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Sample records for hydrocarbon pah degradation

  1. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  2. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  3. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  4. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  5. Improved enrichment and isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-degrading microorganisms in soil using anthracene as a model PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rodrigo J S; Okeke, Benedict C; Bento, Fátima M; Peralba, Maria C R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2009-06-01

    Lack of attention to soil and microbial characteristics that influence PAHs degradation has been a leading cause of failures in isolation of efficient PAH degraders and bioaugumentation processes with microbial consortia. This study compared the classic method of isolation of PAHs-degraders with a modified method employing a pre-enrichment respirometric analysis. The modified enrichment of PAH degrading microorganisms using in vitro microcosm resulted to reduced enrichment period and more efficient PAH-degrading microbial consortia. Results indicate that natural soils with strong heterotrophic microbial activity determined through pre-enrichment analysis, are better suited for the isolation of efficient PAH degrading microorganisms with significant reduction of the enrichment period.

  6. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.;

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  7. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sofia; Persson, Ylva; Frankki, Sofia; van Bavel, Bert; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Degradation and Detoxification in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Ahn, Ji-Young; Ko, Jung Ho; Lee, Lyon; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Young-Chang; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2016-11-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly present xenobiotics in natural and contaminated soils. We studied three (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl) xenobiotics, catabolism, and associated proteins in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Comparative analysis of the growth-dependent 2-DE results revealed that the intensity of 10 protein spots changed identically upon exposure to the three xenobiotics. Among the upregulated proteins, five protein spots, which were putative dehydrogenase, dioxygenase, and hydrolase and involved in the catabolic pathway of xenobiotic degradation, were induced. Identification of these major multifunctional proteins allowed us to map the multiple catabolic pathway for phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl degradation. A part of the initial diverse catabolism was converged into the catechol degradation branch. Detection of intermediates from 2,3-dihydroxy-biphenyl degradation to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA production by LC/MS analysis showed that ring-cleavage products of PAHs entered the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and were mineralized in S. chungbukense DJ77. These results suggest that S. chungbukense DJ77 completely degrades a broad range of PAHs via a multiple catabolic pathway.

  9. Effects of soil organic matter on the development of the microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Lu, S.T. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao, S., E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The microbial activity in soils was a critical factor governing the degradation of organic micro-pollutants. The present study was conducted to analyze the effects of soil organic matter on the development of degradation potentials for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most of the degradation kinetics for PAHs by the indigenous microorganisms developed in soils can be fitted with the Logistic growth models. The microbial activities were relatively lower in the soils with the lowest and highest organic matter content, which were likely due to the nutrition limit and PAH sequestration. The microbial activities developed in humic acid (HA) were much higher than those developed in humin, which was demonstrated to be able to sequester organic pollutants stronger. The results suggested that the nutrition support and sequestration were the two major mechanisms, that soil organic matter influenced the development of microbial PAHs degradation potentials. - Research highlights: PAH degradation kinetics obey Logistic model. Degradation potentials depend on soil organic carbon content. Humin inhibits the development of PAH degradation activity. Nutrition support and sequestration regulate microbial degradation capacity. - Soil organic matter regulated PAH degradation potentials through nutrition support and sequestration.

  10. Reorganization of gene network for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 under several conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2017-07-07

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful to human health, their elimination from the environment is not easy. Biodegradation of PAHs is promising since many bacteria have the ability to use hydrocarbons as their sole carbon and energy sources for growth. Of various microorganisms that can degrade PAHs, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is particularly important, not only because it causes a series of diseases including infection in cystic fibrosis patients, but also because it is a model bacterium in various studies. The genes that are responsible for degrading PAHs have been identified in P. aeruginosa, however, no gene acts alone as various stresses often initiate different metabolic pathways, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance, etc. Therefore, it is important to study how PAH degradation genes behave under different conditions. In this study, we apply network analysis to investigating how 46 PAH degradation genes reorganized among 5549 genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1 under nine different conditions using publicly available gene coexpression data from GEO. The results provide six aspects of novelties: (i) comparing the number of gene clusters before and after stresses, (ii) comparing the membership in each gene cluster before and after stresses, (iii) defining which gene changed its membership together with PAH degradation genes before and after stresses, (iv) classifying membership-changed-genes in terms of category in Pseudomonas Genome Database, (v) postulating unknown gene's function, and (vi) proposing new mechanisms for genes of interests. This study can shed light on understanding of cooperative mechanisms of PAH degradation from the level of entire genes in an organism, and paves the way to conduct the similar studies on other genes.

  11. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Xuezhu Zhu; Xue Ni; Michael Gatheru Waigi; Juan Liu; Kai Sun; Yanzheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of pl...

  12. [Study on degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different additional carbon sources in aged contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chun-Qin; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Fang; Wang, Cong-Ying

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted with different additional carbon sources (such as: glucose, DL-malic acid, citrate, urea and ammonium acetate) to elucidate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soil under an indoor simulation experiment. The results showed that the quantity of CO2 emission in different additional carbon sources treatments was obviously much more than that of check treatment in the first week, and the quantity of CO2 emission in DL-malic acid treatment was the largest. The average CO2 production decreased in an order urea > glucose approximately citrate approximately DL-malic acid approximately ammonium acetate > check. Meanwhile, the amount of volatized PAHs in applied carbon sources treatments was significantly less than that in check treatment. The amount of three volatized PAHs decreased in an order phenanthrene > fluoranthene > benzo(b)fluoranthene. Compared with the check treatment, the average degradation rates of the three PAHs were significantly augmented in the supplied carbon sources treatments, in which rates of the three PAHs were much higher in DL-malic acid and urea treatments than those in other treatments. The largest proportion of residual was benzo(b)fluoranthene (from 72% to 81%) among three PAHs compounds, followed by fluoranthene (from 53% to 70% ) and phenanthrene (from 27% to 44%).

  13. Influence of Vegetation on the In Situ Bacterial Community and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Degraders in Aged PAH-Contaminated or Thermal-Desorption-Treated Soil▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Faure, Pierre; Norini, Marie-Paule; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Leyval, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, bacterial community, and PAH-degrading bacteria were monitored in aged PAH-contaminated soil (Neuves-Maisons [NM] soil; with a mean of 1,915 mg of 16 PAHs·kg−1 of soil dry weight) and in the same soil previously treated by thermal desorption (TD soil; with a mean of 106 mg of 16 PAHs·kg−1 of soil dry weight). This study was conducted in situ for 2 years using experimental plots of the two soils. NM soil was colonized by spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV), planted with Medicago sativa (NM-Ms), or left as bare soil (NM-BS), and the TD soil was planted with Medicago sativa (TD-Ms). The bacterial community density, structure, and diversity were estimated by real-time PCR quantification of the 16S rRNA gene copy number, temporal thermal gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, and band sequencing, respectively. The density of the bacterial community increased the first year during stabilization of the system and stayed constant in the NM soil, while it continued to increase in the TD soil during the second year. The bacterial community structure diverged among all the plot types after 2 years on site. In the NM-BS plots, the bacterial community was represented mainly by Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The presence of vegetation (NM-SV and NM-Ms) in the NM soil favored the development of a wider range of bacterial phyla (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi) that, for the most part, were not closely related to known bacterial representatives. Moreover, under the influence of the same plant, the bacterial community that developed in the TD-Ms was represented by different bacterial species (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) than that in the NM-Ms. During the 2 years of monitoring, the PAH concentration did not evolve significantly. The abundance of gram-negative (GN

  14. Isolation of Marine Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Cycloclasticus Strains from the Gulf of Mexico and Comparison of Their PAH Degradation Ability with That of Puget Sound Cycloclasticus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Phenanthrene- and naphthalene-degrading bacteria were isolated from four offshore and nearshore locations in the Gulf of Mexico by using a modified most-probable-number technique. The concentrations of these bacteria ranged from 102 to 106 cells per ml of wet surficial sediment in mildly contaminated and noncontaminated sediments. A total of 23 strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were obtained. Based on partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences and phenotypic charact...

  15. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-08-09

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  16. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  17. Mechanistic understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the thermal degradation of tires under various oxygen concentration atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Castaldi, Marco J

    2012-12-04

    The thermal degradation of tires under various oxygen concentrations (7-30%/Bal. N(2)) was investigated thermo-gravimetrically at 10 °C min(-1) heating rate over a temperature range from ambient to 1000 °C. Significant mass loss (~55%) was observed at the temperature of 300-500 °C, where the thermal degradation rate was almost identical and independent of oxygen concentrations due to simultaneous volatilization and oxidation. A series of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) measurements taken from the effluent of a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) unit at temperature of 300-5000 °C leads to the overall thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and some insights for understanding evolution steps of air pollutants including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to describe the fundamental mechanistic behavior on tire combustion, the main constituents of tires, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyisoprene (IR), has been investigated in the same experimental conditions. The thermal degradation of SBR and IR suggests the reaction mechanisms including bond scissions followed by hydrogenation, gas phase addition reaction, and/or partial oxidation.

  18. Isolation of marine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading Cycloclasticus strains from the Gulf of Mexico and comparison of their PAH degradation ability with that of Puget Sound Cycloclasticus strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiselbrecht, A.D.; Hedlund, B.P.; Tichi, M.A.; Staley, J.T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-12-01

    Phenanthrene- and naphthalene-degrading bacteria were isolated from four offshore and nearshore locations in the Gulf of Mexico by using a modified most-probable-number technique. The concentrations of these bacteria ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} cells per ml of wet surficial sediment in mildly contaminated and noncontaminated sediments. A total of 23 strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were obtained. Based on partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences and Phenotypic characteristics, these 23 strains are members of the genus Cycloclasticus. Three representatives were chosen for a complete phylogenetic analysis, which confirmed the close relationship of these isolates to type strain Cycloclasticus pugetii PS-1, which was isolated from Puget Sound. PAH substrate utilization tests which included high-molecular-weight PAHs revealed that these isolates had similar, broad substrate ranges which included naphthalene, substituted naphthalenes, phenanthrene, biphenyl, anthracene, acenaphthene, and fluorene. Degradation of pyrene and fluoranthene occurred only when the strains were incubated with phenanthrene. Two distinct partial PAH dioxygenase iron sulfur protein (ISP) gene sequences were PCR amplified from Puget Sound and Gulf of Mexico Cycloclasticus strains. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed that one ISP type is related to the bph type of ISP sequences, while the other ISP type is related to the nah type of ISP sequences. The predicted ISP amino acid sequences for the Gulf of Mexico and Puget Sound strains are identical, which supports the hypothesis that these geographically separated isolates are closely related phylogentically. Cycloclasticus species appear to be numerically important and widespread PAH-degrading bacteria in both Puget Sound and the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  20. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  1. Effect of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 inoculation on bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in aged and freshly PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunliffe, Michael [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Kertesz, Michael A. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: michael.kertesz@manchester.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 is able to degrade a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and as a sphingomonad belongs to one of the dominant genera found in PAH-contaminated soils. We examined the ecological effect that soil inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 has on the native bacterial community in three different soils: aged PAH-contaminated soil from an industrial site, compost freshly contaminated with PAHs and un-contaminated compost. Survival of S. yanoikuyae B1 was dependent on the presence of PAHs, and the strain was unable to colonize un-contaminated compost. Inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 did not cause extensive changes in the native bacterial community of either soil, as assessed by denaturing gel electrophoresis, but its presence led to an increase in the population level of two other species in the aged contaminated soil community and appeared to have an antagonistic affect on several members of the contaminated compost community, indicating niche competition. - Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 does not cause major changes in the native bacterial community while colonizing PAH-contaminated soils, but some niche competition is evident.

  2. Principles of microbial PAH-degradation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Wick, Lukas Y.; Harms, Hauke

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the biodegradation mechanisms and environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is motivated by their ubiquitous distribution, their low bioavailability and high persistence in soil, and their potentially deleterious effect on human health. Due to high hydrophobicity and solid-water distribution ratios, PAHs tend to interact with non-aqueous phases and soil organic matter and, as a consequence, become potentially unavailable for microbial degradation since bacteria are known to degrade chemicals only when they are dissolved in water. As the aqueous solubility of PAHs decreases almost logarithmically with increasing molecular mass, high-molecular weight PAHs ranging in size from five to seven rings are of special environmental concern. Whereas several reviews have focussed on metabolic and ecological aspects of PAH degradation, this review discusses the microbial PAH-degradation with special emphasis on both biological and physico-chemical factors influencing the biodegradation of poorly available PAHs.

  3. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Composting of Sewage Sludge%污泥堆腐过程中多环芳烃(PAHs)的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶; 彭喜玲; 方海兰; 南蓬

    2011-01-01

    In the light of utilization of organic waste resource, a composting process of mixture of sewage sludge and greenery waste was carried out to study the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which would provide clear evidence for the practice. Results indicated that total content of 16 priority PAHs in the maturation phase decreased to 3.202 mg/kg from the original 6.225 mg/kg, with degradation rate about 48.57%, and final PAHs content satisfied the accepted European Union cut-off limits for sludge to be considered safe for agricultural application set at 6 mg/kg. As far as an individual PAHs was concerned, PAHs containing fewer aromatic rings were easier to be degraded, which might be because the tendency of bioavailability of various PAH compounds during composting is strongly related to number of aromatic rings, molecular weight and sancture.%结合有机废弃物资源化利用的特点,进行了污泥与绿化植物废弃物堆肥实验,以探讨其中多环芳烃的降解状况,为其更好的资源化利用提供坚实的证据.研究表明,污泥与绿化植物废弃物物堆肥腐熟时,16种优控多环芳烃的总量由原来的6.225 mg/kg降到了3.202mg/kg,降解率达到了48.57%,并且堆肥后满足了欧洲联盟规定的多环芳烃农用限值6mg/kg.就单个多环芳烃化合物而言,环数越少降解效果越好,分析其原因可能与PAHs所含苯环多少以及其分子量大小有关.

  4. Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate ... compounds from the heavily industrialized Vaal Triangle region. ... benzene ring as cluster, linear or angular (Maliszewska-.

  5. Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H(2)O, CO(2) (aerobic) or CH(4) (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate

  6. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  7. Multimedia model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-12-02

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates.

  8. Investigation of mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) initiated from the thermal degradation of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) in N2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

    2008-03-15

    This study has been carried out to characterize the thermal decomposition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to online GC/MS, and to investigate the formation and ultimate fate of chemical species produced during gasification of SBR. A preliminary mechanistic understanding has been developed to explain the formation and relationship of light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), substituted aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the decomposition of SBR in a N2 atmosphere. Identification and absolute concentrations of over 50 major and minor species (from hydrogen to benzo[ghi]perylene) have been established, and the measurements have been carried out between 300 and 500 at 10 degrees C/min heating rate in a N2 atmosphere. The concentration of styrene reached 120 PPMV and the concentration of other substituted aromatics, such as toluene and ethyl benzene reached 20 and 5 PPMV, respectively. These measurements indicate PAH formation at a relatively lower temperature as compared to conventional fuel, such as coal and diesel. The PAH sequence is not simply the constructing of larger PAHs from smaller ones to achieve the complex polymer structures. It is possible to generate large PAH molecules while circumventing the typical construction pathway.

  9. Sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Kildebestemmelse af polyaromatiske kulbrinter (PAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egsgaard, H. [Forskningscenetr Risoe, Ald. for Plantebiologi og Biokemi (DK); Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Ald. for Optic og Fluid Dynamik (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons including PAH compounds are thermally and chemically very stable compounds and are formed by gasification/pyrolysis of biomass. With reference to the tar compounds present in the produced gas from updraft gasifiers the sources responsible for the formation of naphthalene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons have been investigated. The focus has been on thermal and oxidative conversions of compounds related to the lignin building blocks. Thus, phenols, 2-methoxy-phenols and 4-substituted-2-methoxy-phenols were investigated by introducing water solutions of the compounds into a continuos flow system operating in the temperature range 600-850 deg. C. The pyrolysis products were identified by GC/MS. The tar compounds reveal a well-defined and characteristic thermal transformation. Phenol is a strong source to naphthalene and indenes while 2-methoxyphenols are sources to aromatic oxo-compounds such as cinnamaldehyde. More complex systems are sources to higer PAH compounds. Thus, oligomers of phenol and 2-methoxyphenol give dibenzofuran and oligomers of isoeugenol are important sources to acenaphthylene. It is characteristic that the simple tar compounds investigated undergo loss of CO and hereby loss of the aromatic structure. The intermediary compounds are very reactive cyclo-pentadienes entering Diels-Alder reactions. The later products are transformed to aromatic compounds. The results may facilitate the determination of optimum conditions for updraft gasifiers and hence a reduction of PAH formation. (au)

  10. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  11. Microbial PAH-Degradation in Soil: Degradation Pathways and Contributing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xu-Xiang; CHENG Shu-Pei; ZHU Cheng-Jun; SUN Shi-Lei

    2006-01-01

    Adverse effects on the environment and high persistence in the microbial degradation and environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are motivating interest. Many soil microorganisms can degrade PAHs and use various metabolic pathways to do so. However, both the physio-chemical characteristics of compounds as well as the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils can drastically influence the degradation capacity of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation. Modern biological techniques have been widely used to promote the efficiency of microbial PAH-degradation and make the biodegradation metabolic pathways more clear. In this review microbial degradation of PAHs in soil is discussed, with emphasis placed on the main degradation pathways and the environmental factors affecting biodegradation.

  12. Degradation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)by mixed microorganism isolated from coastal sediments%海洋微生物对多环芳烃的降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭楚玲; 哈里德; 郑天凌; 洪华生; 田蕴

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to characterize microorganisms (bacteria) isolated from sediment samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAHs). ST4——pyrene enriched microorganism were studied. They can use pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene as the only source of carbon and energy. Cells of the microorganism were inoculated in mineral salt medium(MSM) at 10,25,50,100,200 mg/dm3 pyrene in acetone solution. The highest optical density (OD600) and the highest degradation rate were obtained at 50 mg/dm3. Additional nutrients have evident effect on the growth of mixed culture.%从海域沉积物中富集分离出以芘作为唯一碳源和能源的海洋微生物,以ST4富集培养的混合微生物作为研究对象;该海洋混合菌株能利用菲(Phe)、芘(Pyr)、荧蒽(Fla)等多种多环芳烃;在不同浓度的芘的降解中,当芘的浓度为50mg/dm3时,其生长水平和降解速率最高;当芘的浓度为200mg/dm3时,其生长受到抑制,芘几乎不能被降解.外加营养盐酵母浸出液和葡萄糖促进降解微生物的生长,提高降解速率.研究表明了海洋微生物在多环芳烃污染环境的生物修复应用前景.

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femdot

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... percentage total PAHs remaining in FCF soil ranged from 71.7 to 73.6% when inoculated with P. ... Key words: Biodegradation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cutting fluids, .... E-mail: oyinpek@yahoo.com.

  14. Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of PAHs and the PAH-degrading genes in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng

    2017-04-01

    Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders.

  15. Initial microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are very hazardous environmental pollutants because of their mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic effects on living systems. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the ability and efficiency of selected bacterial isolates obtained from oil-contaminated areas to biodegrade PAHs. The potential of the bacteria to biodegrade various aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol assay. Further biodegradation of PAHs was monitored by gravimetric and gas-chromatographic analysis. Among the eight bacterial isolates, identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, two isolates, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, had the ability to grow on and utilize almost all examined hydrocarbons. Those isolates were further examined for biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene, as single substrates, and as a mixture, in vitro for ten days. After three days, both isolates degraded a significant amount phenanthrene, which has a simpler chemical structure than pyrene. Planomicrobium sp.RNP01 commenced biodegradation of pyrene in the PAH mixture only after it had almost completly degraded phenanthrene. The isolated and characterized bacteria, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, have shown high bioremediation potential and are likely candidates to be used for degradation of highly toxic PAHs in contaminated areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43004

  16. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anders R; De Lipthay, Julia R; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Sørensen, Søren J; Andersen, Ole; Christensen, Peter; Binderup, Mona-lise; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2006-05-15

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of 14C-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled at greater distances (12-24 m) contained only background levels of PAHs. The total bacterial populations (CFU and numbers of 16S rDNA genes) were similar for all soil samples, whereas the microbial degrader populations (culturable PAH degraders and numbers of PAH dioxygenase genes) were most abundant in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/ 24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/ microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential for lighter molecular weight PAH degradation in combination with low bioaccessibility of heavier PAHs is proposed to lead to a likely increase in concentration of heavier PAHs over time. These residues are, however, likely to be of low biological significance.

