WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon pah deposition

  1. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHsPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  2. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  3. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  5. Prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recalcitrant pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are difficult to degrade and have been the focus for biodegradation. They form a class of pollutant on a global scale. In an attempt to contribute to the search for suitable microbial culture with potential to biodegrade low and high molecular weight PAHs ...

  6. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  9. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Molecular ratio analyses also show that petroleum origin is the chief source of PAHs contamination in all samples except in the control that is characterized with pyrogenic and petrogenic source. @JASEM. Key words: PAHs, soil Contamination, Abraka. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are group of organic compound that ...

  10. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femdot

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography after extracting with hexane and dichloromethane (3:1). The initial PAHs ... ostreatus is found more effective as a biodegradation agent for PAHs in contaminated soils when compared with P. ... compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls phenols and halogenated ...

  11. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑88BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑16EPABaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑88BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate. PMID:29051449

  12. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... PAHs in the environment include natural fires, volcanic eruptions, thermal .... the target compounds in a reasonable time of less than. 35 min. This was .... (PAH) determined in Nigerian Kundi (smoked dried meat). J. Sci.

  13. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) was investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total concentrations of PAHs were between 1.55 and 437.52 μg/g in the dry season. Pyrene, benzo (b) ...

  14. Different collector types for sampling deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Comparison of measurement results and their uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladtke, D.; Bakker, F.; Biaudet, H.; Brennfleck, A.; Coleman, P.; Creutznacher, H.; Egmond, B.F. van; Hafkenscheid, T.; Hahne, F.; Houtzager, M.M.; Leoz-Garziandia, E.; Menichini, E.; Olschewski, A.; Remesch, T.

    2012-01-01

    Different collector types, sample workup procedures and analysis methods to measure the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were tested and compared. Whilst sample workup and analysis methods did not influence the results of PAH deposition measurements, using different collector

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in livers of California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily

    2008-03-01

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to PAH exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operatorPAH concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operatorPAHs among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of PAHs in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of PAHs with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.

  16. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin D; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24-7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5-119.8 ng m(-3) during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  17. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... to noise ratio of 3:1. The LOQ was determined by the signal to noise ratio of 10:1. The LOL was determined from the plot of the concentration versus response. The RSD for the sixteen compo- unds were ..... genic PAHs have greater resistance to microbial degra- dation (Yun et al., 2003), their limited water ...

  18. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  19. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' is...

  20. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The internal surface of an Mg–Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by an- choring carboxy-methyl derivatized β-cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydro- phobic aromatic ...

  1. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The internal surface of an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by anchoring carboxy-methyl derivatized -cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydrophobic aromatic molecules from ...

  2. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by white rot-fungus Pseudotrametes gibbosa isolated from the boreal forest in Northeast China. ... This study provides technical support for pollution amelioration using aboriginal white-rot fungus. Key words: White-rot fungus, laccase, polycyclic aromatic ...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  4. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  5. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  6. Energy sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [Carcinogenicity of PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Combustion is the predominant end-process by which fossil fuels are converted to energy. Combustion, particularly when inefficient, is also the primary technological source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released into the environment. The need for liquid fuels to supply the transportation industry and for nonpolluting fuels for heat and power generation provide the incentive to commercialize processes to convert coal to substitute natural gas and oil. These processes represent a potentially massive new source of environmental PAHs. Insuring an adequate supply of energy with minimum impact on the environment and on health is one of the most important, urgent, and challenging goals currently facing science and technology. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon related carcinogenesis is among the most important of possible occupational- and environmental-health impacts of much of the current and projected national energy base. An understanding of the relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to human cancer and a continued surveillance of energy sources for PAH content are necessary to minimize this impact.

  7. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  9. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084

  10. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  11. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.

  12. A review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) research progress in China based on CNKI database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    This article using the retroactive content analysis method summarizes the research progress of air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 1983 to 2016, and is based on the 72 search results about "Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" in CNKI database. This article directly points out the study achievements and improvements about air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 aspects, the reviews of the studies of PAHs in a special stage, the studies on PAHs determination and analysis method, the studies on PAHs concentration in different places and the studies on the relationship between PAHs concentration in air and human health, respectively.

  13. APPLICATION OF FENTON’S REAGENT ON REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONs (PAHs) IN SPIKED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Nursiah La Nafie

    2010-01-01

    Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+) and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene,...

  14. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  15. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul; Brown, Richard J C

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of PAHs in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of PAHs in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by PAH exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of PAH exposure, this review offers an overview of PAH properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of PAH exposure and their significance are also discussed. © 2013.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  20. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  1. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  2. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous...

  3. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  4. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  5. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  6. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... concentrations were obtained for indirectly smoked trout (26 mu g kg-1). Principal component analysis was used to correlate processing parameters to PAH concentrations and to identify the effects of these parameters. The analysis showed that for salmon hot-smoking conditions lead to higher sigma PAH25 than cold...

  7. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of southern Taiwan in relation to monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-O; Ko, Fung-Chi; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2016-08-01

    The concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were intensively measured in the Hengchun Peninsula of southern Taiwan. The concentrations of total PAH (Σ38PAH), including gas and particle phases, ranged from 0.85 to 4.40 ng m(-3). No significant differences in the PAH levels and patterns were found between the samples taken at day and at night. The gas phase PAH concentrations were constant year-round, but the highest levels of particle-associated PAHs were found during the northeast monsoon season. Long-range transport and rainfall scavenging mechanisms contributed to the elevated levels in aerosols andΣ38PAH concentrations. Results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the major sources of PAHs in this study were vehicular emissions. The back trajectories demonstrated that air mass movement driven by the monsoon system was the main influence on atmospheric PAH profiles and concentrations in the rural region of southern Taiwan. Gas-particle partition coefficients (K p ) of PAHs were well-correlated with sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (P (o) L ) and demonstrated significant seasonal variation between the northeast (NE) and the southwest (SW) monsoon seasons. This study sheds light on the role of Asian monsoons regarding the atmospheric transport of PAHs.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhong, N N; Hu, D M; Liu, Z Z; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of PAHs pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of PAHs in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of PAHs from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled PAHs ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L.The components of PAHs such as chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b + k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered PAHs leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of PAHs and the high concentrations of PAHs with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of PAHs except for penetration from coal gangue into groundwater in the Pingdingshan coal mine area.

  9. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  10. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs by dietary fiber extracted from wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unintentional ingestion of carcinogenic xenobiotic substances leads to the high risk of cancer. Dietary fiber (DF may protect against cancer by sorbing such chemicals. To this end, the sorption of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to DF extracted from wheat bran (WB was studied. The strong affinity of PAHs to DF and WB indicated the effective binding of PAHs, and their distribution coefficients (Kd positively increased with the increase in hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The DF had much higher Kd values for all PAHs compared to those of the unprocessed WB. The DF extraction process removed hydrophilic residues, such as starch, from WB, and increased the roughness of DF surface. Loss of hydrophilic components from WB to DF led to much higher affinity of DF with PAHs than WB. The results indicate that the DF can effectively sorb and remove xenobiotics, thereby having the potential to lower carcinogenic risk to humans.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation provides data on the levels of PAHs and trace nutrient elements in selected tubers (yam and cassava) and fruits (orange and papaya) harvested from oil impacted and gas flaring areas in Akalaolu and Ogale Niger Delta communities. PAHs and heavy metals concentrations were analysed by Gas ...

  12. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hewlett Packard gas chromatographs equipped with mass spectrometer detectors (GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The monitoring data revealed that Sihwa major industrial zone have lower levels of PAHs in comparison to Sihwa minor industrial zone where increase levels of PAHs were observed in both the ...

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor emission from decorative candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates PAHs indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous PAHs emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase PAHs), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase PAHs). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total PAHs concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of PAHs emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 μg kg -1 and mean 15 μg kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic PAHs, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  15. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok [Disaster Scientific Investigation Division, National Disaster Management Research Institute, 365 Jongga-ro Jung-gu, Ulsan 44538 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Deuk, E-mail: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khcho@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  16. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  17. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins PAHs tested in E. fetida.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda

    2012-01-15

    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Landfill leachate as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Malaysian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Geik, Kho Hiaw; Lee, Wong Yoon; Hayet, Razahidi

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemicals of environmental concern are those with known or potentially deleterious effects on natural resources and humans. These compounds are referred to as micro-organic pollutants. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most important classes of anthropogenic micro-organic pollutants that have long been the interest of environmental chemists. This concern arises primarily from the fact that a small fraction of the PAHs generated and released to environment has been ...

  20. Sources and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to western US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal snowpack, lichens, and lake sediment cores were collected from fourteen lake catchments in eight western U.S. National Parks and analyzed for sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their current and historical deposition, as well as to identify thei...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in starfish body and bottom sediments in Mohang Harbor (Taean), South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Joon; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Hye Eun; Yang, Dong Beom

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in bottom sediments and starfish from Mohang Harbor (MH) in Taean peninsula, South Korea. In December 2007, crude oil washed ashore from the M/V Hebei Spirit and was subsequently cleaned up within a few months of the incident. The ecological risk, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and composition of the 27 PAHs were examined. The PAH concentrations in the bottom sediment ranged from 24 to 366 μg/kg dried weight, and the ecological risk was determined as minimal (mERL-Q starfish species. Further, PAH fingerprint analysis (nine alkyl-substituted PAHs fraction, low molecular weight (LMW)/high molecular weight (HMW), Phe/Ant, and Flu/Pyr), and principal component analysis (PCA) based on three crude oil samples from the M/V Hebei Spirit showed no remaining influence of crude oil.

  2. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  3. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  4. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  5. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  6. Ranking the factors influencing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Ma, Yukun; Deilami, Kaveh; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-05-01

    An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on PAHs build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of PAHs with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of PAHs build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near New England coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, D.; Barry, E.; Fisher, G.; Varanusupakul, P.; Koleda, M.; Rooney, T.

    Wet and dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured at Nahant, Massachusetts, a peninsula jutting into Massachusetts Bay and Wolf Neck, a peninsula jutting into Casco Bay, Maine. Wet deposition (rain and snow) was collected in a funnel which drains into a shielded, temperature controlled receiving bottle. Dry deposition of gaseous and particulate PAHs was collected onto an exposed water surface. PAHs were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen PAH species were analyzed, ranging from acenaphthylene to coronene. The mean wet deposition rate of the sum of the 16 species is 720 ng m -2 cm -1 precipitation at Nahant, and 831 ng m -2 cm -1 precipitation at Wolf Neck. Wet deposition is attributed to regional PAH emitting sources. Storm patterns appear to bring somewhat higher wet deposition of PAHs to Wolf Neck than to Nahant. The mean dry deposition rate is 95 ng m -2 h -1 at Nahant and 9.3 ng m -2 h -1 at Wolf Neck. The large difference is attributed to the fact that Nahant is close to the urban-industrial metropolitan Boston area and Logan International Airport, whereas Wolf Neck has no major PAH-emitting sources nearby. Individual measurements have an error bracket of ±30%. The Chemical Mass Balance model was used to apportion the dry deposition to source categories. At Nahant, nine samples gave valid statistical attributes with a mean apportionment: jet exhaust 35%, gasoline fueled vehicles 32%, diesel fueled vehicles 17%, wood combustion 13%, others 3%. At Wolf Neck, six samples yielded a mean apportionment: jet exhaust 30%, gasoline vehicles 28%, diesel vehicles 18%, wood combustion 16%, others 8%. There is a considerable variation between the samples. The apportionment is greatly dependent on the quality and selection of the model inputs, i.e. source signatures, which for PAHs are questionable.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) around tea processing industries using high-sulfur coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Khare, Puja; Saikia, Prasenjit; Saikia, Binoy K

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5, PM10 and dust particles emitted from two tea processing industrial units were studied that uses high-sulfur coal as their energy source. A total of 16 PAHs (viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), acenaphthylene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fluo), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were measured. The total PAH concentration was found to be 94.7 ng/m3 (∑4 PAHs) in the PM10 particle, 32.5 (∑12 PAHs) in PM2.5 and 1.08 ng/m3 (∑6 PAHs) in the dust sample from site A. In site B, the sum of the PAHs in the PM2.5, PM10 and dust samples are found to be 154.4 ng/m3 (∑7 PAHs), 165 ng/m3 (∑3 PAHs) and 1.27 ng/m3 (∑6 PAHs), respectively. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model study revealed the contribution of local or long-range transport of aerosol sources. Along with the coal combustion activities in the study sites, other sources such as biomass burning and vehicular emission may contribute to the PAHs in the aerosol samples.

  10. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase...... of the accessible fraction to 49 ± 2%, whereby primarily the accessibility of higher molecular weight PAHs (log Kow > 6) was affected. Competitive binding was verified using the same soil with only desorption-resistant PAHs present. In this experiment, passive dosing of toluene resulted in desorption of 13 ± 0...

  11. Challenges in tracing the fate and effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalme, Dorine; Binet, Philippe; Chiapusio, Geneviève

    2013-05-07

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that raise environmental concerns because of their toxicity. Their accumulation in vascular plants conditions harmful consequences to human health because of their position in the food chain. Consequently, understanding how atmospheric PAHs are taken up in plant tissues is crucial for risk assessment. In this review we synthesize current knowledge about PAH atmospheric deposition, accumulation in both gymnosperms and angiosperms, mechanisms of transfer, and ecological and physiological effects. PAHs emitted in the atmosphere partition between gas and particulate phases and undergo atmospheric deposition on shoots and soil. Most PAH concentration data from vascular plant leaves suggest that contamination occurs by both direct (air-leaf) and indirect (air-soil-root) pathways. Experimental studies demonstrate that PAHs affect plant growth, interfering with plant carbon allocation and root symbioses. Photosynthesis remains the most studied physiological process affected by PAHs. Among scientific challenges, identifying specific physiological transfer mechanisms and improving the understanding of plant-symbiont interactions in relation to PAH pollution remain pivotal for both fundamental and applied environmental sciences.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    These findings suggest that study food crops from exposed areas are markedly contaminated by carcinogenic. PAHs and may pose public nutrition and health concerns. Also, determination of trace nutrient elements in papaya at contaminated sites ... 2015), coke production in the iron and steel industry, catalytic cracking in ...

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of PAHs in spent and fresh cutting fluids (SCF and FCF) contaminated soils was investigated. Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids separately then ...

  14. The possible existence of interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in collected interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Extraterrestrial dust particles which are 3 to 50 microns in size are routinely collected in the stratosphere and are now available for general laboratory study. These grains represent true Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Issues associated with the carbon containing components of IDPs which occur in a variety of physical forms, including amorphous mantles and matrix materials, are addressed. The observed properties of the hydrocarbon phase in IDPs are compared with those expected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  15. Role of sooty mold fungi in degradation of polycycllic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venera A. Jouraeva; David L. Johnson; John P. Hassett; David J. Nowak; Natalia A. Shipunova; Dana Barbarossa

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (...

  16. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  17. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Zheng, Cheng-Gang

    2017-02-22

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  19. Hierarchy of factors which influence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Mummullage, Sandya; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-04-01

    The sediment environment provides habitat for fauna and flora. As pollutants can interchange between water and sediments, pollution will exert a significant influence on the water environment. Previous studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution of sediments have primarily focused on the comparison of concentrations between seasons, land uses and species. Studies on the identification of the hierarchy of factors which influence PAHs distribution and its variability in river sediments are limited. This paper discusses a comprehensive investigation into the inherent variability of PAHs in sediments and the primary factors which influence this variability. The study outcomes confirmed that key factors exerting influence on PAH distribution in sediments can be ranked in the order: land use > population > seasons. Accordingly, intensive urban land use was identified as the most important factor influencing PAHs distribution. Additionally, it was found that with increasing urban development, PAHs concentrations and their variability in sediments increase in terms of the molecular weight of different species. The study outcomes are expected to enhance management strategies to mitigate PAHs pollution of urban water environments including the prioritisation of factors requiring management and the selection of appropriate approaches in the context of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  1. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  2. Hydrocarbon status of soils in the asphalt deposit area (Samara Bend)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskiy, Yu. I.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Kovach, R. G.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Khlynina, N. I.; Kiseleva, A. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The composition and distribution features of the main components of soil hydrocarbon complex― organic (noncarbonate) carbon, hexane bitumoids, and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)―in the area of depleted Bakhilovo asphalt deposit (Samara oblast) have been studied. According to their proportions, three genetic types of soil hydrocarbon status are distinguished: (a) emanation-injection type prevailing within the limits of the former production field and characterized by anomalous contents of heavy resinous bitumoids (5000-7000 mg/kg on the average) throughout the soil profile and a high content of PAHs (4-9 mg/kg on the average, 29 mg/kg as the maximum, with the dominance of naphthalene homologues); (b) emanation-biogeochemical type confined to mechanogenically undisturbed soils within and beyond the deposit area, where the emanation component is manifested in soils with heavy texture and higher concentrations and very light composition of bitumoids in the lower parts of the soil profile; and (c) atmosedimentation-biogeochemical type characteristic of conventionally background soils with light texture; benzo[ a]pyrene traces are detected among PAHs in the upper soil horizon, which indicates the input of this hydrocarbon with aerosols from the atmosphere; the concentrations of bitumoids and PAHs in parent rocks are lower than in the soils.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the pyrene sorption and distribution in Yangtze River sediments (submitted). J. Zhang et al., Pyrene and phenanthrene sorptions to Yangtze River sediments and their components in single and binary solute systems (submitted)

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  5. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  6. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in recent sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (SE Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Lubecki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in recent (0-10 cm sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 andcorrelated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła(Vistula, this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptionalmodel basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine thedistribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particlesediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep(ca 110 m, where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ~3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed.Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ~50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.

  8. Variations in concentrations and compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coals related to the coal rank and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, S; Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Achten, C; Sachsenhofer, R F; Schwarzbauer, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-10-01

    The release of unburnt coal particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause adverse impacts on the environment. This study assessed variations in the concentration and composition of PAHs in a set of fifty coal samples from eleven coal basins worldwide. The maximum PAH concentrations at high volatile bituminous rank were recorded in samples from a single basin. Considering the entire sample set, the highest PAH concentrations were in fact found outside of this rank range, suggesting that the maceral composition and thus the coal's origin also influenced PAH concentrations. The examination of the PAH compositions revealed that alkylated 2-3 ring PAHs remain dominant compounds irrespective of coal rank or origin. Multivariate analysis based on PAH and maceral content, bulk and maturity parameters allowed the recognition of seven groups with different rank and origin within the coal sample set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Shanghai: Temporal and spatial variation, and global comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Zhou, Jinxing; Zheng, Lirong; Qiao, Gang; Ma, Liming; Lin, Zhifen; Grathwohl, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric deposition leads to accumulation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urban surfaces and topsoils. To capture the inherent variability of atmospheric deposition of PAHs in Shanghai's urban agglomeration, 85 atmospheric bulk deposition samples and 7 surface soil samples were collected from seven sampling locations during 2012-2014. Total fluxes of 17 PAHs were 587-32,300 ng m -2 day -1 , with a geometric mean of 2600 ng m -2 day -1 . The deposition fluxes were categorized as moderate to high on a global scale. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene were major contributors. The spatial distribution of deposition fluxes revealed the influence of urbanization/industrialization and the relevance of local emissions. Meteorological conditions and more heating demand in cold season lead to a significant increase of deposition rates. Atmospheric deposition is the principal pathway of PAHs input to topsoils and the annual deposition load in Shanghai amounts to ∼4.5 tons (0.7 kg km -2 ) with a range of 2.5-10 tons (0.4-1.6 kg km -2 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enriching antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; He, Rong; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Enzhong; Lin, Lan; Chen, Xin; Sha, Sha; Zhong, Jianan; Lin, Li; Yang, Lihua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Zou, Shichun; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in modern environment raises an emerging global health concern. In this study, soil samples were collected from three sites in petrochemical plant that represented different pollution levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metagenomic profiling of these soils demonstrated that ARGs in the PAHs-contaminated soils were approximately 15 times more abundant than those in the less-contaminated ones, with Proteobacterial being the preponderant phylum. Resistance profile of ARGs in the PAHs-polluted soils was characterized by the dominance of efflux pump-encoding ARGs associated with aromatic antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones and acriflavine) that accounted for more than 70% of the total ARGs, which was significantly different from representative sources of ARG pollution due to wide use of antibiotics. Most of ARGs enriched in the PAHs-contaminated soils were not carried by plasmids, indicating the low possibilities of them being transferred between bacteria. Significant correlation was observed between the total abundance of ARGs and that of Proteobacteria in the soils. Proteobacteria selected by PAHs led to simultaneously enriching of ARGs carried by them in the soils. Our results suggested that PAHs could serve as one of selective stresses for greatly enriching of ARGs in the human-impacted environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  12. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Darja; Arias, Carlos A.; Matamoros, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...... with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of ΣPAH in the sediments varied between 6 ± 5 and 2,222 ± 603 ng g-1 dry weight (mean ± standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect...... concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHs in the effluents below the detection level. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  13. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in apple in rural terrains from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; González, Gilberto Díaz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Vega Y León, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes PAH concentrations in apple crops that are growing in rural terrains in Mexico City. The concentrations of individual PAHs showed great variability, there being low and high molecular weight compounds in dry (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 7.06 microg/g and Milpa Alta 3.96 microg/g) and wet months (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 11.25 microg/g and Milpa Alta 12.05 microg/g). Some PAHs indicators and cross plot ratios Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) define fossil fuels and vegetation combustion as the source of contamination over the cuticle of the apples. It is likely that deposition (dry and wet) is the principal source o f contamination over the apple surface. This study reveals the presence of PAHs in apples due to the high air contamination of Mexico City.

  14. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  15. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  16. Spatial distribution of heavy hydrocarbons, PAHs and metals in polluted areas. The case of "Galicia", Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Chianese, E; Riccio, A; Delgado-Sanchez, A; Lacorte, S

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this work is to verify the impact of anthropogenic activities and the effects of accidental events, e.g. oil spills, on the marine environment. For this reason, marine sediments and soil samples were collected in the inner part of Vigo and Pontevedra bays, in the Galicia region, northwest Spain, an area interested by many events of oil spills and also characterized by coastal areas with intense anthropic activities; also Cíes Islands, a natural protected area facing the Vigo bay, was investigated, as background site. PAHs, heavy hydrocarbons and metals were analyzed according to standard methods, in order to satisfy quality assurance and quality check constraints. Total PAHs concentration (Σ 16 compounds) were in the range of 25-4000ng/g, and 30-800ng/g for marine sediments and soil samples, respectively. Even some samples from the Cíes Islands, show a contamination with values achieving >200ng/g of PAHs. Although contamination levels have been shown to be strong at several locations in the study area, their ranges are those typical of other estuarine sites, with PAHs and hydrocarbons primarily of pyrolytic origin. This observation was further confirmed by enrichment factors of some metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that match to those of harbor and shipyard zones of the main industrial and commercial maritime areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendyk Łukasz; Charzyński Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally imp...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild marine organisms from South China Sea: Occurrence, sources, and human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chang-Liang; Gu, Yang-Guang; Liu, Qi; Li, Liu-Dong; Huang, Hong-Hui; Cai, Nan; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2017-04-15

    Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 15 marine wild organism species from South China Sea. The concentration (dry weight) of 16 PAHs ranged from 94.88 to 557.87ng/g, with a mean of 289.86ng/g. The concentrations of BaP in marine species were no detectable. The composition of PAHs was characterized by the 2- and 3-ring PAHs in marine species, and NA, PHE and FA were the dominant constituents. PAHs isomeric ratios indicated PAHs mainly originated from grass, wood and coal combustion, and petroleum. The human health risk assessment based on the excess cancer risk (ECR) suggested the probability of PAHs posing carcinogenic risk to human beings with consumption of marine organisms were negligible (probability<1×10 -6 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Medicago sativa L. by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2017-04-01

    Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in PAH uptake, responses and degradation by plants. Thus, the present study aimed to detect the location of pyrene, anthracene and phenanthrene using fluorescence microscopy techniques in shoots and roots of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) plants grown in artificially contaminated soil (150ppm PAHs) for 40days. Leaflet and root samples were then collected and observed under a fluorescence microscope to detect the presence of PAHs in various tissues. One important finding of the present study was intense fluorescence in the glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) of plants grown in contaminated soil. These trichomes, with a previously unknown function, may be sites of PAH conjugation and degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parking lot sealcoat: a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban and suburban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Scoggins, Mateo; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative studies by the City of Austin and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar based sealcoat—the black, shiny emulsion painted or sprayed on asphalt pavement such as parking lots—as a major and previously unrecognized source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life. Studies in Austin, Texas, showed that particles in runoff from coal-tar based sealcoated parking lots had concentrations of PAHs that were about 65 times higher than concentrations in particles washed off parking lots that had not been sealcoated. Biological studies, conducted by the City of Austin in the field and in the laboratory, indicated that PAH levels in sediment contaminated with abraded sealcoat were toxic to aquatic life and were degrading aquatic communities, as indicated by loss of species and decreased numbers of organisms. Identification of this source of PAHs may help to improve future strategies for controlling these compounds in urban water bodies across the Nation where parking lot sealcoat is used.

  2. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  3. Occurrence and source of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in tidal flats of the Ariake Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2013-07-02

    In this study, we hypothesize that natural photochemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flats are responsible for the occurrence of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs). This study aims to survey the impact of photochemical reactions using a combination of field surveys and lab-scale experiments. Concentrations and profiles of PAHs and Cl-PAHs in road dust and sediments collected from seven tunnels and two watersheds, respectively, were determined. In the lab-scale experiments, anthracene was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light under various salinity conditions. No detectable Cl-PAHs were found in the road dust. However, Cl-PAHs were detected in the sediments from 700 to 6.1 × 10(3) pg g(-1) and specifically from downstream sites. 2-Monochloroanthracene (2-Cl-ANT) and 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) were dominant in the sediments. In the Domen River watershed, the ∑Cl-PAHs and the salinity showed a significant positive correlation (p PAHs. 2-Cl-ANT, 9-monochloroanthracene, and 9,10-di-Cl-ANT were identified as transformation products in the UV irradiation experiments. Production of these Cl-PAHs was dependent on the solution salinity. These results support our hypothesis, and we conclude that photochemical reactions significantly contribute to the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the studied tidal flats.

  4. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao, E-mail: hernando.bacosa@utexas.edu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373 (United States); Inoue, Chihiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  6. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  7. Field measurements of the atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and velocities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Zúñiga-Rival, Javier; Ojeda, María-José; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2014-05-20

    The atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured, for the first time, in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Depositional fluxes for fine (0.7-2.7 μm) and coarse (>2.7 μm) aerosol fractions were simultaneously determined with the suspended aerosol phase concentrations, allowing the determination of PAH deposition velocities (vD). PAH dry deposition fluxes (FDD) bound to coarse aerosols were higher than those of fine aerosols for 83% of the measurements. Average FDD for total (fine + coarse) Σ16PAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) ranged from 8.33 ng m(-2)d(-1) to 52.38 ng m(-2)d(-1). Mean FDD for coarse aerosol's individual PAHs ranged between 0.13 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Perylene) and 1.96 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Pyrene), and for the fine aerosol fraction these ranged between 0.06 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Dimethyl Pyrene) and 1.25 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Chrysene). The estimated deposition velocities went from the highest mean vD for Methyl Chrysene (0.17-13.30 cm s(-1)), followed by Dibenzo(ah)Anthracene (0.29-1.38 cm s(-1)), and other high MW PAHs to minimum values of vD for Dimethyl Pyrene (oceans.

  8. Environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The correlation with and impact on reproductive hormones in umbilical cord serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanshan; Tang, Mengling; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Tianle; Liu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of ubiquitous pollutant with the potential ability to cause endocrine disruption that would have an adverse health impact on the general population. To assess the maternal exposure to PAHs in neonates and evaluate the possible impact of PAHs on reproductive hormone levels, the concentration of PAHs and reproductive hormone levels in the umbilical cord serum of 98 mother-infant pairs in the Shengsi Islands were investigated. The median concentration of total PAHs was determined to be 164 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR 93.6-267) ng g-1 lipid, and 68% of the PAHs were lower-molecule congeners. The highest level was found for pyrene (PYR) and naphthalene (NAP), which contributed 54.6% of all the PAHs present in the samples. The exposure to PAHs negatively affected estradiol (E2) and Anti-Mullerian hormones (AMH) and positively affected FSH in the umbilical cord serum. The result expanded the database of the human burden of PAHs and suggested that PAHs can act as a type of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical (EDC). These results may help to understand the complex pathways involved in disorders of human reproductive health associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-04-16

    Our study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these, 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples, and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2-, and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values <0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and nonsmokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol, and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or nonsignificant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r = 0.77) and urine NNAL (r = 0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4 ± 38.6, mean ± SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1

  10. Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Parmy, Saeid; Faridi, Sasan; Rafiee, Ata; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m(-3)) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m(-3)). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m(-3) in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m(-3) in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10(-6) and 16.78 × 10(-6), respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean.

  11. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a mixed culture and its component pure cultures, obtained from PAH-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzesicka-Mlynarz, D.; Ward, O. P.

