. Their presence in the soil affects the quality of the environment. As a result, maps are produced showing directions of research: (1 the natural background of biodiversity, and (2 potential anthropogenic pollution. They are assessed in the context of the health and human life, protection of the environment and the possibility of damage to the environment. Research is conducted in communes of the status of the spa – for special protection.

  3. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  4. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  5. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  6. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  7. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  8. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  9. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  10. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  11. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  12. Towards Zero emissions. The challenge for hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The limited availability of natural resources, a still rapidly rising world population combined with overall economic growth will be stretching the Earth's carrying capacity beyond its limit, unless a suitable strategy is set in place. This scenario renders the concept of Zero Emissions all the more relevant, stressing as it does that the problem of environmental pollution cannot be effectively solved simply by reducing the production of wastes. In practical terms Zero Emissions can be conceived along similar lines to already establish corporate programs aiming to achieve zero accidents. Although no one claims that accidents are never going to occur, unless a clear objective is established, systems will not evolve in that direction. The target of Zero Emissions is therefore to move towards achieving the highest possible level of material productivity and energy efficiency. Considering how the hydrocarbon industry could become ever more engaged in applying the concept of Zero Emissions, and what in practice this means, can therefore play an important role in defining an appropriate innovation policy, and promoting long term corporate competitiveness

  13. Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

    1999-02-01

    Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

  14. Geochemical processes controlling water salinization in an irrigated basin in Spain: identification of natural and anthropogenic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, D; Auqué, L F; Acero, P; Gimeno, M J; Causapé, J

    2015-01-01

    Salinization of water bodies represents a significant risk in water systems. The salinization of waters in a small irrigated hydrological basin is studied herein through an integrated hydrogeochemical study including multivariate statistical analyses and geochemical modeling. The study zone has two well differentiated geologic materials: (i) Quaternary sediments of low salinity and high permeability and (ii) Tertiary sediments of high salinity and very low permeability. In this work, soil samples were collected and leaching experiments conducted on them in the laboratory. In addition, water samples were collected from precipitation, irrigation, groundwater, spring and surface waters. The waters show an increase in salinity from precipitation and irrigation water to ground- and, finally, surface water. The enrichment in salinity is related to the dissolution of soluble mineral present mainly in the Tertiary materials. Cation exchange, precipitation of calcite and, probably, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, have been inferred from the hydrochemical data set. Multivariate statistical analysis provided information about the structure of the data, differentiating the group of surface waters from the groundwaters and the salinization from the nitrate pollution processes. The available information was included in geochemical models in which hypothesis of consistency and thermodynamic feasibility were checked. The assessment of the collected information pointed to a natural control on salinization processes in the Lerma Basin with minimal influence of anthropogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  16. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  18. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  19. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and identification of aromatic hydrocarbon degrading yeasts present in gasoline tanks of urbans vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Catalina Delgadillo-Ordoñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yeast isolates were obtained from fuel tanks of vehicles in order to assess their potential use in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth assays were performed in minimum mineral medium using different aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as the sole carbon source. Isolates that showed growth in any of the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were identified by Sanger sequencing of the ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA molecular markers. A total of 16 yeasts strains were isolated, and three showed remarkable growth in media with aromatic hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. These strains belong to the genus Rhodotorula, and correspond to the species Rhodotorula calyptogenae (99,8% identity and Rhodotorula dairenensis (99,8% identity.  These strains grew in benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. This study demonstrates for the first time that yeasts of the genus Rhodotorula inhabit pipelines and fuel tanks of vehicles and that remove   aromatic hydrocarbons that are environmental pollutants. Our results suggest that these yeasts are potential candidates for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation as part of bioremediation strategies.