  17. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D

    2015-03-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  18. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao, E-mail: hernando.bacosa@utexas.edu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373 (United States); Inoue, Chihiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  20. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  1. Analyzing hydrocarbons in sewer to help in PAH source apportionment in sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Regier, Annette; Faure, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    A multi-molecular approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source apportionment in sewage sludge was tested. Three simple catchment areas with corresponding wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were chosen. Sewage sludges of these WWTPs chronically exceeded the French guide values for PAHs. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified in sediments or wastewater suspended particulate matter sampled in different locations of the sewer as well as in sewage sludge. Various molecular indices including PAH ratios were calculated. The results showed that the ratios calculated from sewage sludge analyses provided a rather unspecific hydrocarbon fingerprint where combustion input appear as the main PAH sources. The complexity of the inputs as well as degradation occurring during wastewater treatment prevent any detailed diagnosis. Coupled to the analyses of samples collected in the sewer, the multi-molecular approach becomes more efficient especially for the identification of specific petroleum inputs such as fuel or used lubricating oils which can be important PAH sources. Indeed, the sampling in the sewer allows a spatial screening of the hydrocarbon inputs and facilitates the PAH source apportionment by avoiding the dilution of specific inputs with the whole wastewater inputs and by limiting the degradation of the molecular fingerprint that could occur during transfer and treatment in the WWTP. Then, the combination of PAH ratios and aliphatic distribution analyses is a very valuable approach that can help in sewer and WWTP management.

  2. Correlations between PAH bioavailability, degrading bacteria, and soil characteristics during PAH biodegradation in five diffusely contaminated dissimilar soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampon, M; Bureau, F; Akpa-Vinceslas, M; Bodilis, J; Machour, N; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F

    2014-01-01

    The natural biodegradation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microorganisms was studied in five soils from Normandy (France) from diffusely polluted areas, which can also pose a problem in terms of surfaces and amounts of contaminated soils. Bioavailability tests using cyclodextrin-based extractions were performed. The natural degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs was not strongly correlated to their bioavailability due to their sorption to geosorbents. Conversely, the very low degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs was partly correlated to their poor availability, due to their sorption on complexes of organic matter and kaolinites or smectites. A principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between the respective degradation behaviors of LMW and HMW PAHs. LMW PAHs were degraded in less than 2-3 months and were strongly influenced by the relative percentage of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria over total bacteria in soils. HMW PAHs were not significantly degraded, not only because they were less bioavailable but also because of a lack of degrading microorganisms. Benzo[a]pyrene stood apart since it was partly degraded in acidic soils, probably because of a catabolic cooperation between bacteria and fungi.

  3. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  4. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Zheng, Cheng-Gang

    2017-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution. PMID:28241412

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  6. Integrated Environmental Quality Objectives for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf DF; Crommentuijn GH; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; ACT

    1995-01-01

    In the present report Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) are derived for 10 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). For the aquatic environment MPCs are derived from the available experimental data. For 3 PAHs no experimental data are available. These MPCs are calculated using the QSAR-appro

  7. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2015) > ... The degradation of 2 % heavy crude oil and other PAHs from the isolate PM-1 was assessed ... Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  8. Bacterial Community Dynamics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation during Bioremediation of Heavily Creosote-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas, Marc; Sabaté, Jordi; Espuny, María José; Solanas, Anna M.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial community dynamics and biodegradation processes were examined in a highly creosote-contaminated soil undergoing a range of laboratory-based bioremediation treatments. The dynamics of the eubacterial community, the number of heterotrophs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders, and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and PAH concentrations were monitored during the bioremediation process. TPH and PAHs were significantly degraded in all treatments (72 to 79% and 83 to 87...

  9. Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MASKAOUI Khalid; ZHENG Tianling; HONG Huasheng; YU Zhiming; YUAN Jianjun; HU Zhong

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified as strains of Aureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp., Rhodococcus sp. The PAH-degrading bacteria isolated had a strong ability to degrade phenanhrene, fluoranthene and pyrene at different degradation rates. The highest degradation rate was observed when three PAH compounds were mixed with an individual strain in the medium. The three PAHs were degraded after one week with a degradation rate of 89.94 % for phenanthrene and 93.4 % for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. In addition, after 25 days of incubation, the degradation rate was 99.98 % for phenanthrene and 99.97 % for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. Optical density was measured to estimate bacterial growth during the degradation of PAHs. Highest levels of bacterial growth were observed with a three PAH mixture in the culture, suggesting that the concentration of PAHs influenced bacterial growth and the highest levels of degradation for most series were detected after one week of incubation.

  10. Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Maskaoui; Zheng, Tianling; Hong, Huasheng; Yu, Zhiming; Yuan, Jianjun; Hu, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified as strains of Aureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp., Rhodococcus sp. The PAH-degrading bacteria isolated had a strong ability to degrade phenanhrene, fluoranthene and pyrene at different degradation rates. The highest degradation rate was observed when three PAH compounds were mixed with an individual strain in the medium. The three PAHs were degraded after one week with a degradation rate of 89.94% for phenanthrene and 93.4% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. In addition, after 25 days of incubation, the degradation rate was 99.98% for phenanthrene and 99.97% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. Optical density was measured to estimate bacterial growth during the degradation of PAHs. Highest levels of bacterial growth were observed with a three PAH mixture in the culture, suggesting that the concentration of PAHs influenced bacterial growth and the highest levels of degradation for most series were detected after one week of incubation.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in livers of California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily

    2008-03-01

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to PAH exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operatorPAH concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operatorPAHs among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of PAHs in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of PAHs with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.

  12. Approaches to In Situ Characterization of Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)%多环芳烃(PAHs)微生物降解的原位表征方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松灿; 段桂兰; 朱永官

    2015-01-01

    多环芳烃(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,PAHs)是一类在环境中广泛存在的持久性有机污染物,微生物降解是去除环境中多环芳烃污染的主要途径.传统的有关PAHs微生物降解的研究主要依靠分离培养技术,难以准确认识PAHs微生物降解的原位过程及机制.近年来发展起来的原位表征方法可以在基因及单细胞水平研究PAHs在复杂环境中的微生物降解过程,能够原位表征具有PAHs降解功能的微生物及其功能基因和代谢活性,是阐明PAHs原位降解过程及分子机制的强有力的手段.该文综述了宏基因组技术(meta-genomics)、稳定同位素探针技术(stable isotopeprobe,SIP)、荧光原位杂交技术(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)、拉曼光谱技术(Raman spectra)以及二次离子质谱技术(secondary ion mass spectrometry,SIMS)等原位表征技术在PAHs微生物降解研究领域的应用及其存在的问题和发展趋势等.PAHs微生物降解过程及机制的原位表征将为缓解与修复PAHs污染提供科学基础.

  13. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Erik J. [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: erik.joner@jordforsk.no; Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Colpaert, Jan V. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology Group, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg{sup -1} of {sigma}12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders.

  14. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay mineral: Bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Baskaya, Hüseyin S; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay minerals. Determining the amount of PAH removal is important in predicting their environmental fate. This study was carried out to the degradation and evaporation of PAHs from bentonite, which is an inorganic clay mineral. UV apparatus was designed specifically for the experiments. The impacts of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and diethylamine (DEA) on PAH removal were determined. After 24 h, 75 and 44 % of ∑12 PAH in the bentonite were removed with and without UV rays, respectively. DEA was more effective as a photocatalyst than TiO2 during UV application. The ∑12 PAH removal ratio reached 88 % with the addition of DEA to the bentonite. It was concluded that PAHs were photodegraded at high ratios when the bentonite samples were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of a photocatalyst. At the end of all the PAH removal applications, higher evaporation ratios were obtained for 3-ring compounds than for heavier ones. More than 60 % of the amount of ∑12 PAH evaporated consisted of 3-ring compounds.

  15. Bacterial degradation of recalcitrant PAHs: metabolic studies and application to pyrene degradation in a freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouanneau, Y.; Demaneche, S.; Meyer, Ch.; Willison, J.C. [CEA-Grenoble, UMR 5092 CNRS-CEA-UJF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Cost-effective bio-remediation strategies have been proposed to remove toxic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from contaminated sites. However, the efficiency of these strategies is often limited, due to the resistance of certain chemicals to microbial degradation. Our studies deal with the biodegradation of four-ring PAHs using two recently isolated bacteria, Mycobacterium strain 6PY1, which can mineralize pyrene and phenanthrene, and Sphingomonas strain CHY-1, which mineralizes chrysene and various three-ring PAHs. The metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of PAHs have been investigated using GC-MS to identify and assay metabolites. Also, several enzymes involved in PAH catabolism have been identified by a combination of proteomic and genetic approaches. In Mycobacterium 6PY1, two ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases which catalyze the initial attack of PAHs have been overproduced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. The selectivity of the two enzymes showed marked differences, since one di-oxygenase preferentially oxidized 2- or 3- ring PAHs whereas the other attacked pyrene and 3-ring PAHs exclusively. In Sphingomonas CHY-1, a single di-oxygenase, called PhnI, was found to convert seven PAHs, including chrysene, to the corresponding dihydro-diols. It is the first enzyme to be described which is able to attack the four-ring PAHs chrysene and benz[a]anthracene.. The fate of pyrene was examined in a sediment taken from a freshwater lake of the French Alps. Experiments were carried out in microcosms containing a layer of sediment which was spiked with {sup 14}C-pyrene. Pyrene mineralization was monitored over 61 days by measuring the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the microcosms. Some microcosms were planted with young reeds (Phragmites australis), while other were inoculated with Mycobacterium 6PY1. P. australis reeds promoted a significant increase of pyrene degradation, which most likely resulted from a root-mediated increase of

  16. Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a putative flavonol synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vega, Juan C; Cady, Brian; Kayanja, Gilbert; Mauriello, Anthony; Cervantes, Natalie; Gillespie, Andrea; Lavia, Lisa; Trujillo, Joshua; Alkio, Merianne; Colón-Carmona, Adán

    2017-01-05

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental contaminants with cytotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties. Bioremediation studies with bacteria have led to the identification of dioxygenases (DOXs) in the first step to degrade these recalcitrant compounds. In this study, we characterized the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana AT5G05600, a putative DOX of the flavonol synthase family, in the transformation of PAHs. Phenotypic analysis of loss-of-function mutant lines showed that these plant lines were less sensitive to the toxic effects of phenanthrene, suggesting possible roles of this gene in PAH degradation in vivo. Interestingly, these mutant lines showed less accumulation of H2O2 after PAH exposure. Transgenic lines over-expressing At5g05600 showed a hypersensitive response and more oxidative stress after phenanthrene treatments. Moreover, fluorescence spectra results of biochemical assays with the recombinant His-tagged protein AT5G05600 detected chemical modifications of phenanthrene. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that AT5G05600 is involved in the catabolism of PAHs and the accumulation of toxic intermediates during PAH biotransformation in plants. This research represents the first step in the design of transgenic plants with the potential to degrade PAHs, leading to the development of vigorous plant varieties that can reduce the levels of these pollutants in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015.

  18. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (21), pp. 2024-2031, 2 ... (PAHs) in selected water bodies in the Niger Delta. Chimezie ... are included in the European Union and United States ... eruptions, thermal geological reactions, industrial processes ... forest, straw, agriculture, cooking), waste incineration,.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  1. Isolation and genetic identification of PAH degrading bacteria from a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M Carmen; González, Natalia; Bautista, L Fernando; Sanz, Raquel; Simarro, Raquel; Sánchez, Irene; Sanz, José L

    2009-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH; naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene) degrading microbial consortium C2PL05 was obtained from a sandy soil chronically exposed to petroleum products, collected from a petrochemical complex in Puertollano (Ciudad Real, Spain). The consortium C2PL05 was highly efficient degrading completely naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene in around 18 days of cultivation. The toxicity (Microtox method) generated by the PAH and by the intermediate metabolites was reduced to levels close to non-toxic in almost 40 days of cultivation. The identified bacteria from the contaminated soil belonged to gamma-proteobacteria and could be include in Enterobacter and Pseudomonas genus. DGGE analysis revealed uncultured Stenotrophomonas ribotypes as a possible PAH degrader in the microbial consortium. The present work shows the potential use of these microorganisms and the total consortium for the bioremediation of PAH polluted areas since the biodegradation of these chemicals takes place along with a significant decrease in toxicity.

  2. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  3. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  4. Rapid biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using effective Cronobacter sakazakii MM045 (KT933253).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Zubairu Darma; Aziz, Nor Azwady Abd; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Mustafa, Muskhazli

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex and widely distributed environmental pollutants that can affect living ecosystems. This study was conducted to rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene representing low and high molecular weight of PAHs, respectively. Cronobacter sakazakii MM045 (KT933253) was identified from used engine oil of contaminated soil. PAHs biodegradation was carried out using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) assay. Biodegradation influencing factors including agitation, temperature, pH, inoculums volume and salinity were enhanced using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Central Composite Design (CCD). Phenanthrene and pyrene biodegrading metabolites were identified using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer (GCMS). •Initial biodegradation indicated 75.2% and 54.3% phenanthrene and pyrene degraded by C. sakazakii MM045 within 24 h. After CCD optimisation, 100% degradation was achieved for each of the phenanthrene and pyrene, resulting in the formation of intermediate metabolites.•The identified phenanthrene metabolites were 3,4-dihydroxyphenathrene, phthalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid. Pyrene intermediates comprised pyrene cis-4,5-dihydrodiol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenanthrene, phthalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid.•Cronbacter sakazakii MM045 was proven to be rapid and effective in degrading PAHs within 24 h despite the unavailability of existing literatures on PAHs biodegradation.

  5. 微生物降解多环芳烃研究%Research Progress on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs)via Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田林双

    2009-01-01

    多环芳烃(PAHs)具有致诱变性且在环境中呈不断累积的趋势,微生物降解是PAHs降解的主要途径之一.介绍了PAHs的微生物降解方式以及国内外对细菌、真菌和其他微生物在PAHs降解方面的研究进展,并对PAHs降解微生物的研究进行了展望.

  6. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  7. Immobilization of fungal laccase onto a nonionic surfactant-modified clay material: application to PAH degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Liu, Keng-Hua; Liao, Yi-Fen; Yang, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    Nonionic surfactant-modified clay is a useful absorbent material that effectively removes hydrophobic organic compounds from soil/groundwater. We developed a novel material by applying an immobilized fungal laccase onto nonionic surfactant-modified clay. Low-water-solubility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene/phenanthrene) were degraded in the presence of this bioactive material. PAH degradation by free laccase was higher than degradation by immobilized laccase when the surfactant concentration was allowed to form micelles. PAH degradation by immobilized laccase on TX-100-modified clay was higher than on Brij35-modified clay. Strong laccase degradation of PAH can be maintained by adding surfactant monomers or micelles. The physical adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto clay plays an important role in PAH degradation by laccase, which can be explained by the structure and molecular interactions of the surfactant with the clay and enzyme. A system where laccase is immobilized onto TX-100-monomer-modified clay is a good candidate bioactive material for in situ PAHs bioremediation.

  8. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory.

  9. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63...... for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...

  10. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  11. Biodegradation kinetics of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures by Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Autenrieth, Robin L; Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; McDonald, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Many contaminated sites commonly have complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) whose individual microbial biodegradation may be altered in mixtures. Biodegradation kinetics for fluorene, naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene and 1-methylfluorene were evaluated in sole substrate, binary and ternary systems using Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505. The first order rate constants for fluorene, naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene, and 1-methylfluorene were comparable; yet Monod parameters were significantly different for the tested PAHs. S. paucimobilis completely degraded all the components in binary and ternary mixtures; however, the initial degradation rates of individual components decreased in the presence of competitive PAHs. Results from the mixture experiments indicate competitive interactions, demonstrated mathematically. The generated model appropriately predicted the biodegradation kinetics in mixtures using parameter estimates from the sole substrate experiments, validating the hypothesis of a common rate-determining step. Biodegradation kinetics in mixtures were affected by the affinity coefficients of the co-occurring PAHs and mixture composition. Experiments with equal concentrations of substrates demonstrated the effect of concentration on competitive inhibition. Ternary experiments with naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene and 1-methylfluorene revealed delayed degradation, where depletion of naphthalene and 1,5-dimethylnapthalene occurred rapidly only after the complete removal of 1-methylfluorene. The substrate interactions observed in mixtures require a multisubstrate model to account for simultaneous degradation of substrates. PAH contaminated sites are far more complex than even ternary mixtures; however these studies clearly demonstrate the effect that interactions can have on individual chemical kinetics. Consequently, predicting natural or enhanced degradation of PAHs cannot be based on single compound kinetics as this

  12. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds.

  13. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7,...

  14. The Diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze eShao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR. After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene, 9 nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946 m to 4746 m. PAH degradation occurred to all components of the mixture, but when using a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, only phenanthrene can be degraded obviously. This indicates the cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthreneWhile the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. More than half of the isolates (34 of 51 isolates were confirmed to have the ability to grow with the PAH mixture By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis and Stappia were found to

  15. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierz, Marcin; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Kraska, Piotr; Pałys, Edward; Andruszczak, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    In the present study the persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) applied with biochar to acidic soil (loamy sand) was studied in two and half year field experiment. An experiment was carried out in three experimental plots (15 m(2) each). The biochar was introduced in the following doses: soil without fertilization - control (C-BC00), soil with 30 t ha(-1) (B-BC30) and soil with 45 t ha(-1) (A-BC45) of biochar. Biochar addition to soils resulted in an increase in the PAHs content from 0.239 μg g(-1) in control soil to 0.526 μg g(-1) and 1.310 μg g(-1) in 30 and 45 t ha(-1) biochar-amended soil respectively. However during the experimental period the PAHs content decreased to a level characteristic for the control soil. The highest losses of PAHs were observed during the first 105 days of the experiment. Three and four rings PAHs were the most susceptible for degradation and leaching. Migration of PAHs from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm soil horizon was also observed.

  16. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  17. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J; Ekelund, Flemming; Christensen, Peter; Andersen, Ole; Karlson, Ulrich; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2006-03-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several levels: by slowly diminishing PAH-concentrations, increased mineralization of 14C-PAHs, increasing numbers of PAH degraders and increased prevalence of nah and pdo1 PAH degradation genes, i.e. the microbial communities quickly adapted to PAH degradation. Three- and 4-ring PAHs from the street dust were biodegraded to some extent (10-20%), but 5- and 6-ring PAHs were not biodegraded in spite of frequent soil mixing and high PAH degradation potentials. In addition to biodegradation, leaching of 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs from the A-horizon to the C-horizon seems to reduce PAH-levels in surface soil. Over time, levels of 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs in surface soil may reach equilibrium between input and the combination of biodegradation and leaching. However, levels of the environmentally critical 5- and 6-ring PAHs will probably continue to rise. We presume that sorption to black carbon particles is responsible for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.

  18. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg(-1) of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source.

  19. Combined effects of DOM and biosurfactant enhanced biodegradation of polycylic armotic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Huang, Guo-He; Xiao, Huining; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the interactive effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in soil-water systems. The degradations of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were fitted well with first order kinetic model and the degradation rates were in proportion to the concentration of biosurfactant. In addition, the degradation enhancement of PHE was higher than that of PYR. The addition of soil DOM itself at an environmental level would inhibit the biodegradation of PAHs. However, in the system with co-existence of DOM and biosurfactant, the degradation of PAHs was higher than that in only biosurfactant addition system, which may be attributed to the formation of DOM-biosurfactant complex micelles. Furthermore, under the combined conditions, the degradation of PAH increased with the biosurfactant concentration, and the soil DOM added system showed slightly higher degradation than the compost DOM added system, indicating that the chemical structure and composition of DOM would also affect the bioavailability of PAHs. The study result may broaden knowledge of biosurfactant enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil and groundwater.