    1995-06-01

    A mixed culture, isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) grew on and degraded fluoranthene in aqueous media supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and peptone. A pure culture of Pseudomona sp. strain HL7b which was known to degrade fluoranthene was incorporated into initial experiments for comparative purposes. Increased complex nitrogen levels in the aqueous media promoted bacteria growth, and fluoranthene degradation, while high glucose levels diminished fluoranthene degradation. The mixed culture containing 4 Gram-negative rods biodegraded the PAH mixture better than the pure culture. Pure cultures exhibited a good capacity for removal of more water-soluble PAHs, but a lesser capacity for low water-soluble PAHs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 26 refs.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  13. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, A; Habeeb Rahman, K; Gireeshkumar, T R; Balachandran, K K; Jacob, Chacko; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2017-01-30

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed significant seasonal dynamics in surface sediments of a tropical ecosystem (Cochin estuary, south west coast of India). Concentrations ranged from 304 to 5874ngg-1 in pre-monsoon, 493 to 14,149ngg-1 in monsoon, and 194 to 10,691ngg-1 in post-monsoon. The estuary was moderately contaminated with low molecular weight PAH fractions, which increased rapidly during the monsoon season indicating land/river runoff as the major transport pathway. The dominance of 2-3 ring fractions in the PAH indicated petrogenic and low temperature combustion processes as major sources, while the very low levels of 5-6 ring components indicated low contribution from pyrolytic sources. Low molecular weight fractions were higher in concentration than the Effective Range-Median (ERM) levels, whereas high molecular weight PAHs were lower than the Effective Range-Low values (ERL). Calculated carcinogenic toxicity equivalents (TEQ) values ranged from 1 to 971ngg-1 in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eco-physiological Effects of Atmospheric Ozone and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandai, S.; Sakugawa, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] Tropospheric ozone is one of most concerned air pollutant, by causing damage to trees and crops. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants found in various environmental compartments. Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs can be driven from formation of intracellular single oxygen and other reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) leading to biological damages.(1) In the present study, we measured photosynthesis rate and other variables to investigate the effects of ozone and PAHs on the eco-physiological status of plants such as eggplant, common bean and strawberry. Plants treated with the single or combined air pollutants are expected to exhibit altered physiological, morphological and possibly growth changes. [Materials and Methods] We performed three exposure experiments. Exp.1. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings, were placed in the open-top chambers (n=6 plants/treatment). Treatment system was ozone (O)(120ppb), phenanthrene (P)(10μM), O+P, fluoranthene (F)(10μM), O+F, mannitol (M)(1mM) and the control (Milli-Q water)(C). P, F and M were sprayed three times weekly on the foliage part of eggplant. Average volume sprayed per seedling was 50mL. The treatment period was 30days and [AOT 40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb)]=28.8 ppmh. Exp.2, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). The treatment system was the same as Exp.1. The treatment period was 40days and [AOT 40]=38.4ppmh. Exp.3. Strawberry (Fragaria L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). Treatment system was O (120ppb), F(10μM), O+F, F+M, O+M and C. The treatment period was 90days and [AOT 40]=86.4ppmh. Ecophysiological variables examined were photosynthesis rate measured at saturated irradiance (Amax), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), photochemical efficiency of PS2 in the dark (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll contents, visual symptom assessment and elemental composition in the

  15. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  17. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  18. Study on the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coal pyrolysis by PY-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2012-12-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during the course of coal pyrolysis are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. The relation between the amount of PAHs from the raw coal and that generated from coal pyrolysis were studied. Firstly, three Chinese coals from Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi were respectively extracted by dichloromethane, and then, online pyrolysis analysis of the raw coals, their extraction residues and extracts were carried out respectively by PY (Pyro-probe CDS 5250)-GC-MS. The experimental results showed that the PAHs generated from the Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi coals in the course of their pyrolysis was 523, 327 and 1707 μg/g, respectively, which were much higher than the free PAHs extracted from their corresponding raw coals. The PAHs in the raw coals were dominated by 4,5-ring PAHs, while those generated from the coal pyrolysis were dominated by lower-ring (2,3-rings) PAHs. A lot of important information about the generation of PAHs from residue pyrolysis was also included in the paper which indicated that the PAHs were mainly from complex chemical reactions of the coal pyrolysis, and PAHs were more likely to be generated from the residue pyrolysis due to the increased pores that appeared on the coal surface during the course of extraction operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere: sorption mechanism and source contributions to respiratory deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Li, Xiang; Xu, Ting Ting; Cheng, Tian Tao; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jian Min; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    In order to better understand the particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source contribution to human respiratory system, size-resolved PAHs have been studied in ambient aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site during a 1-year period (2012-2013). The results showed the PAHs had a bimodal distribution with one mode peak in the fine-particle size range (0.4-2.1 µm) and another mode peak in the coarse-particle size range (3.3-9.0 µm). Along with the increase in ring number of PAHs, the intensity of the fine-mode peak increased, while the coarse-mode peak decreased. Plotting of log(PAH / PM) against log(Dp) showed that all slope values were above -1, suggesting that multiple mechanisms (adsorption and absorption) controlled the particle size distribution of PAHs. The total deposition flux of PAHs in the respiratory tract was calculated as being 8.8 ± 2.0 ng h-1. The highest lifetime cancer risk (LCR) was estimated at 1.5 × 10-6, which exceeded the unit risk of 10-6. The LCR values presented here were mainly influenced by accumulation mode PAHs which came from biomass burning (24 %), coal combustion (25 %), and vehicular emission (27 %). The present study provides us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system, which can help develop better source control strategies.

  20. Hydrocarbon Deposition Attenuates Osteoblast Activity on Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ueno, T.; Migita, S.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Doi, H.; Ogawa, T.; Hanawa, T.; Wakabayashi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Although the reported percentage of bone-implant contact is far lower than 100%, the cause of such low levels of bone formation has rarely been investigated. This study tested the negative biological effect of hydrocarbon deposition onto titanium surfaces, which has been reported to be inevitable. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on titanium disks on which the carbon concentration was experimentally regulated to achieve carbon/titanium (C/Ti) ratios of 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0. Initial cellular activities such as cell attachment and cell spreading were concentration-dependently suppressed by the amount of carbon on the titanium surface. The osteoblastic functions of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were also reduced by more than 40% on the C/Ti (1.0) surface. These results indicate that osteoblast activity is influenced by the degree of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium implants and suggest that hydrocarbon decomposition before implant placement may increase the biocompatibility of titanium. PMID:24868012

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries of China: Distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinxia; Liu, Jingling; Shi, Xuan; You, Xiaoguang; Cao, Zhiguo

    2016-08-15

    The distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries in Hai River Basin of China, which has been suffering from different anthropogenic pressures, were investigated. In three estuaries, the average concentration of ΣPAHs was the lowest in Luan River estuary, followed by Hai River estuary, and the highest in Zhangweixin River estuary. There were significant seasonal variations in ΣPAHs, the concentrations of ΣPAHs were higher in November than in May and August. The composition profiles of PAHs in different sites were significantly different, and illustrated seasonal variations. Generally, 2-ring (Nap) and 3-ring PAHs (Acp, Fl and Phe) were the most abundant components at most sampling sites in three estuaries. The PAHs in three estuaries were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. A method based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) was proposed to assess the ecological risk of ΣPAHs, with the ecological risk of individual PAHs being considered separately. The results showed that the ecological risks caused by ΣPAHs were high in Hai River estuary and Zhangweixin River estuary, and moderate in Luan River estuary. The mean values of ecological risk in August were lower than those in November. The contributions of individual PAHs to ecological risk were different in May, August and November. 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs accounted for much more ecological risk than 2-ring, 5-ring and 6-ring, although the contributions of 5-ring and 6-ring to ecological risk were higher than these to PAHs concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gas chromatographic retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-substituted PAHs on two stationary phases of different selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Federica; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Retention indices (I) for 45 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 63 methyl-substituted PAHs were determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using two different stationary phases: a Rxi-PAH phase (a "higher phenyl-content stationary phase") and a 50% (mole fraction) liquid crystalline dimethylpolysiloxane phase. Retention data were obtained for parent PAHs from molecular mass (MM) 128 g/mol (naphthalene) to 328 g/mol (benzo[c]picene) and for 12 sets of methyl-PAHs (methylfluorenes, methylanthracenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylfluoranthenes, methylpyrenes, methylbenz[a]anthracenes, methylbenzo[c]phenanthrenes, methylchrysenes, methyltriphenylenes, methylbenzo[a]pyrenes, methylperylenes, and methylpicenes). Molecular shape descriptors such as length-to-breath ratio (L/B) and thickness (T) were determined for all the PAHs studied. Correlation between I and L/B ratio was evaluated for both stationary phases with a better correlation observed for the 50% liquid crystalline phase (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.22 to 1.00). Graphical Abstract GC separation of six methylchrysene isomers (m/z 242) on two different stationary phases: 50 % phenyl-like methylpolysiloxane phase and 50 % liquid crystalline phase. Retention indices (I) are plotted as a function of L/B for both phases. The data marker numbers identify each isomer based on methyl-substitution position.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indoor Dusts of Guizhou, Southwest of China: Status, Sources and Potential Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4–6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10−6, 5.00×10−6, 3.08×10−6, 6.02×10−6 for children and 5.92×10−6, 4.83×10−6, 2.97×10−6, 5.81×10−6 for adults, respectively. PMID:25719362

  4. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  5. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in top soils from rural terrains in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Gibson, Richard; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, María de Lourdes

    2012-03-01

    A soil survey was carried out to determine the levels and sources and concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2 semi-rural terrains in Mexico City (Tlahuac and Milpa Alta) during 2008-2009. PAH determination was made by Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic clean-up with final analysis by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The concentrations in Tlahuac were 9.13 mg/kg (dry season) and 11.22 mg/kg (wet season) and in Milpa Alta were 11.43 mg/kg (dry season) and 35.77 mg/kg (wet season). The variation of total PAH concentrations are due to environmental and anthropogenic conditions within Mexico City and also the addition of compost to the soils. According to Mexican regulations BaP, DaA, BbF and Ind were within the permissible limit (2 mg/kg) for agricultural and residential soils and BkF was close to the limit (8 mg/kg). The total PAH concentrations do however surpass the permissible European limit of 1,000 μg/kg and there is probably some risk to human health, in spite of measures aimed at decreasing contamination in Mexico City. Long term monitoring of soils will be necessary.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Degradation and Detoxification in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Ahn, Ji-Young; Ko, Jung Ho; Lee, Lyon; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Young-Chang; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2016-11-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly present xenobiotics in natural and contaminated soils. We studied three (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl) xenobiotics, catabolism, and associated proteins in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Comparative analysis of the growth-dependent 2-DE results revealed that the intensity of 10 protein spots changed identically upon exposure to the three xenobiotics. Among the upregulated proteins, five protein spots, which were putative dehydrogenase, dioxygenase, and hydrolase and involved in the catabolic pathway of xenobiotic degradation, were induced. Identification of these major multifunctional proteins allowed us to map the multiple catabolic pathway for phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl degradation. A part of the initial diverse catabolism was converged into the catechol degradation branch. Detection of intermediates from 2,3-dihydroxy-biphenyl degradation to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA production by LC/MS analysis showed that ring-cleavage products of PAHs entered the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and were mineralized in S. chungbukense DJ77. These results suggest that S. chungbukense DJ77 completely degrades a broad range of PAHs via a multiple catabolic pathway.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, An [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  9. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  10. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 around 2013 Asian Youth Games period in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuxu; Kong, Shaofei; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Yuan, Liang; Li, Qi; Xiao, Hui; Chen, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 collected near the Nanjing Olympic Sports Center across the Asian Youth Games (AYG) period (from August 2 to August 28, 2013) were analyzed using GC-MS. Their levels, sources and health risks to human were discussed. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 were 9.43, 7.21 and 8.83 ng m- 3 for pre- (August 3-15), during- (August 16-24) and post- (August 25-28) AYG periods, respectively. They were dominated by 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs. Total PAHs concentrations in PM2.5 during AYG period decreased by 24%, when compared with those for pre-AYG period. For combustion-derived PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs, they decreased by 26% and 21%, respectively. It implied that the pollution control measures implemented during the AYG can effectively reduce the emission of PAHs from various sources. The poor correlations between PAHs and meteorological parameters also favored that the variations of PAHs were raised by the changes of emission sources. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis revealed that vehicle emission and coal combustion were the predominant contributors, with minimal effects from biomass burning and petroleum. The health risks for human exposed to PAHs in PM2.5 were quantitatively assessed by BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The estimated ILCR value of PAHs during the AYG periods decreased by 23% and 27% for children and adults when compared with those for the pre-AYG, respectively. It indicated that the pollution control measures reduced the risks of PAHs to sportsmen or human gathered around the Olympic Sport Center.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil shale processing waste deposit: a long-term field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Kirso, Uuve; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2014-05-15

    The leaching behavior of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an oil shale processing waste deposit was monitored during 2005-2009. Samples were collected from the deposit using a special device for leachate sampling at field conditions without disturbance of the upper layers. Contents of 16 priority PAHs in leachate samples collected from aged and fresh parts of the deposit were determined by GC-MS. The sum of the detected PAHs in leachates varied significantly throughout the study period: 19-315 μg/l from aged spent shale, and 36-151 μg/l from fresh spent shale. Among the studied PAHs the low-molecular weight compounds phenanthrene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, and anthracene predominated. Among the high-molecular weight PAHs benzo[a]anthracene and pyrene leached in the highest concentrations. A spent shale deposit is a source of PAHs that could infiltrate into the surrounding environment for a long period of time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  15. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  16. Exposure-response relationship between lung cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B G; Gibbs, G

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the exposure-response function associating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and lung cancer, with consideration of smoking. Mortality, occupational exposure and smoking histories were ascertained for a cohort of 16,431 persons (15,703 men and 728 women) who had worked in one of four aluminium smelters in Quebec from 1950 to 1999. A variety of exposure-response functions were fitted to the cohort data using generalised relative risk models. In 677 lung cancer cases there was a clear trend of increasing risk with increasing cumulative exposure to PAH measured as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). A linear model predicted a relative risk of 1.35 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.51) at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years, but there was a significant departure from linearity in the direction of decreasing slope with increasing exposures. Among the models tried, the best fitting were a two-knot cubic spline and a power curve (RR = (1+bx)(p)), the latter predicting a relative risk of 2.68 at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years. Additive models and multiplicative models for combining risks from occupational PAH and smoking fitted almost equally well, with a slight advantage to the additive. Despite the large cohort with long follow-up, the shape of the exposure-response function and the mode of combination of risks due to occupational PAH and smoking remains uncertain. If a linear exposure-response function is assumed, the estimated slope is broadly in line with the estimate from a previous follow-up of the same cohort, and somewhat higher than the average found in a recent meta-analysis of lung cancer studies.

  17. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. PAH processing in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta Rita

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common chemical compounds on Earth. These big molecules are naturally present in crude oil and coal deposits, and are also formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, hence they are found in car exhaust, cigarette smoke and

  19. Historical changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) input in Lake Baiyangdian related to regional socio-economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Pei, Yuansheng; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, He

    2011-03-15

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over a period of almost 180 years was studied in a sediment core collected from Lake Baiyangdian in northern China. Total PAHs concentration varied from 97.2 to 2402 ng g(-1) dry weight. We found the highest total PAH concentration in 1940s and 1990s, and a decreasing trend from 1990 until present. The warfare and increasing economic activity had the largest impact on the PAH vertical distribution. The implemented measures for pollution control in catchment since 1990 might reduce point source input of PAH in some degree in recently. The historical record of PAHs is different from the developed countries and areas due to difference in socio-economic development condition. PAHs in the core are dominantly pyrogenic in source, i.e., they are mainly from the incomplete combustion of wood and coal. PAHs from terrigenous organic matter input decreased obviously from the 1950s due to rainfall reduction during this period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  1. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Mu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  2. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Chen, Ying; Přibylová, Petra; Teich, Monique; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Guangjie; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Qiang; Herrmann, Hartmut; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Spichtinger, Peter; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module) to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  3. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ecological risk in surface seawater from the west Bohai Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X. M.; Li, J. Y.; Tian, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in west Bohai Bay, China, the sixteen PAHs listed by US EPA in surface seawater were investigated in the Qinhuangdao (QHD), Caofeidian (CFD) and Huanghuagang (HHG) areas. Distribution and composition of PAHs in the dissolved phase (DP) and the suspended particulate associated phase (SP) were detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. An ecological risk assessment was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). The results showed that the 16 PAHs were prevalent in west Bohai Bay and the 2-3 rings PAHs were the predominant chemicals. The QHD area had the highest concentration of total PAHs (TPAHs), which ranged from 186.3 to 531.3 ng/L in DP and 222.7 to 715.7 ng/L in SPM. In all three areas, the PAHs levels in SPM were higher than those in DP. The risk assessment showed that there was a relatively low potential ecological risk of PAHs in the coastal regions of Bohai Bay.

  4. Identification of polar transformation products and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil following bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Aitken, Michael D; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is a technique commonly used to reduce the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. However, the efficacy of bioremedial applications is evaluated based on the removal of a subset of parent (or unsubstituted) PAHs and does not incorporate toxic polar transformation products or the more mutagenic high molecular weight PAHs (MW≥302amu or MW302-PAHs). Previously, an effects-directed analysis approach was used to assess the effect of bioremediation on the toxicity of a coal tar-contaminated soil. Increased genotoxicity and developmental toxicity was measured postbioremedation in the more polar soil extract fractions, as compared to the less polar fractions where the targeted PAHs eluted, and could not be attributed to the 88 target PAHs analyzed for (including selected oxygen-containing PAHs). In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize transformation products in the soil extract fractions identified as toxic, previously. Additionally, the degradation of 12MW302-PAHs, picene (MW=278) and coronene (MW=300) were evaluated following bioremediation. Non-targeted analysis resulted in the tentative identification of 10 peaks with increased intensity postbioremediation (based on mass spectral library matching and fragmentation patterns from >5000 candidate peaks in the soil extracts). Several of these compounds contained oxygen, suggesting they would be relatively polar. MW302-PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation, suggesting that the carcinogenic potential associated with these PAHs might remain unchanged. The results of this study suggest that polar transformation products, and MW302-PAHs, should be considered for realistic risk assessment of bioremediated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  6. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  7. Sediment records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the continental shelf of China: implications for evolving anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-19

    Sources, compositions, and historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea were analyzed to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities. The occurrence of PAHs was mainly derived from various combustion sources, especially the combustion of biomass and domestic coal. Uniform composition of sedimentary PAHs (52-62% of phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) suggested air-borne mixtures intractable to degradation. The concentrations of the sum of 15 PAHs (16 priority pollutants designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene; designed as Σ(15)PAH) in Yellow Sea sediment cores were generally higher than those in the South China Sea. The profiles of Σ(15)PAH concentrations recorded in the sediment cores closely followed historical socioeconomic development in China. In general, Σ(15)PAH concentrations started to increase from the background pollution level posed by agricultural economy at the turn of 20th century. In addition, a Σ(15)PAH concentration reduction was observed during the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), suggesting them as setbacks for economic development in Chinese history. Increasing PAH emissions as a result of increasing coal combustion associated with the rapid urbanization and industrialization since the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy (since 1978) accounted for the fast growth of Σ(15)PAH concentrations in sediment cores. The decline of Σ(15)PAH concentrations from subsurface maximum until sampling time was inconsistent with current-day economic development in China, and may possibly suggest emission reductions due to decreasing proportional use of domestic coal and increasing consumption of cleaner energies (natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

  8. Quantitation and prediction of sorptive losses during toxicity testing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitrated PAH (NPAH) using polystyrene 96-well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Anna C; Tanguay, Robert L; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    Developing zebrafish are increasingly being used for rapid assessments of chemical toxicity, and these assays are frequently conducted in multi-well plastic plates. This study investigated the sorptive behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) to uncoated 96-well polystyrene plates typically used for zebrafish (Danio rerio) testing. We measured the percent sorption in the presence and absence of zebrafish embryos, at two exposure concentrations, as well as using two different procedures (addition of embryos to polystyrene plates either before analyte addition, or allowing 24h of equilibrium between analyte addition and embryo addition to the polystyrene plates). Following exposure, the plates were extracted with hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Allowing 24h of pre-incubation between the addition of analytes and embryos did not significantly impact the percent sorption. The percent sorption was higher for both PAHs and NPAHs at the lower exposure concentration, and sorption was lower in the presence of zebrafish embryos. A mass balance model was developed to predict the sorption to polystyrene plates, based on the PAH and NPAH mass distribution ratios between polystyrene and water. While PAH sorption was significantly correlated with subcooled liquid solubility, NPAH sorption did not correlate with any of the physical-chemical properties investigated. This indicates the need to better understand the sorptive behavior of hydrophobic analytes to plastics, and to better account for sorptive losses during toxicity testing in polystyrene plates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  10. Emissions of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Fu Gui-shan Tunnel of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Hu, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2013-04-01

    Real-world vehicle emission factors for PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mixed vehicles were quantified in the Fu Gui-shan Tunnel of Nanjing during summer and winter of 2010. Concentrations of PM10 and sixteen particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the entrance and exit of the tunnel were studied. The results showed that the four most abundant particular phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of motor vehicle were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. The emission factors for PM10 and particle-phase PAHs were 687 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and 18.853 mg veh- 1 km- 1 in summer, 714 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and 20.374 mg veh- 1 km- 1 in winter. Higher particle-phase PAH emission factors were found to be associated with a high proportion of diesel-fueled vehicles (DV). The estimated PM10 emission factor of gasoline-fueled vehicles (GV) was 513 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and the value for DV was 914 mg veh- 1 km- 1, while EFDV of particulate PAH (31.290 mg veh- 1 km- 1) was nearly 4 times higher than EFGV (9.310 mg veh- 1 km- 1). The five highest emission factors of diesel-fueled vehicles (DV) were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, which was similarly found in the gasoline-fueled vehicles (GV). The sum of these five emission factors accounted for ~ 69% of the total particle-phase PAH of DV and ~ 67% of GV.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Spanish traditional smoked sausage varieties: "Chorizo gallego" and "Chorizo de cebolla".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Bermudez, Roberto; Cobas, Noemí; Figueiredo, Maria; García Fontán, María C

    2011-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in two traditional smoked sausages from Spain was determined. Results showed, that total average levels of PAHs found were higher in "Chorizo de cebolla" (101.81 vs. 98.48 μgkg(-1)). Most contents of PAHs found in both sausages were phenanthrene, naphthalene and anthracene. The maximum level for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of 5 μgkg(-1) in smoked meat products was not exceeded in any samples. BaP represented a 0.73% and 1.15% with respect to the total sum of the 15 PAHs that were investigated in this study for "Chorizo gallego" and "Chorizo de cebolla", respectively. Correlation statistic analysis (P cebolla" samples (R(BaP/7EPA) = 0.95) and in "Chorizo gallego" samples (R(BaP/7EPA) = 0.81). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatmand, Mohammad; Ng, How Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was explored to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water originated from soil. The results showed consistent power generations of 6.02±0.34 and 3.63±0.37 mW/m(2) under an external resistance of 1500 Ω by the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively. Although the power generations were low, they had relatively low internal resistances (i.e., 436.6±69.4 and 522.1±1.8 Ω for the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively) in comparison with the literature. Nevertheless, the significant benefit of this system was its bioremediation capabilities, achieving 41.7%, 31.4% and 36.2% removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively, in the aerobic environment and 76.9%, 52.5% and 36.8%, respectively, in the anaerobic environment. These results demonstrated the ability of SMFCs in stimulating microorganisms for bioremediation of complex and recalcitrant PAHs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in vegetable oils and fats do not reflect the occurrence of the eight genotoxic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomirah, Husam; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Husain, Adnan; Sawaya, Wajih; Ahmed, Nisar; Gevao, Bondi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 115 samples of olive oil (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, olive oil, pomace olive oil and blended olive oil), cooking oil (corn oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, palm olein oil, soya oil, canola oil, mustard oil, peanut oil and mixed vegetable oil) and fat (butter and table margarine) collected from retail stores in Kuwait. Carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was detected in 43% of the samples analyzed. Benz[a]anthracene and chrysene were detected in 37 and 45% of the samples, respectively, that did not contain BaP. Of the individual non-carcinogenic PAHs, naphthalene showed the highest mean concentration (14 microg kg(-1)), while for the carcinogenic PAHs, BaP (0.92 microg kg(-1)) and chrysene (0.87 microg kg(-1)) showed the highest mean values. Approximately 20% of the samples within the olive oil and cooking oil sub-categories exceeded the EU maximum tolerable limit for BaP, with the highest level of 6.77 and 11.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. For the fat sub-category, 9% of the samples exceeded the tolerance limit, with the highest level of 3.67 microg kg(-1). The Kuwaiti general population's dietary exposure to the genotoxic PAHs (PAH8: benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be 196 ng day(-1) (3.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), assuming an average adult body weight of 60 kg). Results indicated that PAH8 and BaP(eq) (total sum benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) are more reliable measures of the concentrations of other carcinogenic PAHs in oil and fat samples, while BaP and PAHs alone are not good indicators of the occurrence or degree of contamination by carcinogenic PAHs in these food products.

  14. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  15. Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Magam, Sami M; Masood, Najat; Alkhadher, Sadeq A A; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the surface sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers were analyzed to identify the distributions, and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total PAH concentrations varied from 716 to 1210 and 1102 to 7938 ng g(-1)dw in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as moderate and high level of pollution in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The comparison of PAHs with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) indicates that the PAHs in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers may have the potential to cause adverse toxicity effects on the sampled ecosystems. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic- and pyrogenic-origin PAHs with dominance of pyrogenic source in both rivers. These findings demonstrate that the environmental regulations in Malaysia have effectively reduced the input of petrogenic petroleum hydrocarbons into rivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-resolution depositional records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the central continental shelf mud of the East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhigang Guo; Tian Lin; Gan Zhang; Zuosheng Yang; Ming Fang [Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China). College of Marine Geosciences

    2006-09-01

    A well-placed {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the distal mud in the central continental shelf of the East China Sea is used to reconstruct the high-resolution atmospheric depositional record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), believed to be transported mainly from China in the past 200 years due to the East Asian Monsoon. Total PAHs (TPAHs), based on the 16 USEPA priority PAHs, range from 27 in 1788 to 132 ng g{sup -1} in 2001. TPAH variation in the core reflects energy usage changes and follows closely the historical economic development in China. PAHs in the core are dominantly pyrogenic in source, i.e., they are mainly from the incomplete combustion of coal and biomass burning. Several individual PAHs suggest that contribution from incomplete petroleum combustion has increased during recent years. Analysis of the 2 + 3 ring and the 5 + 6 ring PAHs and principle component analysis provide more evidence in the change in the energy structure, especially after 1978 when China embarked on the 'Reform and Open' Policy, indicating the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy of China. The historical profile of PAH distribution in the study area is obviously different from the United States and Europe due to their difference in energy structure and economic development stages. 39 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in road dust from a metropolitan area, Hanoi-Vietnam: contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Misaki, Kentaro; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-09-01

    Dioxin-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) was applied to assess the total toxic activity of the mixture of PAHs and related compounds as well as dioxin-related compounds in road dust from urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. Road dust from Hanoi contained significantly higher DR-CALUX activities (3 to 39, mean 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw) than those from a rural site (2 to 13, mean 5 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw). The total concentrations of 24 major PAHs (Σ24PAHs) in urban road dust (0.1 to 5.5, mean 2.5 μg/g dw) were also 6 times higher than those in rural road dust (0.08 to 1.5, mean 0.4 μg/g dw). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated vehicular engine combustion as the major PAH emission source in both sites. PAHs accounted for 0.8 to 60% (mean 10%) and 2 to 76% (mean 20%) of the measured CALUX-TEQs in road dust for Hanoi the rural site, respectively. Benzo[b]-/benzo[k]fluoranthenes were the major TEQ contributors among PAHs, whereas DRCs contributed hydrocarbon receptor agonists in road dust. Significant PAH concentrations in urban dust indicated high mutagenic and carcinogenic potencies. Estimated results of incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that Vietnamese populations, especially those in urban areas such as Hanoi, are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact. This is the first study on the exposure risk of AhR agonists, including PAHs and DRCs, in urban road dust from a developing country using a combined bio-chemical analytical approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS, roadside (RS and park (PS functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs varied in a range of 35.4–116 mg/kg, 5.93–66.5 mg/kg and 3.87–76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4–49.0%, followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9–24.5%. Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0–25 cm, 4.29 mg/kg (25–50 cm, 3.00 mg/kg (50–75 cm, 2.64 mg/kg (75–100 cm respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes.

  19. Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Young Sung, E-mail: ysghim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Wangsan-ri, Mohyeon-myeon, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, BK21 Team for Biohydrogen Production, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young [Center for Environmental Technology Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Pyo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected air samples at a remote site during an Asian dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed levels, patterns, and gas/particle partitioning of PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particulate PAHs were highly correlated with PM{sub 2.5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fraction of particulate PAHs increased during the dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine particles might be an important carrier of PAHs emitted from China. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and total suspended particles were measured at Gosan, Jeju Island in Korea, a remote background site, for 15 days (March 29-April 12, 2002). During the sampling period, a severe three-day Asian dust (AD) event originating from Mongolia and northern China was observed throughout the Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island. In addition, pollution (PO) and normal (NO) periods were also identified based on the levels of anthropogenic pollutants. Despite a large difference of PM{sub 10} concentrations between the AD and PO periods, the levels of particulate PAHs in both periods were comparable (2.7 {+-} 1.0 and 2.4 {+-} 0.5 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) since they were determined by the concentration of anthropogenic PM{sub 2.5} transported from industrial areas of China. In the AD period, the level of gaseous PAHs, which were mostly from local sources, was the lowest due to strong winds; the gas/particle partitioning was close to equilibrium as the effect of long-range transport was manifested. The results of backward air trajectories, correlation analysis, and diagnostic ratios show that long-range transport of particulate PAHs produced by coal/biomass burning in China could strongly affect the levels and patterns of PAHs at Gosan, Korea.

  20. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Nana; Jin, Bo; Zhuang, Xuliang; Bai, Zhihui

    2017-10-09

    Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS), roadside (RS) and park (PS) functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs) varied in a range of 35.4-116 mg/kg, 5.93-66.5 mg/kg and 3.87-76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4-49.0%), followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9-24.5%). Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0-25 cm), 4.29 mg/kg (25-50 cm), 3.00 mg/kg (50-75 cm), 2.64 mg/kg (75-100 cm) respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg) according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq) were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg) and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes.

  1. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Nana; Jin, Bo; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS), roadside (RS) and park (PS) functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs) varied in a range of 35.4–116 mg/kg, 5.93–66.5 mg/kg and 3.87–76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4–49.0%), followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9–24.5%). Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0–25 cm), 4.29 mg/kg (25–50 cm), 3.00 mg/kg (50–75 cm), 2.64 mg/kg (75–100 cm) respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg) according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq) were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg) and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes. PMID:28991219

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), petroleum derived hydrocarbons and phenol in leachate of large scaled lysimeter experiments for validation of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Ecological Chemistry (Germany)]|[TUM- Lehrstuhl fur Okologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik, Freising (Germany); Peschke, D. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Ecological Chemistry (Germany); Klotz, D. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Groundwater Ecology (Germany); Martens, Dieter [TUM- Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik, 85350 Freising (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater contamination by organic chemicals has become an urgent problem. Besides of laboratory studies, high tier studies with lysimeters for the validation of mathematical models are urgently required, especially for persistent organic pollutants and related compounds. According to an expert panel there is a need for research in order to forecast and manage the protection of soil and groundwater. Before this background lysimeter studies were conducted and exposed to topsoil layers from remediation sites containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenol and petroleum derived hydrocarbons. The lysimeter of which the results are presented here consists of cylindric vessel of 1 m{sup 2} cross-section and a length of 2.05 m filled with soil (sandy silt) from Hipolstein, Bavaria. The lysimeter was equipped with different sensors (T, tension, TDR) and sampling units. The soil (1.2 m) was topped with 0.5 m contaminated homogenous organic soil layer from a superfund site. In addition this material was filled in small lysimeters of 0.1 m{sup 2} cross-section and 0.65 m length filled with the polluted soil at the same height and used for source term determination instead of using sampling points of the large lysimeter because there only low amounts of leachate could be expected. Both lysimeters receive the same wet and dry deposition during the experiment. In order to generate precise data for the chemicals concentration in the leachates a comprehensive analytical procedure for the chemicals under investigation using isotope dilution method and employing high resolution gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry was developed and validated for leachates from source-term experiments and the different sampling sites of lysimeters. The use of glassware and other materials is efficiently limited to minimize risk of contamination for the analytical method applicable in the ng/l range. The CV elaborated allows precise reliable measurements. LOD and recovery data are

  3. Concentrations and origin of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of western Spitsbergen fjords (Kongsfjorden, Hornsund, and Adventfjorden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, Anna; Zaborska, Agata; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    Contaminant profiles in sediment cores represent valuable natural archives of environmental contamination, by which contaminant sources and historical changes in contaminant input and cycling may be recognized. In the present study, we discuss the sedimentary profiles and historical trends of organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in three fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact. The obtained results revealed no significant differences between the fjords Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, in the average levels of the analyzed contaminants. Levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 ng/g d.w. for ∑7 PCBs and from 37.3 to 1973 ng/g d.w. for ∑12 PAHs were measured. The observed spatial and temporal differences in contaminant levels are rather related to local variations in the fjords associated with the location of sampling stations. Higher concentrations of the ∑7 PCBs exceeding 1.00 ng/g d.w. were measured in sediment cores collected in the inner parts of both fjords, which remain under the influence of melting glacier outflows. Important concentrations of these contaminants were noticed in layers deposited recently, suggesting intensive supply of these substances from secondary sources. The observed levels are generally low and well below known established no effect levels. Only the concentration of fluoranthene exceeded the threshold effect level at several sampling stations. Moreover, fluoranthene concentrations in almost all Adventfjorden sediment layer samples were above probable effect levels, which can indicate a risk of adverse effects in exposed benthic organisms. The fluoranthene/pyrene and phenthrene/anthracene ratios, which are used for identification of hydrocarbon sources, suggest a dominance of PAHs of pyrolytic genesis in Kongsfjorden and Hornsund. In Adventfjorden, hydrocarbons of petrogenic origin were predominant. However, other sources

  4. Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Groboillot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production.

  5. Combined effects of DOM and biosurfactant enhanced biodegradation of polycylic armotic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Huang, Guo-He; Xiao, Huining; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the interactive effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in soil-water systems. The degradations of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were fitted well with first order kinetic model and the degradation rates were in proportion to the concentration of biosurfactant. In addition, the degradation enhancement of PHE was higher than that of PYR. The addition of soil DOM itself at an environmental level would inhibit the biodegradation of PAHs. However, in the system with co-existence of DOM and biosurfactant, the degradation of PAHs was higher than that in only biosurfactant addition system, which may be attributed to the formation of DOM-biosurfactant complex micelles. Furthermore, under the combined conditions, the degradation of PAH increased with the biosurfactant concentration, and the soil DOM added system showed slightly higher degradation than the compost DOM added system, indicating that the chemical structure and composition of DOM would also affect the bioavailability of PAHs. The study result may broaden knowledge of biosurfactant enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil and groundwater.

  6. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from an...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs, azaarenes) in soils along a climosequence in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcke, Wolfgang; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, Maria Gomez; Ruppenthal, Marc; Del Valle, Hector; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of soil properties and climate on concentrations of parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and OPAHs) and azaarenes (AZAs) in topsoil and subsoil at 20 sites along a 2100-km north (N)-south (S) transect in Argentina. The concentrations of Σ29PAHs, Σ15OPAHs and Σ4AZAs ranged 2.4-38 ng g(-1), 0.05-124 ng g(-1) and not detected to 0.97 ng g(-1), respectively. With decreasing anthropogenic influence from N to S, low molecular weight PAHs increasingly dominated. The octanol-water partitioning coefficients correlated significantly with the subsoil to topsoil concentration ratios of most compounds suggesting leaching as the main transport process. Organic C concentrations correlated significantly with those of many compounds typical for atmosphere-soil partitioning. Lighter OPAHs were mainly detected in the S suggesting biological sources and heavier OPAHs in the N suggesting a closer association with parent-PAHs. Decreasing alkyl-naphthalene/naphthalene and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANQ)/anthracene ratios from N to S indicated that 9,10-ANQ might have originated from low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  11. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their metabolites in blood, feces, and urine of rats orally exposed to PAH contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, F J; Moonen, E J; van der Wal, L; Levels, P; Kleinjans, J C

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have become an ubiquitous upper soil component as a consequence of industrialization involving a multitude of combustion processes. Ingestion of PAH contaminated soil is considered to be a major exposure route, specifically for small children living on these soils. Health risk assessment is based on extrapolations from data obtained via studies performed with pure chemicals. Additionally it is assumed that after oral intake all PAH present in the soil will be absorbed by the human body. Interactions with the soil matrix, however, may modulate the bioavailability of PAH. In this study, we examined the absorption and excretion of PAH in rats orally exposed either to industrially contaminated soils or pure model compounds as anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). The model compounds and the metabolites, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene) and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), were measured in blood, feces or urine by means of HPLC with fluorescence detection. Because of rapid biotransformation only minimal levels of unmetabolized anthracene, pyrene and B[a]P in blood could be detected. The pharmacokinetic parameters were nonlinear and suggestive of enterohepatic cycling. Only low levels of the compounds were excreted unchanged in feces whereas the levels of the metabolites were considerably higher in feces and urine. These results indicate that the dosed PAH are largely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, subsequently metabolized and excreted as metabolites via urine and feces. Significant differences between the soil-treated group and the pure mixture-treated group could be observed; the soil-treated group showed higher fecal excretion of unchanged pyrene (0.5 versus 0.2% of the original dose) and B[a]P (1 versus 0.3%), lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in feces (5.1 versus 17. 0%), and lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in urine (0.2 versus 3.4%). The fecal excretion of 3-OH-B[a]P between the two groups was similar (8

  12. [Interaction of biosurfactant-microorganism to enhance phytoremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contaminated soils with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Yin, Rui; Lin, Xian-gui; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiao-min; Li, Xuan-zhen; Yang, Ting

    2010-04-01

    A pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out to investigate the interactive effect of rhamnolipids (RH) addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria (DB) inoculation on the phytoremediation efficiency for removal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from agricultural soils. Results indicated that RH addition and DB inoculation promoted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) growth and PAHs degradation in the soil. After 90 days, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 30.0% and 49.6% for the treatment of RH and DB, respectively, but only 21.7% for control. For the treatment of RH + DB, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 53.9%, showing synergy effect of RH addition and DB inoculation. In addition, the average PAHs degradation gradually reduced with the increase of the PAHs rings, but DB inoculation promoted the degradation of four-ring PAHs and five-ring PAHs. The number of PAHs degrading bacteria and dehydrogenase activity increased with the removal ratio of PAHs. Therefore RH addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria inoculation were effective in enhancing the phytoremediation efficiency of the long-term PAHs contaminated soils.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  14. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  15. The Influence of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Bioavailability and Toxicity to Soil Microbial Communities in Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may affect bioavailability and toxicity of organic contaminants due to their adsorption properties. Recent studies have observed the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic contaminants. Greenh...

  16. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  17. Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.

  18. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  19. Selective treatment to reduce contamination of propolis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) still preserving its active polyphenol component and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Fabio; Crimaldi, Laura; Maccari, Francesca; Zaccaria, Vincenzo; Fachini, Alfredo; Volpi, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents. Extracts were characterised for total content of polyphenols, for in vitro antioxidant activity, and single classes of polyphenols evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Obtained propolis extracts were found to have PAH8 and specific benzo[a]pyrene content below limits recommended by EFSA. The reported extractive procedure is easily applicable for possible industrial productions and may also be adopted to the purification of polyphenols from other plant extracts and natural sources.

  20. Chemometric techniques in distribution, characterisation and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in aquaculture sediments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnam, Ananthy; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Kasim, Mohd Fadhil

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in surface sediments within aquaculture areas in Peninsular Malaysia using chemometric techniques, forensics and univariate methods. The samples were analysed using soxhlet extraction, silica gel column clean-up and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 20 to 1841 ng/g with a mean of 363 ng/g dw. The application of chemometric techniques enabled clustering and discrimination of the aquaculture sediments into four groups according to the contamination levels. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices was used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, oil combustion and biomass combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores-multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are vehicle emissions 54%, oil 37% and biomass combustion 9%. Land-based pollution from vehicle emissions is the predominant contributor of PAHs in the aquaculture sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  2. Inferring sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the western Taiwan Strait through end-member mixing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Guihua; Ma, Shengzhong; Liang, Kai; Yang, Chupeng; Li, Bo; Luo, Weidong

    2016-11-15

    Concentration, spatial distribution, composition and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated based on measurements of 16 PAH compounds in surface sediments of the western Taiwan Strait. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.41 to 218.54ngg-1. Cluster analysis identified three site clusters representing the northern, central and southern regions. Sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic in the north, from pyrolytic in the central, and from petrogenic in the south. An end-member mixing model was performed using PAH compound data to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end-members (i.e., extreme-value sample points) proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the analyzed samples can be expressed as mixtures of three end-members, and the mixing of different end-members was strongly related to the transport pathway controlled by two currents, which alternately prevail in the Taiwan Strait during different seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-I; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Wang-Yi; Yoon, Chungsik; Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2014-01-01

    An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF) and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr) and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr) as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA), and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3), action level (0.1 mg/m3), and acceptable health risk (10−3), respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures. PMID:25226413

  4. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  5. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2017-03-01

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  6. Diurnal variations of residential particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-04-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), Low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and Semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) were identified. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. A clear impact of the week and weekend days on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening; during the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached one maxima early in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at Seiffen. This result highlights the important contribution of residential wood

  7. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Spatial-temporal trend and health implications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in resident oysters, South China Sea: A case study of Eastern Guangdong coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zi-Ling; Lin, Qin; Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia

    2016-09-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178ng/g with a mean concentration of 622ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P<0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%-88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5ng/g and 30ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were <10(-5), indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomonitoring, status and source risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using honeybees, pine tree leaves, and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Navid; Matin, Golnar; Matin, Amir Abbas; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg-1 dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg-1 dw in pine leaf samples, and 798.61-2905.53 μg kg-1 dw in propolis samples. The total PAH concentrations can be ranked as follows: propolis > pine leaves > honeybees. The ring sequence pattern was 5 > 3 > 6 > 4 > 2 for honeybees, 5 > 3 > 4 > 6 > 2 for pine leaves, and 5 > 4 > 6 > 3 > 2 for propolis. The diagnostic ratios [fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene], [indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene], and [benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene] indicate coal and biomass combustion to be the dominant PAH source in the study area. In biomonitoring studies of airborne PAHs based on honeybees, fluoranthene is considered to be a characteristic PAH compound. Distribution maps with different numbers of PAH rings among the sampling sites show the advantages of honeybee samples as indicators due to the honeybee's provision of a broader range of information with respect to heavier pollutants that are typically not in the gas or suspended phase for long periods of time. Our correlation, factor analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate potential sources of PAH pollution in pine leaves and honeybees from airborne emissions, but we found propolis to be contaminated by PAHs due to the replacement of herbal sources of resins with synthetic gummy substances from paving materials (e.g., asphalt and tar leaks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs in River Sediment of Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.

  11. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...... revealed a mixture with high proportions of high-molecular-weight PAHs, indicating a pyrogenic/weathered petrogenic source. Samples from Hendijan coast contained low relative concentrations of PAHs, thus only little information on pollution sources....

  12. Biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their first metabolic products in in vivo exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Le Goff, Jeremie; Skogland, Karianne; Marcucci, Cristian R; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Lorentzen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment is a worldwide activity since some of these compounds are well-established carcinogens and mutagens. Contaminants in this class are in fact regarded as priority hazardous substances for environmental pollution (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was selected to assess in vivo effects of two PAH and their first metabolic products, namely, the corresponding trans-dihydrodiols, using biological markers. Fish were exposed for 1 wk to a single PAH (naphthalene or chrysene) and its synthetic metabolites ((1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol and (1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrochrysene-1,2-diol) by intraperitoneal injection in a continuous seawater flow system. After exposure, PAH metabolism including PAH metabolites in bile and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, oxidative stress glutathione S-transferases (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and genotoxicity such as DNA adducts were evaluated, as well as general health conditions including condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and gonadosomatic index (GSI). PAH metabolite values were low and not significantly different when measured with the fixed-wavelength fluorescence screening method, while the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method showed an apparent dose response in fish exposed to naphthalene. DNA adduct levels ≥0.16 × 10(-8) relative adduct level (RAL) were detected. It should be noted that 0.16 × 10(-8) RAL is considered the maximal acceptable background level for this species. The other biomarkers activities of catalase, GST, and EROD did not display a particular compound- or dose-related response. The GSI values were significantly lower in some chrysene- and in both naphthalene- and naphthalene diol-exposed groups compared to control.

  13. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  14. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile as biomarkers of pollution in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from German rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, F; Kammann, U; Wagner, C; Hanel, R

    2012-02-01

    In the light of the alarming decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) population, there is an urgent need to define ecological indicators for eel habitat quality. Due to an increasing shortage of glass eels available for local stock enhancement, the decision of whether restocking is a valuable management tool to increase high-quality silver eel escapement to the sea needs to be evaluated. Organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are among the major threats to fish in their habitat. Therefore, the aim of the investigation presented here was to examine metabolites of PAHs in eel bile as one possible marker for habitat quality. In total, 170 yellow eels were collected in the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Havel, Schlei, Eider, Trave, Warnow, Peene, Uecker, and Oder in 2009. PAH metabolites in eel bile were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Metabolites of pyrene and phenanthrene were investigated. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel bile varied significantly between several rivers, with the highest mean concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene in eel bile from the river Trave (2421 and 632 ng/ml). Moreover, huge differences in the ratio of 1-hydroxypyrene to 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, with the highest mean value in eel bile from the river Ems (7.43) and the lowest mean value in eel bile from the river Uecker (0.70), indicate different sources of PAH contamination. A comparative analysis of PAH-metabolite contamination of eels in different river systems is seen as a first step toward a classification of freshwater habitats for restocking purposes.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determined by pine needles and semipermeable membrane devices along an altitude profile in Taurus Mountains, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Cafer; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali; Mazmanci, Birgül; Yalçın, Melis; Karakuş, PerihanBinnur Kurt; Atatanir, Levent; Keski, Menekşe; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1.5-year-old, and 9.7 to 85,335 pg g/fw in 2.5-year-old needles. Mass of PAHs collected by SPMDs varied from PAH profiles were dependent on the seasonal differences and locations. Roughly, clear decreasing trends with altitude were observed both with SPMD and needles for many individual and groups of PAHs except for the SPMD-summer short-time data. A cross-plot of Fluo/(Fluo+Pyr) vs Ant/(Ant+Phe) diagnostic ratios indicated grass/wood burning (possibly due to forest fires) in summer and petrogenic combustion in winter. Results of the study showed that SPMD and conifer needles are effective passive samplers to measure PAHs in the environment.

  16. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  17. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enrich their degrading genera and genes in human-impacted aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Qing, Qing; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial degradation is an important clearance pathway for organic contaminants from highly human-impacted environments. However, it is not fully understood how organic contaminants are selected for degradation by bacteria and genes in aquatic environments. In this study, PAH degrading bacterial genera and PAH-degradation-related genes (PAHDGs) in sediments collected from the Pearl River (PR), the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS), among which there were distinct differences in anthropogenic impact, were analyzed using metagenomic approaches. The diversity and abundance of PAH degrading genera and PAHDGs in the PR were substantially higher than those in the PRE and the SCS and were significantly correlated with the total PAH concentration. PAHDGs involved with the three key processes of PAH degradation (ring cleavage, side chain and central aromatic processes) were significantly correlated with each other in the sediments. In particular, plasmid-related PAHDGs were abundant in the PR sediments, indicating plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria or the overgrowth of the bacteria containing these plasmids under the stresses of PAHs. Our results suggest that PAH degrading bacteria and genes were rich in PAH-polluted aquatic environments, which could facilitate the removal of PAHs by bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  20. Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Y. Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Landera, Alexander; Kislov, Vadim V.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as key molecules in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest prototype—naphthalene (C10H8)—has remained an open question. Here, we show in a combined crossed beam and theoretical study that naphthalene can be formed in the gas phase via a barrierless and exoergic reaction between the phenyl radical (C6H5) and vinylacetylene (CH2 = CH-C ≡ CH) involving a van-der-Waals complex and submerged barrier in the entrance channel. Our finding challenges conventional wisdom that PAH-formation only occurs at high temperatures such as in combustion systems and implies that low temperature chemistry can initiate the synthesis of the very first PAH in the interstellar medium. In cold molecular clouds, barrierless phenyl-type radical reactions could propagate the vinylacetylene-mediated formation of PAHs leading to more complex structures like phenanthrene and anthracene at temperatures down to 10 K. PMID:22198769

  1. Occurrence and Source Appraisal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Waters of the Almendares River, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jorge Luis; Massone, Carlos German; Valdés, Michel; Vazquez, Rene; Lima, Lázaro Antonio; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana

    2015-08-01

    In this work, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant priority list were analyzed in the surface water of the upper urbanized part of Almendares River, the most important water course in Havana, Cuba. Surface water from five sampling sites was collected at the end of dry season and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method after solid phase extraction procedure. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 836 to 15 811 ng L(-1) with a geometric mean value of 2512 ng L(-1). PAH typology was dominated by low molecular-weight PAHs (2- to 3-ring components). Pollutant source appraisal was determined by diagnostic ratios method in five sampling sites. Factor analysis of normalized samples was used to concentration identified two factors as the main significant pollutant sources and to cluster similar sampling sites corresponding to petrogenic and combustion inputs, respectively. Ecological risks were considered. For animal aquatic life, acute toxicity values exceed the permissible values in the more-polluted sampling sites.

  2. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  3. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  4. Pollution Level, Sources, and Lung Cancer Risk of PM10-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Summer in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in summer in Nanjing, China. PM10 samples were collected in summer of the year 2015 in Nanjing. 16 USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 7.49±2.60 and 1.21±0.24 ng/m3, respectively, being in a middle level among results from regions worldwide. According to the results of diagnostic ratios, PAHs originated mainly from traffic exhaust, especially diesel vehicle emissions. Owing to the inhalation exposure, the median values of incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR were estimated to be 3.36×10-8, 2.50×10-8, 1.69×10-7, 2.54×10-8, 1.38×10-7, 1.18×10-7, 1.27×10-7, and 1.11×10-7 for boys, male adolescents, male adults, male seniors, girls, female adolescents, female adults, and female seniors, respectively, indicating low potential lung cancer risk.

  5. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) levels in women from Mexico exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; González-Palomo, Ana K; Almendarez-Reyna, Claudia I; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a very important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Correspondingly, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, also known as aP2 and AFABP) has been proposed as a new, meaningful and useful biomarker to predict metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women exposed to PAHs. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene ((1-OHP), exposure biomarker for PAHs) levels were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, and serum FABP4 concentrations were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mean urinary 1-OHP level found in women participating in this study was 1.30 ± 1.10 μmol/mol creatinine (2.45 ± 2.10 μg/g creatinine). Regarding serum FABP4 concentrations, the levels ranged from 3.80 to 62.5 ng/mL in the assessed population. Moreover, a significant association (p PAHs), large epidemiological studies are necessary.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mangrove sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.S.H.; Wong, A.H.Y.; Yau, K.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The biodegradability of a mixture of PAHs, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr), in mangrove sediment slurry was investigated. At the end of week 4, natural attenuation based on the presence of autochthonous microorganisms degraded more than 99% Fl and Phe but only around 30% of Pyr were degraded. Biostimulation with addition of mineral salt medium degraded over 97% of all three PAHs, showing that nutrient amendment could enhance Pyr degradation. Bioaugmentation with inoculation of a PAH-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from mangrove sediments did not show any promotion effect and the degradation percentages of three PAHs were similar to that by natural attenuation. Some inhibitory effect was observed in bioaugmentation treatment in week 1 with only 50% Fl and 70% Phe degraded. These results indicate that autochthonous microbes may interact and even compete with the enriched consortium during PAH biodegradation. Natural attenuation appeared to be the most appropriate way to remedy Fl- and Phe-contaminated mangrove sediments while biostimulation was more capable to degrade Pyr-contaminated sediments. The study also shows that although a large portion of the added PAHs (more than 95%) was adsorbed onto the sediments at the beginning of the experiment, most PAHs were degraded in 4 weeks, suggesting that the degraders could utilize the adsorbed PAHs efficiently. PMID:16023146

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  10. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, F. [Dip. Scienze Biologiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)], E-mail: flavia.denicola@unisannio.it; Maisto, G. [Dip. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Prati, M.V. [Istituto Motori del CNR, via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy); Alfani, A. [Dip. Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves. - Different Quercus ilex leaf accumulation of trace elements and PAHs.

  11. Review of the quantification techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-10-13

    There is a growing need for accurate detection of trace-level PAHs in food products due to the numerous detrimental effects caused by their contamination (e.g., toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity). This review aims to discuss the up-to-date knowledge on the measurement techniques available for PAHs contained in food or its related products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive outline on the measurement techniques of PAHs in food to help reduce their deleterious impacts on human health based on the accurate quantification. The main part of this review is dedicated to the opportunities and practical options for the treatment of various food samples and for accurate quantification of PAHs contained in those samples. Basic information regarding all available analytical measurement techniques for PAHs in food samples is also evaluated with respect to their performance in terms of quality assurance.

  12. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  13. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-10-01

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  14. Occurrence of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mytillus galloprovincialis from the traditional market in Marseille, France, by Gas Chromatography triplequadropole tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-QQQ/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Yelmiza; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Bucharil, B.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean mussel, Mytillusgalloprovincialis collected from the traditional market in Marseille, France,have been analysed using GC-QQQ/MS for their hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) extentwith two different solvent extraction, such as heptane:dichloromethane (HEP:DCM;1:1) and heptane:acetone (HEP:ACE; 1:1). The results showed hydrocarbons yielded from heptane:acetone extractionwere 28335 μg.kg- 1mussels dw (Ʃ n-alkanes C15-34) and 202 μg.kg-1mussels dw(ƩPAHs) while the yield from heptane:DCM extract was lower ca. 27026 μg.kg-1musselsdw and 133 μg.kg-1 mussels dw respectively from the Ʃn-alkanesC15-34and ƩPAHs. High hydrocarbon levels can be affected by the presence of lipids or other metabolites in mussels that have the same polarity with hydrocarbon compounds which has interferred the measurement. Several ratio parameter of n- alcanes and PAHs source in the mussels were evaluated to asses the origins of their hydrocarbons in mussels from which we suggested origins of hydrocarbons were pyrolytic and biogenic rather than petrogenic.

  15. Atmospheric concentrations of particulate phase of PAHs and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is witnessing increase in petroleum exploration activities. Natural Crude oil deposits contain significant amounts of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) arising from chemical conversion of natural product molecules. The EPA (2002) has classified seven PAH compounds as probable ...

  16. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  17. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available 32, 2317?2324. Huang, X.D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced toxicity ofPAHs to the f region of Brassica napus (canola) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in simulated solar radiation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety....F., Dixon, G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced eVTects ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 33, 73?80. Siciliano, S.D., Germida, J.J., 1999...

  18. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  19. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Asante, Kwadwo A; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-09-01

    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GMSG, indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or "treatment of various ailments". The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43-5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02-3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39-8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27-7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21-60. The present study showed a

  20. Contribution of atmospheric dry deposition to stormwater loads for PAHs and trace metals in a small and highly trafficked urban road catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Saja; Debade, Xavier; Chebbo, Ghassan; Béchet, Béatrice; Bonhomme, Céline

    2017-12-01

    A deep understanding of pollutant buildup and wash-off is essential for accurate urban stormwater quality modeling and for the development of stormwater management practices, knowing the potential adverse impacts of runoff pollution on receiving waters. In the context of quantifying the contribution of airborne pollutants to the contamination of stormwater runoff and assessing the need of developing an integrated AIR-WATER modeling chain, loads of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal trace elements (MTEs) are calculated in atmospheric dry deposits, stormwater runoff, and surface dust stock within a small yet highly trafficked urban road catchment (~ 30,000 vehicles per day) near Paris. Despite the important traffic load and according to the current definition of "atmospheric" source, atmospheric deposition did not account for more than 10% of the PAHs and trace metal loads in stormwater samples for the majority of the events, based on the ratio of deposition to stormwater. This result shows that atmospheric deposition is not a major source of pollutants in stormwater, and thus, linking the air and water compartment in a modeling chain to have more accurate estimates of pollutant loads in stormwater runoff might not be relevant. Comparison of road dust with water samples demonstrates that only the fine fraction of the available stock is eroded during a rainfall event. Even if the atmosphere mostly generates fine particles, the existence of other sources of fine particles to stormwater runoff is highlighted.

  1. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Maisto, G; Prati, M V; Alfani, A

    2008-05-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves.

  2. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  3. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2017-08-11

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g-1 dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10-6-2.11 × 10-5 and 9.08 × 10-6-4.50 × 10-3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  5. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  6. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge organic matter pools as a driving force of their fate during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemig, Quentin; Chéron, Claire; Delgenès, Nadine; Jimenez, Julie; Houot, Sabine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The fate of organic matter during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in batch systems thanks to a sequential chemical fractionation of the particulate phase coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution within the organic pools was characterized from their analysis in the residual fraction after each extraction. Both methods were combined to understand the link between PAHs presence in organic pools and their spectral characterization after extraction. Two batch systems (sludge and inoculum mixture) were set up to study the impact of PAHs spiking on their fate and distribution. The sequential fractionation allowed us to extract and characterize about 50% of total Chemical Oxygen Demand. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy helped us to understand the organic pools evolution: the most easily extracted pools composed of protein-like molecules were highly degraded meaning that chemical accessibility mimics the bioaccessibility to degrading microorganisms. PAHs were present in all pools of organic matter but native PAHs were mainly present in low accessible (hardly extractable) fractions and during anaerobic digestion, they accumulated in the non-accessible (non extractable) fraction. Spiked PAHs were more dissipated during anaerobic digestion since spiking made them present in more accessible fractions. During the anaerobic digestion, contrary to native PAHs, spiked ones relocated toward less accessible organic fractions confirming the ageing phenomenon. PCA analysis showed that, in spiked mixture, PAHs presence in organic pools is linked to both PAHs physical-chemical properties and quality/quantity of the associated organic pools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizations, relationship, and potential sources of outdoor and indoor particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a community of Tianjin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B; Bai, Z; Liu, Y; You, Y; Xu, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, J; Niu, C; Zhang, N; He, F; Ding, X

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic air pollutants in China. However, because there are unsubstantial data on indoor and outdoor particulate PAHs, efforts in assessing inhalation exposure and cancer risk to PAHs are limited in China. This study measured 12 individual PAHs in indoor and outdoor environments at 36 homes during the non-heating period and heating period in 2009. Indoor PAH concentrations were comparable with outdoor environments in the non-heating period, but were lower in the heating period. The average indoor/outdoor ratios in both sampling periods were lower than 1, while the ratios in the non-heating period were higher than those in the heating period. Correlation analysis and coefficient of divergence also verified the difference between indoor and outdoor PAHs, which could be caused by high ventilation in the non-heating period. To support this conclusion, linear and robust regressions were used to estimate the infiltration factor to compare outdoor PAHs to indoor PAHs. The calculated infiltration factors obtained by the two models were similar in the non-heating period but varied greatly in the heating period, which may have been caused by the influence of ventilation. Potential sources were distinguished using a diagnostic ratio and a mixture of coal combustion and traffic emission, which are major sources of PAHs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p PAHs were also significantly reduced (p PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution, Levels, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Some Water Bodies along the Coastal Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofi Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID. The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 μg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 μg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 μg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 μg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 μg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 μg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(aanthracene, and benzo(j,kfluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime.

  10. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  11. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  12. The relevance of monitoring of antibodies against the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-DNA adducts in serum in relation to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauk, N.; Klimešová, Š.; Kára, J.; Topinka, Jan; Lábaj, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 182-187 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06150 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * anti-PAH antibodies * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate transcriptional activation of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 gene via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-09-14

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics.

  15. The Influence of Sandstorms and Long-Range Transport on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in PM2.5 in the High-Altitude Atmosphere of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5 samples were collected at Mount Heng and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. During sampling, a sandstorm from northern China struck Mount Heng and resulted in a mean PM2.5 concentration of 150.61 μg/m3, which greatly exceeded the concentration measured under normal conditions (no sandstorm: 58.50 μg/m3. The average mass of PAHs in PM2.5 was 30.70 μg/g, which was much lower than in the non-sandstorm samples (80.80 μg/g. Therefore, the sandstorm increased particle levels but decreased PAH concentrations due to dilution and turbulence. During the sandstorm, the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were below their detection limits, and 6-ring PAHs were the most abundant. Under normal conditions, the concentrations of 2-, 3- and 6-ring PAHs were higher, and 4- and 5-ring PAHs were lower relative to the other sampling sites. In general, the PAH contamination was low to medium at Mount Heng. Higher LMW (low molecular weight concentrations were primarily linked to meteorological conditions, and higher HMW (high molecular weight concentrations primarily resulted from long-range transport. Analysis of diagnostic ratios indicated that PM2.5 PAHs had been emitted during the combustion of coal, wood or petroleum. The transport characteristics and origins of the PAHs were investigated using backwards Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling. Under normal conditions, the “footprint” retroplumes and potential source contributions of PAHs for the highest and lowest concentrations indicated that local sources had little effect. In contrast, long-range transport played a vital role in the levels of PM2.5 and PAHs in the high-altitude atmosphere.