  20. Anharmonicity and infrared bands of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-08-01

    We present a systematic laboratory study of the CH stretching region in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules of different shapes and sizes to investigate anharmonic behaviour and address the reliability of the never-validated but universally accepted scaling factors employed in astronomical PAH models. At the same time, new anharmonic theoretical quantum chemistry studies have been performed with the software program Spectro using our experimental data as benchmark. We performed mass and conformational-resolved, high-resolution spectroscopy of cold (~10K) linear and compact PAH molecules starting with naphthalene (C10H8) in the 3-µm CH stretching region. Surprisingly, the measured infrared spectra show many more strong modes than expected. Measurements of the deuterated counterparts demonstrate that these bands are the result of Fermi Resonances. First comparisons with harmonic and anharmonic DFT calculations using Gaussian 09 show that both approximations are not able to reproduce in detail the observed molecular reality. The improved anharmonic calculations performed with Spectro now include the effects of Fermi resonances and have been applied to PAHs for the first time. The analysis of the experimental data is greatly aided by these new theoretical quantum chemistry studies. Preliminary assignments are presented, aided by comparison between the observed rotational contour and the symmetry of candidate bands.

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of synthetic surfactants.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiehm, A

    1994-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) often is limited by low water solubility and dissolution rate. Nonionic surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate increased the concentration of PAH in the water phase because of solubilization. The degradation of PAH was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate because this surfactant was preferred as a growth substrate. Growth of mixed cultures with phenanthrene and fluoranthene solubilized by a nonionic surfactant prior to inoculation wa...

  3. The diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in a deep-sea water column above the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Lai, Qiliang; Sun, Fengqin; Zheng, Tianling; Shao, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    The bacteria involved in organic pollutant degradation in pelagic deep-sea environments are largely unknown. In this report, the diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was analyzed in deep-sea water on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). After enrichment with a PAH mixture (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene), nine bacterial consortia were obtained from depths of 3946-4746 m. While the consortia degraded all four PAHs when supplied in a mixture, when PAHs were tested individually, only phenanthrene supported growth. Thus, degradation of the PAH mixture reflected a cometabolism of anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene with phenanthrene. Further, both culture-dependent and independent methods revealed many new bacteria involved in PAH degradation. Specifically, the alpha and gamma subclasses of Proteobacteria were confirmed as the major groups within the communities. Additionally, Actinobacteria, the CFB group and Firmicutes were detected. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that bacteria closely affiliated with Alcanivorax, Novosphingobium, and Rhodovulum occurred most frequently in different PAH-degrading consortia. By using general heterotrophic media, 51 bacteria were isolated from the consortia and of these 34 grew with the PAH mixture as a sole carbon source. Of these, isolates most closely related to Alterierythrobacter, Citricella, Erythrobacter, Idiomarina, Lutibacterium, Maricaulis, Marinobacter, Martelella, Pseudidiomarina, Rhodobacter, Roseovarius, Salipiger, Sphingopyxis, and Stappia were found to be PAH degraders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these bacteria have been identified in this context. In summary, this report revealed significant diversity among the PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea water column. These bacteria may play a role in PAH removal in deep-sea environments.

  4. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuan; Posch, Tjorben; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2011-02-01

    Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to glass commonly used in laboratories was studied. Sorption coefficients (Kd) of five selected PAHs to borosilicate glass surfaces were measured using column chromatography. A linear relationship between log Kd and the corresponding water solubility of the subcooled liquid (log Sw) of the investigated PAHs was observed. Based on the determined sorption coefficients our data revealed that mass loss caused by sorption on glass walls strongly depends on the ratio of solution volume to contacted surface area (V/S). The influence of solution chemistry such as ionic strength, solution pH, presence of cosolvent, and the influence of temperature on the sorption process were investigated. In the presence of ionic strength, sorption coefficients concurrently increased but less than a factor of 2 up to 0.005 M calcium chloride concentration. However, further increasing ionic strength had no influence on Kd. The cosolvent reduced sorption at a concentration of methanol in water above 0.5% (v/v); however, for benzo[a]pyrene even with 10% (v/v) methanol the mass loss would be still higher than 10% (with a V/S ratio less than 0.25). Significant effects of the solution pH and temperature were not observed. These results suggest that van der Waal's forces dominate the sorption process. In the analysis of highly hydrophobic PAHs in aqueous samples, mass loss due to sorption on glass walls should be accounted for in the final result if untreated glass is used. The presented relationship between log Kd and log Sw may help to decide if such a correction is necessary. Furthermore, the frequently used silanization of glass surfaces may not be sufficient to suppress sorption for large PAHs.

  5. The lack of microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-rich soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, C.; Cheng, S.B.; Straub, K.L.; Hofmann, T. [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-02-02

    Analytical techniques used to assess the environmental risk of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically consider only abiotic sample parameters. Supercritical fluid extraction and sorption enthalpy experiments previously suggested slow desorption rates for PAH compounds in two coal-contaminated floodplain soils. In this study, the actual PAH availability for aerobic soil microorganisms was tested in two series of soil-slurry experiments. The experimental conditions supported microbial degradation of phenanthrene if it was weakly sorbed onto silica gel. Native coals and coal-derived particles in two soils effectively acted as very strong sorbents and prevented microbial PAH degradation. The long history of PAH exposure and degree of coal contamination apparently had no influence on the capability of the microbial soil community to overcome constraints of PAH availability. Within the context of the experimental conditions and the compounds chosen, our results confirm that coal-bound PAHs are not bioavailable and hence of low environmental concern.

  6. Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi-Maarit; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2003-08-01

    Biodegradation of UV-irradiated anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene was compared to that of the non-irradiated samples, individually and in synthetic mixtures with enrichment cultures. Combined treatment was repeated for individual anthracene and for the PAH mixture with Sphingomonas sp. strain EPA 505 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. Enrichment culture studies were performed on the PAH mixtures in the presence of the main photoproduct of anthracene, pure 9,10-anthracenedione. Photochemically pretreated creosote solutions were also subjected to biodegradation and the results were compared to those of the non-irradiated solutions. The primary interest was on 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Irradiation accelerated the biodegradation onset for anthracene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene when they were treated individually. The biodegradation of irradiated pyrene started with no lag phase and was complete by 122 h whereas biodegradation of the non-irradiated sample had a lag of 280 h and resulted in complete degradation by 720 h. Biodegradation of PAHs was accelerated in synthetic mixtures, especially in the presence of pure 9,10-anthracenedione. In general, irradiation had no effect on the biodegradation of PAHs incubated in synthetic mixtures or with pure cultures. Under current experimental conditions, the UV-irradiation invariably reduced the biodegradation of PAHs in creosote. Based on the results of the present and previous photochemical-biological studies of PAHs, the influence of the photochemical pretreatment on the biodegradation is highly dependent on the compounds being treated and other process parameters.

  7. Quantification of small-scale variation in the size and composition of phenanthrene-degrader populations and PAH contaminants in traffic-impacted topsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Styrishave, Bjarne; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale colocalisation of microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and PAHs in contaminated soil is a prerequisite for efficient biodegradation of the PAHs. We therefore tested the hypothesis that phenanthrene-degrading bacteria are colocalised with PAHs at the millimetre......-to-centimetre-scale. Microbial populations and PAH concentrations were determined for 40-mg samples from a 112-mm transect of a traffic-impacted topsoil. The spatial distribution of cultivable phenanthrene degraders (0.3 × 10(5) -7.2 × 10(5) cells g(-1) ) mirrored neither the distribution of PAHs, nor the distribution...... of the total cultivable heterotrophic populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of PAH dioxygenase genes (2 × 10(6) -4 × 10(6) cells g(-1) ) from a second transect showed distributions similar to the cultivable phenanthrene degraders, but at a 20-fold higher level. The omnipresence of high...

  8. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    OpenAIRE

    Li eZhang; Yi eJin; Meng eHuang; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-...

  9. Isolation and characterization of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria adapted to electrokinetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmei; Guo, Shuhai; Hartog, Niels; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Xuelian

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria capable of growing under electrokinetic conditions were isolated using an adjusted acclimation and enrichment procedure based on soil contaminated with heavy PAHs in the presence of an electric field. Their ability to degrade heavy PAHs under an electric field was individually investigated in artificially contaminated soils. The results showed that strains PB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and FB6 (Kocuria sp.) were the most efficient heavy PAH degraders under electrokinetic conditions. They were re-inoculated into a polluted soil from an industrial site with a PAH concentration of 184.95 mg kg(-1). Compared to the experiments without an electric field, the degradation capability of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Kocuria sp. was enhanced in the industrially polluted soil under electrokinetic conditions. The degradation extents of total PAHs were increased by 15.4 and 14.0% in the electrokinetic PB4 and FB6 experiments (PB4 + EK and FB6 + EK) relative to the PB4 and FB6 experiments without electrokinetic conditions (PB4 and FB6), respectively. These results indicated that P. fluorescens and Kocuria sp. could efficiently degrade heavy PAHs under electrokinetic conditions and have the potential to be used for the electro-bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil, especially if the soil is contaminated with heavy PAHs.

  10. [Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy-soil system during the crop rotation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xing-chun; Ye, Chuan-yong; Chen, Su-hua; Yang, Yong-liang; Wu, Zhen-yan

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy root-soil system were determined to study the dynamic and the influencing factors during crop rotation period. It showed that the dynamic of PAHs in paddy roots was most correlative with the factor of root surface area, but less correlated with PAHs in air and particles, which indicates that the physiological characters rather than the environment media are the main factors influencing the PAHs accumulation in paddy roots. According to the EPA risk standard about BaP and sigma PAHs, the PAHs accumulation in the paddy seeds won't decrease the food security to human being. The PAHs concentrations in paddy soil showed a declined trend during the period of paddy growth, which was affected not only by the processes of water elution and microbe degradation, but also depended on the absorption rate of paddy roots. When the crop rotation begins and paddy planting rolls into the next growing period, the PAHs in the paddy soil will again increase into a higher level which is correlated with the TOC content in the soil.

  11. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Shock, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  12. Response of PAH-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment, and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Xia, Na; Lai, Yunjia; Dong, Jianwei; Zhao, Pujun; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Zhihuang; Ye, Wan; Yuan, Yue; Huang, Junxiong

    2015-06-01

    The degrading genes of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) serve as indicators of in situ HOC degradation potential, and the existing forms and bioavailability of HOCs might influence the distribution of HOC-degrading genes in natural waters. However, little research has been conducted to study the relationship between them. In the present study, nahAc and nidA genes, which act as biomarkers for naphthalene- and pyrene-degrading bacteria, were selected as model genotypes to investigate the response of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading genes to PAH bioavailability in the overlying water, suspended sediment (SPS), and deposited sediment of the Yangtze River. The freely dissolved concentration, typically used to reflect HOC bioavailability, and total dissolved, as well as sorbed concentrations of PAHs were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene sequences of Gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHD[GN]) were closely related to nahAc, nagAc, nidA, and uncultured PAH-RHD genes. The PAH-RHD[GN] gene diversity as well as nahAc and nidA gene copy numbers decreased in the following order: deposited sediment>SPS>overlying water. The nahAc and nidA gene abundance was not significantly correlated with environmental parameters but was significantly correlated with the bioavailable existing forms of naphthalene and pyrene in the three phases. The nahAc gene copy numbers in the overlying water and deposited sediment were positively correlated with freely dissolved naphthalene concentrations in the overlying and pore water phases, respectively, and so were nidA gene copy numbers. This study suggests that the distribution and abundance of HOC-degrading bacterial population depend on the HOC bioavailability in aquatic environments.

  13. Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban treatment sludge to the air during PAH removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) penetrating into air during PAH removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the PAH removal efficiencies and PAH evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated PAHs from the sludge during the PAH removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The PAH concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of PAHs penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of PAHs migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) PAH amounts with UV application and 13% of PAHs in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 PAH removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of PAH penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of PAH removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of PAH penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in PAH removal efficiencies and the penetration of PAHs into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable PAH removal alternative that restricts the convection of PAH pollution.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from aviation fuel spill site at Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R C; Essien, J P; Akpan, S B; Okpokwasili, G C

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from aviation fuel contaminated soil at Inua Eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria. PAH-degrading bacteria in the contaminated soil were isolated by enrichment culture technique. Isolates with high PAH degrading potential characterized by their extensive growth on PAH-supplemented minimal salt medium were screened for their naphthalene, phenanthrene and chrysene degradability. The screening medium which contained selected PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy showed that Micrococcus varians AFS-2, Pseudomonas putida AFS-3 and Alcaligenes faecalis AFS-5 exhibited a concentration-dependent growth in all the PAH-compounds tested. There were visible changes in the color of growth medium suggesting the production of different metabolites. Their acclimation to different PAH substrates was also evident as A. faecalis AFS-5 isolated from chrysene grew well on other less complex aromatic compounds. The isolate exhibited best growth (0.44 OD(600)) when exposed to 10 ppm of chrysene for 5 days and could utilize up to 90 ppm of chrysene. This isolate and others with strong PAH-degrading potentials are recommended for bioremediation of PAHs in aviation fuel-contaminated sites in the tropics.

  15. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  16. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PA

  17. Quantification of small-scale variation in the size and composition of phenanthrene-degrader populations and PAH contaminants in traffic-impacted topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Styrishave, Bjarne; Aamand, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale colocalisation of microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and PAHs in contaminated soil is a prerequisite for efficient biodegradation of the PAHs. We therefore tested the hypothesis that phenanthrene-degrading bacteria are colocalised with PAHs at the millimetre-to-centimetre-scale. Microbial populations and PAH concentrations were determined for 40-mg samples from a 112-mm transect of a traffic-impacted topsoil. The spatial distribution of cultivable phenanthrene degraders (0.3 × 10(5) -7.2 × 10(5) cells g(-1) ) mirrored neither the distribution of PAHs, nor the distribution of the total cultivable heterotrophic populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of PAH dioxygenase genes (2 × 10(6) -4 × 10(6) cells g(-1) ) from a second transect showed distributions similar to the cultivable phenanthrene degraders, but at a 20-fold higher level. The omnipresence of high densities of PAH degraders at the millimetre scale indicate that PAH persistence may not be caused by local lack of degrader cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that either MPN of pollutant degraders, qPCR of functional genes, CFU of heterotrophic micro-organisms, or the content of PAHs have been determined with such high spatial resolution.

  18. Analysis of a PAH-degrading bacterial population in subsurface sediments on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zongze; Cui, Zhisong; Dong, Chunming; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Liang

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the types and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existing in the deep-sea subsurface environment, which is believed to be cold, oligothrophic and of high static pressure. PAHs in the upper layers of the water column are unavoidably subjected to degradation while they are deposited to the sea floor and become embedded in the deep-sea sediment. In this report, a high concentration of PAHs was discovered in the sediment 2.7 m beneath the bottom surface at a water depth of 3962 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The total concentration of PAHs was 445 ng (g dry wt sediment) -1. Among the seven detected PAHs, the concentrations of phenanthrene (222 ng g -1) and fluorene (79 ng g -1) were relatively high. In addition, PAH-degrading bacteria were found within the sediments. As in a previously detected site on the MAR, in the PAH-enriched region of this site, a bacterium of the genus Cycloclasticus was found to be the predominant isolate detected by PCR-DGGE analysis. In addition, bacteria of the Halomonas, Marinobacter, Alcanivorax, Thalassospira and Maricaulis genera, were also included in the PAH-degrading community. In summary, a high concentration of PAHs was detected in the subsurface of the deep-sea sediment, and once again, the Cycloclasticus bacterium was confirmed to be a ubiquitous marine PAH degrader even in the subsurface marine environment. Considering the abundance of PAHs therein, biodegradation is thus thought to be inactive, probably because of the low temperature, limited oxygen and/or limited nutrients.

  19. Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements with botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Martena, Martijn J.; Grutters, Michiel; De Groot, Henk; Konings, Erik; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified 8 priority PAH (PAH8) or 4 of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aims to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. I...

  20. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  1. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microbial community structure and PAH ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene abundance in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawulski, Przemyslaw; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2014-11-01

    Development of successful bioremediation strategies for environments contaminated with recalcitrant pollutants requires in-depth knowledge of the microorganisms and microbial processes involved in degradation. The response of soil microbial communities to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenanthrene (3-ring), fluoranthene (4-ring) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring), was examined. Profiles of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were generated using molecular fingerprinting techniques (TRFLP, ARISA) and multivariate statistical tools were employed to interpret the effect of PAHs on community dynamics and composition. The extent and rate of PAH removal was directly related to the chemical structure, with the 5-ring PAH benzo(a)pyrene degraded more slowly than phenathrene or fluoranthene. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were all significantly affected by PAH amendment, time and their interaction. Based on analysis of clone libraries, Actinobacteria appeared to dominate in fluoranthene amended soil, although they also represented a significant portion of the diversity in phenanthrene amended and unamended soils. In addition there appeared to be more γ-Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes in soil amended with either PAH compared to the control. The soil bacterial community clearly possessed the potential to degrade PAHs as evidenced by the abundance of PAH ring hydroxylating (PAH-RHDα) genes from both gram negative (GN) and gram positive (GP) bacteria in PAH-amended and control soils. Although the dioxygenase gene from GP bacteria was less abundant in soil than the gene associated with GN bacteria, significant (p PAH-RHDα gene were observed during phenanthrene and fluoranthene degradation, whereas there was no significant difference in the abundance of the GN PAH-RHDα gene during the course of the experiment. Few studies to-date have examined the effect of pollutants on more than one microbial community in soil. The current study provides

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  3. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  5. A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul; Brown, Richard J C

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of PAHs in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of PAHs in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by PAH exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of PAH exposure, this review offers an overview of PAH properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of PAH exposure and their significance are also discussed.

  6. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25...

  7. Degradation Characteristics and Community Structure of a Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Gu Guizhou; Zhao Chaocheng; Zhao Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium KO5-2 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Karamay in Xinjiang, China, which could remove 56.9%of 10 g/L total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) at 30℃after 7 days of incu-bation, and could also remove 100%of lfuorene, 98.93%of phenanthrene and 65.73%of pyrene within 3, 7 and 9 days, respectively. Twelve strains from six different genera were isolated from KO5-2 and only eight ones were able to utilize the TPH. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to investigate the microbial community shifts in ifve different carbon sources (including TPH, saturated hydrocarbons, lfuorene, phenanthrene and pyrene). The test results indi-cated that the community compositions of KO5-2 in carbon sources of TPH and saturated hydrocarbons, respectively, were roughly the same, while they were distinctive in the three different carbon sources of PAHs. Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudo-monas sp. could survive in the ifve kinds of carbon sources. Bacillus sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. likely played key roles in the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons, PAHs and phenanthrene, respectively. This study showed that speciifc bacterial phylotypes were associated with different contaminants and complex interactions between bacterial spe-cies, and the medium conditions inlfuenced the biodegradation capacity of the microbial communities involved in bioreme-diation processes.

  8. Impact of mycelia on the accessibility of fluorene to PAH-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamfuß, Susan; Neu, Thomas R; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Tecon, Robin; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y

    2013-07-02

    Mycelia have been recently shown to actively transport polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water-unsaturated soil over the range of centimeters, thereby efficiently mobilizing hydrophobic PAH beyond their purely diffusive transport in air and water. However, the question if mycelia-based PAH transport has an effect on PAH biodegradation was so far unsolved. To address this, we developed a laboratory model microcosm mimicking air-water interfaces in soil. Chemical analyses demonstrated transport of the PAH fluorene (FLU) by the mycelial oomycete Pythium ultimum that was grown along the air-water interfaces. Furthermore, degradation of mycelia-transported FLU by the bacterium Burkholderia sartisoli RP037-mChe was indicated. Since this organism expresses eGFP in response to a FLU flux to the cell, it was also as a bacterial reporter of FLU bioavailability in the vicinity of mycelia. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image analyses revealed a significant increase of eGFP expression in the presence of P. ultimum compared to controls without mycelia or FLU. Hence, we could show that physically separated FLU becomes bioavailable to bacteria after transport by mycelia. Experiments with silicon coated glass fibers capturing mycelia-transported FLU guided us to propose a three-step mechanism of passive uptake, active transport and diffusion-driven release. These experiments were also used to evaluate the contributions of these individual steps to the overall mycelial FLU transport rate.