  16. Sources appointment and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Erhai Lake, a low-latitude and high-altitude lake in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezhong, Yuan; Enlou, Zhang; Qi, Lin; Rong, Wang; Enfeng, Liu

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from the surficial sediments in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake in China. The results showed that except for acenaphthylene (Ace) Ace and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the central region contained individual PAHs at concentrations lower than those in other lake regions. Total concentration of the PAHsPAHs) in the sediments from Erhai Lake ranged from 32.42 to 558.53 mg/kg with a mean value of 256.70 mg/kg. The maximum value of ΣPAHs was observed in the north region of the lake and more than 10-fold higher than the minimum values. Moreover, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, especially 5-ring PAHs, accounted for higher ratios up to 76 % relative to other PAHs compound in almost all sampling sites. Molecular diagnostic ratios including anthtacene (Ant)/(Ant + phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flt)/(Flt + pyrene (Pyr)), benz(a)anthracene (BaA)/(BaA + chrysene (Chr)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IPY)/(IPY + benz(g,h,i)perylene (BPE)) were recorded at all sampling sites and indicated that the origin of PAHs in Erhai Lake was predominately pyrolytic. Furthermore, principal component analysis with component dominating by HMW PAHs showed that combustion origins were the primary contamination sources of PAHs in the sediments of Erhai Lake. Finally, ecological risk assessment indicated that the sediments from Erhai Lake are exposed to potential low risk for ΣPAHs, and the ecological risk decreases in the order of northern region > southern region > central region.

  17. Spatial distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the reservoir sediments after impoundment of Manwan Dam in the middle of Lancang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, NanNan; Liu, Shiliang; Yin, Yijie; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received increasing attentions owing to their carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and environmental toxicity. The studies on the spatial variations, sources identification and potential ecological risk assessment of PAHs in the reservoir sediments after dam construction are becoming new hotpots. Sixteen PAHs contamination levels were investigated from 15 sample sections in the sediments of Manwan Reservoir in the middle of Lancang River, China. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 14.4 to 137.7 ng g(-1) dw with a mean concentration of 70.68 ng g(-1) dw. The areas with residential settlement at large tributaries and near dam had higher PAHs concentrations. In the sight of classification of PAHs pollution levels, the sediments of Manwan Reservoir could be considered as low to moderate PAHs polluted levels. One-way analysis of variance for spatial analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (P PAHs at the reservoir head, centre and tail. Moreover, no significant differences (P PAH at the mainstream and tributaries except that BaP showed significant differences (P PAHs in Manwan Reservoir might be mixed, primarily including the petroleum source and coal combustion. As compared with sediment quality guidelines, the observed concentrations of PAHs in all sample sections did not exceed the effects range low (ERL) and the threshold effect level (TEL) values, suggesting that there were little harmful biological toxic effects on the aquatic organisms in Manwan Reservoir. The study provided a comprehensive overview on the PAHs contaminations on the reservoir sediments in the middle Lancang River, which may have an important significances on the international river management.

  18. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  19. Towards field detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment water using a self-assembled SERS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Xu; Jia, Wenjie; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A self-assembled surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is reported in this paper. To achieve high sensitivity, a high sensitive SERS substrate and a high efficient self-constructed light path were made. The SERS substrate was composed by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, pH=13), glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) porous material and syringe filter. The substrate had a good repeatability, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the same substrate was less than 5%. The efficiency of the self-constructed light path is about two times better than RPB Y type reflection fiber when the energy density was roughly equal on samples. The size of the SERS sensor is 350×300×180 mm and the weight is 15 kg. Its miniaturization and portable can comply with the requirements of field detection. Besides, it has good sensitivity, stability and selectivity. For lab experiments, strong enhancements of Raman scattering from organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecules were exhibited. The dependences of SERS intensities on concentrations of PAHs were investigated, and the results indicated that they revealed a satisfactory linear relationship in low concentrations. The limits of detection (LODs) of PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene are 8.3×10-10 mol/L and 7.1×10-10 mol/L respectively [signal to noise ratio (S/N) =3]. Based on this SERS sensor, signals of benzo (a) pyrene and pyrene were found in environmental water and the sensor would be an ideal candidate for field detection of PAHs.

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remarkable impact of PAHs and TPHs on the richness and diversity of bacterial species in surface soils exposed to long-term hydrocarbon pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Tibor; Vajna, Balázs; Táncsics, András; Márialigeti, Károly; Lányi, Szabolcs; Máthé, István

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, because of substantial use of petroleum-derived fuels the number and extension of hydrocarbon polluted terrestrial ecosystems is in growth worldwide. In remediation of aforementioned sites bioremediation still tends to be an innovative, environmentally attractive technology. Although huge amount of information is available concerning the hydrocarbon degradation potential of cultivable hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria little is known about the in situ long-term effects of petroleum derived compounds on the structure of soil microbiota. Therefore, in this study our aim was to determine the long-term impact of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs), total alkyl benzenes (TABs) as well as of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the structure of bacterial communities of four different contaminated soil samples. Our results indicated that a very high amount of TPH affected positively the diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This finding was supported by the occurrence of representatives of the α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Bacilli classes. High concentration of VPHs and TABs contributed to the predominance of actinobacterial isolates. In PAH impacted samples the concentration of PAHs negatively correlated with the diversity of bacterial species. Heavily PAH polluted soil samples were mainly inhabited by the representatives of the β-, γ-Proteobacteria (overwhelming dominance of Pseudomonas sp.) and Actinobacteria.

  2. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil through composting with fresh organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Houot, Sabine; Qiao, Min; Nunan, Naoise; Garnier, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Composting may enhance bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils by providing organic substrates that stimulate the growth of potential microbial degraders. However, the influence of added organic matter (OM) together with the microbial activities on the dissipation of PAHs has not yet been fully assessed. An in-vessel composting-bioremediation experiment of a contaminated soil amended with fresh wastes was carried out. Four different experimental conditions were tested in triplicate during 60 days using laboratory-scale reactors: treatment S (100% soil), W (100% wastes), SW (soil/waste mixture), and SWB (soil/waste mixture with inoculation of degrading microorganisms). A dry mass loss of 35 ± 5% was observed in treatments with organic wastes during composting in all the treatments except treatment S. The dissipation of the 16 USEPA-listed PAHs was largely enhanced from no significant change to 50.5 ± 14.8% (for SW)/63.7 ± 10.0% (for SWB). More obvious dissipation was observed when fresh wastes were added at the beginning of composting to the contaminated soil, without significant difference between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling showed that fungi and G-bacteria dominated at the beginning of experiment and were probably involved in PAH dissipation. Subsequently, greater relative abundances of G + bacteria were observed as PAH dissipation slowed down. The results suggest that improving the composting process with optimal organic compositions may be a feasible remediation strategy in PAH-contaminated soils through stimulation of active microbial populations.

  3. On PAHs as interstellar grains - Infrared absorption coefficients. [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, D. W.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Donn, B.; Khanna, R. K.; Moore, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the proposal that PAHs are the source of IR continuum and emission features and the visible diffuse bands. Absolute IR cross-sections have been obtained for eight PAHs. The results show that a thermal continuum is not consistent with the spectra obtained, and that an array of normal molecules shows a spectrum that is more complex than the observed spectrum. The cross-sections of the UV spectra are 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than those of the IR spectra. It is suggested that, to account for these observations, structure must be produced in the UV extinction curve.

  4. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyun Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP, from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM, and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge by ultrasound combined zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xiaoyuan; Ning, Xun-An; Zou, Haiyuan; Liang, Jieying; Sun, Jian; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Jiekui

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined ultrasound (US) and zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air (ZEA) system to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge. The removal efficiencies of 16 PAHs using ZEA, US/Air (air injected into the US process), and US/ZEA treatments were investigated, together with the effects of various operating parameters. The enhanced mechanisms of US and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in removing PAHs in the US/ZEA system were explored. Results showed that only 42.5% and 32.9% of ∑16 PAHs were removed by ZEA and US/Air treatments respectively, whereas 70.1% were removed by US/ZEA treatment, (with favorable operating conditions of 2.0 mM EDTA, 15 g/L ZVI, and 1.08 w/cm3 ultrasonic density). The US/ZEA system could be used with a wide pH range. US led to synergistic improvement of PAHs removal in the ZEA system by enhancing sludge disintegration to release PAHs and promoting ZVI corrosion and oxygen activation. In the US/ZEA system, PAHs could be degraded by ROS (namely OH, O2-/HO2, and Fe(IV)) and adsorbed by ZVI, during which the ROS made the predominant contribution. This study provides important insights into the application of a US/ZEA system to remove PAHs from sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g-1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  7. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based biosensor for quantifying 3–5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aqueous environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are highly sensitive for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and can be employed to determine concentrations in near real-time. A sensitive generic mAb against PAHs, named as 2G8, was developed by a three-step screening procedure. It exhibited nearly uniformly high sensitivity against 3-ring to 5-ring unsubstituted PAHs and their common environmental methylated PAHs, with IC50 values between 1.68 and 31 μg/L (ppb. 2G8 has been successfully applied on the KinExA Inline Biosensor system for quantifying 3–5 ring PAHs in aqueous environmental samples. PAHs were detected at a concentration as low as 0.2 μg/L. Furthermore, the analyses only required 10 min for each sample. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2G8-based biosensor, the total PAH concentrations in a series of environmental samples analyzed by biosensor and GC–MS were compared. In most cases, the results yielded a good correlation between methods. This indicates that generic antibody 2G8 based biosensor possesses significant promise for a low cost, rapid method for PAH determination in aqueous samples.

  8. Effect of charcoal types and grilling conditions on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinto, E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2012-06-01

    Grilling muscle foods involves high temperatures that lead to production of cooking toxicants, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To obtain realistic exposure levels of these two groups of mutagens analyses of the same samples using similar separation/detection techniques were performed. HAs and PAHs were quantified in well-done meat and fish samples grilled with wood and coconut shell charcoal at 200°C. Quantitative HAs and PAHs profiles were different for beef and salmon using the same type of charcoal. Higher levels of HAs and PAHs were found in salmon samples. No significant differences were observed for HAs and PAHs in beef samples grilled with both charcoal types, whereas salmon grilled with coconut shell charcoal presented significantly lower amounts of HAs and PAHs than salmon grilled with usual wood charcoal. Continuous barbecuing with the same charcoal shown that combustion of fat that dropped along the grilling period contributed to higher formation of HAs and PAHs. Special attention must be given to the intake of barbecued foods since high amounts of HAs and PAHs can be taken in a single meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, Northeast China: Spatial distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Liang, Baocui; Fu, Wenjun; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2016-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can enter intertidal zones by various pathways and pose potential threats to intertidal ecosystem. We investigated distribution, composition, sources and risk assessment of PAHs in intertidal surface sediments of Bohai Bay. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2ng·g-1 to 206.6ng·g-1, among which high values occurred near Nanpaishuihe River Estuary and Haihe River Estuary. The composition patterns of PAHs were characterized by the predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, and acenaphthylene was the most dominant component. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis have confirmed that PAH contaminants originated from mixed sources, and the major was local combustion. The mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration of total PAHs in intertidal sediments was 15.67ng·g-1, which was mostly contributed by seven carcinogenic PAHs. According to ecological risk assessment, negative effects related to acenaphthylene would occur occasionally in partial survey regions of the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distributions, sources and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subsurface water of urban old industrial relocation areas: A case study in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Hai-Bo; Xu, Xin-Yang; Xiao, Si-Yao; Wang, Si-Qi

    2017-08-24

    During a 12-month study period, the levels, distributions, sources and ecological risk of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in subsurface water of Shenyang (the largest urban industrial relocation base in China). The results showed that ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.21 to 1.07 µg/L, in descending order as follows, summer, autumn, spring and winter. Comparing with the situations before relocation, there was a significant decrease in Fluorene, Phenanthrene and Anthracene levels. The content of Banzo[a]pyrene was in high level. Relatively high 16 EPA-PAHs concentrations were observed at downstream sites suggesting that after the industrial relocation, residual 16 EPA-PAHs in soil and sediments could be desorbed and resuspended in water. From a global perspective, contamination of subsurface water PAHs can be categorized as moderate level. Source analysis suggested that without industrial waste input, pyrogenic soureces were the major contributors for PAHs pollution in winter. Petrogenic and pyrogenic inputs were equally important sources for PAHs pollution in other seasons. Due to incomplete combustion of wood and coal, ecological risk of Banzo[a]pyrene was high in the winter, indicating that to alleviate 16 EPA-PAH contamination, segmented remediation and energy structure adjustment would be equally important in urban industrial relocation areas.

  11. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment from a river basin: sediment-water partitioning, source identification and environmental health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyun; Zhang, Jiquan; Ma, Qiyun; Chen, Yanan; Ju, Hanyu

    2017-02-01

    The information on concentration levels, partitioning and sources of pollutants in aquatic environment is quite necessary for pollution treatment and quality criteria. In this work, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the water and sediment of Yinma River Basin were firstly investigated. Among 16 individual PAHs, naphthalene was the highest average concentration in water samples as well as in sediment samples, 67.2 ng/L and 825.06 ng/g, respectively, whereas benzo(g,h,i)perylene was undetected in water samples nor in sediment samples. For three PAH compositional patterns, concentrations of light (2-3 ring) PAHs were dominant in water and sediment, accounting for 71.69 and 86.98 % respectively. The PAH partitioning in the sediment-water system was studied, results showed that PAH partitioning was in an unsteady state and tended to accumulate in the sediment. The possible sources of PAHs in water and sediment were both identified as a mixed source of petroleum and combustion. The benzo(a)pyrene equivalents (EBaP) values for PAHs in the water and sediment in some sites were relatively higher, suggesting the existence of environmental health risk.

  13. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyun; Jia, Rui; Yang, Shengke

    2015-11-06

    Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP), from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM), and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene) and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene) reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  14. Seasonal Distribution, Source Identification, and Toxicological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from Wadi El Bey Watershed in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdara, Imen; Zrafi, Ines; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Ghrabi, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Surface sediments were collected from the Watershed of Wadi El Bey in Tunisia to evaluate the degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. Sediments were collected during different seasons in 14 sites that received wastes from domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. Twenty-six individual PAHs were analyzed. The total PAH contents (Σ PAHs) in surface sediments showed wide variability, ranging from 6.89 ± 0.05 to 340 ± 0.1 ng g-1. The 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds were the most abundant PAHs detected at the majority of sites. Diagnostic concentration ratios between pairs of PAHs and molecular indices, calculated with the purpose of drawing information about pollution sources, indicated that PAHs were of both petrogenic and pyrolytic origins. Toxic contaminants concentrations were determined according to the numerical effect-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). PAH levels did not exceed the SQGs, indicating that PAHs seem to pose low and occasional toxicity risks. Total carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (TEQBaP and MEQBaP) ranged from 0.08 to 65 ng and from 0.02 to 135.0 ng g-1 of dry weight, respectively. Among the seven carcinogenic PAHs, BaP accounted for the majority of the potency and could potentially be used as a unique indicator of PAH toxicity. This study provides a baseline to promote environmental protection programs and pollution monitoring/control in Watershed and coastal areas.

  15. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramzi, A.;; Rahman, K.H.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jacob, C.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    as the major transport pathway. The dominance of 2–3 ring fractions in the PAH indicated petrogenic and low temperature combustion processes as major sources, while the very low levels of 5–6 ring components indicated low contribution from pyrolytic sources...

  16. Cyclopenta-Fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (CP-PAH). Recurring Combustion Effluents and Their Biological Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero Lobato, María José

    2004-01-01

    The convenient synthesis of a large set of (multiple) CP-PAH by Flash Vacuum Thermolysis (FVT), which have all been identified in combustion exhausts, allows their systematic assessment for mutagenicity in the bacterial mutagenicity assay (Ames-assay, TA98±S9-mix). Consequently, the physico-chemical

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max

    2017-12-01

    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  20. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (approximately 4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.

  1. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...

  2. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. I. PAH Size, Charge, Composition, and Structure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, Jesse; Allamandola, L. J

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 micron spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 micron features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into "principal" subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 micron region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, Brazil: Particle size distribution, sources and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Resende, Michele Fabri; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Eberlin, Marcos N; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two fractions (<63μm and 63-850μm) of street dust samples collected in different urban areas of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói cities, Brazil. Individual PAH concentrations and total PAH concentrations (∑PAH) were evaluated considering geographic and particle size distributions, PAH source and cancer risk. In 53% of the samples, ∑PAH values were higher in the smallest particles than in the largest ones, whereas the inverse was true for 23.5% of the samples. In 23.5% of the samples, both classes of particles showed comparable ∑PAH. The highest ∑PAH concentrations were found in areas of limited air dispersion, resulting in PAH accumulation in street dust. The diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a strong influence of pyrogenic sources on PAH concentration, mainly of vehicular emissions. The cancer risk levels for children and adults, for both particulate size fractions (<63μm and 63μm-850μm), were comparable for dermal contact and by ingestion, and ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-6), whereas in certain cases the cancer risk level for adults by dermal contact was 2 to 3 times larger than for children. The cancer risk levels via inhalation always ranged from 10(-13) to 10(-10), so this exposure pathway was almost 10(4) less severe than through ingestion and dermal contact, and thus negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  5. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in women from Poland, Serbia and Italy--relation between PAH metabolite excretion, DNA damage, diet and genotype (the EU DIEPHY project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Robert; Antić, Ruža; Berni, Andrea; Dallner, Gustav; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Joksić, Gordana; Lundin, Cecilia; Palitti, Fabrizio; Prochazka, Gabriela; Rydzynski, Konrad; Segerbäck, Dan; Souček, Pavel; Tekle, Michael; Seidel, Albrecht

    2013-03-01

    Exposure of the general population to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is ubiquitous. The aim of this study was to analyze biomarkers associated with the uptake of PAH in 428 non-smoking women from Łodz (Poland), Viterbo (Italy), Belgrade (Serbia) and from the Pančevo area, where the petrochemical complex was destroyed by the air raids in 1999. Urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was lowest in Italian women, intermediary for Serbian and highest in Polish women, who predominantly excreted hydroxy phenanthrenes as metabolites of phenanthrene. Bulky DNA adduct levels were highest in Italian and Polish women. Genotype or PAH ambient air levels could not explain the dissimilarities between the study groups with respect to biomarker patterns, which probably reflected differences in life style-associated factors.

  6. Shallow sublittoral meiofauna communities and sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content on the Galician coast (NW Spain), six months after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, P; Rubal, M; Besteiro, C

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to detect the impact of Prestige oil spill on meiobenthic community structure at higher levels of taxonomic aggregation. In addition, the relationship between sediment individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration and meiofauna community structure was investigated. Six months after the Prestige oil spill, meiobenthos community and sediment PAHs content from seven shallow subtidal localities along the Galician coast were studied. Two sites presented differences in community structure, characterized by high densities of nematodes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians, and low densities of copepods. Chrysene and triphenylene were only found at these two disturbed sites and could be responsible for differences of meiobenthos community structure. However, differences in community structure of sites could be linked with sedimentary parameters, and discrimination between the effect of PAHs and sedimentary parameters was impossible due to the lack of baseline studies on meiobenthos and PAHs contents in this area.

  7. Phytotoxicity of ancient gaswork soils. Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant germination

    OpenAIRE

    Henner, Pascale; Schiavon, Michel; Druelle, Vincent; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1999-01-01

    International audience; The phytotoxicity of various contaminated soils was assessed by plant inventories on ancient industrial fields and by phytotoxicity tests. Industrial fields are well colonised by numerous weedy plants. Phytotoxicity was tested with pure PAHs, ancient industrial soils, soil leaches, liquid tar and tar volatile compounds. Both field studies and toxicity tests show that contaminated samples can be classified into two categories: first, a recently excavated soil/liquid tar...

  8. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  9. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  10. Diversity of Soil Nematodes in Areas Polluted with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content ( p plant parasites ( p plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), ΣMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, ΣMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes.

  11. Development of a lab-on-chip electrochemical immunosensor for detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Shifa; Vazquez, Patricia; Dehnert, Jan; Goridko, Vadim; Tijero, Maria; Moore, Eric

    2017-06-01

    The work described in this manuscript focuses on how the integration of immunoassay techniques in combination with electrochemical detection can provide a portable and very accurate solution for detection of water pollutants that are detrimental for human health. In particular, we focus our work on the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted water. Our integrative approach facilitates a real-time detection of this family of organic compounds, by reducing the time of analysis to less than one hour. Additionally, the use of a lab-on-a-chip platform delivers a portable solution that could be used in situ. Optimization of a displacement assay that investigates the presence and concentration of Benzo[a]pyrene in water, allows with the miniaturization of the standard ELISA format into a highly accurate system that provides fast results. The limits of detection obtained are comparable to those of available state-of-the art tools, and achieve the values set by European Drinking Water Directive, 0.10ng/l, as the limit for PAHs in drinking water.

  12. Combined effects of land reclamation, channel dredging upon the bioavailable concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Victoria Harbour sediment, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T K; Leung, H M; Yue, P Y K; Au, C K; Wong, Y K; Cheung, K C; Li, W C; Yung, K K L

    2017-01-15

    The up-to-date concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment materials of Victoria Harbour was investigated so as to evaluate the pollution potential associated with the reclamation projects in Hong Kong. A total of 100 sediment samples were collected at 20 locations. Except the control point in reservoir, the PAHs concentrations were detectable levels all sites (131-628.3ng/g, dw) and such values were higher than Dutch Target and Intervention Values (the New Dutch standard in 2016). The PAHs concentration indicating that construction waste and wastewater discharges were the main pollutant sources. Results of correlation in single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) studies also revealed that the PAHs concentration was highly correlated (PAHs. The above observation indicates that the PAHs present in the sediment may substantially effect the marine ecosystem. Although the dredged sediment can be a useful sea-filling material for land reclamation; however, the continuing leaching of PAHs and its impact on the aquatic environment need to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters - state of knowledge; Abschaetzung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in deutsche Gewaesser. Aktuelle Datengrundlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Thomas; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, Stephan [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung, Bereich Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Wasserguetewirtschaft; Scherer, Ulrike [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser und Umwelt

    2009-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) result from incomplete combustion of almost every organic materials, e. g. due to forest fires, residential heating, combustion engines, grilling, or smoking. PAH are predominantly distributed over the air-path. Their usage in products (e. g. moth-balls) has been limited strictly or completely forbidden in the past. In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), the single substances anthracene, fluoranthene and naphthalene, as well as PAHs as group of substances, are listed as ''priority'' substances. Background of this work is a first compilation of sources of PAH emissions, and in this context, the collection of all relevant data and information to calculate the total emissions into surface waters in Germany. Within the scope of diverse research projects, funded by the German Environmental Agency, the available data material concerning PAH input in surface waters has been analyzed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research. On the basis of the collected data, a first evaluation of relevance of the different sources has been conducted using the model MONERIS. As a result of the atmospheric deposition, PAHs enter, to a large extent, surface waters directly or indirectly through surface runoff (e. g. urban areas, wastewater treatment plants, erosion). Although there is still additional research need for some of the covered PAH sources, a noticeable distribution pattern of relevance emerges. The scenarios, based on the currently known sources, show that the implementation or the neglect of emission reduction measures in the field of diffuse air-borne PAHs are crucial for the further development of the deposition of PAHs in surface waters. More far-reaching studies are necessary, e. g. concerning emissions from inland navigation/motor boats, the inhomogeneous source ''products'', or the path ''erosion''. According to the EU-WFD, all

  14. Phenylacetylene and PAH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other related aromatic compounds, such as ionized PAHs, have received considerable attention from astronomers, astrobiologists, environmentalists, and the combustion community. In the interstellar medium, PAH like species account for up to 10% of ...

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Exposed-Lawn Soils from 28 Urban Parks in the Megacity Guangzhou: Occurrence, Sources, and Human Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chang-Liang; Gu, Yang-Guang; Liu, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils may pose a serious threat to human health via oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and particulate inhalation, especially in public parks and playgrounds, with children and senior citizens showing the highest susceptibility. Several studies have been undertaken identifying PAHs in urban soils, but no studies to date have assessed PAHs in urban parks, in particular in exposed-lawn soils. In recent decades, unprecedented rates of urbanization and industrialization in China have resulted in significant levels of urban environmental pollution. However, concentrations, sources, and the health risk associated with PAH exposure via urban park lawn soils in China remain unknown. The concentrations, sources, and health risk of exposure to 16 PAHs in surface-exposed lawn soils were studied in 28 urban parks in Guangzhou. Concentrations of Σ16PAHs ranged from 76.44 to 890.85 ng/g with a mean of 286.11 ng/g. PAH composition was mostly characterized by 2- and 4-ring PAHs in most sampling parks; Nap, Flua, Pyr, Phe, and Chr were the dominant constituents. Principle component analysis coupled with multivariate linear regression indicated that vehicular and coal combustion emissions contributed to 50.53 and 49.46% of PAHs in Guangzhou's urban park soils, respectively. Total cancer risk (TCR) analysis found that 22 parks (accounting for 78.57% total parks) designed for children's use and general-use park areas presented a potentially high risk (>1 × 10-4) for all users.

  16. Long-term trends (1990-2014), health risks, and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Xue, Zhuqing; Zhu, Xianlei; Jia, Chunrong

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a category of over 100 various chemicals released from numerous combustion sources. The ubiquity and toxicity of PAHs have posed high health risks on human populations. This study aims to examine the long-term trends of atmospheric PAHs at the national-level in the U.S., and evaluate their cancer risks. Daily concentrations of PAHs measured at 169 monitoring stations between 1990 and 2014 were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Temporal trends were examined using generalized linear model with generalized estimating equations. Random-effects analysis of variance was performed to explore variance between regions, sites, years, and months with a hierarchical structure. Source categories were identified using diagnostic ratios. National population level cancer risks were estimated using the relative potency factors and inhalation unit risk method. Ambient PAH concentrations displayed an overall downward trend (6-9% annual reduction) in urban areas, but not in rural areas. Seasonal and weekday/weekend effects were significant. Urban concentrations were twice of the rural level. The between-site variation outweighed the temporal variation, indicating large spatial heterogeneity. The predominant PAH sources were from traffic and non-traffic related fuel combustions with a dominant contribution from diesel emissions. The average excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 9.3 ± 30.1 × 10-6 (GM: 4.2 × 10-6) from exposure to ten carcinogenic PAHs. This is the first comprehensive study of the spatiotemporal trends of ambient PAHs at the U.S. national level. The results indicate that future efforts aimed to reduce PAH exposures should focus on diesel emission controls and extending the geographic coverage of air monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microscale spatial distribution and health assessment of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nine communities in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmei; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Gao, Meiling; Cao, Junji; Guinot, Benjamin; Ho, Kin Fai; Long, Xin; Wang, Jingzhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Zhang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Spatial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in Xi'an, China, in summer of 2013. Sixteen priority PAHs were quantified in 24-h integrated air samples collected simultaneously at nine urban and suburban communities. The total quantified PAHs mass concentrations ranged from 32.4 to 104.7 ng m-3, with an average value of 57.1 ± 23.0 ng m-3. PAHs were observed higher concentrations at suburban communities (average: 86.3 ng m-3) than at urban ones (average: 48.8 ng m-3) due to a better enforcement of the pollution control policies at the urban scale, and meanwhile the disorganized management of motor vehicles and massive building constructions in the suburbs. Elevated PAH levels were observed in the industrialized regions (west and northwest of Xi'an) from Kriging interpolation analysis. Satellite-based visual interpretations of land use were also applied for the supporting the spatial distribution of PAHs among the communities. The average benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent toxicity (Σ[BaP]eq) at the nine communities was 6.9 ± 2.2 ng m-3 during the sampling period, showing a generally similar spatial distribution to PAHs levels. On average, the excess inhalation lifetime cancer risk derived from Σ[BaP]eq indicated that eight persons per million of community residents would develop cancer due to PM2.5-bound PAHs exposure in Xi'an. The great in-city spatial variability of PAHs confirmed the importance of multiple points sampling to conduct exposure health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studying the Effects of Two Various Methods of Composting on the Degradation Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluszyńska, Joanna; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2017-01-01

    The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr). Thirty days of composting with sawdust has caused a significant reduction of 16 PAHs on average from 26.07 to 4.01 mg/kg (84.6%). During vermicomposting, total PAH concentration decreased on average from 15.5 to 2.37 mg/kg (84.7%). Vermicomposting caused full degradation of hydrocarbons containing 2 and 6 rings and significant reduction of PAHs with 3 aromatic rings (94.4%) as well as with 5 aromatic rings (83.2%). The lowest rate of degradation (64.4%) was observed for hydrocarbons with 4 aromatic rings such as fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and pyrene. On the other hand, the highest level of degradation was determined for PAHs with 2 rings (100%), 3 rings (88%) and 6 aromatic rings in the molecule (86.9%) after composting with sawdust. Acenaphthene and pyrene were found to be the most resistant to biodegradation during both composting methods.

  19. Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress in people living near e-waste recycling facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Gui-Hua; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Li, Xiao; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-waste recycling activities in China is known. However, little is known on the association between PAH exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid content in people living near e-waste dismantling sites. In this study, ten hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and two biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of oxidative stress were investigated in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in reference population from rural and urban areas in China. The urinary levels of ∑10OH-PAHs determined in e-waste recycling area (GM: 25.4μg/g Cre) were significantly higher (pe-waste workers (36.6μg/g Cre) showed significantly higher (pe-waste recycling site. The differences in urinary Σ10OH-PAHs levels between smokers (23.4μg/g Cre) and non-smokers (24.7μg/g Cre) were not significant (p>0.05) in e-waste dismantling sites, while these differences were significant (pe-waste dismantling site. Furthermore, we found that urinary concentrations of Σ10OH-PAHs and individual OH-PAHs were significantly associated with elevated 8-OHdG, in samples collected from e-waste dismantling site; the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) (r=0.284, pe-waste dismantling site may have an effect on oxidative damage to DNA among selected participants, but this needs to be validated in large studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of silver nanoparticle deposition at PAH monolayers: reference QCM results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2015-03-17

    The deposition kinetics of silver nanoparticles on Au/SiO2 /PAH substrate was studied under in situ conditions using the QCM method and the ex situ SEM imaging. Because of low dissipation, the Sauerbrey equation was used for calculating the mass per unit area (coverage). Measurements were done for various bulk suspension concentrations, flow rates, and ionic strengths. It was shown that particle deposition for the low coverage regime is governed by the bulk mass transfer step that results in a linear increase of the coverage with the time. A comparison of QCM and SEM results showed that the hydration of the silver monolayers was negligible. This allowed one to derive a universal kinetic equation that describes the mass transfer rates in the cell as a function of the bulk concentration, flow rate, and diffusion coefficient. Measurements were also performed for longer times and for various ionic strengths where the deposition kinetics and the maximum coverage of particles were determined. The experimental data confirmed a significant increase in the maximum coverage with ionic strength. This was interpreted as due to the decreasing range of the electrostatic interactions among deposited particles. These results were adequately interpreted in terms of the extended random sequential adsorption (eRSA) model. Additionally, it was shown that the QCM data matched the ex situ SEM results, indicating that the monolayer hydration was also negligible for higher coverage range. These results derived for the model silver nanoparticle system can be exploited as reference data for the interpretation of protein adsorption kinetics where the dry mass is needed in order to assess the extent of hydration.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in beaked sea snake Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803) from the Mandovi estuary, Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Sambhaji; Kumar, Ranjeet; Naik, B G; Ingole, Baban S

    2015-02-01

    An ecotoxicological study were conducted to evaluate the concentrations of PAHs and n-alkanes, in gut, liver and kidney tissues of two individuals of Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PAHs (0.10 µg/g) and n-alkanes (8.12 µg/g) were elevated in the gut, and liver (PAHs 0.05 µg/g tissue, n-alkanes 29.16 µg/g tissue). In kidney of both specimen-A and B the PAHs (0.01 and 0.1 µg/g) and n-alkanes (0.22 and 2.06 µg/g) concentration was detected. This was an initial survey (n = 2) and the main goal was to know accumulation and distribution of PAHs and n-alkanes in the sea snakes. This study indicates high accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon in gut, liver and kidney of sea snake. Since, this species also act as pray for sea eagles and some predatory fishes such as tiger shark, there is high possibilities of PAHs being circulated in marine food chain.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  4. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  5. The relative abundance and seasonal distribution correspond with the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Kamal, Atif; Iqbal, Mehreen; Eqani, Syed-Ali-Mustjab-Akbar-Shah; Bong, Chui Wei; Taqi, Malik Mumtaz; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Chenab River is one of the most important rivers of Punjab Province (Pakistan) that receives huge input of industrial effluents and municipal sewage from major cities in the Central Punjab, Pakistan. The current study was designed to evaluate the concentration levels and associated ecological risks of USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River. Sampling was performed from eight (n = 24) sampling stations of Chenab River and its tributaries. We observed a relatively high abundance of ∑16PAHs during the summer season (i.e. 554 ng g(-1)) versus that in the winter season (i.e. 361 ng g(-1)), with an overall abundance of two-, five- and six-ring PAH congeners. Results also revealed that the nitrate and phosphate contents in the sediments were closely associated with low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, respectively. Source apportionment results showed that the combustion of fossil fuels appears to be the key source of PAHs in the study area. The risk quotient (RQ) values indicated that seven PAH congeners (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) could pose serious threats to the aquatic life of the riverine ecosystem in Pakistan.

  6. Dietary intake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and associated cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese urban adults: Inter- and intra-individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoli; Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Hongbiao; Tian, Jing; Wei, Fusheng; Gong, Jicheng; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is one of the major exposure pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially in Chinese people because foods are often prepared with grilling and/or frying that would produce high levels of PAHs. In this paper, we assessed daily dietary intakes (DDI) of PAHs, using a "duplicate plate method", among 100 Chinese urban residents. The DDI of benzo(a)pyrene ranged from 0.06 µg per day to 13.5 µg per day with a median of 0.69 µg per day, varying largely across subjects. The median Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) attributable to PAH dietary intake was 6.65 × 10(-5) (4.41 × 10(-5) to 1.02 × 10(-4) as inter-quartile range). The contribution of several high-PAH containing foods like barbecued, smoked or deep-fried meats to the overall DDIs was about 13%. The use of raw foods may underestimate dietary intake of PAHs and associated exposure risk considerably. Results from foods sampled in different seasons suggested that seasonal variability within an individual may contribute notably to overall variability measured in a population and more future studies with longer-term investigation on food ingestion and pollutant exposure are needed. The study indicates that measuring actually consumed foods is more appropriate for dietary intake exposure assessment, and intra-individual variance should be taken into account during study design and data analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7 + 2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13 ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat, India: Occurrence, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs as an emerging issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpara, Rahul K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Bhatt, Jwalant K; Gosai, Haren B; Dave, Bharti P

    2017-06-30

    The present study extrapolates the assessment and characterization of a barely studied region, the Gulf of Kutch, (near Jamnagar), Gujarat, India, in terms of PAH exposure, adverse effects caused by them, and various toxicological indices showing the catastrophic effects of their elevated concentrations. ΣPAH concentration in the site ranged from 118,280 to 1,099,410ngg-1 dw, with a predominance of 2-3-ring PAHs (79.09%) as compared to 4-5- and 6-ring PAHs (20.91%). The concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were found to be between 8120 and 160,000ngg-1 dw, with a mean of 63,810ngg-1 dw, which is much higher than normal acceptable values. The toxic equivalent quotient for 6CPAHs ranged from 150.47 to 26,330ngg-1 BaPeq, encompassing 50.63% of ΣPAH toxicity. This toxicological profile of the present study site would be of paramount importance as it offers fresh information regarding the load of legacy pollutants such as PAHs and the inputs and methods to cope with their extremely high concentrations in less explored marine habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) bioaccumulation and PAHs/shell weight index in Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from the Vallona lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Bernarello, Valentina; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Sesta, Giulio; Franceschini, Gianluca; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo; Lamberti, Clauda Virno

    2018-02-01

    The Vallona lagoon is a transitional area located in the Po River delta (NE, ITALY) traditionally exploited for Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) farming. During 2007-2008, a pipeline was buried in the middle of the lagoon to connect an off-shore structure to facilities on land. PAH levels were monitored in Manila clams and sediments before, during and after the pipeline construction to assess the impact of the activities through the pattern of distribution of the PAH compounds. PAH bioaccumulation in clams displayed seasonal fluctuations with higher levels in autumnal and wintry surveys than in spring-summer. Principal component analysis applied to PAHs in clams highlighted a petrogenic input during ante operam period and a pyrolytic origin during the burying activities. On the contrary, sediment PAH concentrations resulted quite similar both among sites and periods. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor values also confirmed that sediments were not the major source of PAH pollution for clams in this study. The welfare of clams was examined through two physiological indices (condition index and survival in air) to check the effects of the activities on a commercial resource. Both physiological indices exhibited seasonal variations connected to natural endogenous and exogenous factors; however survival in air was the most sensitive index in highlighting the effects of the pipeline burying activities. Finally, to ensure that PAH bioavailability assessment was not affected by seasonal variation of soft tissues of molluscs, PAHs/shell weight index was applied. Higher levels of this index were observed before and during the burying activities, whilst, after that, values significantly lowered. Moreover, the normalization enabled us to highlight the PAH uptake from clams in some particular periods and to compare different populations in a long-term biomonitoring program with data obtained from different periods of the year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689µg·kg-1 in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95µg·kg-1 in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7µg·kg-1 in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and major and trace elements in simulated rainfall runoff from parking lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001–02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the possibility that PAHs from seal-coated parking lots might be transported to urban creeks, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, sampled runoff and scrapings from four test plots and 13 urban parking lots. The surfaces sampled comprise coal-tar-emulsion-sealed, asphalt-emulsion-sealed, unsealed asphalt, and unsealed concrete. Particulates and filtered water in runoff and surface scrapings were analyzed for PAHs. In addition, particulates in runoff were analyzed for major and trace elements. Samples of all three media from coal-tar-sealed parking lots had concentrations of PAHs higher than those from any other types of surface. The mean total PAH concentration in particulates in runoff from parking lots in use were 3,500,000, 620,000, and 54,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed (asphalt and concrete combined) lots, respectively. The probable effect concentration sediment quality guideline is 22,800 micrograms per kilogram. The mean total PAH (sum of detected PAHs) concentration in filtered water from parking lots in use was 8.6 micrograms per liter for coal-tar-sealed lots; the one sample analyzed from an asphalt-sealed lot had a concentration of 5.1 micrograms per liter and the one sample analyzed from an unsealed asphalt lot was 0.24 microgram per liter. The mean total PAH concentration in scrapings was 23,000,000, 820,000, and 14,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed asphalt lots, respectively. Concentrations of lead and zinc in particulates in runoff frequently exceeded the probable effect concentrations, but trace element concentrations showed no consistent variation with parking lot surface type.

  12. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were air was the dominant influence on indoor air. Diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis indicated that biomass burning, coal combustion, and motor vehicle emissions were the main sources for PAHs (which accounted for 30%, 27.4% and 26%, respectively, by PMF), but, secondary particle formation was important for the OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks associated with outdoor and indoor particles were 6.05 × 10- 5 and 5.44 × 10- 5, respectively, and so higher than the cancer risk guideline of 10- 6. Although the cancer risk of NPAHs is negligible for its lower concentrations, their potential for direct mutagenic effects should not be ignored. PM2.5 bound 19 PAHs, 3OPAHs, and 8NPAHs were monitored in a middle school in Xi'an. Indoor pollutants were mostly influenced by outdoor air. Biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission were main sources for PAHs. Secondary formation was the main source for OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks assessment of PAHs showed there were potential health risks for students during sampling time.

  13. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a UH-1H helicopter engine and its impact on the ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Uang, Shi-Nian; Lee, Su-Hsing; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    The objective of this study is to characterize the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a UH-1H helicopter turboshaft engine and its impact on the ambient environment. Five power settings of the ground idle (GI), fly idle (FI), beed band check (BBC), inlet guide vane (IGV), and take off (TO) were selected and samples were collected from the exhaust by using an isokinetic sampling system. Twenty-two PAH compounds were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC)/MS. We found the mean total PAH concentration in the exhaust of the UH-1H engine (843 μg m -3) is 1.05-51.7 times in magnitude higher than those of the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine, motor vehicle engine, and F101 aircraft engine. Two- and three-ringed PAHs account for 97.5% of total PAH emissions from the UH-1H engine. The mean total PAH and total BaP eq emission factors for the UH-1H engine (63.4 and 0.309 mg L -1·fuel) is 1.65-23.4 and 1.30-7.54 times in magnitude higher than those for the motor vehicle engine, HDD engine, and F101 aircraft engine. The total emission level of the single PAH compound, BaP, for the UH-1H engine (EL BaP) during one landing and take off (LTO) cycle (2.19 mg LTO -1) was higher than the European Commission standard (1.24 mg LTO -1) suggesting that appropriate measures should be taken to reduce PAH emissions from UH-1H engines in the future.

  14. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in historically contaminated soils after lab incubation with sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of application of sewage sludge-derived biochars for the immobilisation of freely dissolved (Cfree) and bioaccessible (Cbioacc) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Soil SL-COK collected from the area of a coking plant and soil SL-BIT collected from the area of a plant producing bituminous materials were chosen for the study. The biochars were produced from sewage sludge at temperatures of 500 °C (BC500) or 700 °C (BC700). The biochars were mixed with the soil at the dose of 5% and incubated for a period of 60 d. The content of PAHs was determined with the use of polyoxymethylene (POM) (Cfree) or a solution of cyclodextrins and silicon rod elastomer (Cbioacc). Biochars reduced the content of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs in soils. A higher level of reduction was noted for Cfree PAHs than for Cbioacc PAHs. Biochar produced at 700 °C was more effective in the reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs than biochar produced at 500 °C. It was found that in the soil in which the source of contamination were processes related with the production of bituminous materials (SL-BIT), the effect of reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc was greater than in soil SL-COK where the source of PAHs were coking processes. It also needs to be emphasised that soil SL-BIT, for which better reduction of PAHs was noted, was also characterised by a lower affinity towards those compounds than soil SL-COK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentration profiles, source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dumpsite soils from Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site, Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Akortia, Eric; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-06-01

    The concentrations of eighteen (18) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the 16 USEPA's priority PAHs as well as two alkyl-substituted naphthalenes were determined in dumpsite soils collected from different sampling sites within the Agbogbloshie e-waste dismantling site in Accra, Ghana. Following their isolation with ultrasonic-assisted extraction technique, the concentrations of the PAHs were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Loss-on-ignition (LOI) method was employed for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) of the soil samples. The mean Σ18PAHs obtained were 3006, 5627, 3046, 5555, and 7199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sampling sites A (mosque), B (dismantling site), C (residential house/police station), D (personal computer repairers' shop) and E (e-waste open burning area), respectively. In all cases, the prevalence of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was generally observed across the sampling sites. In this study, PAHs with two to three rings and four to six rings exhibited strong positive correlations, whereas BbF and BkF showed weak positive and negative correlations with other PAHs investigated. With the exception of BbF and BkF, all the PAHs had moderate to strong positive correlations with the TOC. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration is a useful indicator of the carcinogenic potency of environmental matrices and these ranged between 111 and 454 ng g(-1), which are generally below the 'safe' level of 600 ng g(-1) established for the protection of the environment and human health. Interestingly, the seven carcinogenic PAHs were the major contributors to the BaPeq concentrations accounting between 97.7 and 98.3 %. Despite the minimal risk to cancer via exposure to the investigated dumpsite soil as indicated in the present study, the prolonged exposure to these pollutants via various exposure pathways may result in increased risk to cancer over time. The application of several

  16. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosols from Beijing: characterization of low volatile PAHs by positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Miao; Shi, Quan

    2014-05-06

    Aromatic fractions derived from aerosol samples were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high temperature simulated distillation (SIMDIS), and positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), respectively. It was found that about 27 wt % compounds in aromatic fractions could not be eluted from a GC column and some large molecule PAHs were neglected in GC-MS analysis. APPI FT-ICR MS was proven to be a powerful approach for characterizing the molecular composition of aromatics, especially for the large molecular species. An aromatic sample from Beijing urban aerosol was successfully characterized by APPI FT-ICR MS. Results showed that most abundant aromatic compounds in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were highly condensed hydrocarbons with 4-8 aromatic rings and their homologues with very short alkyl chains. Furthermore, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons were found as the significant components of the aromatic fractions: O1, O2, N1, and S1 class species with 10-28 DBEs (double bond equivalents) and 14-38 carbon numbers were identified by APPI FT-ICR MS. The heteroatom PAHs had similar DBEs and carbon number distribution as regular PAHs.

  18. Simulation of the propagation and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for a winter-time period in Baden-Wuerttemberg; Simulation der Ausbreitung und Deposition von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen fuer eine Winterepisode in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, K. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung

    1997-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the group of environmentally hazardous substances because of their cancerogenous effect. They occur both as gases and in particulate form and are released by man into the atmosphere as combustion products. They play a role not only in the atmosphere but also in soil. An essential process permitting these substances to penetrate into the soil is by deposition from the atmosphere.- The study had the aim of assessing atmospheric PAH deposition to the soil. The outcome is used to simulate PAH behaviour in soil, a task which also forms part of the interlaboratory project `soil`. As PAHs are regularly measured only in a few places, PAH transfer from atmosphere to soil needs to be numerically modelled. That the model can do this was first of all to be demonstrated for a short period. The result is described in the paper. Subsequently, statements regarding long-term PAH transfer are attempted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Polycyklischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) gehoeren wegen ihrer kanzerogenen Wirkungen zu den umweltbelastenden Substanzen. Sie treten sowohl als Gase als auch als Partikel auf und werden antropogen als Verbrennungsprodukte in die Atmosphaere freigesetzt. Neben ihrer Wirkung in der Atmosphaere spielen sie im Boden eine Rolle. Ein wesentlicher Prozess, der diese Substanzen in den Boden gelangen laesst, ist die Deposition aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden. Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, den atmosphaerischen Eintrag der PAK in den Boden zu bestimmen. Dieser Eintrag dient der Simulation des Verhaltens der PAK im Boden, der ebenfalls Bestandteil des Verbundprojekts `Boden` war. Da es nur wenige Stellen gibt, an denen regelmaessig PAK`s gemessen werden, ist es notwendig, den PAK Eintrag aus der Atmosphaere zum Boden mittels Modellrechnungen abzuschaetzen. Dabei sollte zunaechst fuer eine kurze Episode gezeigt werden, dass das Modell in der Lage ist, dies zu leisten. Dieses Ergebnis wird im folgenden vorgestellt

  19. Decadal trends in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in The Netherlands : Declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A. Dick; Baggelaar, Paul K.; van Lieverloo, J. Hein M; Ariese, Freek

    2016-01-01

    Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, were analyzed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the

  20. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  1. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  2. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyclic terpenoid biomarkers in the sediments of fishing harbors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Nien-Hsin; Su, Ming-Chien; Fan, Jheng-Rong; Yen, Chih-Chun

    2015-08-15

    Three fishing harbors were investigated to study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and trace possible anthropogenic sources by identification of cyclic terpenoid biomarkers. Seventeen terpanes, 10 steranes and 10 bicyclic sesquiterpanes in the marine diesel and the three kinds of lubricants that are mainly used by fishing boats were identified and quantified. Eighteen biomarker diagnostic ratios are suggested and the correlation coefficients among the lubricants and sediment samples have the R(2) value greater than 0.73. Analyzed 16 PAHs in the sediment shows non-normal distributions and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows the significant differences (p value smaller than 0.05) with the greatest variability in benzo[g,h,i]perylene which more than 84% of the effective size (E.S.) is accounted. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was applied and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows a significant difference (p value smaller than 0.05) among certain atoms with the effective size greater than 60%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by higher concentration of PHE treatments, while polyphenol oxidase activities were prohibited more than 10 % in non-rhizophere sediment. Compared with the control, PHE treatments had also significantly (P < 0.05) lower total microbial biomass; especially for gram-negative bacteria, this decrease was more than 24 %. However, the PYR treatments had little effect on the dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) biomass. The greatest abundance of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  4. Meiofauna communities in exposed sandy beaches on the Galician coast (NW Spain, six months after the Prestige oil spill: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Veiga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on Galician sandy beach ecosystems, six months after the Prestige oil spill, was evaluated using the meiobenthos at a higher taxon level as an indicator. Meiobenthos community structure, environmental variables and sediment PAH content from six affected exposed beaches were studied and compared with three reference sites. They were also compared with data from polluted beaches obtained during the first days of the spill. Significant amounts of PAHs were found in affected beach sediments and both univariate and multivariate analyses showed differences between affected and reference beaches. Correlation analyses between PAH content and the meiobenthos community structure showed that 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (C2-NAPH and 1-methylphenanthrene (C-PHEN affected both the community structure and the abundance of the main taxa. These two PAHs seem to be responsible for the low meiofauna density values, which suggests that there is a relationship between the oil spill and the differences between affected and reference localities.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  6. Single-laboratory validation of a GC/MS method for the determination of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oils and fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; White, S; Macarthur, R; Petch, R G; Holland, J; Damant, A P

    2007-06-01

    A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vegetable oils by GC/MS has undergone single-laboratory validation. PAHs were measured in three oils (olive pomace, sunflower and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 and 50 microg kg(-1)) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortified at 2 microg kg(-1)) of five oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) were also analysed. The validation included an assessment of measurement bias from the results of 120 measurements of a certified reference material (coconut oil BCR CRM458 certified for six PAHs). The method is capable of reliably detecting 26 out of 27 PAHs, at concentration <2 microg kg(-1) which is the European Union maximum limit for benzo[a]pyrene, in vegetable oils, olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. Quantitative results were obtained that are fit for purpose for concentrations from <2 to 50 microg kg(-1) for 24 out of 27 PAHs in olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The reliable detection of 2 microg kg(-1) of PAHs in five additional oils (virgin olive oil, grapeseed oil, toasted sesame oil, olive margarine and palm oil) has been demonstrated. The method failed to produce fit-for-purpose results for the measurement of dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, anthanthrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene. The reason for the failure was the large variation in results. The likely cause was the lack of availability of (13)C isotope internal standards for these PAHs at the time of the study. The protocol has been shown to be fit-for-purpose and is suitable for formal validation by inter-laboratory collaborative study.

  7. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2(nd)-3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t < 0.05) with those in urban residential in both seasons. The positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling indicated that biomass burning (31.1%) and vehicle emissions (35.9%) were main sources for PAHs in winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation and toxicity of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark). Water Quality Inst.

    1995-12-31

    The scientific rationale for QSAR, which relates toxic effect concentrations to octanole-water partition coefficients (log K), is that the internal toxicity thresholds presumably are the same for substances having the same mode of action. This hypothesis, which links bioaccumulation, bioavailability and toxicity, was tested for representatives from a homologous group of PAHs. The bioaccumulation and toxicity of {sup 14}C labelled phenanthrene (log P{sub ow} = 4.57) and pyrene (log P{sub ow} = 5.18) were studied in order to compare the internal lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds (LD{sub 50}/ED{sub 50}) with the external effect concentrations (LC{sub 50}/EC{sub 50}) in early life stages of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Exposure was initiated with two different life stages, newly fertilized eggs (< 4 hours old) and newly hatched larvae respectively. Both type of experiments were terminated after absorption of the yolk sac. In the bioaccumulation studies the uptake rates were significantly dependent on the life stage with the egg stage having the lowest rate of uptake (due to the reduced permeability of the chorion), while there were no significant difference between the resulting bioaccumulation. In the toxicity experiments the life stage had no effect on the internal toxicity thresholds. Comparison of the internal and external effect concentrations for phenanthrene and pyrene, showed that the external effect concentrations (LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50}) differed by a factor up to 10 while the internal toxicity thresholds (LD{sub 50} and ED{sub 50}) were not significantly different.

  9. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m-3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m-3) compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend) on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at

  10. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  11. Assessing the inhalation cancer risk of particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the elderly in a retirement community of a mega city in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Liu, Yating; You, Yan; Xu, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Bai, Zhipeng

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by the lack of environmental exposure data among different subpopulations. To assess the exposure cancer risk of particulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution for the elderly, this study conducted a personal exposure measurement campaign for particulate PAHs in a community of Tianjin, a city in northern China. Personal exposure samples were collected from the elderly in non-heating (August-September, 2009) and heating periods (November-December, 2009), and 12 PAHs individuals were analyzed for risk estimation. Questionnaire and time-activity log were also recorded for each person. The probabilistic risk assessment model was integrated with Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs). Considering that the estimation of the applied dose for a given air pollutant is dependent on the inhalation rate, the inhalation rate from both EPA exposure factor book was applied to calculate the carcinogenic risk in this study. Monte Carlo simulation was used as a probabilistic risk assessment model, and risk simulation results indicated that the inhalation-ILCR values for both male and female subjects followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.81 × 10-6 and 4.57 × 10-6, respectively. Furthermore, the 95 % probability lung cancer risks were greater than the USEPA acceptable level of 10-6 for both men and women through the inhalation route, revealing that exposure to PAHs posed an unacceptable potential cancer risk for the elderly in this study. As a result, some measures should be taken to reduce PAHs pollution and the exposure level to decrease the cancer risk for the general population, especially for the elderly.

  12. Comparison of bioaccumulation and deposition of antimony, lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon immissions in two different areas; Bioakkumulation und Deposition von Antimon, Blei und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoff-Immissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeber, M. [UMW Umweltmonitoring, Muenchen (Germany); Dietl, C.; Koehler, J.; Peichl, L. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The combination of biomonitoring with standardized grass cultures and deposition monitoring of antimony (Sb), lead (Pb) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH) was carried out in the conurbation of Munich, Germany in 1993 and resumed at the German-Czech border in 1995. Results from different location types in different areas and years seem to be comparable for Sb and PAH, because relevant background data fit in the same range. Biomonitoring reveals a seasonal course of PAH accumulation. Mean PAH contents are found to be significantly higher in grass cultures at locations along heavily traveled roads, compared to sites in living areas or in a rural background. The traffic related PAH bioaccumulation of both regions fits in the same range, although traffic composition is different and traffic density is ten times smaller at the German-Czech border. Correlation of Pb and Sb bioaccumulation in grass vs. deposition suggested abrasions of brake linings and tires to be one possible emission source. This might be the explanation for the mean contents of Pb and Sb in grass cultures at traffic locations in Munich exceeding those in living or rural areas. Deposition (Bergerhoff method) indicates analogous pollution dynamics in association with traffic. Pb bioaccumulation and deposition along the main roads at the German-Czech border show wider ranges compared to Munich. On the whole, Pb and Sb values at border traffic are found to be lower than those in Munich two years previously. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Kombination von Biomonitoring mit standardisierten Graskulturen und Depositionsuntersuchungen von Antimon (Sb), Blei (Pb) und 12 polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) wurde 1993 im Ballungsraum Muenchen durchgefuehrt und 1995 an der bayerisch-tschechischen Grenze wiederholt. Sb- und PAH-Ergebnisse von verschiedenen Standorttypen aus unterschiedlichen Gebieten und Jahren koennen gemeinsam ausgewertet werden, da

  13. [Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Yangtze estuary and Zhejiang coastal areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing-Lin; Fang, Jie; Shao, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Bei

    2015-03-01

    PAHs contents of surface sediments were tested from 62 sampling sites of the Yangtze River estuary and Zhejiang coastal zone in 2013. The results showed that: 16 kinds of PAHs, which are listed as priority pollutants by EPA, were found in all the samples. The total PAHs level (dry weight) reached 31. 8-384 μg x kg(-1) and the average amount was 131.1 μg x kg(-1). The distribution of PAHs was affected by terrigenous input and point source pollution, the high-value zones were found at 2# sampling site of the Yangtze River estuary and 21# sampling site of Ningbo. Compared with other sea areas, the survey sea area was at a low PAHs pollution level. PAHs were primarily tetracyclic or tricyclic, and source analysis showed that most of PAHs were originated from combustion of wood and coal. Based on the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the assessment result showed that the PAHs content of surface sediments from survey sea area was at a relatively low level of ecological risk; While according to the assessment result of the Sediment Quality Standards (SQSs), PAHs pollution of surface sediments from survey sea area displayed an "Obviously negative ecological effect" to some extent, and some countermeasures are required to control and eliminate pollutions.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5within boundary layer: Cloud/fog and regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minmin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Li, Tao; Nie, Xiaoling; Cao, Fangfang; Yang, Fengchun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Qie, Guanghao; Jin, Tong; Du, Lili; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-01-31

    A study of PM 2.5 -associated PAHs analysis at Mount Lushan (1165m) was conducted to investigate the distributions of PAHs in PM 2.5 and influences of cloud/fog. The main purpose was to quantify the main emission sources of PAHs and estimate regional transport effects within the boundary layer. Mount Lushan is located between the boundary layer and troposphere, which is an ideal site for atmosphere transport investigation. The concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were analyzed with GC-MS. The results showed that the volume concentration was 6.98ng/m 3 with a range from 1.47 to 25.17ng/m 3 and PAHs mass were 160.24μg/g (from 63.86 to 427.97μg/g) during the sampling time at Mount Lushan. The dominant compounds are BbF, Pyr and BP. In terms of aromatic-ring PAHs distributions, 4-6-ring PAHs are predominant, indicating that the high-ring PAHs tend to contribute more than low-ring PAHs in particulates. Due to frequent cloud/fog days at Mount Lushan, PAHs concentrations in the PM 2.5 were determined before and after cloud/fog weather. The results demonstrated that the cloud/fog and rain conditions cause lower PAHs levels. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationship of PAHs distributions with meteorological conditions like temperature, humidity and wind. The results showed that the temperature and wind speed were inversely related with PAHs concentration but humidity had no significant relationship. Furthermore, backward trajectories and PCA combined with DR (diagnostic ratio analysis) were employed to identify the influences of regional transport and main emission sources. The results revealed that PAHs in PM 2.5 were mainly affected by regional transport with the main emissions by mobile vehicle and steel industry, which contributed about 56.0% to the total PAHs in the area of Mount Lushan. In addition, backward trajectories revealed that the dominant air masses were from the northwest accounting for about one third of total PAHs. Copyright © 2018

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual (C, H) isotope fractionation in anaerobic low molecular weight (poly)aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation: potential for field studies and mechanistic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz D; Abu Laban, Nidal M F H; Meyer, Armin H; Elsner, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-08-15

    Anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a key process for natural attenuation of oil spills and contaminated aquifers. Assessments by stable isotope fractionation, however, have largely been limited to monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report on measured hydrogen isotope fractionation during strictly anaerobic degradation of the PAH naphthalene. Remarkable large hydrogen isotopic enrichment factors contrasted with much smaller values for carbon: ε(H) = -100‰ ± 15‰, ε(C) = -5.0‰ ± 1.0‰ (enrichment culture N47); ε(H) = -73‰ ± 11‰, ε(C) = -0.7‰ ± 0.3‰ (pure culture NaphS2). This reveals a considerable potential of hydrogen isotope analysis to assess anaerobic degradation of PAHs. Furthermore, we investigated the conclusiveness of dual isotope fractionation to characterize anaerobic aromatics degradation. C and H isotope fractionation during benzene degradation (ε(C) = -2.5‰ ± 0.2‰; ε(H) = -55‰ ± 4‰ (sulfate-reducing strain BPL); ε(C) = -3.0‰ ± 0.5‰; ε(H) = -56‰ ± 8‰ (iron-reducing strain BF)) resulted in dual isotope slopes (Λ = 20 ± 2; 17 ± 1) similar to those reported for nitrate-reducers. This breaks apart the current picture that anaerobic benzene degradation by facultative anaerobes (denitrifiers) can be distinguished from that of strict anaerobes (sulfate-reducers, fermenters) based on the stable isotope enrichment factors.