  9. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  10. Sphingomonas from petroleum-contaminated soils in Shenfu, China and their PAHs degradation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the Sphingomonas genus are often isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils due to their unique abilities to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which are important for in situ bioremediation. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach using streptomycin-containing medium and Sphingomonas -specific PCR was developed to isolate and identify culturable Sphingomonas strains present in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Shenfu wastewater irrigation zone. Of the 15 soil samples examined, 12 soils yielded yellow streptomycin-resistant colonies. The largest number of yellow colony-forming units (CFUs could reach 105 CFUs g-1 soil. The number of yellow CFUs had a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 with the ratio of PAHs to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, indicating that Sphingomonas may play a key role in degrading the PAH fraction of the petroleum contaminants at this site. Sixty yellow colonies were selected randomly and analyzed by colony PCR using Sphingomonas -specific primers, out of which 48 isolates had PCR-positive signals. The 48 positive amplicons generated 8 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns, and 7 out of 8 phylotypes were identified as Sphingomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the representative strains. Within these 7 Sphingomonas strains, 6 strains were capable of using fluorene as the sole carbon source, while 2 strains were phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples.

  11. Application of fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for TCE and PAH degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.; Brey, J.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.; Fliermans, C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, methods used to identify methanotrophic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH) bacteria in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate specific bacteria from other environmental microorganisms. Methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from TCE-contaminated soils (Bowman et al. 1993; Fliermans et al., 1988). Fliermans et al., (1988) and others demonstrated that cultures enriched with methane and propane could cometabolically degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethylene; 1,2-cisdichloroethylene (c-DCE); 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE); vinyl chloride (VC); toluene; phenol and cresol. Characterization of select microorganisms in the natural setting is important for the evaluation of bioremediation potential and its effectiveness. This realization has necessitated techniques that are selective, sensitive and easily applicable to soils, sediments, and groundwater (Fliermans, et al., 1994). Additionally these techniques can identify and quantify microbial types in situ in real time

  12. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramzi, A.;; Rahman, K.H.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jacob, C.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed significant seasonal dynamics in surface sediments of a tropical ecosystem (Cochin estuary, south west coast of India). Concentrations ranged from 304 to 5874 ngg-1 in pre-monsoon, 493 to 14...

  13. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    OpenAIRE

    Un Hyuk Yim; Yong-Seung Shin; Won Joon Shim; Seung-Kyu Kim; Dong Soo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than susp...

  14. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  15. Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-bin; LIU Yan; LIN Jin-ming; TANG Ning; HAYAKAWA Kazuichi; MAEDA Tsuneaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs in the coastal seawater, surface sediment and oyster from Dalian, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wen-Jun; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan; Sun, Yeqing; Liu, Xianjie; Wang, Luo

    2016-06-01

    A total of 46 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 21 parent and 25 alkylated) were determined in seawater, surface sediment and oyster from coastal area of Dalian, North China. The concentration of Σ46PAHs in seawater, sediment, and oyster were 136-621 ng/L, 172-4700 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 60.0-129 ng/g wet weight (ww) in winter, and 65.0-1130 ng/L, 71.1-1090 ng/g dw and 72.8-216 ng/g ww in summer, respectively. High PAH levels were found in industrial area both in winter and summer. Selected PAH levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL, TEL-PEL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism and the results indicate that surface sediment from all sampling sites have a low to medium ecotoxicological risk. Daily intake of PAHs via oyster as seafood by humans were estimated and the results indicated that oyster intake would not pose a health risk to humans even 30 days after a oil spill accident near by. Water-sediment exchange analysis showed that, both in winter and summer, the fluxes for most high molecular weight PAHs were from seawater to sediment, while for low molecular weight PAHs, an equilibrium was reached between seawater and sediment.

  17. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  19. Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing

    2015-01-01

    The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical PAHs reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the PAH concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (PAHs-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of PAHs normalized by xylem lipid content (PAHs-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne PAHs recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that PAHs-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne PAHs at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne PAHs.

  20. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  1. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    at greater distances (12-24 m) contained only background levels of PAHs. The total bacterial populations (CFU and numbers of 16S rDNA genes) were similar for all soil samples, whereas the microbial degrader populations (culturable PAH degraders and numbers of PAH dioxygenase genes) were most abundant...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  2. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil

  3. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  4. Composition and morphology characterization of exopolymeric substances produced by the PAH-degrading fungus of Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Liu, Changfeng; Gong, Zongqiang

    2016-05-01

    To explore the role of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in the process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation, the characteristics of EPS isolated from a PAH-degrading fungus were investigated firstly by spectrometric determination, microscopic observation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), and then the PAH-degrading ability of isolated EPS was evaluated. The EPS compositions and morphology varied significantly with the extraction methods. EPS were mainly composed of proteins, carbohydrate, and humic-like substances, and the cation exchange resin (CER)-extracted EPS were granular while other EPS samples were all powders. Heating was the most effective treatment method, followed by the CER, centrifugation, and ultrasonication methods. However, 3D-EEM data demonstrated that heating treatment makes the mycelia lyse the most. Overall, therefore, the CER was the best EPS extraction method for Mucor mucedo (M. mucedo). The PAH degradation results indicated that 87 % of pyrene and 81 % of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were removed by M. mucedo over 12 days and 9 % more pyrene and 7 % more B[a]P were reduced after CER-extracted EPS addition of 465 mg l(-1). The investigation of EPS characterization and EPS enhancing PAH biodegradation is the premise for further in-depth exploration of the role of EPS contribution to PAH biodegradation.

  5. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge organic matter pools as a driving force of their fate during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemig, Quentin; Chéron, Claire; Delgenès, Nadine; Jimenez, Julie; Houot, Sabine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The fate of organic matter during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in batch systems thanks to a sequential chemical fractionation of the particulate phase coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution within the organic pools was characterized from their analysis in the residual fraction after each extraction. Both methods were combined to understand the link between PAHs presence in organic pools and their spectral characterization after extraction. Two batch systems (sludge and inoculum mixture) were set up to study the impact of PAHs spiking on their fate and distribution. The sequential fractionation allowed us to extract and characterize about 50% of total Chemical Oxygen Demand. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy helped us to understand the organic pools evolution: the most easily extracted pools composed of protein-like molecules were highly degraded meaning that chemical accessibility mimics the bioaccessibility to degrading microorganisms. PAHs were present in all pools of organic matter but native PAHs were mainly present in low accessible (hardly extractable) fractions and during anaerobic digestion, they accumulated in the non-accessible (non extractable) fraction. Spiked PAHs were more dissipated during anaerobic digestion since spiking made them present in more accessible fractions. During the anaerobic digestion, contrary to native PAHs, spiked ones relocated toward less accessible organic fractions confirming the ageing phenomenon. PCA analysis showed that, in spiked mixture, PAHs presence in organic pools is linked to both PAHs physical-chemical properties and quality/quantity of the associated organic pools.

  6. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  7. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  8. Dissolved and Suspended Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HATZIANESTIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH were investigated in the seawater of the North Aegean Sea. The measured PAH concentrations in SPM are generally considered as elevated for open sea waters and were evenly distributed in the area. Their levels in the dissolved phase (1.6-33.0 ng/l were much higher than those encountered in the corresponding particulate phases (0.04-10.2 ng/l. The PAH patterns in both phases were dominated by the three ring aromatics and their alkylated derivatives, reflecting a predominant contribution of fossil hydrocarbons probably related to ship traffic, whereas no significant inputs from the rivers outfalling in the area were detected. In bottom waters PAH values were generally lower, whereas a higher depletion of the petroleum PAH in comparison with the pyrolytic ones according to depth was observed.

  9. Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in Marine Environment of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jinshu(郑金树); Bruce J. Richardson; O.Shouming; ZHENG Jianhua(郑建华)

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8-11.0μg/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of PAHs was 4.42μg/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73μg/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of PAHs were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30μg/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of PAHs in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight PAHs and alkylated PAHs, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene (>15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene (<1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by PAHs from petrogenic sources. However, PAHs in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin PAHs. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for PAHs anormalies in the study areas.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  11. Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coking wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 PAHs. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring PAHs were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings PAHs predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the PAH removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of PAHs being 21.3 ± 1.9 μg L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight PAH with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight PAHs was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of PAHs. Finally, the mass balances of PAHs in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for PAHs in the coking wastewater treatment processes.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  13. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in marine environment of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jinshu; Bruce J. Richardson; O. Shouming; Zheng Jianhua [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). State Oceanic Administration

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8-11.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of PAHs was 4.42 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of PAHs were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30 {mu}g/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of PAHs in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight PAHs and alkylated PAHs, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene ({gt}15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene ({lt}1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by PAHs from petrogenic sources. However, PAHs in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin PAHs. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for PAHs anormalies in the study areas.

  14. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  15. Pseudomonads rule degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in aerated sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri eWald

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that the degradation of aromatic pollutants in anaerobic environments such as sediment is generally very slow, aeration could be an efficient bioremediation option. Using stable isotope probing (SIP coupled with pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes, we identified naphthalene-utilizing populations in aerated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-polluted sediment. The results showed that naphthalene was metabolized at both 10°C and 20°C following oxygen delivery, with increased degradation at 20°C as compared to 10°C – a temperature more similar to that found in situ. Naphthalene-derived 13C was primarily assimilated by pseudomonads. Additionally, Stenotrophomonas, Acidovorax, Comamonas and other minor taxa were determined to incorporate 13C throughout the measured time course. The majority of SIP-detected bacteria were also isolated in pure cultures, which facilitated more reliable identification of naphthalene-utilizing populations as well as proper differentiation between primary consumers and cross-feeders. The pseudomonads acquiring the majority of carbon were identified as Pseudomonas veronii and P. gessardii. Stenotrophomonads and Acidovorax defluvii, however, were identified as cross-feeders unable to directly utilize naphthalene as a growth substrate. PAH degradation assays with the isolated bacteria revealed that all pseudomonads as well as Comamonas testosteroni degraded acenaphthene, fluorene and phenanthrene in addition to naphthalene. Furthermore, P. veronii and C. testosteroni were capable of transforming anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Screening of isolates for naphthalene dioxygenase genes using a set of in-house designed primers for Gram-negative bacteria revealed the presence of such genes in pseudomonads and Comamonas testosteroni. Overall, our results indicated an apparent dominance of pseudomonads in the sequestration of carbon from naphthalene and potential degradation of other PAHs upon aeration of the

  16. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  17. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs by dietary fiber extracted from wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unintentional ingestion of carcinogenic xenobiotic substances leads to the high risk of cancer. Dietary fiber (DF may protect against cancer by sorbing such chemicals. To this end, the sorption of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to DF extracted from wheat bran (WB was studied. The strong affinity of PAHs to DF and WB indicated the effective binding of PAHs, and their distribution coefficients (Kd positively increased with the increase in hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The DF had much higher Kd values for all PAHs compared to those of the unprocessed WB. The DF extraction process removed hydrophilic residues, such as starch, from WB, and increased the roughness of DF surface. Loss of hydrophilic components from WB to DF led to much higher affinity of DF with PAHs than WB. The results indicate that the DF can effectively sorb and remove xenobiotics, thereby having the potential to lower carcinogenic risk to humans.

  18. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

  19. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to lignin: effects of hydrophobicity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Xu, Li Heng; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-07-01

    The study of the sorption of contaminants to lignin is significant for understanding the migration of contaminants in the environment as well as developing low cost sorbent. In this study, sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, to lignin was investigated. Sorption isotherms were well described by both linear and Freundlich sorption models. Sorption coefficients of PAHs to lignin from water obtained from regression of both linear model (K d) and Freundlich model (K f) were highly positively correlated with hydrophobicity of PAHs. The amorphous structure of lignin provided sufficient sorption domain for partitioning of PAHs, and the attraction between PAHs molecules and aromatic fractions in lignin via π-π electron-donor-acceptor (π-π EDA) interaction is hypothesized to provide a strong sorption force. Thermodynamic modeling revealed that sorption of PAHs to lignin was a spontaneous and exothermic process.

  20. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of PAHs may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. PAHs diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual PAH showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area.

  1. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  2. Impact of oxidation process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Juery, Catherine; Thiebaut, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the oxidation process on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in blown bitumen and identified some key contributing parameters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's PAH list was used for this study. PAHs are considered a good toxicological marker, and measurement of PAHs in bitumen can be performed easily. The results of PAH content in blown bitumen and the corresponding feedstock was determined from the limit of detection up to 120 mg/kg for 24 samples. Compared to PAH levels in coal tar pitch, PAH levels in bitumen are very low. Measurements were performed by three laboratories using different methods to allow robust conclusions. The results highlight the difficulties in measuring PAHs in bitumen with accuracy for values below 30 mg/kg; therefore the discussion is based on summary statistics by adding concentrations of PAHs with common ring sizes. Incorporation of flux oil in the feed of the blowing bitumen unit tends to increase PAH content in feed stock and in blown bitumen, particularly the 4- to 6-ring PAHs, which are the most carcinogenic as identified by an animal skin painting test. The amount of PAH content from blown bitumen with flux oil can be at least three times higher than the amount in blown bitumen without flux oil, depending on the quality and quantity of the flux oil used. This study shows that the blowing process does not produce PAHs in bitumen. Conversely, it appears to reduce them in the final product. Close to 10 to 30% of PAHs are probably stripped from the liquid phase of bitumen during the blowing operation.

  3. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  4. Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways used by Coastal Sediment Microbial Communities exposed to Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Astudillo, F.; Sharrar, A.; Orcutt, B.

    2016-02-01

    The site-specific microbial community response to crude oil exposure in marine environments is not well described. Moreover, the abundance of genes implicated in long-chain alkane (LCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation are not well understood. Coastal sediments from the Beaufort Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Portland Harbor were treated with crude oil and incubated aerobically. Deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were treated with the same crude oil and anaerobically incubated in situ for five months before recovery. Cycloclasticus, a known hydrocarbon-degrader, was abundant in all oiled, aerobic samples regardless of temperature, demonstrating a generalist oil-response strategy. Other hydrocarbon degrading bacteria showed differential response to either site or temperature. Primers for alkB, assA, bssA, and ncr, catabolic gene markers for aerobic LCA degradation, anaerobic LCA degradation, anaerobic LCA & PAH degradation, and anaerobic PAH degradation, respectively, were found in literature and tested on DNA extracts in a QPCR-based assay. Gene abundance was site and condition variable.

  5. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-05

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.

  6. Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Tao, Shu

    The global atmospheric emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as the US EPA priority pollutants were estimated using reported emission activity and emission factor data for the reference year 2004. A database for emission factors was compiled, and their geometric means and frequency distributions applied for emission calculation and uncertainty analysis, respectively. The results for 37 countries were compared with other PAH emission inventories. It was estimated that the total global atmospheric emission of these 16 PAHs in 2004 was 520 giga grams per year (Gg y -1) with biofuel (56.7%), wildfire (17.0%) and consumer product usage (6.9%) as the major sources, and China (114 Gg y -1), India (90 Gg y -1) and United States (32 Gg y -1) were the top three countries with the highest PAH emissions. The PAH sources in the individual countries varied remarkably. For example, biofuel burning was the dominant PAH source in India, wildfire emissions were the dominant PAH source in Brazil, while consumer products were the major PAH emission source in the United States. In China, in addition to biomass combustion, coke ovens were a significant source of PAHs. Globally, benzo(a)pyrene accounted for 0.05% to 2.08% of the total PAH emission, with developing countries accounting for the higher percentages. The PAH emission density varied dramatically from 0.0013 kg km -2 y in the Falkland Islands to 360 kg km -2 y in Singapore with a global mean value of 3.98 kg km -2 y. The atmospheric emission of PAHs was positively correlated to the country's gross domestic product and negatively correlated with average income. Finally, a linear bivariate regression model was developed to explain the global PAH emission data.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jinping [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou 510308 (China); Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xu, Ya [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-11-15

    An intensive sampling program was conducted from October 2008 to September 2009 at the five different environmental sites in Xiamen, Fujian Province, to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the gaseous and particulate phase, respectively. The PAHs concentrations at different sites were quite distinct during four seasons. The average concentrations of PAHs in winter were about 8.4 times higher than those in spring, and the concentrations of background were 0.56 times lower than those of industrial area. In addition, the higher temperature in summer affected the particle/gas partitioning of PAHs and led to the higher concentrations of gaseous PAHs. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs, which were employed to indicate the primary sources of PAHs in Xiamen, showed that the traffic vehicle exhaust was the largest contributor and the primary source for PAHs in Xiamen, especially in urban area; while the stationary combustion processes, such as petrochemical factories and power plants, were mainly responsible for PAHs sources in the industrial areas. The health risk of PAHs in the particulate phase was higher than those of the gaseous phase at the five sampling sites. The average toxic equivalent (BaP{sub eq}) of the benzo[a]pyrene values for PAHs were 0.14, 0.32, 1.38 and 3.59 ng m{sup -3} in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Furthermore, the results of average BaP{sub eq} in all four seasons indicated that the health risks of particulate PAHs were higher than those of the gaseous PAHs at different sampling sites.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion: emissions, analysis, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guijian; Niu, Zhiyuan; Van Niekerk, Daniel; Xue, Jian; Zheng, Liugen

    2008-01-01

    Coal may become more important as an energy source in the 21st century, and coal contains large quantities of organic and inorganic matter. When coal burns chemical and physical changes take place, and many toxic compounds are formed and emitted. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among those compounds formed and are considered to pose potential health hazards because some PAHs are known carcinogens. Based on their toxicology, 16 PAHs are considered as priority pollutants by the USEPA. More attention must be given to the various methods of extraction and analysis of PAH from coal or coal products to accurately explain and determine the species of PAHs. The influences of the extraction time, solvents, and methods for PAH identification are important. In the future, more methods and influences will be studied more carefully and widely. PAHs are environmental pollutants, are highly lipid soluble, and can be absorbed by the lungs, gut, and skin of mammals because they are associated with fine particles from coal combustion. More attention is being given to PAHs because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic action. We suggest that when using a coal stove indoors, a chimney should be used; the particles and gas containing PAHs should be released outdoors to reduce the health hazard, especially in Southwest China. During coal utilization processes, such as coal combustion and pyrolysis, PAHs released may be divided into two categories according to their formation pathways: one pathway is derived from complex chemical reactions and the other is from free PAHs transferred from the original coal. The formation and emission of PAHs is a complex physical and chemical process that has received considerable attention in recent years. It is suggested that the formation mechanisms of PAHs will be an increasingly important topic for researchers to find methods for controlling emissions during coal combustion.