  17. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of

  18. Revisiting shape selectivity in liquid chromatography for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - six-ring and seven-ring Cata-condensed PAH isomers of molecular mass 328 Da and 378 Da.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    The relationship of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) retention on a polymeric C 18 stationary phase and the shape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated for three-ring to seven-ring cata-condensed isomers. We report the first RPLC separation for six-ring and seven-ring cata-condensed PAH isomers. Correlations of LC retention and shape parameters (length-to-breath ratio, L/B and thickness, T) were investigated for 2 three-ring isomers (molecular mass 178 Da), 5 four-ring isomers (molecular mass 228 Da), 11 five-ring isomers (molecular mass 278 Da), 17 six-ring isomers (molecular mass 328 Da), and 20 seven-ring isomers (molecular mass 378 Da). Significant linear correlations were found for all isomer groups (r = 0.71 to 0.94). Nonplanarity of the PAH isomers was found to influence retention (i.e., nonplanar isomers eluting earlier than expected based on L/B) and linear correlations of retention vs. T for isomer groups containing nonplanar isomers were significant (r = 0.71 to 0.86). Graphical abstract.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  20. Application of biomarkers in mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussumieri) to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in coastal areas of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaei, Mahmood; araghi, Peyman Eghtesadi; Mashinchian, Ali; Fatemi, Mohamadreza; Riazi, Gholamhossein

    2012-10-01

    In this study, selected biomarkers-The retention time (RT) performed on haemocytes, the Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility (EOF) and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver- were measured in mudskipper (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) obtained from the Persian Gulf. Chemical analyses included the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediment and mudskipper liver. Total PAH concentrations in the sediment and the liver tissues ranged between 113.50-3384.34 ng g(-1) dw and 3.99-46.64 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. Spatial evaluation indicated that RT had a significant difference (pmudskippers showed significant differences (p0.05) was observed between Arvand, Zangi and Samayeli. Additionally, significant correlations were found between total PAHs levels and selected biomarkers (p<0.01). The biomarkers measured in this study were useful as a first investigation into the biological effects of PAHs pollution as well as in determining the bioavailability of pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ13C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg-1, while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg-1. CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ13C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    is known about the repair of DNA damage resulting from metabolites from PAHs without bay and fjord regions. We have investigated the six-ringed PAH anthanthrene (dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene), which does not posses bay or fjord motifs. We analyzed the repair profile of human cell extracts and of cell cultures...... in response to DNA damage induced by cytochrome P450-activated anthanthrene. In cell extracts, functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR) activities were necessary to trigger a response to anthanthrene metabolite-induced DNA damage. In cell cultures, NER was responsible...... proposed for metabolic activation of PAHs involves the cytochrome P450 enzymes. The DNA damaging potential of cytochrome P450-activated PAHs is generally associated with their bay and fjord regions, and the DNA repair response of PAHs containing such regions has been thoroughly studied. However, little...

  3. Contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Hamburg`s upper soil; Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Hamburger Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, B.; Jaeger, C.; Sievers, S.

    1996-11-01

    In 1993/95, a programme of investigations covering the area of Hamburg was carried out to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the upper soil. This programme of measurements was intended to give an overview of the general loading situation in an inhabited area and to show main points of loading. One also intended to consider how great the effect of the type of use of an area is on the PAH contents and whether information on the sources can be derived from the PAH patterns. Soil mixture samples were taken from depths of 0-10 cm and in worked areas from depths of 0-30 cm at 108 sites distributed over the city area of Hamburg, and these were examined for 19 individual PAH materials (PAH (EPA) plus 1 and 2 methyl naphthalene and Benzopyrene). Differently exposed and used sites were included in this programme. Industrial, traffic, residential areas, small gardens, agriculture, flood meadows, woods/parks, nature protection and other green areas (fallow land, meadows). (orig.) [Deutsch] 1993/95 wurde in Hamburg ein flaechendeckendes Untersuchungsprogramm zur Ermittlung der Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Oberboeden durchgefuehrt. Dieses Messprogramm sollte einen Ueberblick ueber die generelle Belastungssituation in einem Ballungsraum geben und ggfs. Belastungsschwerpunkte aufzeigen. Es sollte ausserdem betrachtet werden, wie gross der Einfluss der jeweiligen Nutzungsart einer Flaeche auf die PAK-Gehalte ist und ob sich aus den PAK-Mustern in Oberboeden Hinweise auf Quellen ableiten lassen. An 108 Standorten verteilt ueber das Hamburger Stadtgebiet wurden aus 0-10 cm und bei bearbeiteten Flaechen aus 0-30 cm Tiefe Bodenmischproben entnommen und auf 19 PAK-Einzelstoffe untersucht (PAK(EPA) zzgl. 1- und 2-Methylnaphthalin sowie Benzo(e)pyren). In das Programm wurden unterschiedlich exponierte und genutzte Standorte einbezogen: Industrie, Verkehr, Wohngebiete, Kleingaerten, Landwirtschaft

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils of the megacity Shanghai: occurrence, source apportionment and potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Miao, Yi; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Hong; Yu, Gang

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted to the urban soil in the megacity Shanghai in order to assess the levels of PAHs and potential risks to human health, to identify and quantitatively assess source contributions to the soil PAHs. A total of 57 soil samples collected in main urban areas of Shanghai, China were analyzed for 26 PAHs including highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers. The total concentrations ranged from 133 to 8,650 ng g for ΣPAHs and 83.3 to 7,220 ng g for ΣPAHs, with mean values of 2420 and 1,970 ng g, respectively. DBalP and DBaeP may serve as markers for diesel vehicle emission, while DBahP is a probable marker of coke tar as distinct from diesel emissions. Six sources in Shanghai urban area were identified by PMF model; their relative contributions to the total soil PAH burden were 6% for petrogenic sources, 21% for coal combustion, 13% for biomass burning, 16% for creosote, 23% for coke tar related sources and 21% for vehicular emissions, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP) concentrations ranged from 48.9-2,580 ng g for ΣPAHs, 7.02-869 ng g for ΣPAHs and 35.7-1,990 ng g for ΣDBPs. The BaP concentrations of ΣDBPs made up 72% of ΣPAHs. Nearly half of the soil samples showed concentrations above the safe BaP value of 600 ng g. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health from carcinogenic effects of soil PAHs. The index of additive cancer risk (IACR) values in almost one third of urban soil samples were more than the safe value of 1.0, indicating these urban soil PAHs in the study area may pose a potential threat to potable groundwater water quality from leaching of carcinogenic PAH mixtures from soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-10-15

    A simple, fast, and cost effective sample preparation procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of 15+1 European Union Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (15+1 EU PAHs) in dried tea leave samples. Based on a critical assessment of several sample extraction/clean-up approaches, the method based on the ethyl acetate extraction followed by the use of PAHs dedicated cartridges with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been found as an optimal alternative in terms of time demands and obtained good extract purity. For the final identification/quantification of target PAHs, two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used. The performance characteristics of the overall analytical method for individual PAHs determined at three spiking levels (0.5, 2.5 and 5 μg kg(-1)) were in following ranges: limits of quantitation (LOQs) 0.05-0.2 μg kg(-1), repeatabilities 2-9%, and recoveries 73-103%. The recoveries achieved by the newly developed sample preparation procedure when employed for naturally contaminated sample ("incurred" PAHs) were comparable to those obtained by other routinely used approaches employing sonication and/or pressurised liquid extraction for sample analytes isolation. The validated method was subsequently used for the determination of selected genotoxic PAHs in 36 samples of black and green tea obtained from the Czech retail market. The levels of ΣPAH4 (sum of benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)) in black and green tea leaves ranged from 7.4 to 700 μg kg(-1) and from 4.5 to 102 μg kg(-1), respectively. Contamination of tested tea samples by BaP was in the range of 0.2-152 μg kg(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial correlation analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments between Taihu Lake and its tributary rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yu; Li, Qianyu; Cai, Yongjiu; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Taihu Lake basin (THB) and Taihu Lake body (THL) were investigated. Higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were observed for THB than THL. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 12.1 to 2281.1ngg-1 dw for THB and from 11.4 to 209.9ngg-1 dw for THL, while OCPs ranged from 16.3 to 96.9ngg-1 dw and from 16.8 to 61.9ngg-1 dw for THB and THL, respectively. Spatial distribution of PAHs and OCPs showed a high correspondence with the land use of THB and surrounding anthropogenic activity. Additionally, the Kriging interpolation plots demonstrated that the major upper reaches were more polluted than the lower reaches, indicating the transport of pollutants with the water flow direction. The organic matter contents were responsible for OCP distribution other than PAHs due to the biodegradation capacity difference of chemicals. Similar compositions of pollutants were observed with 3- and 4-ringed PAHs accounting for a total of 78.3% for THB and 85.8% for THL, respectively. HCHs and DDTs were predominant OCPs, which contributed to 31.8% and 21.7% for THB, and 33.6% and 21.9% for THL, respectively. The isomeric and parent substance/metabolite ratios implied fresh inputs of DDTs and chlordanes, while HCHs and endosulfans were mainly from old usage. PAH source identification performed by diagnostic ratios demonstrated the mixed sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic ones dominated by grass, wood and coal combustion. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) based on the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used to evaluate the ecological risks of sediments. Although no frequently adverse effects were observed, potential ecological risks induced by Ant, BaA, γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT and chlordanes should also be paid attention to considering the continuous inputs of such pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil from day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Toril [Geological Survey of Norway, Leiv Erikssons vei 39, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: toril.haugland@kj.uib.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, Leiv Erikssons vei 39, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Surface soil (0-2 cm) quality in 87 day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway has been studied. Approximately 45% of the day care centres contained Pb and PAH values above recommended action levels. There are clear variations between different areas of the city. The old central part of the city hosts most of the contaminated day care centres. In suburban areas most of the day care centres have Pb and PAH concentrations below action levels. City fires, gas work emission, lead-based paint, and traffic are probably important anthropogenic contamination sources, together with uncontrolled transportation of soil from contaminated to clean areas. Geological or other natural sources are probably not an important contributor to the high levels of lead and PAH. - Surface soil in 45% of the studied day care centres was contaminated by lead and PAH.

  10. Sediment Sampling for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound in 2013 (NODC Accession 0116480)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment samples were collected at ten sites within Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound on January 28, 2013, for PAH analysis. All samples tested were below detection...

  11. Elucidating the urban levels, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pakistan: Implications for changing energy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Naima; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Junaid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2017-11-13

    Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan. Results showed that the mean PAHs concentrations (air: 2390pgm-3; dust: 167ngg-1) in the indoor environment were higher than that of the outdoor environment (air: 2132pgm-3; dust: 90.0ngg-1). Further, the source apportionment PCA-MLR receptor model identified diesel and gasoline combustion as the primary PAHs sources in the urban and sub-urban settings. Estimated life cancer risk (LCR) potential via inhalation to indoor PAHs was higher with a probability of 2.0 cases per 10,000 inhabitants as compared to outdoor exposure. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model from exposure to dust bound PAHs showed risk in the order of ingestion>dermal>inhalation for various exposure pathways. Likewise, estimated daily intake (EDI) model reflects that PAHs in surface dust enter into the human body mainly through the respiratory system because EDI for breathing was reported higher than that of oral intake. Therefore, adoption of sustainable fuels is recommended to meet the energy requirements and to reduce PAHs emissions and related health risks in the twin cities of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). gas chromatographic method; Determinazione degli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA). Metodo gascaromatografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichini, E.; Viviano, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-12-01

    The method enables the determination of 4- to 6- ring PAHs and particularly of carcinogenic PAHs regulated in Italy. This revision is based on the results of a national collaborative study. Sample extract, obtained by a method described in a previous report (Rapporto ISTISAN: 90/33) is cleaned up by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography; identification is confirmed by mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory quality control program is described.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  14. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  16. Impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from North Korea to the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sun; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2013-05-01

    Due to its proximity to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) (40 km from Seoul proper to North Korea) and the characteristics of energy consumption (coal and biomass burning as major primary energy sources), air pollutants emitted from North Korea are likely to influence the air quality in the SMA. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, backward trajectories arriving in Seoul were estimated and classified into four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through for the sampling days between 2002 and 2003. The ambient data of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for the samples. Then, based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model applied and the influence of air pollutants' emissions from North Korea to SMA is semi-quantified. The result was verified by the spatial and seasonal variations of the PAH emission in China based on the previous works. It is estimated that the influence from North Korea on the particulate PAHs concentration in Seoul was up to 20% of the observed values. Further study directions are discussed to make more quantitative and reliable estimation.

  17. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygen-containing derivatives (OPAHs) in soils from the Angren industrial area, Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Shukurov, Nosir; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    We measured the concentrations and depth distribution (0-10, 10-20 cm) of 31 PAHs and 12 OPAHs in soils at eleven equidistant sampling points along a 20-km transect in the Angren industrial region (coal mine, power plant, rubber factory, gold mine), Uzbekistan to gain an insight into their concentrations, sources, and fate. Concentrations of all compounds were mostly much higher in the 0-10 cm than in the 10-20 cm layer except in disturbed soil close to the coal mine. Proximity to one of the industrial emitters was the main determinant of PAH and OPAH concentrations. The Sigma31PAHs concentrations correlated positively with the Sigma7 carbonyl-OPAH (r=0.98, p<0.01), Sigma5 hydroxyl-OPAH (r=0.72, p<0.05), and with industrially emitted trace metals in the topsoil, identifying industrial emissions as their common source. Concentrations of several OPAHs were higher than their parent PAHs, but their vertical distribution in soil suggested only little higher mobility of OPAHs than their corresponding parent PAHs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of partitioning and oxidative processing of PAH in fogs and clouds on atmospheric lifetimes of PAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Jershon Dale; Ervens, Barbara; Herckes, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds, for the processing and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not well known. A multiphase model was developed to determine the fate and lifetime of PAHs in fogs and clouds for a limited set of daytime conditions. The model describes partitioning between three phases (aqueous, liquid organic, and gas), experimental and estimated (photo)oxidation rates. Using a limited set of microphysical and chemical input conditions, the loss rates of PAHs in the complex three-phase system are explored. At 25 °C, PAHs with two, three and four rings are predicted to be primarily in the gas phase (fraction in the gas phase xg > 90%) while five- and six-ring PAHs partition significantly into droplets with aqueous phase fractions of 1-6% and liquid organic phase fractions of 31-91%, respectively. The predicted atmospheric chemical lifetimes of PAHs in the presence of fog or cloud droplets (<8 h) are significantly shorter than literature predictions of PAH lifetimes due to wet and dry deposition (1-14 days and 5-15 months, respectively) and shorter than or equal to predicted lifetimes due to chemical reactions in the gas and organic particulate phases (1-300 h). Even though PAH solubilities are ≤4 × 10-2 g L-1, the results of the current study show that often the condensed phase of fog and cloud droplets cannot be neglected as a PAH sink.

  20. Lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil from day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Toril; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Volden, Tore

    2008-05-01

    Surface soil (0-2cm) quality in 87 day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway has been studied. Approximately 45% of the day care centres contained Pb and PAH values above recommended action levels. There are clear variations between different areas of the city. The old central part of the city hosts most of the contaminated day care centres. In suburban areas most of the day care centres have Pb and PAH concentrations below action levels. City fires, gas work emission, lead-based paint, and traffic are probably important anthropogenic contamination sources, together with uncontrolled transportation of soil from contaminated to clean areas. Geological or other natural sources are probably not an important contributor to the high levels of lead and PAH.

  1. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulkrabová, J.; Stupák, M.; Švarcová, A.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Šrám, Radim; Hajslová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 562, aug (2016), s. 640-647 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * human milk * GC-MS/MS * infants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  2. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...... this context the usefulness of SFS for identification and quantification was explored. Considering the complex composition of environmental PAH pollution, before the 1-hydoxypyrene in tissues of exposed marine invertebrates can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for assessing total PAH exposure...

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mexican women from different hot spot scenarios and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Orta-García, Sandra T; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    Recently, in developing countries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered contaminants of grave concern for women and children. Therefore, the aim of this study was twofold: (1) evaluate exposure assessment to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker and (2) perform a health risk assessment in women from four different high risk scenarios in Mexico. From 2012 to 2013, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 184 healthy women from the following scenarios: (A) indoor biomass combustion site (n = 50); (B) brick manufacturing site using different materials such as fuel sources (n = 70); (C) industrial site (n = 44); and (D) high vehicular traffic site (n = 20). 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Afterward, a probabilistic health risk assessment was performed (Monte Carlo analysis). Mean urinary 1-OHP levels found were 0.92 ± 0.92; 0.91 ± 0.83; 0.22 ± 0.19; and 0.14 ± 0.17 μg/L for scenario A, B, C, and D, respectively. Then, based on the measured urinary 1-OHP levels, the estimated median daily intake doses of pyrene were calculated: 659, 623, 162, and 77.4 ng/kg/day for the women participating in the study living in areas A, B, C, and D, respectively, and finally, the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated (22 ± 21, 21 ± 20, 5.5 ± 5.5, and 2.6 ± 3.5; for areas A, B, C, and D, respectively), high health risk was noted for the women living in the studied communities. The data shown in this study (exposure levels to PAHs and health risk assessment) made it reasonable to conclude that the exposure levels found have a significant potential for generating adverse effects on human health in the studied scenarios.

  4. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from lake Lille Lungegårdsvannet in Bergen, western Norway; appraising pollution sources from the urban history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malin; Klug, Martin; Eggen, Ola Anfin; Ottesen, Rolf Tore

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to determine the temporal character and concentration variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) during the last 5,400 years in urban lake sediments through a combination of dating and chemo-stratigraphical correlation. We investigate the chemical history of the city of Bergen and determine the effect of specific point sources, as well as diffuse sources, and also help assess the risk of remediation plans. By using several organic compounds, metals and cyanide, we demonstrate the more accurate timing of sedimentation. The PAH results display very low concentrations in pre-industrial times, followed by a general increase that is punctuated by a few significant concentration increases. These most probably correspond to urban fires, domestic heating, gaswork activity and most recently due to traffic pollution. At the same depth as a significant rise in concentration from background levels occurred, the high relative occurrence of low-molecular-weight PAH-compounds, such as naphthalene, were replaced by heavier compounds, thus indicating a permanent change in source. The general observation, using ratios, is that the sources have shifted from pre-industrial pure wood and coal combustion towards mixed and petrogenic sources in more recent times. The (14)C dating provides evidence that the sedimentation rate stayed more-or-less constant for 4,500 years (from 7200 to 2700 calibrated years before present (calyr BP)), before isostatic uplift isolated the water body and the sedimentation rate decreased or sediments were eroded. The sediment input increased again when habitation and industrial activities encroached on the lake. The (14)C dating does not provide consistent data in that period, possibly due to the fact that the lake has been used as a waste site throughout the history of Bergen city. Therefore, results from (14)C dating from anthropogenically influenced sediments should be used with caution. © 2013.

  6. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of biochar and activated carbon amendment on maize growth and the uptake and measured availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Aoife; Moreno Jiménez, Eduardo; Alburquerque, José A; Knapp, Charles W; Switzer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of investigating the effects of carbonaceous sorbent amendment on plant health and end point contaminant bioavailability, plant experiments were set up to grow maize (Zea mays) in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Maize and pine derived biochars, as well as a commercial grade activated carbon, were used as amendments. Plant growth characteristics, such as chlorophyll content and shoot to root biomass, improved with sorbent amendment to varying extents and contaminant uptake to shoots was consistently reduced in amended soils. By further defining the conditions in which sorbent amended soils successfully reduce contaminant bioavailability and improve plant growth, this work will inform field scale remediation efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.

  9. 16S rDNA-based probes for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading soil Mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaswami, M.; Feldhake, D.J.; Loper, J.C. [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    PAHs are a class of widespread pollutants, some of which have been shown to be genotoxic, hence the fate of these compounds in the environment is of considerable interest. Research on the biodegradation of 4 and 5 ring PAHs has been limited by the general lack of microbial isolates or consortia which can completely degrade these toxicants. Heitkamp and Cerniglia have described an oxidative soil Mycobacterium-strain PYR-1 that metabolizes pyrene and fluoranthene more rapidly than the 2 and 3 ring naphthalene and phenanthrene; although some metabolites of benzo-(a)-pyrene (BaP) were detected, no mineralization of BaP was observed. In 1991 Grosser et al. reported the isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. which mineralizes pyrene and also causing some mineralization of BaP. Their study describes a comparative analysis of these two strains, which show very similar colony morphology, growth rate and yellow-orange pigmentation. Genetic differences were shown by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) using two arbitrary GC-rich octanucleotide primers, and by sequence comparison of PCR amplified 16S rDNA, although both strains show similarity closest to that of the genus Mycobacteria. These 16S rDNA sequences are in use for the construction of strain-specific DNA probes to monitor the presence, survival and growth of these isolates in PAH-contaminated soils in studies of biodegradation.

  10. Investigating the potential impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gene biomarker expression and global DNA methylation in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Paolo; Mosconi, Gilberto; Bracchetti, Luca; Nalocca, John Mark; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Marini, Mauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2017-11-11

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are priority contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food webs and affect the biology of a variety of resident and migratory species, including sea turtles. Few studies have evaluated toxicological biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and PCBs in these animals. The present paper reports the results of an initial field study to quantify the association between plasma concentrations of PAHs/PCBs and whole blood cell expression of gene biomarkers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) rescued along the Italian coasts of the northern and central areas of the Adriatic Sea. While detectable levels of PAHs were found in all plasma samples examined, only three PCB congeners (PCB52, PCB95, and PCB149) were noted, with detection percentages ranging between 48% and 57%. A significant correlation was found between 3 of the 6 gene biomarkers assessed (HSP60, CYP1A and ERα) and plasma levels of some PAH congeners. In contrast, no significant association between PCB burden and gene expression was observed. The global DNA methylation levels were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of most of the PAHs and only one of the PCB congeners (PCB52). The relation between PAH concentration and gene expression in whole blood cells suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for the development of biomarkers for monitoring sea turtle exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurements of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was designed to examine the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soot deposited at the Mariannhill toll plaza situated on the N3 highway in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from the toll plaza either by scraping the toll booth walls and surrounding areas, or by wiping ...

  12. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, César C; Doumer, Marta E; Gallice, Wellington C; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dolci, Natiely N; Camargo, Luana M; Ferreira, Paulo A L; Figueira, Rubens C L; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2015-10-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decadal trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in the Netherlands: declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dick Vethaak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure, were analysed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the Netherlands. Dab (Limanda limanda and flounder (Platichthys flesus with partly overlapping distributions were used as target species. In total 1831 bile samples were analysed individually: 417 dab in 1998-2005 and 1438 flounder in 1996-2012. The sampling procedure for flatfish and the PAH metabolites determination by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence (FL detection were based on international guidelines. Measuring the absorbance at 380 nm was tested to correct for possible differences in feeding status, but this turned out not to be a suitable parameter for the standardisation of PAH metabolite concentrations. Both fish species showed statistically significant differences in biliary 1-OHPyr concentrations between various locations. The highest level of PAH contamination was found in flounder from the estuarine Western Scheldt, which might be partly due to local dredging activities. Dab from the central North Sea (Dogger Bank showed the lowest level of PAH contamination. Analysis of all the data indicated mainly downward trends in PAH contamination, most clearly pronounced in the Dutch Wadden Sea. PAH exposure levels in the Dutch coastal waters including the Eastern Scheldt and the Wadden Sea, and also at the offshore North Sea monitoring sites represent levels of response that are not indicative of significant harm. In contrast, PAH contamination in the more industrialised Dutch estuaries (Western Scheldt and Ems Dollard is still a cause for concern. Future monitoring should register the total bile volume, the sex of the fish and the method of fishing to improve the interpretation of the data. In addition, the biliary

  14. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Iturmendi, A; Mastral, A M

    2013-12-01

    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010-January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R(2) = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, PPAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  17. HP-SPME of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated on a steel fiber through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoudi, S.; Noroozian, E. [Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method using a stainless steel wire electrophoretically coated with dodecylsulfate modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes was used for the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Electrophoretic deposition was easily carried out from an aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate medium. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of SPME process, such as extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, desorption time, and desorption temperature were studied. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the various PAHs studied varied from 0.03 to 0.07 ng mL{sup -1}. The inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations at a 10 ng mL{sup -1} concentration level (n = 7) using a single-fiber were from 5.5 to 9.7 and 4.1 to 8.5 %, respectively. The fiber-to-fiber RSD% (n = 3) was between 7.3 and 11.1 %. The linear ranges were between 0.1 and 100 ng mL{sup -1}. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a real sample with the recoveries from 88 to 105 % for 5 ng mL{sup -1} and 89 to 101 % for 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} samples. (orig.)

  18. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  19. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in artificial sea-water using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Crassous, Philippe; Compère, Chantal

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports an accurate synthesis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates, based on gold colloidal monolayer, suitable for in situ environmental analysis. Quartz substrates were functionalized by silanization with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPMS) or (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) and they subsequently reacted with colloidal suspension of gold metal nanoparticles: respectively, the functional groups SH and NH(2) bound gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical reduction of HAuCl(4) using sodium tricitrate and immobilized onto silanized quartz substrates. Active substrate surface morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and gold nanoparticles presented a diameter in the range 40-100 nm. Colloidal hydrophobic films, allowing nonpolar molecule pre-concentration, were obtained. The surfaces exhibit strong enhancement of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on the films. Spectra were recorded for two PAHs, naphthalene and pyrene, in artificial sea-water (ASW) with limits of detection (LODs) of 10 ppb for both on MPMS silanized substrates.

  20. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bourotte

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI and in a natural one (CUNHA.The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs (ΣHPAs was 4.5 times higher in the urban area than in the natural one. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene have been detected in the soils of both areas and presented similar concentrations. Acenaphthene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds. Pyrene was twice more abundant in the soils of natural area (15 µg.kg-1 than of the urban area and fluoranthene was the dominant compound (203 µg.kg-1 in urban area (6.8 times higher than in the natural area. Some compounds of higher molecular weight, which are tracers of vehicular emissions showed significant concentrations in urban soils. Pyrene represented 79% of ΣPAHs whereas it has not been detected in natural soils. The results showed that forest soils in urban area are characterized by the accumulation of high molecular weight compounds of industrial and vehicular origin.Estudos sobre a poluição por Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (HPAs são escassos em solos tropicais e no Brasil. Um estudo foi realizado para examinar a composição, as concentrações e fontes de HPAs encontrados em Latossolos vermelho-amarelo (Oxissolos, remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo. As áreas de estudos localizaram-se em um sítio urbano (PEFI e um natural (CUNHA. A composição granulométrica, pH, teor de matéria orgânica e composição mineralógica foram determinados em amostras de solo superficial. A soma dos HPAs analisados (ΣHPAs foi 4,5 vezes mais

  1. pH-controlled desorption of silver nanoparticles from monolayers deposited on PAH-covered mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oćwieja, Magdalena; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Morga, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Although the release of silver nanoparticles from various surfaces and coatings plays an important role in many practical applications, the mechanisms of these processes are not fully understood. Therefore, in this work, the charge-stabilized silver particles of well-defined surface properties, with average sizes of 15, 28, and 54 nm, were used to quantitatively study this problem. The silver nanoparticles were obtained by the chemical reduction method using trisodium citrate as the stabilizing agent. Their size distributions and stabilities were determined using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential of nanoparticles were determined for controlled ionic strength as a function of pH. The monolayers were produced on poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-modified mica under diffusion-controlled conditions. The coverage was determined by a direct enumeration of deposited nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using these well-defined monolayers, the kinetics of the release of nanoparticles was studied under controlled ionic strength and various pH values. The direct AFM and SEM measurements of the monolayer coverage, as a function of desorption time, allowed one to determine the kinetics of the release process. The equilibrium adsorption constant and the binding energy of particles were also determined using the random sequential adsorption model. The experimental results indicated that the release rate of particles is the fastest at lower pH values and for smaller particle sizes. This is confirmed by the binding energy values that at pH 3.5 varied between -15.9 and -18.1 kT for particles of the sizes 15 and 54 nm, respectively. These results were quantitatively interpreted in terms of the ion-pair concept where it was assumed that the binding energy between nanoparticles and the substrate was controlled by electrostatic interactions. Based on the

  2. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  3. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  4. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash. Technical progress report No. 1, [October--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of ``surface roughness`` of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of PAHs on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of PAH transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of PAHs and PAH derivatives on fly ash surfaces. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  5. Atmospheric deposition of PAH - development and use of adsorber cartouches as passive collectors for time-integrative long-term monitoring; Atmosphaerische Deposition von Polyzyklischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen - Entwicklung und Einsatz von Adsorberkartuschen als Passivsammler zum zeitlich integrierenden Langzeitmonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocht, T.; Martin, H.; Grathwohl, P. [Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie, Tuebingen Univ. (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    PAH belong to the ubiquitary group of persistant organic pollutants (POP). Via atmospheric deposition, they may accumulate in soils and sediments over time. The contribution describes a sampling system for time-integrated measurement of atmospheric depositions over several months on the basis of continuous accumulation of pollutants in adsorber cartouches. This way, the total deposition of PAH is recorded independent of the type of deposition (i.e. wet or dry). [German] Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) gehoeren zur Gruppe der persistenten organischen Schadstoffe (POP), die ubiquitaer auftreten. Ueber den atmosphaerischen Transport kommt es zur ubiquitaeren Verbreitung der Substanzen. Durch die atmosphaerische Deposition koennen persistente PAK vor allem in den Boeden und Sedimenten akkumulieren und sich dort im Laufe der Zeit anreichern. Zur Beurteilung der Anreicherung persistenter organischer Schadstoffe in den Boeden durch flaechenhafte, diffuse Eintraege spielt die quantitative Erfassung der atmosphaerischen Deposition eine entscheidende Rolle. Im folgenden wird ein Probenahmesystem beschrieben, welches als Passivsammler ueber einen Messzeitraum von mehreren Monaten durch kontinuierliche Anreicherung der Schadstoffe in Adsorberkartuschen die zeitlich integrierte Erfassung der Eintraege ermoeglicht. Dabei wird, unabhaengig von den verschiedenen Niederschlags- und Depositionsformen (trockene und feuchte Deposition), die Gesamtdeposition der PAK erfasst. (orig.)

  6. Shale hydrocarbon reservoirs: some influences of tectonics and paleogeography during deposition: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    Continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in shale reservoirs appear to be characterized by common paleotectonic and paleogeographic histories and are limited to specific intervals of geologic time. In addition, most North American self-sourced shale correlates with geologic time periods of calcitic seas and greenhouse conditions and with evolutionary turnover of marine metazoans. More knowledge about the relations among these controls on deposition is needed, but conceptual modeling suggests that integrating tectonic histories, paleogeographic reconstructions, and eustatic curves may be a useful means by which to better understand shale plays already in development stages and potentially identify new organic-carbon-rich shale targets suitable for continuous resource development.

  7. Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion. Task 6: Data analysis and formulation of an empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Darby B.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1990-01-01

    The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition.

  8. Structure-reactivity correlation of diesel soot and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls in biofuel emissions; Struktur-Reaktivitaets-Korrelation von Dieselruss und Charakterisierung von PAHs und Carbonylen im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Markus

    2009-12-29

    This work reports on the determination of the structure-reactivity correlation of soot using Raman microscopy (RM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), as well as on changes in the emission level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbonyls at the combustion of biofuels. To characterize the reactivity of soot the combustion behaviour of model- and diesel soot has been determined by means of TPO in the presence of oxygen. In this context, spark-discharge soot and graphite powder were applied as model substances, and EURO VI and IV diesel soot as real-diesel soots. The structure of soot samples was investigated by RM and structural changes during the TPO were observed. In order to make a statement about the changes in PAH and carbonyl compound emissions during combustion of biofuels, samples were taken at different engine testbenches. Fossil fuel, biodiesel and vegetable oil were used during this study, as well as fuel mixtures with different biofuel fractions.

  9. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.; Flowers, T.H.; Duncan, H.J.; Alder, J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Glasgow Marine Technological Centre

    2006-06-15

    The relevance of germination trials for screening plants that may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated land was evaluated. The germination and subsequent growth of 7 grass and legume species were evaluated in soil spiked with a pure PAH mixture or coal tar and soil from a former coking plant heavily contaminated with aged PAHs. None of these treatments adversely affected germination of the plants. However, apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil. In the coal tar spiked soil 4 out of the 7 species showed reduced growth, as did 3 out of the 7 in the soil spiked with a mixture of 7 PAHs. Therefore, germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied.

  10. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants (CT sealants) are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-industrial urban settings in the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of CT sealants. We evaluated PAH concentrations following the ban by analyzing sediment cores collected from Lady Bird Lake in 2012; Lady Bird Lake impounds the Colorado River in central Austin and receives runoff from much of the greater Austin area. The mean sum concentration of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in one of two 2012 sediment cores analyzed for PAHs declined 75% from before 2006 (mean of 4 samples=8,090 μg kg-1) to 2012 (mean of 2 samples=2,030 μg kg-1), reversing a 40-year (1959-1999) upward trend in PAH concentrations that was previously documented. The downward trend in PAH concentrations in the seven uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals in the first 2012 core was statistically significant (r=0.93, p-value=0.002). Post-2008 PAH trends in the second 2012 core were similar (significant downward trend in the six uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals and mean 2012 ∑PAH16 of 2,390 μg kg-1); however, pre-2007 sediment did not appear to have been preserved in this core likely because of the effects of flooding on sediment deposition and mixing at this site--the largest flood on the Colorado River in Austin in 20 years was in 2007. On the basis of a comparison of lake-sediment PAH profiles to 22 PAH source profiles, the PAH loading to lake sediment continues to be dominated by CT sealants. The continued dominance of proportional PAH loading by CT sealants in spite of decreased concentrations since 2006 might be because legacy CT sealant and contaminated soils and sediments continue to yield PAHs to runoff. A previous study using source-receptor modeling concluded that CT sealants were the largest PAH source to 40 urban lakes studied in the

  11. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2008-01-01

    by including data obtained using analytical chemistry and molecular techniques. In marine polychaetes induction of CYP enzyme activity after exposure to PAHs and the mechanism behind this is currently not well established. Conflicting results regarding the inducibility of CYP enzymes from polychaetes have led......Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...... about the mechanisms underlying elimination of accumulated PAHs. An important pathway of elimination is through biotransformation which results in increased aqueous solubility of the otherwise hydrophobic PAHs. Biotransformation in marine polychaetes proceeds in a two phased process similar to those...

  12. Atmospheric Concentrations, Gas/Particle Partitioning And Exposure Risk Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) At Background, Rural Village And Urban Sites In The North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Simonich, S.; Zhao, J.; Xue, M.; Wang, W.; Tao, S.

    2009-05-01

    Particle- and gas-phase PAHs were measured in air collected from a background site (Xiaolongmen), two rural village sites (Gubeikou and Donghe), and an urban site (Beijing) located in the North China Plain for four seasons from September 2007 to August 2008 in order to evaluate their concentrations, relative abundance, and gas/particle partitioning. Sixteen PAHs, included in the U.S.EPA priority pollutant list, were determined in the particle (PM10) and gas phases. The annual average 15 PAH concentration in Donghe was 730.7±608.0 ng/m3, which was 18.2, 3.0, 1.8 times higher than Xiaolongmen, Gubeikou and Beijing, respectively. A good linear relationship between gas/particle partitioning coefficients, Kp and subcooled liquid vapor pressure, pl was obtained. At the rural and urban sites, the regression slopes were much steeper than -1, indicating that adsorption of PAH to particulate matter dominated over absorption possibly because, at these sites, the freshly emitted particulate matter and PAHs had not yet reached equilibrium. However, gas/particle partitioning of PAHs approached equilibrium at the background site because of long- range transport of PAHs. In addition, the gas/particle partitioning was studied according to three different models: The Junge-Pankow adsorption model, the Koa absorption model, and the dual organic matter absorption model combined with the soot carbon adsorption model. The Junge-Pankow model and Koa model both under-predicted our experimental Kp values. However, the dual model fit our experimental Kp values well suggesting that the main partitioning mechanism was PAH adsorption onto soot carbon in this region of China. The different particulate matter characteristics (including organic matter and elemental carbon fraction and available adsorption sites), temperature variation during sampling, the presence of a non- exchangeable PAH fraction and non-equilibrium were considered possible reasons for why our experimental Kp values deviated

  13. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  14. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Public health risk assessment with bioaccessibility considerations for soil PAHs at oil refinery vicinity areas in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-21

    Populations living in the vicinity of oil refinery sludge deposition sites may be at greater risk of potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through inhalation, ingestion, and direct contact with contaminated media. Three Indian oil refinery sludge deposition sites (at Haldia, Barauni and Guwahati) were chosen for study. Soil samples were collected from three different locations at each site. Mild solvent extraction by butanol and exhaustive extraction by acetone/hexane have been conducted to estimate the bioaccessible PAHs beside the total extractable PAHs content of the soil samples. Concentrations of 13 PAHs in the soils were found to be in a range of 67.02-95.21μg/g and bioaccessible PAHs were in a range of 19.296-36.657μg/g. A probabilistic health risk assessment with bioaccessibility considerations was carried out using Monte Carlo simulations for the estimation of the cancer risk exposed to the PAHs. The 90th percentiles cancer risks with bioaccessibility considerations of soil PAHs for children is 6.506E-05 and for the adults the risk is 6.609E-05. Risk assessments on extracted PAHs from exhaustive solvent extraction can overestimate the risk by 2.87-2.89 folds at 90% confidence level with respect to the biomimetic mild extraction procedure using butanol. According to USEPA above 1×10(-6) extra risk of cancer is an alarm towards management. So, public health issues due to PAHs is imminent in these oil refinery vicinity areas. Sensitivity analysis revealed exposure duration (ED) and relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) as the most influential parameters of the assessment. The profiling and risk assessment study with bioaccessibility considerations of PAHs from soil indicates that high PAHs concentration can lead to higher cancer risk for the vicinity area residents and local government should take immediate management actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric PAHs in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno

    2014-12-01

    Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of PAHs. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of PAH levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 PAHs studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.

  17. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  18. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Compound depositions from the BOPEC fires on Bonaire : Measurements and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Bodar CWM; Boshuis ME; de Groot AC; de Zwart D; Hoffer SM; Janssen PJCM; Mooij M; de Groot GM; Peijnenburg WJGM; Verbruggen EMJ; IMG; SEC; LER; mev

    2011-01-01

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some perfluorinated fire fighting foam constituents (especially perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) were found in deposited soot and in water on Bonaire due to the BOPEC oil depot fires in September 2010. The soot deposition did not result in elevated

  20. Results of a European inter-laboratory comparison study on the determination of EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Rupert; Gomez Ruiz, Jose A.; Holst, Christoph von; Wenzl, Thomas [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium); Anklam, Elke [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    A collaborative study on the analysis for 15 + 1 EU priority PAHs in edible oils was organised to investigate the state-of-the-art of respective analytical methods. Three spiked vegetable oils, one contaminated native sunflower oil, and one standard solution were investigated in this study. The results of 52 laboratories using either high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or gas chromatography with mass-selective detectors were evaluated by application of robust statistics. About 95% of the laboratories were able to quantify benzo[a]pyrene together with five other PAHs included in the commonly known list of 16 US-EPA PAHs. About 80% of the participants also quantified seven additional PAHs in most samples, two of which were benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, which were also known from the EPA list. Only about 50% of the participants quantified cyclopenta[cd]pyrene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, and benzo[c]fluorene. The robust relative standard deviations of the submitted results without discrimination between the methods applied ranged between 100% for 5-methylchrysene in spiked olive oil and 11% for the same analyte in spiked sunflower oil. The results clearly showed that for these analytes the methods of analysis are not yet well established in European laboratories, and more collaborative trials are needed to promote further development and to improve the performances of the respective methods. (orig.)

  1. Impact of oxidation and biodegradation on the most commonly used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios: Implications for the source identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Faure, Pierre

    2014-02-28

    Based on the isomer stability during their formation, PAH diagnostic ratios have been extensively used to determine PAH contamination origin. Nevertheless, it is known that these isomers do not present the same physicochemical properties and that reactions occurring during the transport from an atmospheric source induce changes in the diagnostic ratios. Yet, little is known about reactions occurring in soils contaminated by other sources such as coal tar and coal. Innovative batch experiments of abiotic oxidation and microbial incubations were performed to discriminate independently the influence of these two major processes occurring in soils on the diagnostic ratios of major PAH sources. Three samples were studied, a coking plant soil and two major PAH sources in this soil, namely coal and coal tar. The combustion signature of the coking plant soil showed the major influence of coal tar in the soil sample composition. Some of these ratios were drastically affected by oxidation and biodegradation processes inducing a change in the source signature. The coal tar signature changed to petrogenic source after oxidation with the anthracene/(anthracene+phenanthrene) ratio. According to this ratio, the initial petrogenic signature of the coal changed to a combustion signature after the biodegradation experiment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    choose to assess the quality of soil based on the content of total petroleum hydro arbons (TPH) and of a number of un-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Hydrocarbon contamination in soil is complex. Often hydrocarbon contamination is a mixture of thousands of compounds in varying...... criteria for TPH and/or individual compounds of PAHs. I found that the selected PAHs in the quality criteria are not representative of hydrocarbon contamination derived from petrogenic sources as the selected PAHs are all un-substituted and petrogenic PAHs are dominated by alkylsubstituted PAHs....... In the studied soils with petrogenic sources more than 94% of the total content of PAHs was alkyl-substituted and we therefore speculate that the concentration of PAHs in soils with petrogenic sources may be heavily underestimated. Source identification based on TPH and a number of un-substituted PAHs gives only...

  3. Concentrations and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Seawater around Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Nasher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the water around the Island and their probable sources. Water samples were collected from four jetties and three marine fish farms around the main Langkawi Island and analysed for 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in December 2010. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 6.1 ± 0.43 to 46 ± 0.42 μgL−1, which exceed the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (0.20 μgL−1 for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic benzo[a]anthracene : benzo[a]anthracene + chrysene ratio of between 0.52 and 1.0 suggests that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the stations studied are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources, from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines, with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources. A significant positive correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC and the concentrations of the high-molecular-weight PAHs (r2=0.86, P<0.05, which suggests significant secondary sources of PAHs, such as those from atmospheric deposition.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of PAH mixtures using Microtox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. PAHs are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring PAHs were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of PAH mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each PAH or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual PAHs tested, the toxicity of PAHs is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three PAHs with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.

  5. Remobilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils with a new bio-surfactant; Remobilisation d'Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) presents dans les sols contamines a l'aide d'un tensioactif d'origine biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabet, S.

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic pollutants released into the environment by combustion processes; Due to their high sorption capacity, soils constitute their main environmental sink. PAH are hydrophobic and weakly biodegradable, moreover they are toxic and considered as potent human carcinogen. Various technologies are used for the remediation of PAH-contaminated soils, but they are not cost effective and may be hazardous for the environment. Some recent studies suggest that the use of bio-surfactants is a promising method that enhances the removal of PAHs from soils. This study investigates the properties and the impact of a new bio-surfactant, on the mobilization of three PAH (fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene). The bio-surfactant seems to be weakly sorbed on the soil studied. Solubilizing effects have been studied by the Molar Solubilization Ratio (MSR). In the ternary mixture, the less hydrophobic PAH (fluorene) favors the micellar solubilization of the most hydrophobic one by decreasing interfacial tensions. The soil column studies revealed that the bio-surfactant was rapidly efficient. Results obtained in dynamic studies were consistent with those obtained in static studies. This work also investigated the effect of the contamination level on PAH remobilization. The study reveals that PAH solubilization increases with the contamination level until micelle saturation. The percentage re-mobilized depends on the contaminant studied and the content of organic matter rate. As a matter of fact, for the soil containing the higher OM rate, remobilization follows physico-chemical properties of the PAH. For the soil containing less OM, the mineral fraction seems to play a significant role on PAH adsorption. (author)

  6. Formation and destruction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the flaring of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of the combustion in an enclosed flare of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill. The results demonstrate that at 1,000°C and long combustion, several synthesis reactions lead to the formation of 4 to 6 rings of PAHs. This formation also involves the formation of compounds such as benzo(g,h,iperylene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and dibenzo(a,hanthracene not present in raw biogas. However, the compounds most likely to form in combustion are benzo (a anthracene and benzo (b fluoranthene. The only exception is chrysene which is significantly destroyed. The experience has proved the total lack of formation of PAHs with only 2 and 3 aromatic rings.

  7. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  8. Variation in PAH patterns in road runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Rupak; Furumai, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Beecham, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Twelve particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the first flush regime of road runoff during nine events in Winterthur in Switzerland. The total PAH contents ranged from 17 to 62 μg/g. The PAH patterns measured at different time intervals during the first flush periods were very similar within each event irrespective of variation in suspended solids (SS) concentration within the first flush regime. However, the PAH patterns were different from event to event. This indicates that the environment plays an important role in PAH accumulation in SS. A toxicity identification evaluation approach using a toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) was applied to compare toxicities in the different events. The TEFs were found to be between 8 and 33 μg TEQ g(-1) (TEQ: toxic equivalent concentration). In some cases, two events having similar total PAH contents showed two fold toxicity differences.

  9. Distribution and transport of coal tar-derived PAHs in fine-grained residuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulava, V.M.; Mckay, L.D.; Driese, S.G.; Menn, F.M.; Sayler, G.S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We investigated the distribution and transport of coal tar-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine-grained residuum and alluvial floodplain deposits that underlie a former manufactured gas plant. All 16 USEPA priority pollutant PAHs are present at this site and have penetrated the entire 4-5 m thickness of clayey sediments, which unconformably overly limestone bedrock. Concentrations of less hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., naphthalene, 0.011-384 mg kg{sup -1}) were about 10 times higher than those of highly hydrophobic PAHs (e.g., benzo(g, h, i)perylene -0.002 to 56.03 mg kg{sup -1}). Microscopic examination of thin-sections of the clay-rich sediments showed that fractures and rootholes, which can act as pathways for flow, occur throughout the profiles. However, in the vast majority of samples in which PAHs were detected, there was no detectable tar residue, suggesting that much of the transport occurred in the dissolved phase. The widespread distribution of PAHs is most likely due to diffusion-controlled exchange between the fast-flow pathways in the fractures and rootholes and the relatively immobile water in the fine-grained matrix. This implies that fractures and rootholes can play a major role in controlling transport of highly hydrophobic compounds in fine-grained sediments, which would otherwise act as barriers to contaminant migration.

  10. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  11. Supported manganese oxide on TiO{sub 2} for total oxidation of toluene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Characterization and catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine, E-mail: aboukais@univ-littoral.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, EA 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Abi-Aad, Edmond [Univ Lille Nord de France, 59000 Lille (France); Equipe Catalyse, UCEIV, EA 4492, MREI, ULCO, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Taouk, Bechara [Laboratoire de Sécurité des procédés Chimiques (LSPC), EA 4704, INSA Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2013-11-01

    Manganese oxide catalysts supported on titania (TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method in order to elaborate catalysts for total oxidation of toluene and PAHs. These catalysts have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). It has been shown that for the 5%Mn/TiO{sub 2} catalyst the reducibility and the mobility of oxygen are higher compared, in one side, to other x%Mn/TiO{sub 2} samples and, in another side, to catalysts where TiO{sub 2} support was replaced by γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2}. It has been shown that the content of manganese loading on TiO{sub 2} has an effect on the catalytic activity in the toluene oxidation. A maximum of activity was obtained for the 5%Mn/TiO{sub 2} catalyst where the total conversion of toluene was reached at 340 °C. This activity seems to be correlated to the presence of the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} redox couple in the catalyst. When the Mn content increases, large particles of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} appear leading then to the decrease in the corresponding activity. In addition, compared to both other supports, TiO{sub 2} seems to be the best to give the best catalytic activity for the oxidation of toluene when it is loaded with 5% of manganese. For this reason, the latter catalyst was tested for the abatement of some PAHs. The light off temperature of PAHs compounds increases with increasing of benzene rings number and with decreasing of H/C ratio. All of PAHs are almost completely oxidized and converted at temperatures lower than 500 °C. - Highlights: • Preparation of x%MnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. • Catalytic oxidation tests of toluene and PAHs. • EPR, TPR and TPD characterizations of Mn(II) and Mn(IV) ions.

  12. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons; Separacion por cromatografia de gases de alta eficiencia de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos, (PAH) y alifaticos (AH) ambientales, empleado como fases estacionarias OV-1 y SE-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs.

  13. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  14. Effect of water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River on PAHs sedimentation in the estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rufeng; Feng, Chenghong; Wang, Dongxin; He, Maozhi; Hu, Lijuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-12-01

    Historical distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carriers (i.e., organic matter and mineral particles) in the sediment cores of the Yangtze Estuary were investigated, with emphasis laid on the role of the Yangtze River. Grain size component of sediments (clay, silt, and sand) and organic carbon (black carbon and total organic carbon) in the sediment cores were markedly affected by water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results showed that sands and black carbon acted as the main carriers of PAHs. The sedimentation of two-ring to three-ring PAHs in the estuary had significant correlations with water flux and sediment discharge of the Yangtze River. The relative lower level of the four-ring and five-ring to six-ring PAHs concentrations appeared around the year 2003 and remained for the following several years. This time period accorded well with the water impoundment time of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The decreased level of two-ring to three-ring PAHs occurred in the year 1994, and the peak points around the year 2009 indicated that PAHs sedimentation in the estuary also had close relationship to severe drought and flood in the catchments. The findings presented in this paper could provide references for assessing the impacts of water flux and sediment discharge on the historical deposition of PAHs and their carriers in the Yangtze Estuary.

  15. The ecological complexity of the Thai-Laos Mekong River: II. Metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) monitoring, modelling and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Helen E; Bangkedphol, Sornnarin; Sakultantimetha, Arthit; Songsasen, Apisit

    2010-11-01

    The Mekong is an essential source of water and protein for the denizens of Thai Laos countries. It is hypothesized that pollution may be adversely affecting the water and sediment quality, which threatens the short and long-term use of this major river system. This directly impacts on the health and population of the aquatic life and ultimately human health and the economy for both countries is affected. The quality of the river can be assessed from various chemical and physical parameters, such as PAHs and metals content of both the water and the sediment. The introduction of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) allows comparison of the values obtained with the guidelines. Furthermore the modelling program EPISUITE was used to determine the environmental partitioning of pollutants within the different environmental compartments. Using the data produced for PAHs and metals the experimental model was compared to the default model. This involved experimentally measuring the log K(oc) for Mekong sediments and from this determining the log K(ow). High availability in sediment of pollutants may lead to greater biomagnification in bethnic fish, which may then be hazardous for human consumption even if it is safe for the species that is accumulating pollutants. The potential for this is shown by the calculated accumulation in biota C(bio) values exceeding both the Chronic value (ChrV) and Lethal Concentration 50 (LC(50)) for fish in the Mekong River. When compared to the EQS guidelines the amount of some PAHs, cadmium and lead in sediment were above the lowest effect level but below the severe effect level.

  16. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight PAHs are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...

  17. Increased formation of carcinogenic PAH metabolites in fish promoted by nitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Rajamanickam, R.; Wahidullah, S.

    the impact of nitrite (NO2−) on the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish. In a laboratory experiment, exposure of euryhaline fish, Oreochromis mossambicus to industrial effluents containing PAHs in the presence of NO2− enhanced...

  18. Alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and benthic invertebrates of the northern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.

    2017-10-01

    The Hanna Shoal region represents an important northern gateway for transport and deposition in the Chukchi Sea. This study determined the concentration and distribution of organic contaminants (aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in surface sediments from 34 sites across Hanna Shoal. Up to 31 total PAHs, including parent and alkyl homologues were detected with total concentrations ranging from a low of 168 ng g-1 the western flank of Hanna Shoal (station H34) to 1147 ng g-1 at station in Barrow Canyon (station BarC5). Alkyl PAHs were more abundant than parent structures and accounted for 53-64% of the summed concentrations suggesting overall at background levels (< 1600 ng g-1) in sediments. Alkane (C15-C33) hydrocarbons ranged from 4.3 μg g-1 on the southern flank of Hanna shoal to 31 μg g-1 at a northern station. Sediments were often dominated by short chain (C15-C22) alkanes with overall terrestrial aquatic ratios (TAR) for the region averaging 0.20. Based on the ratio of Fl/(Fl+ Py) and BaF/(Baf+BeP) verses (BA/BA+Ch) in sediments, PAHs are largely derived from petrogenic sources with minor amounts of mixed combustion sources. A diversity of PAHs were detected in the northern whelk Neptunea heros foot muscle with total concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 1.5 μg g-1 dry tissue wt. Larger (and presumably older) animals showed higher levels of PAH per unit muscle tissue, suggesting that animals may bioaccumulate PAHs over time, with low but increasing concentrations also present in internal and external eggs. Alkane hydrocarbons were also higher in whelks with distributions similar to that seen in sediments. The mussel Muscularus discors collected in Barrow Canyon showed constrained distributions and substantially lower concentrations of both PAHs and alkanes than the surrounding surface sediments.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the isolation of the 16 US-EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Somandla; Kunene, Phumlile; Tavengwa, Nikita T; Tutu, Hlanganani; Richards, Heidi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-09-01

    A smart sorbent consisting of benzo[k]fluoranthene-imprinted and indeno[1 2 3-cd]pyrene-imprinted polymers mixed at 1:1 (w/w) was successfully screened from several cavity-tuning experiments and used in the isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from spiked solution. The polymer mixture showed high cross selectivity and affinity towards all the 16 US-EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The average extraction efficiency from a cyclohexane solution was 65 ± 13.3% (n = 16, SD). Batch adsorption and kinetic studies confirmed that the binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto the polymer particles resulted in formation of a monolayer and that the binding process was the rate limiting step. The imprinted polymer performance studies confirmed that the synthesized polymer had an imprinting efficiency of 103.9 ± 3.91% (n = 3, SD). A comparison of the theoretical number of cavities and the experimental binding capacity showed that the overall extent of occupation of the imprinted cavities in the presence of excess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was 128 ± 6.45% (n = 3, SD). The loss of selectivity was estimated at 2.9% with every elution cycle indicating that the polymer can be re-used several times with limited loss of selectivity and sensitivity. The polymer combination has shown to be an effective adsorbent that can be used to isolate all the 16 US-EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-Alkanes in beaked sea snake Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803) from the Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mote, S.; RanjeetKumar; Naik, B.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    chromatography (0.45 cm i.d. x 18 cm) called the second step column chromatography to separate alkenes and PAHs. The extract was then rinsed with 8 ml (the first of 2 ml: 0.4 ml, 0.3 ml, 0.3 ml, 0.5 ml, 0.5 ml, respectively and 6 ml of distilled hexane...-MS of the samples were performed using a Shimadzu QP-2010 gas chromatograph interfaced with GCMS-QP2010 mass spectrometer. The gas chromatograph was equipped with a 20 m length. 0.1 mm i.d. 0.1 µm film thickness Rtx-5 MS capillary column coated with 5% phenyl 95...

  1. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX from the furan moulding sands with addition of the reclaim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of decomposition of a moulding sand with furfuryl resin also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a linear character of a very high correlation coefficient R2. On the bases of the derived equations, it is possible to determine the amount of the emitted hazardous substances from the moulding sand containing the known fraction of the reclaim.

  2. Effect of rhamnolipids on the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Ming [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: zhangming@zju.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ryegrass. Results showed that rhamnolipids could enhance the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass roots. With increasing concentration of rhamnolipids, the PAH content in ryegrass roots initially increased and then decreased, while the PAH content in ryegrass shoots did not change. Batch studies also showed that the sorption of phenanthrene by fresh ryegrass roots was dependent on rhamnolipid concentration and showed the same trends as the uptake experiment. The increase of permeability of ryegrass root cells with the increase of rhamnolipid concentration may lead to the initial enhancement of PAH content in ryegrass roots, and the decrease of PAH adsorption onto the root surface with further increase of rhamnolipids led to the decrease of PAH content in ryegrass roots. - Rhamnolipids, a biosurfactant, can promote the uptake of PAHs by ryegrass, which indicates a potential application of surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation.

  3. Single-Laboratory Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Determination of 27 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oils and Fats

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Martin; White, Shaun; Macarthur, Roy; Petch, Rupert; Holland, Joseph; Damant, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A protocol for the measurement of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils by gas chromatography ? mass spectrometry has undergone single-laboratory validation. Analytes were measured in three oils (olive pomace oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil). Five samples of each oil (one unfortified, and four fortified at concentrations between 2 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) were analysed in replicate (four times in separate runs). Two samples (one unfortified and one fortifi...

  4. Numerical Simulation of PAHs Formation and Effect of Operating Conditions in DI-Diesel Engines Based on a Comprehensive Chemical Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Jing Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional numerical simulations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH formation in a Chaochai 6102bzl direct injection diesel engine are performed. n-Heptane is chosen as the fuel. A detailed mechanism, which includes 108 species and 572 elementary reactions that describe n-heptane oxidation and PAH formation, is proposed. A reduced kinetic mechanism, with only 86 reactions and 57 species, is developed and incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD software for the numerical simulations. Results show that PAHs, which were mostly deposited at the bottom of the diesel combustion chamber wall, first increased and then decreased with the increase in diesel crank angle. Furthermore, the diesel engine operating conditions (intake vortex intensity, intake air pressure, fuel injection advance angle, diesel load, and engine speed had a significant effect on PAH formation.

  5. Ex-situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Bendix; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are regarded as environmental pollutants. A promising approach to reduce PAH pollution is based on the implementation of the natural potential of some microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons. In this study Proteiniphilum acetatigenes was used...

  6. Determinação de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAS em guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Detemination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS in guaraná powder (Paullinia cupana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Cristiane Rojo Camargo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs representam uma importante classe de carcinógenos químicos formados durante a combustão incompleta de material orgânico. Os HPAs ocorrem como contaminantes em diferentes tipos de alimentos, devido principalmente à poluição ambiental e alguns tipos de processamentos como a defumação, a secagem e a torrefação. Nos últimos anos, o consumo de guaraná vem aumentando, assim como a sua oferta no mercado. Durante o processamento das sementes para a obtenção dos produtos, a matéria-prima passa pelas etapas de secagem, torrefação e, em alguns casos, a defumação, processos estes que podem dar origem aos HPAs. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de cinco HPAs carcinogênicos: benzo(aantraceno, benzo(bfluoranteno, benzo(kfluoranteno, benzo(apireno e dibenzo(a,hantraceno em diferentes marcas de guaraná em pó disponíveis comercialmente. A determinação foi feita por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência com Detecção por Fluorescência. Os HPAs foram detectados em 81% das amostras analisadas, com níveis variando de 0,05 a 8,04 µg/kg. Os resultados indicam que o tipo de processamento utilizado durante a manufatura do guaraná em pó pode resultar na presença desses contaminantes no produto final.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent an important group of chemical carcinogens formed during incomplete combustion of organic matter. PAHs occur as contaminants in different types of food and the main sources of contamination are environmental pollution and food processing such as drying, roasting and smoking. In the last years, the consumption of guaraná products has increased, as well as their market offer. During processing, the seeds are dried and roasted and in some cases they are submitted to a smoking step, these procedures can originate PAHs. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of five

  7. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  10. The effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on seabed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Lalicata, Joseph J; Allison, Mead A; Dellapenna, Timothy M

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extent to which Hurricanes Katrina and Rita affected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), sediment cores were analyzed in late 2005 from: a shallow shelf, a deeper shelf, and a marsh station. Sediment geochronology, fabric, and geochemistry show that the 2005 storms deposited approximately 10cm of sediment to the surface of a core at 5-12A. Bulk carbon geochemistry and PAH isomers in this top layer suggest that the source of sediment to the top portion of core 5-12A was from a relatively more marine area. Particulate PAHs in the marsh core (04M) appeared unaffected by the storms while sediments in the core from Station 5-1B (deeper shelf) were affected minimally (some possible storm-derived deposition). Substantial amounts of PAH-laden particles may have been displaced from the seabed in shallow areas of the water column in the GOM by these 2005 storms.

  11. Seasonal variation on size distribution and concentration of PAHs in Guangzhou city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Bi, Xinhui; Tan, Jihua; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2007-03-01

    Size distribution aerosol samples were collected at an urban location of Guangzhou in four seasons of 2003-2004 by a MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor). The particle loading (PM10: 80-397 microg m(-3)) was comparable with some other Asia cities; however, much higher than that of Western Europe and North America. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MS). Seasonal effects on the size distribution of PAHs are presented. Bimode (accumulation and coarse mode) and unimode (accumulation mode) distributions were observed for low-molecule-weight and high-molecule-weight PAHs. A slight shift to larger particles was found for the accumulation mode in autumn and winter, compared with that of spring and summer. One explanation is that the longer aging process of PAHs in autumn and winter would result in volatilization from finer particles followed by condensation onto coarser particles. Another is there was mixing process of local emission with long-range transported aerosol in autumn and winter. The relative higher value of IcdP/(BghiP+IcdP) and lower value of BghiP/BeP in winter also give evidences to the mixing process. The level of PAHs concentration has been much elevated in recent years. This can be attributed to the fast growth of motor vehicle and energy consumption.