  9. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches establish the complexity of a PAH-degrading microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, M.; Sabate, J.; Solanas, A.M. [Barcelona Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Guasp, C.; Lalucat, J. [Illes Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. of Biology

    2005-11-15

    Microbial consortia are used in the decontamination of polluted environmental sites. A microbial consortium obtained by batch enrichment culture is a closed system with controlled conditions in which micro-organisms with a potentially high growth rate are selected and become dominant. The aim of this study was to identify the members of consortium AM, in which earlier batch enrichment work had shown high biodegradation rates of the aromatic fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The AM consortium was obtained by sequential enrichment in liquid culture with a PAH mixture of 3- and 4- ringed PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy. The consortium was examined using a triple approach method based on various cultivation strategies, denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and the screening of 16S and 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Eleven different sequences by culture-dependent techniques and 7 by both DGGE and clone libraries were obtained, yielding 19 different microbial components. Proteobacteria were the dominant group, representing 83 per cent of the total, while the Cytophaga-Flexibactor-Bacteroides group (CFB) was 11 per cent, and Ascomycota fungi were 6 per cent. It was determined that {beta}-Proteobacteria were predominant in the DGGE and clone library methods, whereas they were a minority in culturable strains. The highest diversity and number of noncoincident sequences was achieved by the cultivation method that showed members of the {alpha},{beta}, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, CFB bacterial group, and Ascomycota fungi. Only 6 of the 11 strains isolated showed PAH-degrading capability. The bacterial strain (AMS7) and the fungal strain (AMF1) achieved the greatest PAH depletion. Results indicated that polyphasic assessment is necessary for a proper understanding of the composition of a microbial consortium. It was concluded that microbial consortia are more complex than previously realized. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a bacterial consortium enriched from mangrove sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahriari Moghadam, Mohsen; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Abtahi, Behrooz; Ghassempour, Alireza; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation in contaminated sediment is an attractive remediation technique and its success depends on the optimal condition for the PAH-degrading isolates...

  11. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crumb tyre rubber catalysed by rutile TiO2 under UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Huang, Linyue; Lou, Lan-Lan; Chang, Yue; Dong, Yanling; Wang, Huan; Liu, Shuangxi

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crumb tyre rubber were firstly degraded under UV irradiation in the presence of rutile TiO2 and hydrogen peroxide. The effects of light intensity, catalyst amount, oxidant amount, initial pH value, co-solvent content, and reaction time on degradation efficiency of typical PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were studied. The results indicated that UV irradiation, rutile TiO2, and hydrogen peroxide were beneficial to the degradation of PAHs and co-solvent could accelerate the desorption of PAHs from crumb tyre rubber. Up to 90% degradation efficiency of total 16 PAHs could be obtained in the presence of rutile TiO2 (1 wt%) and hydrogen peroxide (1.0 mL) under 1800 µW cm(-2) UV irradiation for 48 h. The high molecular weight PAHs (such as benz(a)pyrene) were more difficult to be degraded than low molecular weight PAHs (such as phenanthrene, chrysene). Moreover, through the characterization of reaction solution and degradation products via GC-MS, it was proved that the PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were successfully degraded.

  12. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase.......4% PAH. We explain increased PAH desorption after addition of toluene by competitive adsorption to high-affinity sorption sites while acknowledging that toluene could additionally have increased PAH mobility within the soil matrix. Findings suggest that the presence of copollutants at contaminated sites...

  13. Effect of low concentrations of synthetic surfactants on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Rodrigues; Nogueira, R; Melo, L. F.; A. G. Brito

    2013-01-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of synthetic surfactants, at low concentration, on the kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17514 and addresses the specific issue of the effect of the surfactant on bacterial adhesion to PAH, which is believed to be an important mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic compounds. For that purpose, three surfactants were tested, namely, the nonionic Tween 20, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (...

  14. The Levels and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH Contamination in Bottom Sediments in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline Santiago

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration levels of 18 PAH compounds extracted from 19 bottom sediments from the Limay Coast and 16 bottom sediments from the coast along Metro Manila and Cavitc Province of Manila Bay were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.The PAH contamination, the levels of other non-PAH petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. and total organic content in the sediments were assessed in relation to the location and depth of the sampling sites. The PAH concentrations and the levels of other petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments showed that the spatial distribution of PAH and other hydrocarbon contamination in Manila Bay is largely dependent on the proximity of the sediment deposition site to known point sources of pollution. On the western side, the highest levels of PAH contamination normalized to % TOC (1.29 X 104 at Ll2, 1.28 x 104 at Ll6, 0.55 at Ll3, and 0.54 at Ll5 were obtained from sediments collected at deposition sites near the outfall of the Petron Oil Refinery. On the eastern side. sediments located at the effiuent zones of the Paranaque and Malabon Rivers showed excessively higher levels of PAH normalized to % TOC (3.32 x 104 and 2.87 x 104: respectively compared to those obtained from other sites in the area.The PAH contamination in the sediments from Manila Bay is dominated by alkylated naphthalenes and phenanthrenes which are associated with petrogenic sources. This indicates that the surface sediments in Manila Bay are ex-posed to chronic contamination of petroleum hydrocarbons introduced mainly by direct spillage on the western side and by urban run-off on the eastern side.

  15. Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Wang, Xiaoming; Mo, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total PAHs were 27.54-55.04 ng L(-1) in water, 80.31-639.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92-192.78 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3-533.9 ng g(-1) dw in fish and shrimp muscles. The ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (Ph/An), fluoranthene to pyrene (Flu/Pyr), and low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) in sediment indicated that the sources of the PAHs were a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic contamination at most sampling sites in Nansi Lake. The composition profile of PAHs in plants was similar to that in water and animals with 2-3 ring PAHs being dominant. The 4-6 ring PAHs were the dominant PAH compounds in sediment. There is a positive correlation between sediment and aquatic plants, but their PAH composition profiles were different, implying that aquatic plant absorption of PAHs from sediment is selective and the accumulation of PAHs in aquatic plants is different. The concentration of PAHs in fish showed a positive correlation with plants, reflecting that the PAHs in fish are mainly absorbed from aquatic plants rather than directly from the water. Bioaccumulation of LMW PAHs in aquatic biota was higher than HMW PAHs. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of total PAHs in the plants Potamogeton lucens Linn and Ceratophyllum demersum Linn were higher than that in most animals. The BSAF values of total PAHs in animals were in the following order: Cyprinus carpio>Macrobrachium nipponense>Carassius auratus>Channa argus. There was no significant relationship between PAH bioaccumulation and trophic levels in Nansi Lake. Risk assessment of PAHs in water, sediment, and animals indicated that the water environment of Nansi Lake is safe at present. It is worthwhile to note that benzo [a

  16. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins PAHs tested in E. fetida.

  17. Historical changes in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lake Peipsi sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punning, Jaan-Mati; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Vaasma, Tiit; Kapanen, Galina

    2008-09-01

    The distribution of 11 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was analysed in a (210)Pb dated sediment core from the deepest area of Lake Peipsi and in four surface sediment samples taken from littoral areas. According to the concentrations in the core three groups of PAHs may be distinguished: (1) relatively stable concentrations of PAHs within the whole studied time interval; (2) very low concentrations in sediments accumulated before intensive anthropogenic impact (from 19th century up to the 1920s) following a slight increase and (3) an overall increase in PAH concentrations since the 1920s up to the present. Comprehensive analysis of PAHs in the core and monitoring data obtained in the 1980s together with the lithology of sediments show that an increase of anthropogenically induced PAHs correlates well with the history of fuel consumption in Estonia and speaks about atmospheric long-distance transport of PAHs. The continuous increase of PAH concentrations since the 1920s do not support the earlier hypothesis about the dominating impact of the oil shale fired power plants near the lake, because their emissions decreased significantly in the 1990s. The concentration of PAHs in the deep lake core sample correlates well with the content of organic matter, indicating absorption and co-precipitation with plankton in the sediment.

  18. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda

    2012-01-15

    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorption effects interfering with the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Kalbe, Ute; Meißner, Kerstin; Sobottka, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are severe environmental pollutants that are analyzed frequently. The risk assessment of PAH impact to groundwater can be performed using leaching tests. Therby a liquid-solid separation step including centrifugation may be required, which in turn might lead to loss of analytes due to sorption on the equipment. Thus we determined the PAH recoveries from various container materials (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polytetraflourethylene (PTFE), stainless steel (ES), and perflouroalkoxy (PFA)) and compared them to selected PAH properties. We found the best recoveries for PFA (68%) and PTFE (65%) containers. We found good negative correlations (-0.93 and better) between PAH recovery and log partition coefficient organic carbon-water (logKOC) for PFA, PTFE, and ES containers.

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  2. Metal-tolerant PAH-degrading bacteria: development of suitable test medium and effect of cadmium and its availability on PAH biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    The use of metal-tolerant polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria is viable for mitigating metal inhibition of organic compound biodegradation in the remediation of mixed contaminated sites. Many microbial growth media used for toxicity testing contain high concentrations of metal-binding components such as phosphates that can reduce solution-phase metal concentrations thereby underestimate the real toxicity. In this study, we isolated two PAHs-degrading bacterial consortia from long-term mixed contaminated soils. We have developed a new mineral medium by optimising the concentrations of medium components to allow the bacterial growth and at the same time maintain high bioavailable metal (Cd(2+) as a model metal) in the medium. This medium has more than 60 % Cd as Cd(2+) at pH 6.5 as measured by an ion selective electrode and visual MINTEQ model. The Cd-tolerant patterns of the consortia were tested and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) derived. The consortium-5 had the highest MIC of 5 mg l(-1) Cd followed by consortium-9. Both cultures were able to completely metabolise 200 mg l(-1) phenanthrene in less than 4 days in the presence of 5 mg l(-1) Cd. The isolated metal-tolerant PAH-degrading bacterial cultures have great potential for bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils.

  3. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihua; Hu, Ningjing; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China Liu Jihua, Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous organic contaminants in the environment. Indeed, 16 PAH compounds have been listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union because of their potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. As POPs are released or escape into the environment, their global accumulation in marine sediments generates a complex balance between inputs and outputs. Furthermore, PAHs in coastal sediments can serve as effective tracers of materials transport from land-to-sea (Fang et al., 2009). Hence, investigations of PAHs in sediments can provide useful information for further understanding of environmental processes and material transport. In this study, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from a total of 112 surface sediment samples collected across the entire territory of the Bohai Sea. The detectable concentrations of PAHs ranged from 97.2 to 300.7 ng/g across all samples, indicating low contamination levels of PAHs compared with reported values for other coastal sediments in China and developed countries. The highest concentrations were found within three belts in the vicinity of Luan River Estuary-Qinhuangdao Harbor, the Cao River Estuary-Bohai Sea Center, and north of the Yellow River Estuary. The distribution patterns of PAHs and source identification implied that PAH contamination in the Bohai Sea mainly originates from offshore oil exploration, sewage discharge from rivers and shipping activities. Further Principal components analysis (PCA)/multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis suggested that the contributions of spilled oil products (petrogenic), coal combustion and traffic

  4. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6)). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4) with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4), which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4)). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  5. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  6. Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a wood-degrading consortium at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarro, Raquel; González, Natalia; Bautista, Luis Fernando; Molina, Maria Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluates the ability of two bacterial consortia (C2PL05 and BOS08), extracted from very different environments, to degrade low- (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene) and high- (pyrene, perylene) molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high (15-25 °C) and low (5-15 °C) temperature ranges. C2PL05 was isolated from a soil in an area chronically and heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and BOS08 from decomposing wood in an unpolluted forest, free of PAHs. Bacterial consortia were described by cultivable and noncultivable techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Fungal DNA was not observed within the wood-decomposing consortium and fungal activity was therefore negligible during most of the PAH degradation process. PAH-degrading bacterial populations, measured by most probable number enumeration, increased during the exponential phase. Toxicity estimated by the Microtox method was reduced to low levels and final PAH depletion, determined by HPLC, confirmed the high degree (54% and 99%, respectively) of low- and high-molecular-weight PAH degradation capacity of the two consortia. PAH-degrading capacity was also confirmed at low temperatures, and especially by consortium BOS08 not previously exposed to those toxic compounds, where strains of Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ralstonia sp. and Microbacterium sp. were identified.

  7. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on the phylloplane ... The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and ... Article Metrics.

  8. Remarkable impact of PAHs and TPHs on the richness and diversity of bacterial species in surface soils exposed to long-term hydrocarbon pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Tibor; Vajna, Balázs; Táncsics, András; Márialigeti, Károly; Lányi, Szabolcs; Máthé, István

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, because of substantial use of petroleum-derived fuels the number and extension of hydrocarbon polluted terrestrial ecosystems is in growth worldwide. In remediation of aforementioned sites bioremediation still tends to be an innovative, environmentally attractive technology. Although huge amount of information is available concerning the hydrocarbon degradation potential of cultivable hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria little is known about the in situ long-term effects of petroleum derived compounds on the structure of soil microbiota. Therefore, in this study our aim was to determine the long-term impact of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs), total alkyl benzenes (TABs) as well as of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the structure of bacterial communities of four different contaminated soil samples. Our results indicated that a very high amount of TPH affected positively the diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This finding was supported by the occurrence of representatives of the α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Bacilli classes. High concentration of VPHs and TABs contributed to the predominance of actinobacterial isolates. In PAH impacted samples the concentration of PAHs negatively correlated with the diversity of bacterial species. Heavily PAH polluted soil samples were mainly inhabited by the representatives of the β-, γ-Proteobacteria (overwhelming dominance of Pseudomonas sp.) and Actinobacteria.

  9. Inoculation of PAH-degrading strains of Fusarium solani and Arthrobacter oxydans in rhizospheric sand and soil microcosms: microbial interactions and PAH dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thion, Cécile; Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-07-01

    Very little is known about the influence of bacterial-fungal ecological interactions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dissipation in soils. Fusarium solani MM1 and Arthrobacter oxydans MsHM11 can dissipate PAHs in vitro. We investigated their interactions and their effect on the dissipation of three PAHs-phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA)-in planted microcosms, in sterile sand or non-sterile soil. In sterile sand microcosms planted with alfalfa, the two microbes survived and grew, without any significant effect of co-inoculation. Co-inoculation led to the dissipation of 46 % of PHE after 21 days. In soil microcosms, whether planted with alfalfa or not, both strains persisted throughout the 46 days of the experiment, without any effect of co-inoculation or of alfalfa, as assessed by real-time PCR targeting taxon-level indicators, i.e. Actinobacteria 16S rDNA and the intergenic transcribed spacer specific to the genus Fusarium. The microbial community was analyzed by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis and real-time PCR targeting bacterial and fungal rDNA and PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes. These communities were modified by PAH pollution, which selected PAH-degrading bacteria, by the presence of alfalfa and, concerning the bacterial community, by inoculation. PHE and PYR concentrations significantly decreased (91 and 46 %, respectively) whatever the treatment, but DBA concentration significantly decreased (30 %) in planted and co-inoculated microcosms only.

  10. The lack of microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achten, Christine; Cheng, Shubo; Straub, Kristina L; Hofmann, Thilo

    2011-02-01

    Analytical techniques used to assess the environmental risk of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) typically consider only abiotic sample parameters. Supercritical fluid extraction and sorption enthalpy experiments previously suggested slow desorption rates for PAH compounds in two coal-contaminated floodplain soils. In this study, the actual PAH availability for aerobic soil microorganisms was tested in two series of soil-slurry experiments. The experimental conditions supported microbial degradation of phenanthrene if it was weakly sorbed onto silica gel. Native coals and coal-derived particles in two soils effectively acted as very strong sorbents and prevented microbial PAH degradation. The long history of PAH exposure and degree of coal contamination apparently had no influence on the capability of the microbial soil community to overcome constraints of PAH availability. Within the context of the experimental conditions and the compounds chosen, our results confirm that coal-bound PAHs are not bioavailable and hence of low environmental concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major PAH particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with PAH. The 3 PAH chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in PAH treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. PAH treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus PAH were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of PAH is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  14. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  15. Ranking the factors influencing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Ma, Yukun; Deilami, Kaveh; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-05-01

    An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on PAHs build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of PAHs with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of PAHs build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of PAHs.

  16. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  17. Bacterial community changes with N'-N' dimethylforamide (DMF) additives during polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y T; Lee, J F; Chao, H P; Liao, W L

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the changes in the bacterial community during biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) substrate when N'-N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was added. The microbial populations that biodegrade the PAH substrate were assessed by Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and changed from 49.45% Archaea and 49.15% Bacteria to 42.00% Archaea and 51.78% Bacteria when the PAH was supplemented with DMF. Nine microorganisms were classified as Gram-negative alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria bacteria during biodegradation of PAH alone by the Biolog system. Incentive eleven microorganisms obtained from the PAH-DMF mixed substrate were found to be beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria bacteria, high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC), low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC) and there was even one Deinococcus-Thermus strain; this indicates greater biodiversity. The numbers in the Pseudomonad group were as high as 10(5)-10(6) CFU ml(-1), suggesting that this group plays an important role in PAH biodegradation. Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) and physiological characterization were different in the PAH biodegradation process with and without DMF. Utilization of the 95 carbon sources from the Biolog GN2 microtiter plate was greater during PAH biodegradation when PAH is present alone compared to that in the presence of DMF. The range of enzymatic activities during PAH biodegradation was lower in the presence of DMF. These results show that DMF should be used with caution when PAH is a substrate during laboratory or pilot biotreatability studies.

  18. Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in coastal and riverine environments in Thailand, we collected 42 surface sediment samples from canals, a river, an estuary, and coastal areas in Thailand in 2003 and analyzed them for PAHs with 3-7 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 6 to 8399 ng/g dry weight. The average total PAH concentrations were 2290+/-2556 ng/g dry weight (n=8) in canals, 263+/-174 (n=11) in the river, 179+/-222 (n=9) in the estuary, and 50+/-56 (n=14) in coastal areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Thai sediments as low to moderate. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) allows discrimination of PAH sources between petrogenic (>2) and pyrogenic (Chao Phraya River. These pyrogenic PAHs may be atmospherically transported throughout the nation. Middle and lower reaches of the Chao Phraya River, the river mouth, and the upper Gulf of Thailand showed intermediate concentrations and profiles of PAHs, indicating mixtures of petrogenic and pyrogenic origins. Perylene was abundant in sediments, representing up to approximately 60% of total identified PAHs. High inputs of soil due to frequent heavy rains could contribute to the high perylene abundance in the sediments. Sedimentary PAH concentrations decreased offshore with a half distance of approximately 10 km in the upper Gulf off the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. This is probably due to active deposition of laterally transported riverborne particles.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total PAHs, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor PAH concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant PAHs in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total PAH levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant PAH source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.

  20. PAH-CALUX, an optimized bioassay for AhR-mediated hazard identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as individual compounds and in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, B; Felzel, E; Winter, R; van der Burg, B; Brouwer, A

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a class of ubiquitously occurring environmental compounds that are implicated in a wide range of toxicological effects. Routine measurement of PAH contamination generally involves chemical analytical analysis of a selected group of representatives, for example, EPA-16, which may result in underestimation of the PAH-related toxicity of a sample. Many high molecular weight PAHs are known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nuclear receptor that mediates toxic effects related to these compounds. Making use of this property we developed a PAH CALUX assay, a mammalian, H4IIe- cell-based reporter assay for the hazard identification of total PAH mixtures. The PAH CALUX reporter cell line allows for specific, rapid (4 h exposure time) and reliable quantification of AhR-induced luciferase induction relative to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), which is used as a positive reference PAH congener. Full dose response relationships with inductions over 100-fold were reached within only 2 h of exposure to BaP. The PAH CALUX is highly sensitive, that is, using a 4 h exposure time, a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.2 × 10(-11) M BaP was achieved, and highly accurate, that is, a repeatability of 5.9% and a reproducibility of 6.6% were established. Screening of a selection of PAHs that were prioritized by the European Union and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency showed that the PAH CALUX bioassay has a high predictability, particularly for carcinogenic PAHs. Experiments with synthetic mixtures and reference materials containing complex PAH mixtures show the suitability of the assay for these types of applications. Moreover, the presented results suggest that application of the PAH CALUX will result in a lower risk of underestimation of the toxicity of a sample than chemical analytical approaches that focus on a limited set of prioritized compounds.

  1. Application of CMB model for source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal surface sediments from Rizhao offshore area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lidong; Lang, Yinhai; Liu, Aixia; Liu, Jie

    2010-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal surface sediments from Rizhao offshore area were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A chemical mass balance (CMB) model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), CMB8.2, was used to apportion sources of PAHs. Seven possible sources, including coal residential, coal power plant, diesel engines exhaust, gasoline engines exhaust, coke oven, diesel oil leaks, and wood burning, were chosen as the major contributors for PAHs in coastal surface sediments. To establish the fingerprints of the seven sources, source profiles were collected from literatures. After including degradation factors, the modified model results indicate that diesel oil leaks, diesel engines exhaust, and coal burning were the three major sources of PAHs. The source contributions estimated by the EPA's CMB8.2 model were 9.25%, 15.05%, and 75.70% for diesel oil leaks, diesel engines exhaust, and coal burning, respectively.