  12. Methylobacterium populi VP2: plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a highly polluted environment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Sannino, Filomena; Piccolo, Alessandro; Cafaro, Valeria; Carotenuto, Rita; Pepe, Olimpia

    2014-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to accelerate the natural detoxification processes of toxic substances in the soil represents an alternative ecofriendly and low-cost method of environmental remediation compared to harmful incineration and chemical treatments. Fourteen strains able to grow on minimal selective medium with a complex mixture of different classes of xenobiotic compounds as the sole carbon source were isolated from the soil of the ex-industrial site ACNA (Aziende Chimiche Nazionali Associate) in Cengio (Savona, Italy). The best putative degrading isolate, Methylobacterium populi VP2, was identified using a polyphasic approach on the basis of its phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular characterisation. Moreover, this strain also showed multiple plant growth promotion activities: it was able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores, solubilise phosphate, and produce a biofilm in the presence of phenanthrene and alleviate phenanthrene stress in tomato seeds. This is the first report on the simultaneous occurrence of the PAH-degrading ability by Methylobacterium populi and its multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Therefore, the selected indigenous strain, which is naturally present in highly contaminated soils, is good candidate for plant growth promotion and is capable of biodegrading xenobiotic organic compounds to remediate contaminated soil alone and/or soil associated with plants.

  13. Methylobacterium populi VP2: Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from a Highly Polluted Environment for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ventorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to accelerate the natural detoxification processes of toxic substances in the soil represents an alternative ecofriendly and low-cost method of environmental remediation compared to harmful incineration and chemical treatments. Fourteen strains able to grow on minimal selective medium with a complex mixture of different classes of xenobiotic compounds as the sole carbon source were isolated from the soil of the ex-industrial site ACNA (Aziende Chimiche Nazionali Associate in Cengio (Savona, Italy. The best putative degrading isolate, Methylobacterium populi VP2, was identified using a polyphasic approach on the basis of its phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular characterisation. Moreover, this strain also showed multiple plant growth promotion activities: it was able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and siderophores, solubilise phosphate, and produce a biofilm in the presence of phenanthrene and alleviate phenanthrene stress in tomato seeds. This is the first report on the simultaneous occurrence of the PAH-degrading ability by Methylobacterium populi and its multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Therefore, the selected indigenous strain, which is naturally present in highly contaminated soils, is good candidate for plant growth promotion and is capable of biodegrading xenobiotic organic compounds to remediate contaminated soil alone and/or soil associated with plants.

  14. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    Hydrocarbons are some of the most common pollutants in soil. Groups of hydrocarbons have been classified as toxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic and they pose an existing threat to human health and the environment. However, prohibition of hydrocarbons is not an option as the pollution sources...... concentrations and of varying compounds, depending on the pollution sources and the extent to which contaminants are weathered and degraded. In our work with the complex chemical composition and source identification of hydrocarbon contamination in soil, we have asked the same questions over and over again......-substituted PAHs and as petrogenic sources predominantly contains alkyl-substituted PAHs, derived O-PAHs from alkyl-substituted PAHs are more likely to be found. It is important to know the fate of hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil in order to make a proper risk assessment. The PAHs generally have low water solubility...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban tunnels of Guanajuato city (Mexico) measured in deposited dust particles and in transplanted lichen Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyeln.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy-Alquiza, María Jesús; Reyes, Veridiana; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Torres Elguera, Julio César; Miranda-Aviles, Raúl

    2016-06-01

    Sixteen priority PAHs were determined in five urban tunnels of Guanajuato city, through which about 4 % of population walks and about 25,000 vehicles pass daily. Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyeln.) Hale, highly abundant lichen in this region, was exposed during 6 months and then the samples were collected together with the wall dust; both materials were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total PAH concentrations in dust and in lichen samples were in the range 1392-7961 ng g(-1) (average per tunnel 4637 ng g(-1)) and 522-3571 ng g(-1) (average 2587 ng g(-1)), respectively. In dust, the highest concentrations corresponded to PYR, FLA, BaA, CHR, BaP, and PHE, whereas in lichens the most abundant were DahA, IcdP, BghiP, and PYR. The obtained results suggested passive deposition of PAHs on lipophilic lichen surface rather than phenomena associated with metabolic activity of the exposed organisms. Application of seven different molecular diagnostic ratios pointed to gasoline-operated cars as the principal source of PAHs. Based on the obtained results and their comparison with data reported for other geographical regions, Guanajuato tunnels were considered moderately contaminated with PAHs; however toxic BaP equivalent concentrations integrated for seven carcinogenic compounds presented relatively high values in four tunnels: 567-1051 ngBaPeq g(-1) as evaluated for dust samples. Since up to 7000 persons walk daily through tunnels, the obtained data call for more detailed study evaluating PAHs toxicity in Guanajuato population.

  16. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-04

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs.

  18. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the

  19. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  20. Modeling PAH chemistry in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M.; Tielens, A.; Frenklach, M.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the predominant carriers of carbon in interstellar space, after CO. PAHs are also common in carbonaceous chondrites, which were likely an important source of organic carbon on the early Earth. Several outstanding questions in astrobiology address the relationship between the interstellar PAHs and those in meteorites: are meteoritic PAHs directly inherited from the interstellar medium? Are these compounds modified in the solar nebula, and if so, where and when? Can the abundances and varieties of PAHs in chondrites give more insight into the evolution of the solar nebula and other protoplanetary disks? To this end, we are modeling the chemical kinetics of PAH formation, growth and destruction within a parameter space of nebular timescales, pressures, temperatures, C/O ratios and other factors to begin to address these questions. The chemical kinetics of PAHs has been well studied at the higher temperatures present in plug flow reactors and flames (> 1000 K). We hope that our results will motivate more detailed studies of PAH chemistry at the lower temperatures characteristic of those in which meteorite parent bodies condensed (˜ a few hundred K). This work has been supported by NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory and the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freely dissolved waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were sampled to investigate ... Keywords: Hartbeespoort dam, persistent organic pollutants, semipermeable membrane devices, water-dissolved concentrations, temporal trends.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the Canadian River floodplain in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, F.; Wade, T.L.; Sericano, J.L.; Mohanty, B.P.; Smith, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil, plants, and water may impart negative eff ects on ecosystem and human health. We quantified the concentration and distribution of 41 PAH (n = 32), organic C, total N, and S (n = 140) and investigated PAH sources using a chronosequence of floodplain soils under a natural vegetation succession. Soil samples were collected between 0- and 260-cm depth in bare land (the control), wetland, forest, and grassland areas near a closed municipal landfill and an active asphalt plant (the contaminant sources) in the north bank of the Canadian River near Norman, OK. Principal component, cluster, and correlation analyses were used to investigate the spatial distribution of PAH, in combination with diagnostic ratios to distinguish pyrogenic vs. petrogenic PAH suites. Total PAH concentration (??PAH) had a mean of 1300 ng g-1, minimum of 16 ng g-1, and maximum of 12,000 ng g-1. At 0- to 20-cm depth, ??PAH was 3500 ?? 1600 ng g-1 (mean ?? 1 SE) near the contaminant sources. The most common compounds were nonalkylated, high molecular weight PAH of pyrogenic origin, i.e., fluoranthene (17%), pyrene (14%), phenanthrene (9%), benzo(b)fluoranthene (7%), chrysene (6%), and benzo(a)anthracene (5%). ??PAH in the control (130 ?? 23 ng g -1) was comparable to reported concentrations for the rural Great Plains. Perylene had a unique distribution pattern suggesting biological inputs. The main PAH contamination mechanisms were likely atmospheric deposition due to asphalt production at the 0- to 20-cm depth and past landfill operations at deeper depths. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to

  4. PAH concentrations in sediment from Jones Creek Delta State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EC) priority pollutants - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment and shrimp samples in Jones Creek southern Nigeria was investigated from March 2015 to August 2016. The ΣPAHs ranged from 0.32±0.07 to 48.38± 2.47 mg/kg for ...

  5. Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Thuens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD. We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool, and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs. ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene.

  6. Depositional environment, organic matter characterization and hydrocarbon potential of Middle Miocene sediments from northeastern Bulgaria (Varna-Balchik Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkov Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environments and hydrocarbon potential of the siliciclastic, clayey and carbonate sediments from the Middle Miocene succession in the Varna-Balchik Depression, located in the south-eastern parts of the Moesian Platform, were studied using core and outcrop samples. Based on the lithology and resistivity log the succession is subdivided from base to top into five units. Siliciclastic sedimentation prevailed in the lower parts of units I and II, whereas their upper parts are dominated by carbonate rocks. Unit III is represented by laminated clays and biodetritic limestone. Units IV and V are represented by aragonitic sediments and biomicritic limestones, correlated with the Upper Miocene Topola and Karvuna Formations, respectively. Biogenic silica in the form of diatom frustules and sponge spicules correlates subunit IIa and unit III to the lower and upper parts of the Middle Miocene Euxinograd Formation. Both (subunits contain organic carbon contents in the order of 1 to 2 wt. % (median: 0.8 for subunit IIa; 1.3 for unit III, locally up to 4 wt. %. Based on Hydrogen Index values (HI and alkane distribution pattern, the kerogen is mainly type II in subunit IIa (average HI= 324 mg HC/g TOC and type III in unit III (average HI ~200 mg HC/g TOC. TOC and Rock Eval data show that subunit IIa holds a fair (to good hydrocarbon generative potential for oil, whereas the upper 5 m of unit III holds a good (to fair potential with the possibility to generate gas and minor oil. The rocks of both units are immature in the study area. Generally low sulphur contents are probably due to deposition in environments with reduced salinity. Normal marine conditions are suggested for unit III. Biomarker composition is typical for mixed marine and terrestrial organic matter and suggests deposition in dysoxic to anoxic environments.

  7. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone...... hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p ....0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure....

  8. Sampling and analysis of PAH and oxygenated PAH in diesel exhaust and ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Tatry, Véronique; Carlier, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated derivatives occur in particles or in the vapour phase in the atmosphere. Some of these compounds, particularly the PAH, are known as strong carcinogens and/or mutagens. Emissions from diesel engines are an important source of these contaminants in urban air. In this work, the chemical composition of diesel particles was studied from two different perspectives: the gaz/particule partitioning and the different size fractions of these c...

  9. DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMOS

    Scomber scombrus), suya beef and plantain (Musa paradiasca) sold and consumed in Amassoma town were screened for the presence of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentration of chromium, lead and cadmium were also ...

  10. Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D.; Guo, Z.; Liu, X.; Hua, X.; Liang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of typical persistent organic pollutants, widely exist in the environment and are potentially harmful to human health. They can enter the waters through atmospheric deposition, soil leaching, shipping, sewage discharges and surface runoff. In recent years, many studies on the distributions of PAHs in major rivers, lakes and bays around the world have been carried out. In this study, 9 surface sediments (0-10cm) were sampled from the Songhua River in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The contents of 16 PAHs in the US Environmental Protection Agency list of priority pollutants were determined and their spatial distributions were discussed. Sediment cores (50cm length) in three oxbow lakes in this area were also collected and cut into 2 cm thickness sub-samples. PAHs concentrations in these samples were determined and the cores were dated using a 210Pb geochronology technique. Finally, the sedimentary history of PAHs in the Songhua River since the 1920s was revealed. Results indicated that total concentration of the 16 PAHs analyzed in the surface sediments was 187-2079 ng/g (dry weight), and the mean was 1029 ng/g. Sediments collected from near urban areas (Jilin and Harbin City) contained higher PAHs content. Compared with the domestic and international rivers, the PAHs content in this river sediments is at a medium level. The PAHs profiles showed that 2-3 ring PAHs, especially naphthalene, were dominant in all of the samples. Sedimentary flux can reflect the accumulating history of pollutants better. The PAHs fluxes were low and varied little from the 1920s to 1970s, but higher PAH fluxes were found since the 1980s in each core (Fig. 1). The PAHs sedimentary flux near Harbin City (Shuangcheng) was found changed remarkably. We inferred that the PAHs might be influenced by hydrological conditions, population mobility and economic activity in this area. PAHs sedimentary record in the Songhua River revealed that the

  11. Preliminary study on suitability of ionic liquids as potential passive-sampling media of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon (PAH) analyses in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Synak, Elżbieta; Fabiańska, Aleksandra; Caban, Magda; Stolte, Stefan; Husson, Pascale; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Synak, Roman; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-05-01

    Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been regarded as an attractive water-immiscible phase in liquid-liquid extraction. Because ILs have a wide range of polarity irrespective of their miscibility with water, the possibility of using them as an effective extraction phase for a broad range of contaminants means they are starting to be of particular interest. In this study we investigated a wide variety of ionic liquids, which are known to be hydrolytically stable and of a hydrophobic character, for their potential suitability as passive-sampling media for monitoring selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Preliminary research in this field has indicated very promising results using these novel extraction media. Because there is an enormous number of possible cation-anion combinations offering tuneable properties of ionic liquids with the potential for effective passive extraction, we hope this paper will encourage the scientific community to undertake further studies verifying the undoubted usefulness of these alternative solvents as passive samplers for many other groups of analytes. Additionally, because of the unusual solubility properties that have already been proved for ILs, it is very probable that it would soon be possible to deliver a very effective system able to extract analytes differing widely in polarity.

  12. Sources and mass inventory of sedimentary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gulf of Thailand: Implications for pathways and energy structure in SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Limin; Shi, Xuefa; Qiao, Shuqing; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Bai, Yazhi; Wu, Bin; Liu, Shengfa; Kornkanitnan, Narumol; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat

    2017-01-01

    Surface sediments obtained from a matrix of 92 sample sites in the Gulf of Thailand (GOT) were analyzed for a comprehensive study of the distribution, sources, and mass inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess their input pathways and impacts of the regional land-based energy structure on the deposition of PAHs on the adjacent continental margins. The concentration of 16 PAHs in the GOT ranged from 2.6 to 78.1ng/g (dry weight), and the mean concentration was 19.4±15.1ng/g. The spatial distribution pattern of 16 PAH was generally consistent with that of sediment grain size, suggesting the influence of regional hydrodynamic conditions. Correlation and principal component analysis of the PAHs indicated that direct land-based inputs were dominantly responsible for the occurrence of PAHs in the upper GOT and the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs in the coastal region could be from petrogenic sources. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model apportioned five contributors: petroleum residues (~44%), biomass burning (~13%), vehicular emissions (~11%), coal combustion (~6%), and air-water exchange (~25%). Gas absorption may be a significant external input pathway for the volatile PAHs in the open GOT, which further implies that atmospheric loading could be important for the sink of PAHs in the open sea of the Southeast Asia (SE Asia). The different PAH source patterns obtained and a significant disparity of PAH mass inventory in the sediments along the East and Southeast Asia continental margins can be ascribed mainly to different land-based PAH emission features under the varied regional energy structure in addition to the depositional environment and climatic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PAHs in polystyrene food contact materials: An unintended consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Qi; Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui

    2017-12-31

    Eight low-ring PAHs were detected in 21 polystyrene (PS) food contact materials (FCMs) samples while high-ring PAHs (>4 rings) were not found. This is because the reaction pathway for formation of high-ring PAHs consists of more steps than it does for low-high PAHs. The concentrations of Σ 8 PAH were from 18.9±5.16ng/g for product colorless fruit fork to 476±52.0ng/g for foam instant noodle container. These data were far beyond levels of PAHs in other plastics. Of the eight PAHs detected, Phe had the highest average concentration, followed by Nap. These two PAHs collectively accounted for over 80% of the Σ 8 PAH concentrations in all PS FCMs. Levels of Σ 8 PAH in expanded PS FCMs were higher than those in extruded ones due to utilization of foaming agent. The concentrations of Σ 8 PAH were lower in colorless PS FCMs than in colored ones. Auxochromes and chromophores contributed to the change of short-chain hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbon. Simulated migration values of PAHs from PS FCMs to food varied widely. The migration value of Σ 8 PAH with maximum probability was below 10ng/g, which the maximum tolerated migration level for substance according to the European Union standards. However, higher migration values were possible and the potential health risk should still be concerned because the simulated migration displayed a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, water was used as food simulant would always lead to an underestimate of PAHs migration to real daily food, and then lead to an underestimate of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ASSESSING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF PAHS IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT USING XAD-2 ASSISTED DESORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the bioremediation of soils/sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is imperative to determine the fraction of the PAHs that is amenable to remediation. For example, what fraction of the PAHs is available to the indigenous microorganisms, i.e. bi...

  15. Fullerenes and PAHs in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Groth, S.

    Theoretical, observational and laboratory work on the new form of carbon known as fullerenes and its hydrogenated forms (fulleranes) are reviewed. These molecules can be responsible of diffuse interstellar bands, the UV bump, a major feature in the extinction curves measured in many lines of sight in our Galaxy and other galaxies and the anomalous microwave emission detected in several regions of star formation,in molecular clouds and HII regions. Recent detections of fullerenes C60 and C70 in planetary nebulae of our Galaxy and in the Magallanic cloud render support to the hypothesis that fullerenes and fulleranes are carriers of these processes. Other potential agents of these emission and absorption processes are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We also review observational efforts to identify the most simple PAHs, naphthalene and anthracene, in regions of anomalous microwave emission.

  16. Influence of traffic on build-up of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on urban road surfaces: A Bayesian network modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxia; Jia, Ziliang; Wijesiri, Buddhi; Song, Ningning; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-12-04

    Due to their carcinogenic effects, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposited on urban surfaces are a major concern in the context of stormwater pollution. However, the design of effective pollution mitigation strategies is challenging due to the lack of reliability in stormwater quality modelling outcomes. Current modelling approaches do not adequately replicate the interdependencies between pollutant processes and their influential factors. Using Bayesian Network modelling, this research study characterised the influence of vehicular traffic on the build-up of the sixteen US EPA classified priority PAHs. The predictive analysis was conditional on the structure of the proposed BN, which can be further improved by including more variables. This novel modelling approach facilitated the characterisation of the influence of traffic as a source of origin and also as a key factor that influences the re-distribution of PAHs, with positive or negative relationship between traffic volume and PAH build-up. It was evident that the re-distribution of particle-bound PAHs is determined by the particle size rather than the chemical characteristics such as volatility. Moreover, compared to commercial and residential land uses, mostly industrial land use contributes to the PAHs load released to the environment. Carcinogenic PAHs in industrial areas are likely to be associated with finer particles, while PAHs, which are not classified as human carcinogens, are likely to be found in the coarser particle fraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of toasting procedures on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; García-Falcón, Mercedes Sonia; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2008-05-15

    Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly those with a high molecular weight, have been classified as probably carcinogens to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The significance of the determination of PAHs is reflected by the special attention of the European Union, which is paying to regulate the maximum allowed levels of PAHs in foodstuffs such as smoked foods. Like other thermally processed foodstuffs, toasted bread can contain these carcinogenic chemicals, not only due to a contamination at source but also during toasting. In order to check PAHs generated from toasting in sandwich bread, several treatment conditions were evaluated: direct toasting (flame-toasting, coal-grilling or gas oven-toasting) or indirect toasting (electric oven-toasting). PAHs were extracted by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). Based on the results, the used toasted technique would strongly affect in PAH levels in the final product. No samples obtained by electric oven and toaster were polluted; otherwise the samples toasted by charcoal and flame grilling presented very important levels. Up to 350μg/kg of total PAHs were detected in toasted samples by wood flame. Differences between different ways of toasting could be ascribed to deposition of PAHs from smoke. Finally, several commercial toasted samples of bread were tested to determine PAHs. Overall, the PAH levels were very low. Benzo[a]pyrene ranged from no detectable to 0.23μg/kg. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Size-dependent distribution and inhalation cancer risk of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a typical e-waste recycling and an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a typical e-waste recycling zone and an urban site (Guangzhou) in southern China featured a unimodal peak in 0.56-1.8 μm for 4-6 ring PAHs but no obvious peak for 2-3 ring PAHs at both sites. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs were estimated at 5.4 ± 2.3 μg m(-2) d(-1) in the e-waste recycling zone and 3.1 ± 0.6 μg m(-2) d(-1) in Guangzhou. In addition, dry and wet deposition fluxes of PAHs were dominated by coarse (Dp > 1.8 μm) and fine particles (Dp < 1.8 μm), respectively. Fine particles predominated the deposition of PAHs in the lung. The results estimated by incremental inhalation cancer risk suggested that particle-bound PAHs posed serious threat to human health within the e-waste recycling zone and Guangzhou. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From PAHs to Solid Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, C.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, T.; Huisken, F.

    2011-03-01

    Carbonaceous grains represent a major component of cosmic dust. The review will summarize new results in laboratory investigations of carbonaceous dust components. The nanometer-sized carbon particles are supposed to represent a blend of differently structured carbon including graphitic, diamond-like, fullerene-like and chain-like components on a subnanometer or nanometer scale. Recent models used to explain the structure of gas-phase condensed carbon nano-particles are discussed. Possible formation pathways of carbonaceous grains from molecular components and clusters and the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes are disclosed.

  20. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of some carcinogenic PAHs with toxic equivalency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental health risk associated with exposure to airborne mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs);. Chemosphere 32 639–648. Pufulete M, Battershill J, Boobis A and Fielder R 2004. Approaches to carcinogenic risk assessment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A UK perspective; Regulatory. Toxicology and ...

  2. Paleozoic paleogeographic and depositional developments on the central proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana: Their importance to hydrocarbon accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohrbandt, K. H. A.

    1992-11-01

    During the Paleozoic Era, the western portion of the Gondwana continent between the equator and latitude 27°S of present-day South America bordered the proto-Pacific Ocean as a predominantly convergent margin. Following the Middle Cambrian accretion of the Arequipa-Belen-Antofalla Terrane, an epicontinental sea with communication to the proto-Pacific Ocean established itself along the length of the western margin of Gondwana during Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician time. The emergence of a proto-Cordillera led to significant separation of the epicontinental sea from the proto-Pacific Ocean during Silurian and Devonian times. Gradual erosion of that proto-Cordillera during Carboniferous and Early Permian time once again facilitated widespread transgression of the proto-Pacific Ocean into the epicontinental domain. At the end of the Early Permian, the sea retreated from Gondwana and a proto-Cordillera was re-established. The proto-Cordillera and the craton of Gondwana controlled sediment type and distribution in the epicontinental sea. Deposition occurred in five tectono-sedimentary cycles, which were separated by orogenic pulses that resulted in regional erosion of the previously deposited section. Oil and gas have been produced from the Paleozoic epicontinental sediments of Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil, in an area in which exploration efforts are ongoing. Sandstone reservoirs and argillaceous source rocks of commercial importance formed during the episodes of sedimentation, but carbonates do not contribute to commercial hydrocarbon generation and accumulation. Cap rocks are provided by shales or evaporites.

  3. Contaminants, benthic communities, and bioturbation: potential for PAH mobilisation in Arctic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, D.; Renaud, P.E.; Berge, J.; Voronkov, A.Y.; Cochrane, S.K.J. [Polar Environmental Center, Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-01

    Marine benthic fauna and biological mixing were studied in relation to sediment organic enrichment and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bottom sediments of Svalbard. We investigated how organic enrichment may affect the fate and chemical composition of deposited contaminants by impacting biological reworking by faunal communities. Samples were collected near active coal mines at Barentsburg and at the mouth of Groenfjord. PAH sources in both areas were coal particles and pyrolytic compounds from coal-driven power stations. The results from a bioturbation experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that fauna enhance the vertical transport of PAHs within the sediment. Faunal community composition was similar at the two sites, with polychaete worms comprising 85% of the fauna. Abundances and taxon richness were eight and ten times higher in the organically enriched sediments near Barentsburg, and total PAH concentrations were up to three times higher in Barentsburg. Unlike expectations derived from models developed for temperate regions, organic enrichment in oligotrophic areas, such as this Arctic site, enhanced the biomass and bioturbation potential of benthic communities. Hence, new insights into the relationships among enrichment, benthic communities and the fate of contaminants must be considered in management and regulatory efforts in these areas.

  4. PAH biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS......) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting PAH metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from...... different stations. Biliary PAH metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental PAH load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary PAH metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of PAH metabolites than females...

  5. The effect of prolonged flooding of an oil deposit on the special composition and the activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevskaya, M.V.

    1982-07-01

    The special composition of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was studied in terrigenous and carbonate oil-bearing strata from several deposits of the Permian Cis-Ural region. We isolated 43 strains and assigned them to the following genera: Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Flavobacterium, Achromobacter and Pseudomonas. The special composition of the hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora was shown to depend on the flooding of an oil stratum, as a result of which the ecological environment in a deposit changed. Gram-positive coryneform bacteria were found in stratal salinized waters and in diluted stratal waters. Gram-negative hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from pumped-in river waters and from stratal waters diluted by 70-100% as the result of flooding. The metabolic activity of Corynebacterium fascians (2 strains), Mycobacterium rubrum (1 strain), Pseudomonas mira (1 strain) and Flavobacterium perigrinum (1 strain) was assayed in stratal waters with different concentrations of salts. The coryneform hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were shown to be very halotolerant as the result of adaptation; that is why the incidence of these microorganisms is very great in highly mineralized stratal water of oil deposits.

  6. Century-long source apportionment of PAHs in Athabasca oil sands region lakes using diagnostic ratios and compound-specific carbon isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jautzy, Josué; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2013-06-18

    Evaluating the impact that airborne contamination associated with Athabasca oil sands (AOS) mining operations has on the surrounding boreal forest ecosystem requires a rigorous approach to source discrimination. This study presents a century-long historical record of source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dated sediments from two headwater lakes located approximately 40 and 55 km east from the main area of open pit mining activities. Concentrations of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority PAHs in addition to retene, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and six alkylated groups were measured, and both PAH molecular diagnostic ratios and carbon isotopic signatures (δ(13)C) of individual PAHs were used to differentiate natural from anthropogenic inputs. Although concentrations of PAHs in these lakes were low and below the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guidelines, diagnostic ratios pointed to an increasingly larger input of petroleum-derived (i.e., petrogenic) PAHs over the past 30 years concomitant with δ(13)C values progressively shifting to the value of unprocessed AOS bitumen. This petrogenic source is attributed to the deposition of bitumen in dust particles associated with wind erosion from open pit mines.

  7. PAH phytoremediation: rhizodegradation or rhizoattenuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, S; Leglize, P; Morel, J L

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with soil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POP) is an increasing concern amplified by both regulatory constraints and the dramatic impact of human activities on the soil resource. The most used management options are treatments which totally eradicate the toxic compounds targeted. When possible, environmental-friendly processes should be used, and recent years have seen the emergence of green technologies using biological energies involving microorganisms (bioremediation) and plants (phytoremediation). Research has focused on phytoremediation and many have presented this technology as the process ideally combining efficiency, low cost and environmental acceptance. However, the applicability of phytoremediation on soils contaminated by bio-recalcitrant organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), has not yet proved as successful as expected. We propose here a review and discussion of the overall question of PAH status in soil and their potential for treatment. The limits and applicability of bioremediation technologies are discussed, and the specific beneficial effect of plants is objectively evaluated with a special interest to processes which lead to rhizoattenuation. Given the PAH high affinity to soil organic matter, availability is the main limitation to phytoremediation. In this context, bioavailability quantification remains an issue as well as the characterization of the recalcitrant fraction.

  8. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  9. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Stream Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejal Reddy Bathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistent organic pollutants of high environmental concern with known carcinogenic activity. Although literature documents PAH fate in urban runoff, little is known about their distribution on sediment sizes, which is essential for determining their treatability and fate in receiving waters. This paper has quantified the concentrations of selected PAHs in urban creek sediments and examined possible relationships between sediment PAH content and sediment characteristics, such as particle size, volatile organic content (VOC, and sediment chemical oxygen demand (SCOD. SCOD, VOC, and PAH concentrations of sediments showed a bimodal distribution by particle size. The large diameter sediments had the highest VOC and also had the highest PAH concentrations. The spatial variation of PAH content by sediment sizes also was statistically significant; however, the mass of the PAH material was significantly affected by the relative abundance of the different particle size classes in the sediment mixtures.

  11. Mycoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based drill-cuttings. ... The Latin square (LS) experimental design was adopted in which four options of different treatment levels were tested in 10 L plastic reactors containing fixed masses of the drill cuttings and fresh top-soil inoculated with ...

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the exception of G. decadactylus from Ada-Foah, benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the fish samples analysed exceeded the EU recommended limit of 2 ìg/kg wet wt for fish considered safe for human consumption. The estimated carcinogenic potency equivalent concentrations exceeded the screening value for both ...

  13. carcinogenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinogenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils obtained from seven different sampling locations in Effurun metropolis and its environs of Niger Delta Area of Nigeria were evaluated. The 16 US EPA priority PAHs were determined with GC-MS. The concentrations of individual PAHs observed were ...

  14. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contamination in aquatic environments adjacent to areas of multiple uses: to whom is that environmental liability?; Contaminacao por hidrocarbonetos aromaticos policiclicos (HPAS) em ambientes aquaticos adjacentes a areas de multiplos usos: a quem corresponde esse passivo ambiental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marina R.D.; Mirlean, Nicolai; Machado, Maria Isabel C.S. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil); Caramao, Elina B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Contamination often can be related to different activities, especially in areas with multiple uses. In these cases, studies are necessary to correctly evaluate the origin of contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds that have two main sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic processes. In Rio Grande City, located at the margins of Patos Lagoon estuary, south Brazil, there are several navigation and industrial activities. This work has the objective to determinate the origins of PAHs and to evaluate the contribution of different sources to the aquatic contamination. The sampling stations were classified according to three main types: industrial effluent, sewage and runoff. We collected sediments from the bottom of effluent channels and from the respective estuarine environments. The material was sieved (0,063 mm), dried, extracted in soxhlet apparatus with methylene chloride and GC-MS analyzed. The results showed that pyrolytic compounds were predominant, indicating the contribution of diffuse sources. This type of study was successful in relating PAHs with their sources, confirming the role of urban and other industries activities in this case of contamination, superimposed to the midstream e downstream activities of petroleum industry. (author)

  16. Process for increasing the yield of hydrocarbons from an underground deposit. Verfahren zur Steigerung der Ausbeute an Kohlenwasserstoffen aus einer unterirdischen Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, W.

    1983-08-11

    The yield of hydrocarbons from an underground deposit, particularly of heavy oil, bitumen or tar, is increased by the deposit first being heated and then flooded with a cold aqueous solution which contains a polymer additive raising its viscosity. In order to heat the deposit, hot water or steam are used. The deposit is heated to temperatures between 50 and 350/sup 0/C, preferably between 100 and 250/sup 0/C. The aqueous solution contains polysaccharide, hydroxy-ethyl cellulose or particularly not hydrolyzed or partially hydrolyed polyacryl amide in quantities of 0.5 to 30 kg/m/sup 3/, preferably 1 to 30 kg/m/sup 3/ and is used for flooding at temperatures between 5 and 50, particularly between 15 and 30/sup 0/C.

  17. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  18. Models of PAH chemistry under nebular and planetary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M.; Tielens, A.; Frenklach, F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are one of the predominant carriers of carbon in interstellar space after CO PAHs are also common i