  2. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion.

  3. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  4. Microbial degradation of petrochemical waste-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H

    2017-01-01

    Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment. Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the potential microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds. Indigenous microorganism as a consortium has been found effective and efficient source for remediation of organic compound-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and this will also be applicable to remediate the toxic compounds to clean up the environment.

  5. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  6. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of China's marginal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yanju; Wang, Xuchen; Dai, Minhan; Feng, Huan; Li, Anchun; Song, Qian

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the distribution of black carbon (BC) and its correlation with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPAH) in the surface sediments of China’s marginal seas. BC content ranges from cycling in China’s marginal seas.

  7. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chun Candice Lung; Chun-Hu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysi...

  8. Speciation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present during fog time collected submicron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Swati; Habib, Gazala; Gupta, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    Airborne submicron particles (PM1) were collected using PM1 sampler during the fog-dominated days (December 2013-January 2014). PM1 values varied between 58.12 μg/m(3) and 198.75 μg/m(3), and average mass concentration was 162.33 ± 38.25 μg/m(3) while total average concentration of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) determined was 616.31 ± 30.31 ng/m(3). This is a signal for an alarming high pollution level at this site situated in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). PAHs were extracted from filters using toluene and acetonitrile. Quantitative measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The extracts were analyzed for 16 target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including carcinogenic compound benzo(a)pyrene (19.86 ± 38.98 ng/m(3)). Fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, and fluorene were the predominant compounds found in the samples collected during foggy days. Based on number of rings, four-ring PAH compounds had maximum contribution (43%) in this fog time collected submicron particles followed by three-ring (21%), five-ring (20%), six-ring (13%), and two-ring (3%), respectively. In winter and foggy days, wood and coal combustion and biomass burning also significantly contribute to the PAH levels. However, diagnostic ratio suggests diesel emissions as the prime source of PAHs at this sampling site.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Antarctic Martian meteorites, carbonaceous chondrites, and polar ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Glavin, D.P.; Bada, J.L. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Recent analyses of the carbonate globules present in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 have detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the ppm level. The distribution of PAHs observed in ALH84001 was interpreted as being inconsistent with a terrestrial origin and were claimed to be indigenous to the meteorite, perhaps derived from an ancient martian biota. We have examined PAHs in the Antarctic shergottite EETA79001, which is also considered to be from Mars, as well as several Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites. We have found that many of the same PAHs detected in the ALH84001 carbonate globules are present in Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites and in both the matrix and carbonate (druse) component of EETA79001. We also investigated PAHs in polar ice and found that carbonate is an effective scavenger of PAHs in ice meltwater. Moreover, the distribution of PAHs in the carbonate extract of Antarctic Allan Hills ice is remarkably similar to that found in both EETA79001 and ALH84001. The reported presence of L-amino acids of apparent terrestrial origin in the EETA79001 druse material suggests that this meteorite is contaminated with terrestrial organics probably derived from Antarctic ice meltwater that had percolated through the meteorite. Our data suggests that the PAHs observed in both ALH84001 and EETA79001 are derived from either the exogenous delivery of organics to Mars or extraterrestrial and terrestrial PAHs present in the ice meltwater or, more likely, from a mixture of these sources. It would appear that PAHs are not useful biomarkers in the search for extinct or extant life on Mars. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria: Isolation and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little information how to identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria for bioremediation of marine oil spills. We have used gravel which contaminated oil mousse from Beach Simulator Tank, in Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi, Japan, and grown on enrichment culture. Biostimulation with nutrients (N and P was done to analyze biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds: Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Trichlorodibenzofuran and Benzo[a]pyrene. Community of bacteria from enrichment culture was determined by DGGE. Isolating and screening the bacteria on inorganic medium contain hydrocarbon compounds and determination of bacteria by DAPI (number of cells and CFU. DNA was extracted from colonies of bacteria and sequence determination of the 16S rDNA was amplified by primers U515f and U1492r. Twenty nine strains had been sequence and have similarity about 90-99% to their closest taxa by homology Blast search and few of them have suspected as new species.

  11. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  12. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally.

  13. Determination of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that PAH transformation products such as ketone or quinone-substituted PAHs (OPAHs) are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators that elicit toxicological effects independent of those observed for PAHs. Here, we measured eight OPAHs, two sulfur-containing (SPAH), one oxygen-containing (DBF), and one nitrogen-containing (CARB) heterocyclic PAHs (i.e. ΣONS-PAHs = OPAH8 + SPAH + DBF + CARB) in 35 stream sediments collected from a small (∼1303 km(2)) urban watershed located in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. Combined ΣONS-PAH concentrations ranged from 59 to 1897 μg kg(-1) (mean = 568 μg kg(-1); median = 425 μg kg(-1)) and were 2.4 times higher in urban versus rural areas, suggesting that activities taking place on urban land serve as a source of ΣONS-PAHs to sediments. To evaluate urban land use metrics that might explain these data, Spearman rank correlation analyses was used to evaluate the degree of association between ΣONS-PAH concentrations and urban land-use/land-cover metrics along an urban-rural transect at two spatial scales (500-m and 1000-m upstream). Combined ΣONS-PAH concentrations showed highly significant (p PAHs originate from similar sources as PAHs. To evaluate OPAH sources, a subset of ΣONS-PAHs for which reference assemblages exist, an average OPAH fractional assemblage for urban sediments was derived using agglomerative hierarchal cluster (AHC) analysis, and compared to published OPAH source profiles. Urban sediments from the Condoguinet Creek (n = 21) showed highly significant correlations with urban particulate matter (X(2) = 0.05, r = 0.91, p = 0.0047), suggesting that urban particulate matter is an important OPAH source to sediments in this watershed. Results suggest the inclusion of ΣONS-PAH measurements adds value to traditional PAH analyses, and may help elucidate and refine pollutant source identification in urban watersheds.

  14. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHsPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  15. Influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Yin; Wang Xiaowei [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; Luan Tiangang; Lan Chongyu [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Tam, N.F.Y. [Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    2007-05-15

    The influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated when Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4 isolated from surface mangrove sediments was grown in either phenanthrene-containing mineral salts medium (PMSM) or nutrient broth (NB). The NB-grown culture exhibited a more rapid cometabolic degradation of single and mixed non-growth substrate PAHs compared to the PMSM-grown culture. The concentrations of PAH metabolites were also lower in NB-grown culture than in PMSM-grown culture, suggesting that NB-grown culture removed metabolites at a faster rate, particularly, for metabolites produced from cometabolic degradation of a binary mixture of PAHs. Cometabolic pathways of single PAH (anthracene, fluorene, or fluoranthene) in NB-grown culture showed similarity to that in PMSM-grown culture. However, cometabolic pathways of mixed PAHs were more diverse in NB-grown culture than that in PMSM-grown culture. These results indicated that nutrient rich medium was effective in enhancing cometabolic degradation of mixed PAHs concomitant with a rapid removal of metabolites, which could be useful for the bioremediation of mixed PAHs contaminated sites using Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4. (orig.)

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  17. Sediment-porewater partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yong [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Ping; Sun Hongwen; Dai Shugui [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment has drawn much attention around the world. The occurrence of 16 priority PAHs in the sediments and corresponding porewaters in Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China, and their partitioning behavior between the two phases were investigated. The results demonstrated that the total PAH levels in the sediments were positively correlated with the sediment clay contents (R{sup 2} = 0.756). Concentrations of total PAHs in porewaters ranged from 48.2 to 206 {mu}g/L, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP) was the most abundant compound measured in the porewater samples with a mean value of 42.9 {mu}g/L. The compositions of PAHs in porewaters were dominated by their compositions in the sediment samples. The in situ organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (logK{sub oc}{sup '}) of the PAHs between sediments and porewaters were significantly correlated with their octanol-water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) when log K{sub ow} values were less than 5.5 (naphthalene (Nap) excluded). logK{sub oc}{sup '} values of 14 PAHs were lower than those predicted by the Karickhoff relationship. This discrepancy was largest for InP, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[ghi]perylene (BgP). The results in present study showed the tendency of PAHs release from sediment to porewater, indicating that PAHs sequestered in the sediments may be a pollution source to aquatic ecosystem.

  18. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: jiahz@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: cywang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the pyrene sorption and distribution in Yangtze River sediments (submitted). J. Zhang et al., Pyrene and phenanthrene sorptions to Yangtze River sediments and their components in single and binary solute systems (submitted)

  20. Development of eukaryotic zoospores within polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-polluted environments: a set of behaviors that are relevant for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungthong, Rungroch; van West, Pieter; Cantos, Manuel; Ortega-Calvo, Jose Julio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the development (formation, taxis and settlement) of eukaryotic zoospores under different regimes of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which imitated environmental scenarios of pollution and bioremediation. With this aim, we used an oomycete, Pythium aphanidermatum, as a source of zoospores and two PAH-degrading bacteria (Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 and Pseudomonas putida G7). The oomycete and both bacteria were not antagonistic, and zoospore formation was diminished only in the presence of the highest bacterial cell density (10(8)-10(10) colony-forming units mL(-1)). A negative influence of PAHs on zoospore formation and taxis was observed when PAHs were exposed in combination with organic solutions and polar solvents. Co-exposure of PAHs with non-polar solvents [hexadecane (HD) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN)] did not affect zoospore settlement at the interfaces of the organic solvents and water. However, zoospores settled and created mycelial networks only at HD-water interfaces. Both bacteria diminished the toxic influence of PAHs on zoospore formation and taxis, and they did not interrupt zoospore settlement. The results suggest that zoospore development could be applicable for toxicity assessment of PAHs and enhancement of their bioavailability. Microbial interactions during both swimming modes and community formation at pollutant interfaces were revealed as major factors that have potential relevance to bioremediation.

  1. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-yang; Teng, Yan-guo; Wang, Jin-sheng

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) were apportioned using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC). Bivariate plots of selected diagnostic ratios showed that the sources of PAHs identified in surface sediments seemed to be mixed sources dominated by petroleum-related. Literature PAH source profiles were modified based on the first-order degradation reaction in the atmosphere and sediments, and were considered as comparison for source identification. Five significant factors were determined with the diagnostic tools including coefficient of determination, cumulative percent variance and Exner function. By visually comparing PAH patterns and from the sum of squares of differences between modeled and modified literature PAH profiles, the potential sources were apportioned with the FA-NNC. The main contribution sources of PAHs originated from diesel engine (27.22%), followed by traffic emission (25.03%), gasoline engine (18.95%), coal power plant (14.77%) and coal residential (14.03%). Energy consumption was the predominant reason for PAH pollution in that region.

  2. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  3. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Three and Four Ring Pahs Degrading Bacteria from Contaminated Sites, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G. Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from prolong contaminated Amalakhadi sediment and crude oil polluted soil Telva, near Ankleshwar Gujarat India. Organisms were treated with two-model PAHs compound Anthracene (ANT, and Pyrene (PYR as the sole source of carbon and energy. Identification of the isolates was carried out based on their morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the isolates belong to two main bacterial groups: gram-negative pseudomonas indoxyladons and gram-positive, spore-forming group, Bacillus benzoevorans. GC-MS based degradation study demonstrated that P. indoxyladons efficiently degrade 98% of ANT and PYR by 93.2 % when treated with 250 mg L-1. However, B. benzoevorans could tolerate to 200 mg L-1of PYR. Thus, the findings of the study provide novel bacterial sp. having different capacity to degrade model PAHs compounds and further could be utilized for the standardization of bioremediation protocols for ex situ and in situ studies in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12184International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 130-140  

  5. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS IN SEAFOODS CAUGHT IN CORIGLIANO CALABRO GULF (CS,ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marrone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection in seafoods (Merluccius merluccius, Arnoglossus laterna, Scomber japonicus, Penaeus kerathurus, Eledone cirrhosa collected along coasts of Corigliano Calabro gulf (Calabria Region - Italy. The results showed that Bap levels exceeded the limit fixed by EU Regulation 1881/2006 in only four samples of Merluccius merluccius, Arnoglossus laterna and Scomber japonicus particularly. PAH concentrations detected in samples caught in winter were higher than those found in summer.

  6. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...... concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHs in the effluents below the detection level. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  7. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents.

  8. Variations in concentrations and compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coals related to the coal rank and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, S; Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Achten, C; Sachsenhofer, R F; Schwarzbauer, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-10-01

    The release of unburnt coal particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause adverse impacts on the environment. This study assessed variations in the concentration and composition of PAHs in a set of fifty coal samples from eleven coal basins worldwide. The maximum PAH concentrations at high volatile bituminous rank were recorded in samples from a single basin. Considering the entire sample set, the highest PAH concentrations were in fact found outside of this rank range, suggesting that the maceral composition and thus the coal's origin also influenced PAH concentrations. The examination of the PAH compositions revealed that alkylated 2-3 ring PAHs remain dominant compounds irrespective of coal rank or origin. Multivariate analysis based on PAH and maceral content, bulk and maturity parameters allowed the recognition of seven groups with different rank and origin within the coal sample set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microcosm studies of subsurface PAH-degrading bacteria from a former manufactured gas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Neal D.; Wilson, Liza P.; Bouwer, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural in situ biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the subsurface at the site of a former manufactured gas plant. Fifty-seven samples of unconsolidated subsurface sediments were aseptically obtained from five boreholes across the site. Bacteria capable of aerobically degrading PAH's without an acclimation period were detected throughout shallow (2.7 m) and deep (24.7 m) areas of the subsurface in both relatively clean (biodegradation (7±1% to 13±2%) in the presence of N03 was observed in two samples. Compound removals were first order with respect to substrate concentration during the first 10-15 days of incubation. Compound biodegradation plateaued in the later stages of incubation (15-40 days), most likely from diminishing bioavailability and nutrient and oxygen depletion. Population densities in the sediments were typically low, with viable aerobic counts ranging from 0 to 10 5 CFU gdw -1, viable anaerobic counts ranging from 0 to 104 CFU gdw -1, and total counts (AODC) usually 10-fold greater than viable counts. Total counts exhibited a strong ( p Bacteria were metabolically active in samples from groundwaters with low pH (3.7) and high naphthalene concentrations (11,000 μg L -1). Data from these enumeration and microcosm studies suggest that natural in situ biodegradation is occurring at the site.

  10. [Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban rainfall runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-Lan; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Lu, Min; Yu, Ying-Peng; Wang, Qing; Zheng, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Runoff samples were collected from traffic roads, campus, residential road and roof in a typical rain event. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both dissolved and particle phases were investigated at impervious surfaces. The PAHs wash-off process at different monitoring sites was analyzed. The scatters of first flush were conducted in a method of fitting power function to quantitatively assess the magnitude of first flush effect (FFE). The sources of PAHs were identified using factor analysis. The results showed that PAHs concentrations in runoff samples varied from 317.21 ng x L(-1) to 10364.3 ng x L(-1) with the maximal and minimal contents of PAHs found on Longwu Road and campus, respectively. The values of event mean concentration ( EMC) varied considerably at different sampling sites. The concentration of washed-off pollutant generally decreased with runoff duration, which showed an obvious attenuation trend. The runoff process indicated the occurrence of FFE at different levels. PAHs mainly came from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil leakage and coking, and the contribution of each source was different in accordance with various surfaces.

  11. Sedimentary records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote lakes across the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Xie, Ting; Li, An; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Wu, Guangjian; Jing, Chuanyong

    2016-07-01

    Sediment cores from five lakes across the Tibetan Plateau were used as natural archives to study the time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The depositional flux of PAHs generally showed an increasing trend from the deeper layers towards the upper layer sediments. The fluxes of PAHs were low with little variability before the 1950s, and then gradually increased to the late 1980s, with a faster increasing rate after the 1990s. This temporal pattern is clearly different compared with those remote lakes across the European mountains when PAHs started to decrease during the period 1960s-1980s. The difference of the temporal trend was attributed to differences in the economic development stages and energy structure between these regions. PAHs are dominated by the lighter 2&3-ring homologues with the averaged percentage over 87%, while it is notable that the percentage of heavier 4-6 ring PAHs generally increased in recent years, which suggests the contribution of local high-temperature combustion sources becoming more predominant.

  12. Historical Profiles of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Marine Sediment Cores from Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Begoña; Viñas, Lucía; Bargiela, Jesica

    2016-11-01

    The northwest coast of Spain is characterized by an irregular coastline rich in marine life and with the highest mussel production in Europe. Taking this into account, the characterization of the pollution levels and the sources involved appear necessary. Not only were parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed but also their alkylated homologues. In total, 35 compounds were analyzed in 5 sediment cores. Sediments were collected using a box core dredge and extracted by (Pressurized Liquid Extraction) whilst the quantification of PAHs was performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration detected varied from 49.6 to 2489 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) of which parent PAHs ranged from 44.5 to 2254 ng g(-1) d.w. and alkylated PAHs varied from 5.04 to 317 ng g(-1) d.w. Temporal and spatial evolution were outlined and pollution sources were identified along with a possible correlation between this pollution and local history and industry. Most of the PAHs from the superficial samples have a biomass and coal combustion profile, and some specific, localized events are reflected in the total PAH concentration evolution. Moreover, the study of the deepest layers of the sampled cores provides a baseline to develop background concentration values that will help in future sediment quality assessment.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enriching antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; He, Rong; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Enzhong; Lin, Lan; Chen, Xin; Sha, Sha; Zhong, Jianan; Lin, Li; Yang, Lihua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Zou, Shichun; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in modern environment raises an emerging global health concern. In this study, soil samples were collected from three sites in petrochemical plant that represented different pollution levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metagenomic profiling of these soils demonstrated that ARGs in the PAHs-contaminated soils were approximately 15 times more abundant than those in the less-contaminated ones, with Proteobacterial being the preponderant phylum. Resistance profile of ARGs in the PAHs-polluted soils was characterized by the dominance of efflux pump-encoding ARGs associated with aromatic antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones and acriflavine) that accounted for more than 70% of the total ARGs, which was significantly different from representative sources of ARG pollution due to wide use of antibiotics. Most of ARGs enriched in the PAHs-contaminated soils were not carried by plasmids, indicating the low possibilities of them being transferred between bacteria. Significant correlation was observed between the total abundance of ARGs and that of Proteobacteria in the soils. Proteobacteria selected by PAHs led to simultaneously enriching of ARGs carried by them in the soils. Our results suggested that PAHs could serve as one of selective stresses for greatly enriching of ARGs in the human-impacted environment.

  14. The Role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ultraviolet Extinction. I. Probing small molecular PAHs

    CERN Document Server

    Clayton, G C; Witt, A N; Allamandola, L J; Martin, P G; Salama, F; Snow, T P; Whittet, D C B; Wolff, M J; Smith, T L; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Gordon, Karl D.; Witt, Adolf N.; Martin, Peter G.; Wolff, Michael J.; Smith, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained new STIS/HST spectra to search for structure in the ultraviolet interstellar extinction curve, with particular emphasis on a search for absorption features produced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these molecules in the interstellar medium has been postulated to explain the infrared emission features seen in the 3-13 $\\mu$m spectra of numerous sources. UV spectra are uniquely capable of identifying specific PAH molecules. We obtained high S/N UV spectra of stars which are significantly more reddened than those observed in previous studies. These data put limits on the role of small (30-50 carbon atoms) PAHs in UV extinction and call for further observations to probe the role of larger PAHs. PAHs are of importance because of their ubiquity and high abundance inferred from the infrared data and also because they may link the molecular and dust phases of the interstellar medium. A presence or absence of ultraviolet absorption bands due to PAHs could be a definitive te...

  15. Distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Liaohe estuarine wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yinhai; Wang, Nannan; Gao, Huiwang; Bai, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Thirty-one surface soil samples were collected from Liaohe estuarine wetland in October 2008 and May and August 2009. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), identified as priority pollutants by the US EPA, were measured by gas chromatography. PAHs were predominated by three- and four-ring compounds. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 704.7 to 1,804.5 μg/kg with a mean value of 1,001.9 μg/kg in October 2008, from 509.7 to 1,936.9 μg/kg with an average of 887.1 μg/kg in May 2009, and from 293.4 to 1,735.9 μg/kg with a mean value of 675.4 μg/kg in August 2009. The PAH concentration detected at most sites shared the same pattern, with maximum concentrations during the autumn (October) and minimum concentrations during the summer (August). The ecological risk assessment of PAHs showed that adverse effects would occasionally occur in the soils from Liaohe estuarine wetland based on the effects range low (ERL)/effects range median and the toxic equivalency factors. The results revealed that some of the individual PAHs were in excess of ERL which implied possible acute adverse biological effects. The BaP(eq) values in some sites surpassed the Dutch target value. Therewith, quite a part of soils in the wetland were subjected to potential ecological risks.

  16. A simple and effective plating method to screen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under various redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Youngsoon; Chang, Matthew Wook; Holoman, Tracey Pulliam

    2010-09-01

    Agar plates with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) layer have been used to screen for microorganisms that degrade PAHs, leaving clear zones around colonies; however, there are several problems with previous methods such as undesired contamination in the fume hood and difficulty in controlling the amount of PAH on the plates. In this study, we developed a modified screening method to address the drawbacks encountered with previous screening methods. A uniform white layer of PAHs was generated by spreading PAHs dissolved in volatile solvents over a surface of solidified agar medium, followed by the evaporation of the solvents. An inoculation was then performed by spreading a molten agar medium containing microbial samples over the solidified agar medium with a PAH layer. Subsequently, the white PAH layer migrated to the surface of the molten agar medium. This essential modification enabled us not only to solve problems of the previous screening methods but also to prepare an agar plate with a PAH layer without a complicated experimental scheme in the anaerobic chamber. After solidification of the molten agar medium and incubation of the plates, clear zones were successfully detected around colonies with aerobic and anaerobic PAH-degrading microbial cultures.

  17. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  18. Isolation of PAH-degrading bacteria from mangrove sediments and their biodegradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C L; Zhou, H W; Wong, Y S; Tam, N F Y

    2005-01-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from seven mangrove swamps in Hong Kong SAR with different degrees of contamination. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in these sediments ranged from 169.41 to 1058.37 ng g(-1) with the highest concentration found in Ma Wan and the lowest in Kei Ling Ha Lo Wai mangrove swamp. In each swamp, three bacterial consortia were enriched from sediments using phenanthrene (Phe) as the sole carbon and energy source, and individual bacterial colony showing Phe degradation was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence. The consortia enriched from Sai Keng and Ho Chung sediments had highest ability to degrade mixed PAHs in liquid medium, with 90% Phe and Fla (fluoranthene) degraded in 7 days. On the other hand, Kei Ling Ha Lo Wai-enriched consortia degraded less than 40% Phe and Fla. Pyrene (Pyr) was hardly degraded by the consortia enriched from sediments. Bacterial isolates, namely Rhodococcus (HCCS), Sphingomonas (MWFG) and Paracoccus (SPNT) were capable to degrade mixed PAHs (Phe + Fla + Pyr). Their degradation percentages could be lower, comparable or even higher than their respective enriched consortia, depending on the consortium and the type of PAH compounds. These results suggest that PAH-degrading bacteria enriched from mangrove sediments, either as a mixed culture or as a single isolate could be used for PAHs bioremediation.

  19. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.;

    2016-01-01

    Khuzestan, Iran is heavily industrialised with petrochemical and refinery companies. Herein, sediment and soil samples were collected from Hendijan coast, Khore Mosa and Arvandroud River. The CHEMSIC (CHEmometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms) method was used to assign the main sources...... of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...... weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...

  20. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a functionalized layered double hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Mohanambe; S Vasudevan

    2006-01-01

    The internal surface of an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by anchoring carboxy-methyl derivatized -cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydrophobic aromatic molecules from a polar solvent into the less polar interior of the anchored cyclodextrin cavities by a partitioning process. The optical (absorption and emission) properties of the PAH molecules included within the functionalized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide solid are similar to that of dilute solutions of the PAH in non-polar solvents. The unique feature of these hybrid materials is that they are thermally stable over a wide temperature range with their emission properties practically unaltered.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes from induction-heating pyrolysis of biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Chang, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Shyh-Yu; Chang, Jeng-Hung

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare the bio-crudes from agricultural wastes (i.e., rice straw, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell) by using induction-heating pyrolysis at specified conditions. The quantitative analysis of 21 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bio-crudes examined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that the PAHs in bio-crudes were primarily dominant in the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, including naphthalene (1.10-2.45 mg/L) and acenaphthene (0.72-7.61 mg/L). However, by considering carcinogenic potency, the bio-crudes from rice husk and sugarcane bagasse contained higher contents of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.52 and 0.92 mg/L, respectively) as compared to those from rice straw and coconut shell.

  2. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  3. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  4. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs.

  5. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-08-12

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric particulate of NCR, Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwani, Saurabh; Amreen, Hassan; Khillare, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    The present study identifies the particulate Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sources in ambient atmosphere of Delhi, India. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter, ≤10 μm) samples were collected weekly at two residential areas from July 2013 to January 2014. First sampling site was located in centre of the city, while other was at city's background (located in South-East direction of the Delhi). PM10 was collected on Whatman GF/A (8"x10") glass fibre filters using High-Volume sampler having a constant flow rate of 1.10 m3/min. A total of 55 samples, 27 from city centre and 28 from background site were collected during sampling period, covering two different seasons. The samples were analysed for determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system (Waters, USA). A source apportionment study using Molecular Diagnostic Ratio (MDR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were conducted for both sampling sites in order to identify the potential PAHs sources in Delhi. MDR was used for the preliminary identification of sources and PCA was used for further confirmation of the PAH sources at both the sites in Delhi. Results indicated towards traffic and coal combustion related sources as dominant contributors of urban atmospheric PAHs in Delhi.

  7. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants, formed during incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas. Several PAHs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, but these compounds must be activated in order to exert their mutagenic effects. One of the principal pathways...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29PAHs, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.

  9. Biotechnological procedures to select white rot fungi for the degradation of PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwanhwi; Jang, Yeongseon; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-02-01

    White rot fungi are essential in forest ecology and are deeply involved in wood decomposition and the biodegradation of various xenobiotics. The fungal ligninolytic enzymes involved in these processes have recently become the focus of much attention for their possible biotechnological applications. Successful bioremediation requires the selection of species with desirable characteristics. In this study, 150 taxonomically and physiologically diverse white rot fungi, including 55 species, were investigated for their performance in a variety of biotechnological procedures, such as dye decolorization, gallic acid reaction, ligninolytic enzymes, and tolerance to four PAHs, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Among these fungi, six isolates showed the highest (>90%) tolerance to both individual PAH and mixed PAHs. And six isolates oxidized gallic acid with dark brown color and they rapidly decolorized RBBR within ten days. These fungi revealed various profiles when evaluated for their biotechnological performance to compare the capability of degradation of PAHs between two groups selected. As the results demonstrated the six best species selected from gallic acid more greatly degraded four PAHs than the other isolates selected via tolerance test. It provided that gallic acid reaction test can be performed to rank the fungi by their ability to degrade the PAHs. Most of all, Peniophora incarnata KUC8836 and Phlebia brevispora KUC9033 significantly degraded the four PAHs and can be considered prime candidates for the degradation of xenobiotic compounds in environmental settings.

  10. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs.

  11. Optimization of purification processes to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted raw fish oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Fernández-González, Ricardo; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    Fish oils are one of the main sources of health promoting nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids in animal and human diet. Nevertheless, they could be an important source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Different strategies of decontamination processes to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in fish oils, such as solvent extraction (ethanol) and adsorbent extraction using commercially available (activated carbon) and sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood ashes), were compared. Adsorption conditions were evaluated and optimized by an experimental design and the experimental results were adjusted to response surfaces. In this way, PAH removals increased with increasing of individual PAH molecular weight and they range from 80% to 100% using activated carbon and from 10% to 100% using wood ashes. Pine wood ashes showed similar removal rates to activated carbon (87%-100%) excluding F (51%) and P (42%). No PAH removal was observed using mussel shell ashes. Ethanol extraction was also optimized and showed a good performance in the extraction of PAHs. However, it does affect their ω-3 fatty acid contents. Finally, real oil samples from different fishing areas: Spain, South America, and North Europe were selected for the decontamination experiments under experimental conditions previously optimized.

  12. Toxicity evaluation and source apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three stations in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedar, Asude; Alp, Kadir; Kaynak, Burçak; Avşar, Edip

    2014-08-01

    This paper focuses on the toxicity evaluation and source apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three monitoring stations in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 326 airborne samples were collected and analyzed for 16 PAHs and Total Suspended Particles (TSP) for the period of September 2006-December 2007. The total average PAH concentrations were 100.7±61.3, 84.6±46.7 and 25.1±13.3 ng m(-3) and the TSP concentrations were 101.2±53.2, 152.3±99.1, 49.8±18.6 μg m(-3) for URB1, URB2 and RUR stations, respectively. Benzo(a)Pyren (BaP) toxic equivalency factors to PAH concentration values were calculated indicating that the health risk of BaP and DiBenz(a,h)Anthracene (markers of traffic emissions) have the highest contribution compared to all of the other species measured at the sampling sites. In order to determine PAH sources, two different source apportionment techniques were applied to the measurements; diagnostic ratios (DR) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results of the two applications were compatible indicating the vehicle emissions - especially diesel engines - as the major source for urban stations.

  13. CARBONIZED FIBROUS RESIN AS A NEW SORBENT FOR SAMPLING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new sampling method of ambient air analysis using carbonized fibrous resin as asorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was reported.The physical and chemical properties of the carbonized fibrous resins were measured. Thesample pretreatment with ultrasonic extraction and subsequent clean-up ehition through a silica gelcolumn was optimized. The suitable ultrasonic extraction conditions were selected as follows: resinweight was 1.5 g, ultrasonic extraction time 20 min, volume of extraction solvent 100 mi andextraction operation times 2~3. The concentrated extractable organic matter was submitted to nextstep of clean-up procedure of adsorption chromatography on silica gel column/n-hexane and amixture of dichloromethene:n-hexane solution 2:3 (v/v). The PAHs fractions in the real samplesfrom Changzhou, China were particularly analyzed using GC-MS data system and the data of massspectra, retention times and scan numbers of the real samples were compared with that of thestandards of 16 PAHs listed by the US EPA as "priority pollutants" of the environment. Theanalysis of the real samples indicates that the carbonized fibrous resin is a good sorbent. Thepretreatment of samples of ambient air with carbonized fibrous resin as a sorbent for P,AHs isproved to be reliable and might be used for the procedure of the determination of PAHs inatmospheric environment.

  14. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bolgoda and Beira Lakes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, K A S; De Silva, O C P; Hehemann, David; Atkinson, Ian; Wei, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely used to assess the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on aquatic environments because their occurrence in water is closely tied to urban activities. Many PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties (Menzie et al. 1992). PAH distribution and toxic potentials have therefore been the focus of numerous studies in waterways including the Great Lakes (USEPA Report 1994), Yanisei Bay (Dahle et al., 2003), and the Fraser River basin (Yunker et al., 2002). Sri Lanka, a small island nation with a dense population of about 20 million people, faces a multitude of environmental stresses ranging from deforestation to traffic congestion and the deterioration of water quality. This study was undertaken to understand the occurrence, sources, and potential impacts of PAHs in the waterways of Sri Lanka. Two lakes, Beira and Bolgoda, were selected for the study due to their economic value and high level of pollution. Beira Lake, situated in downtown Colombo, the capital city of Sri Lanka, is highly polluted. Sources of pollution are multifarious. For instance, clusters of communities have sprung up along the edges of the lake in recent times and many shacks have been built. These communities are generally not connected to municipal sewer systems and substantial quantities of domestic sewage and untreated wastewaters are discharged directly into the lake. Small industries have also grown rapidly around the lakes, most of which are not believed to have adequate facilities to treat industrial wastewater, especially organic wastes. In addition, Sri Lanka has experienced an upsurge of motor vehicles, including millions of three-wheelers and minivans that are powered by leaded gasoline and diesel fuels. Traffic congestion and severe air pollution due to vehicle emissions are now common daily occurrences and are considered a major potential source of PAHs in the lakes. Although Bolgoda Lake is situated

  16. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeco R. Gamboa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p<0.05 were found between PAHs concentration in the gaseous component and in the particulate component of air samples, with the greatest values for the gaseous component. Greatest PAH concentrations were detected in areas with high oil extraction activities. Children groups from high oil activity areas presented genotoxic damage labeled from moderate to high according to DNA migration from nuclei (Tail Length: 14.2 - 42.14 mm and Tail/Head: 0.97 - 2.83 mm compared with control group (12.25 and 0.63 mm, respectively. The group with greatest cell damage was located in the area with the greatest oil activity. We conclude that the presence of PAHs in the air may represent a health risk to populations that are chronically exposed to them at high oil activity regions.

  17. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Rodríguez T; Gamboa, Aldeco R; Bravo, Alvarez H; Ostrosky, Wegman P

    2008-12-01

    The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p<0.05) were found between PAHs concentration in the gaseous component and in the particulate component of air samples, with the greatest values for the gaseous component. Greatest PAH concentrations were detected in areas with high oil extraction activities. Children groups from high oil activity areas presented genotoxic damage labeled from moderate to high according to DNA migration from nuclei (Tail Length: 14.2 - 42.14 microm and Tail/Head: 0.97 - 2.83 microm) compared with control group (12.25 and 0.63 microm, respectively). The group with greatest cell damage was located in the area with the greatest oil activity. We conclude that the presence of PAHs in the air may represent a health risk to populations that are chronically exposed to them at high oil activity regions.

  18. Simultaneous biodegradation of creosote-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Z.; Vila, J.; Grifoll, M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia; Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [C.S.I.C., Seville (Spain). Inst. de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia

    2008-02-15

    When incubated with a creosote-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixture, the pyrene-degrading strain Mycobacterium sp. AP1 acted on three- and four-ring components, causing the simultaneous depletion of 25% of the total PAHs in 30 days. The kinetics of disappearance of individual PAHs was consistent with differences in aqueous solubility. During the incubation, a number of acid metabolites indicative of distinctive reactions carried out by high-molecular-weight PAH-degrading mycobacteria accumulated in the medium. Most of these metabolites were dicarboxylic aromatic acids formed as a result of the utilization of growth substrates (phenanthrene, pyrene, or fluoranthene) by multibranched pathways including meta- and ortho-ring-cleavage reactions: phthalic acid, naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, diphenic acid, Z-9-carboxymethylenefluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and 6,6'-dihydroxy-2,2'-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid. Others were dead-end products resulting from cometabolic oxidations on nongrowth substrates (fluorene meta-cleavage product). These results contribute to the general knowledge of the biochemical processes that determine the fate of the individual components of PAH mixtures in polluted soils. The identification of the partially oxidized compounds will facilitate to develop analytical methods to determine their potential formation and accumulation in contaminated sites. (orig.)

  19. Unravelling airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in southern China using tree-rings of 100-yr old Pinus Kwangtungensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Huang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable perennial biomonitoring of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is urgently necessary to detect long-term impacts of anthropogenic emission, in response to industrial policies and combustion technology adoption. One hundred records of airborne PAHs were novelly demonstrated by analyzing the tree-rings of Kwangtung pine (Pinus kwangtungensis formed from 1883 to 2007 at Naling Mountains of southern China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs detected in the tree xylem did not progressively increase against the time. Temporal increase of high molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs coincided well to the historical-socioeconomic status in China, suggesting HMW-PAHs in old trees growing at high mountains were more indicative of regionally historical changes in airborne PAHs compared with ∑PAHs. Compositional analysis indicated airborne PAHs absorbed and accumulated in tree tissues were pyrogenic origination. Principal component analysis revealed PAHs inputs were quite historically diversiform and unevenly distributed in the atmosphere of Nanling Mountains of southern China. Dendroanalysis of old trees grown at geographically sink locations could be a useful biomonitoring technique for unravelling historical changes in PAHs composition and intensity in the atmosphere, in relation to regional industrial development and fuel consumptions.

  20. Occurrence and source of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in tidal flats of the Ariake Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2013-07-02

    In this study, we hypothesize that natural photochemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flats are responsible for the occurrence of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs). This study aims to survey the impact of photochemical reactions using a combination of field surveys and lab-scale experiments. Concentrations and profiles of PAHs and Cl-PAHs in road dust and sediments collected from seven tunnels and two watersheds, respectively, were determined. In the lab-scale experiments, anthracene was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light under various salinity conditions. No detectable Cl-PAHs were found in the road dust. However, Cl-PAHs were detected in the sediments from 700 to 6.1 × 10(3) pg g(-1) and specifically from downstream sites. 2-Monochloroanthracene (2-Cl-ANT) and 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) were dominant in the sediments. In the Domen River watershed, the ∑Cl-PAHs and the salinity showed a significant positive correlation (p PAHs. 2-Cl-ANT, 9-monochloroanthracene, and 9,10-di-Cl-ANT were identified as transformation products in the UV irradiation experiments. Production of these Cl-PAHs was dependent on the solution salinity. These results support our hypothesis, and we conclude that photochemical reactions significantly contribute to the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the studied tidal flats.

  1. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  2. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  3. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the northwest Qinling Mountains: Patterns, potential risk and an appraisal of the PAH ratios to infer their source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Wu, Yingqin; Xia, Yanqing; Lei, Tianzhu; Tian, Chuntao; Hou, Xiaohuan

    2017-03-21

    Surface soils from the tourist areas of the northwest Qinling Mountains were analyzed to determine the concentrations, probable sources and potential risks of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 4.18 to 3240 ng g(-1) and 0.0462 to 101 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The extent of soil contamination by hydrocarbons was generally typified by unpolluted to slightly polluted levels. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) for exposure to soil-borne PAHs indicated complete safety for tourists. Early diagenesis of natural products, bacteria activities and petroleum were the three main sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons, while the transport of air pollutants from pyrolytic processes was the main origin of PAHs. Because the photochemical reaction of PAHs in the atmosphere would produce lower ratios for Ant/(Ant + Phe), BaA/(BaA + Chr) and IcdP/(IcdP + BghiP), but a higher ratio for Fla/(Fla + Pyr), the source classification highly depended on the diagnostic ratios chosen. The plot of ΣCOM/Σ13PAH vs. ΣLMW/ΣHMWPAH provide additional information to distinguish the origins of PAHs, and it showed a cluster of pyrogenic sources except for sample JFS-8. Four sources were resolved by principal component analysis: (1) a low temperature pyrogenic process related to the use of fossil fuel and biomass, such as charcoal, straw and wood, which contributes 63.1% of the measured PAHs; (2) the potential contribution of diagenetic processes, contributing 18.4%; (3) traffic emissions, contributing 9.27%; and (4) bioconversion/bacterial action, contributing 5.82%. Additionally, there was a good exponential relationship (r(2) = 0.969) between the natural n-alkanes ratio (NAR) and carbon preference index for C23-C35 (CPI23-35) for all samples, which is of great use for the determination of the origins of aliphatic hydrocarbon.

  4. Impact of hydrocarbons, PCBs and heavy metals on bacterial communities in Lerma River, Salamanca, Mexico: Investigation of hydrocarbon degradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; De la Cruz Barrón, Magali; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Andrade, Leandro H; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Simon, Maryse; Guyoneaud, Remy

    2015-07-15

    Freshwater contamination usually comes from runoff water or direct wastewater discharges to the environment. This paper presents a case study which reveals the impact of these types of contamination on the sediment bacterial population. A small stretch of Lerma River Basin, heavily impacted by industrial activities and urban wastewater release, was studied. Due to industrial inputs, the sediments are characterized by strong hydrocarbon concentrations, ranging from 2 935 to 28 430μg·kg(-1) of total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These sediments are also impacted by heavy metals (e.g., 9.6μg·kg(-1) of Cd and 246μg·kg(-1) of Cu, about 8 times the maximum recommended values for environmental samples) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ranging from 54 to 123μg·kg(-1) of total PCBs). The bacterial diversity on 6 sediment samples, taken from upstream to downstream of the main industrial and urban contamination sources, was assessed through TRFLP. Even though the high PAH concentrations are hazardous to aquatic life, they are not the only factor driving bacterial community composition in this ecosystem. Urban discharges, leading to hypoxia and low pH, also strongly influenced bacterial community structure. The bacterial bioprospection of these samples, using PAH as unique carbon source, yielded 8 hydrocarbonoclastic strains. By sequencing the 16S rDNA gene, these were identified as similar to Mycobacterium goodii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas lundensis or Aeromonas veronii. These strains showed high capacity to degrade naphthalene (between 92 and 100% at 200mg·L(-1)), pyrene (up to 72% at 100mg·L(-1)) and/or fluoranthene (52% at 50mg·L(-1)) as their only carbon source on in vitro experiments. These hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were detected even in the samples upstream of the city of Salamanca, suggesting chronical contamination, already in place longer before. Such microorganisms are clearly potential candidates for hydrocarbon degradation in the

  5. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, spectral slope

  6. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  7. Exploring the potential of fungi isolated from PAH-polluted soil as a source of xenobiotics-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Calderón, Andrea; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading fungi adapted to polluted environments for further application in bioremediation processes. In this study, a total of 23 fungal species were isolated from a historically pyrogenic PAH-polluted soil in Spain and taxonomically identified. The dominant groups in these samples were the ones associated with fungi belonging to the Ascomycota phylum and two isolates belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum and Basiodiomycota phylum. We tested their ability to convert the three-ring PAH anthracene in a 42-day time course and analysed their ability to secrete extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes. Among the 23 fungal species screened, 12 were able to oxidize anthracene, leading to the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone as the main metabolite, a less toxic one than the parent compound. The complete removal of anthracene was achieved by three fungal species. In the case of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, extracellular enzyme independent degradation of the initial 100 μM anthracene occurred, whilst in the case of the ligninolytic fungus Fomes (Basidiomycota), the same result was obtained with extracellular enzyme-dependent transformation. The yield of accumulated 9,10-anthraquinone was 80 and 91 %, respectively, and Fomes sp. could slowly deplete it from the growth medium when offered alone. These results are indicative for the effectiveness of these fungi for pollutant removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  8. Distribution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Liao River drainage basin, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun

    2016-04-01

    The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area.

  9. Determination of Polycyclic Arimatic Hydrocarbon (PAH on Foods using Numerous Extraction Methods: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premla Devi Chander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Premla DeviChander, Chai Mee Kin College of Foundation and General Studies, UniversitiTenagaNasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor. Premla@uniten.edu.my     Fax:03-89287275     ABSTRACT   According to the European Union (EU legislation, a strong attention has been focused on the presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH on the environment and also on foods. As known, the presence of PAH mainly on food leads to the activation of carcinogenic agent as the cause of the genotoxic and mutagenic production. Various analytical methods have been used to analyze the concentration of PAH on foods such as fruits and vegetables. The efficiency of PAH concentration on food samples depends on the types of extraction method implemented.The extraction methodswereAccelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE, QuEChERS (acronymic name from quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safeextraction,Supramolecular solvent extraction (SUPRAS,Ultrasonication Extraction, Soxhlet extraction method and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME. Most of the mentioned extraction methods use the High-Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS to carry the analysis of PAH in fruits and vegetables. The percentage recoveries of each method have been discussed and it was known that SUPRAS showed the best result in percentage recovery and relative standard deviation.  In the present review, all the implemented extraction of PAHmethods on food were analyzed and discussed in terms of the advantages andthe limitations on each extraction methods as well as the analytical performances.   Keywords:PAH, Extraction Methods, Fruits and Vegetables.

  10. Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Parmy, Saeid; Faridi, Sasan; Rafiee, Ata; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m(-3)) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m(-3)). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m(-3) in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m(-3) in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10(-6) and 16.78 × 10(-6), respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean.

  11. Investigation into the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater sewage sludge and its resulting pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Li, Guojian; Yan, Mi; Ping, Chuanjuan; Ren, Jianli

    2014-03-01

    This study firstly investigated the distributions of 16 US EPA priority controlled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seven kinds of different wastewater sewage sludges and bio-oils from the sludge pyrolysis. A lab-scale tube furnace was used to simulate sludge pyrolysis and retrieve condensed oils. PAH determination was conducted with the extraction, concentration, and purification of PAHs in sludge samples and the resulting bio-oils, and then GC-MS analysis. Then, the factors influencing the distributions of different rings of PAHs in pyrolysis bio-oil, such as the chemical characteristics of raw sewage sludge and pyrolysis condition, were analyzed. It was noted that the total amount of PAHs in raw sludge is evidently varied with the sludge resource, with values ranging between 9.19 and 23.68 mg/kg. The middle molar weight (MMW) PAH distribution is dominant. PAH concentrations in sludge pyrolysis bio-oil were ranged from 13.72 to 48.9 mg/kg. The most abundant PAHs were the low molar weight (LMW) PAHs. It could be found that the concentration of LMW PAHs in bio-oil is correlated with MMW PAHs in raw sewage sludge at best, which the correlation coefficient is 0.607. For MMW and HMW (high molar weight) PAHs, they are significantly correlated with HMW PAHs in raw sewage sludge, which the correlation coefficients are 0.672 and 0.580, respectively. The concentration of LMW PAHs in bio-oil is also relatively significant and correlated with the volatile matter content of raw sludge. In addition, it was proved that final temperature and residence time have important influences on PAH generations during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

  12. Determination of selected oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) in diesel and air particulate matter standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete S; Schantz, Michele M

    2013-06-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) have recently received much attention in discussions regarding the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology provides several environmental matrix standard reference materials (SRMs) with certified and reference values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of oxygenated PAHs are determined in three air PM SRMs (1649b, 1648a, and 2786) and three diesel PM SRMs (1650b, 2975, and 1975) using two independent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Concentrations of oxy-PAHs were at the milligrams per kilogram level with higher overall concentrations in diesel PM (up to 50 mg/kg for 9,10-anthraquinone). One of the highest oxy-PAH concentrations (up to 5 mg/kg) measured in the air particulate SRMs was for 7,12-benz[a]anthracenquinone. These results suggest that oxygenated PAHs should not be neglected in the analysis of PM as their concentrations can be as high as those of some PAHs and are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for nitro-PAHs.

  13. Hydrocarbon contamination and plant species determine the phylogenetic and functional diversity of endophytic degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Smalla, Kornelia; Cunha, Ângela

    2014-03-01

    Salt marsh sediments are sinks for various anthropogenic contaminants, giving rise to significant environmental concern. The process of salt marsh plant survival in such environment is very intriguing and at the same time poorly understood. The plant–microbe interactions may play a key role in the process of environment and in planta detoxification.In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular approaches [enrichment cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing] were used to investigate the effect of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) contamination on the structure and function[polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dioxygenase genes] of endophytic bacterial communities of salt marsh plant species (Halimione portulacoides and Sarcocornia perennis)in the estuarine system Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Pseudomonads dominated the cultivable fraction of the endophytic communities in the enrichment cultures. In a set of fifty isolates tested, nine were positive for genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases (nahAc)and four were positive for plasmid carrying genes encoding PAH degradation enzymes(nahAc). Interestingly, these plasmids were only detected in isolates from most severely PH-polluted sites. The results revealed site-specific effects on endophytic communities,related to the level of PH contamination in the sediment, and plant-species-specific ‘imprints’ in community structure and in genes encoding for PAH dioxygenases. These results suggest a potential ecological role of bacterial plant symbiosis in the process of plant colonization in urban estuarine areas exposed to PH contamination.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  15. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  16. Decomposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) on Mineral Surface under Controlled Relative Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuji TAMAMURA; Tsutomu SATO; Yukie OTA; Ning TANG; Kazuichi HAYAKAWA

    2006-01-01

    The fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) residing in the atmosphere has received enormous attention in recent years due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic risks on human health. In this context, the stability of pyrene (as a representative PAHs) on quartz, alumina,montmoriilonite, kaolinite, humic acid and quartz coated with sorbed humic acid was investigated at controlled relative humidity (RH: i.e. 5% and 30%) without light irradiation in order to detect the presence of catalytic effect of mineral surface on PAHs decomposition. The stability of pyrene was found to depend strongly on the physicochemical properties of the substrates. Quartz showed a strong catalytic effect for the decomposition of pyrene even though it was coated with sorbed humic acid.Pyrene sorbed on montmorillonite and humic acid remained stable during the experimental period (i.e.3 days). Moisture in the experimental cell also affected the stability of pyrene in particular minerals.Especially, pyrene sorbed on alumina was rapidly decomposed at higher RH. However, there were almost no effect in the case of quartz, kaolinite and humic acid. Depending on the physicochemical properties of aerosols and RH, PAHs associated with minerals in the atmosphere would be decomposed and/or stably reside in the atmosphere.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  18. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  19. Emission, distribution and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nana; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhengang; Liu, Tingting; Gai, Chao

    2016-09-15

    Emission and distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated during municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal combustion alone and MSW/coal blend (MSW weight fraction of 25%) co-combustion within a temperature range of 500°C-900°C. The results showed that for all combustion experiments, flue gas occupied the highest proportion of total PAHs and fly ash contained more high-ring PAHs. Moreover, the 3- and 4-ring PAHs accounted for the majority of total PAHs and Ant or Phe had the highest concentrations. Compared to coal, MSW combustion generated high levels of total PAHs with the range of 111.28μg/g-10,047.22μg/g and had high toxicity equivalent value (TEQ). MSW/coal co-combustion generated the smallest amounts of total PAHs and had the lowest TEQ than MSW and coal combustion alone. Significant synergistic interactions occurred between MSW and coal during co-combustion and the interactions suppressed the formation of PAHs, especially hazardous high-ring PAHs and decreased the TEQ. The present study indicated that the reduction of the yield and toxicity of PAHs can be achieved by co-combustion of MSW and coal.

  20. Study on the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coal pyrolysis by PY-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2012-12-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during the course of coal pyrolysis are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. The relation between the amount of PAHs from the raw coal and that generated from coal pyrolysis were studied. Firstly, three Chinese coals from Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi were respectively extracted by dichloromethane, and then, online pyrolysis analysis of the raw coals, their extraction residues and extracts were carried out respectively by PY (Pyro-probe CDS 5250)-GC-MS. The experimental results showed that the PAHs generated from the Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi coals in the course of their pyrolysis was 523, 327 and 1707 μg/g, respectively, which were much higher than the free PAHs extracted from their corresponding raw coals. The PAHs in the raw coals were dominated by 4,5-ring PAHs, while those generated from the coal pyrolysis were dominated by lower-ring (2,3-rings) PAHs. A lot of important information about the generation of PAHs from residue pyrolysis was also included in the paper which indicated that the PAHs were mainly from complex chemical reactions of the coal pyrolysis, and PAHs were more likely to be generated from the residue pyrolysis due to the increased pores that appeared on the coal surface during the course of extraction operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by heterogeneous reactions with N 2O 5 on atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Richard M.; Guo, Jiazhen; Guo, Zhishi; McDow, Stephen R.

    The degradation of particulate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on atmospheric soot particles in the presence of gas phase dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2O 5) was explored. Dilute diesel and wood soot particles containing PAH were reacted with˜10ppm of N 2O 5 in a 200 ℓ continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). To provide a stable source of particles for reaction in the CSTR, diesel or wood soot particles were injected at night into a 25 m 3 Teflon outdoor chamber. The large chamber served as a reservoir for the feed aerosol, and the aerosol could then be introduced at a constant flow rate into the CSTR. PAH-N 2O 5 heterogeneous rate constants for wood soot at 15°C ranged from2 × 10 -18to5 × 10 -18 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1. For diesel soot the rate constants at 16°C were higher and ranged from5 × 10 -18to30 × 10 -18 cm 3 molecules -1 s -1. Comparisons with other studies suggest that sunlight is the most important factor which influences PAH decay. This is followed by ozone, NO 2, N 2O 5 and nitric acid. The rate constants of nitro-PAH formation from a parent PAH and N 2O 5 were of the order of1 × 10 -19-1 × 10 -18 molecules -1s -1. The uncertainty associated with all of these rate constants is± a factor of 3. Given, however, the small magnitude of the rate constants and the low levels of N 2O 5 present in the atmosphere, we concluded that PAH heterogeneous reactions with gas phase N 2O 5 degrade particle-bound PAH or to form nitro-PAH from PAH are not very important. (Direct application of the specific rate constants derived in this study to ambient atmospheres should not be undertaken unless the ambient particle size distributions and chemical composition of the particles are similar to the ones reported in this study.)

  2. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of China's marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yanju; WANG Xuchen; DAI Minhan; FENG Huan; LI Anchun; SONG Qian

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of black carbon (BC) and its correlation with total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsPAH) in the surface sediments of China's marginal seas. BC content ranges from <0.10 to 2.45 mg/g dw (grams dry weight) in the sediments studied, and varied among the different coastal regions. The Bohai Bay sediments had the highest BC contents (average 2.18 mg/g dw),which comprises a significant fraction (27%-41%) of the total organic carbon (TOC) preserved in the sediments. In comparison, BC in the surface sediments of the North Yellow Sea, Jiaozhou Bay, East China Sea and the South China Sea is less abundant and accounted for an average of 6%, 8%, 14% and 5%,respectively, of the sedimentary organic carbon pool. The concentration of ΣPAH in the surface sediments ranges from 41 to 3 667 ng/g dw and showed large spatial variations among the sampling sites of different costal regions. The Bohai Bay has the highest ΣPAH values, ranging from 79 to 3 667 ng/g dw. This reflects the high anthropogenically contaminated nature of the sediments in the bay. BC is positively correlated to TOC but a strong correlation is not found between BC and ΣPAH in the surface sediments studied, suggesting that BC and PAHs preserved in the sediments are derived from different sources and controlled by different biogeochemical processes. Our study suggests that the abundance of BC preserved in the sediments could represent a significant sink pool of carbon cycling in China's marginal seas.

  3. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Handayani Kurniati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene within 7 days. The result of nested PCR analysis revealed that this isolate possessed the nahAc gene which encodes dioxygenase enzyme for initial degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants which produced by AMP 10 when grown on glucose could lower the surface tension of medium from 71.3 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and formed a stable emulsion in used lubricant oil with an emulsification index (E24 of 74%. According to the results, it is suggested that the bacterial isolates G. cholesterolivorans AMP10 are suitable candidates for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated environments.How to CiteKurniati, T. H.,  Rusmana, I. Suryani, A. & Mubarik, N. R. (2016. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 336-343. 

  4. Characterization of parent and oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xi'an, China during heating period: An investigation of spatial distribution and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Huang, Rujin; Gao, Meiling; Liu, Suixin; Zhao, Shuyu; Cao, Junji; Wang, Gehui; Shen, Zhenxing; Han, Yongming

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its oxygenated derivatives (OPAHs) are toxins in PM2.5. Little information has been known for their transformation in the ambient airs. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected at 19 sampling sites in Xi'an, China during the heating period, which is classified into: urban residential, university, commercial area, suburban region, and industry. Organic compounds including PAHs, OPAHs, hopanes and cholestanes were quantified. The average of total quantified PAHs and OPAHs concentrations were 196.5 ng/m(3) and 29.4 ng/m(3), respectively, which were consistent with other northern cities in China. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences on the distributions of PAHs between urban and suburban regions. The industry also had distinguishable profiles compared with urban residential and commercial area for OPAHs. The greater diversity of OPAHs than PAHs might be due to different primary emission sources and transformation and degradation pathways. The ratios of OPAHs to the corresponding parent PAHs, including 9-fluorenone/fluorene, anthraquinone/anthracene, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione/benzo[a]anthracene were 6.2, 12.7, and 1.4, respectively, which were much higher than those for the fresh emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. These prove the importance of secondary formation and transformation of OPAHs in the ambient airs. Biomarkers such as retene, cyclopenta[CD]pyrene and αα-homohopane were characterized for the source apportionment. With Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model analysis, biomass burning was recognized as the most dominant pollution sources for PAHs during the heading period, which accounted for a contribution of 37.1%. Vehicle emission (22.8%) and coal combustion (22.6%) were also contributors in Xi'an.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  6. Bacterial diversity of a consortium degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a two-liquid phase biosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Isabelle; Juteau, Pierre; Déziel, Eric; Lépine, François; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2009-04-01

    High-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that persist in the environment due to their low solubility in water and their sequestration by soil and sediments. Although several PAH-degrading bacterial species have been isolated, it is not expected that a single isolate would exhibit the ability to degrade completely all PAHs. A consortium composed of different microorganisms can better achieve this. Two-liquid phase (TLP) culture systems have been developed to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble substrates for uptake and biodegradation by microorganisms. By combining a silicone oil-water TLP system with a microbial consortium capable of degrading HMW PAHs, we previously developed a highly efficient PAH-degrading system. In this report, we characterized the bacterial diversity of the consortium with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of part of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the bacterial population changes during PAH degradation of the consortium when pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene were provided together or separately in the TLP cultures. No substantial changes in bacterial profiles occurred during biodegradation of pyrene and chrysene in these cultures. However, the addition of the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene or naphthalene in the system favored one bacterial species related to Sphingobium yanoikuyae. Eleven bacterial strains were isolated from the consortium but, interestingly, only one-IAFILS9 affiliated to Novosphingobium pentaromativorans-was capable of growing on pyrene and chrysene as sole source of carbon. A 16S rDNA library was derived from the consortium to identify noncultured bacteria. Among 86 clones screened, 20 were affiliated to different bacterial species-genera. Only three strains were represented in the screened clones. Eighty

  7. Toxicity and EROD-inducing potency of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoophysiology); Broman, D. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology); Naef, C. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1991-08-01

    The toxicities (embryolethality) of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in chick embryos using a 72-h test. The substances, dissolved in peanut oil, were injected into the air sacs of eggs preincubated for 7 days. LD{sub 50} values were determined for the four most toxic of the 24 compounds. Benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most potent, with an LD{sub 50} of 14 {mu}g (56 nmol)/kg egg. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benz(a)lanthracene and benzol(b)naphtho(2,3-d)thiophene were a few times less toxic (LD{sub 50} = 39 {mu}g (140 nmol)/kg, 79 {mu}g (349 nmol)/kg and 82 {mu}g (350 nmol)/kg, respectively). The LD{sub 50} of benzo(k)fluoranthene was only about 5 times higher than that previously found for the most potent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (LD{sub 50} = 3.1 {mu}g (9.4 nmol)/kg), in the same kind of test. The toxicities of 18 of the PAHs in this study have also been evaluated previously using a 2-week test in chick embryos. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, which had not been studied earlier in the 2-week test, proved to be almost as toxic as previously found for benzo(k)fluoranthene in that test. Several of the PAHs studied induced EROD activity in chick embryos, and, in general, the most toxic PAHs were also the most potent inducers of EROD. The highest enzyme activities were found after treatment with indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (12 times the control value) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (8 times the control value). However, due to the high toxicity of dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the dose used was 7 times lower than that of indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Following injection of PAHs on day 7, the EROD activities on day 10 were considerably lower than those obtained after a corresponding treatment with coplanar PCBs in an earlier study. Of the PAHs studied, some exhibited very high embryotoxicity. The most toxic PAHs induced EROD activity, suggesting that their toxicity was at least partly mediated via binding to the Ah receptor

  8. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (Σ32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of Σ32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to <1% at other sites). Σ32PAH increased in deeper, more decomposed organic litter layers, increasing from 57±19 ng g-1 (in Oi layer) to 511± 285 ng g-1 in decomposed, humidified litter layers (Oe and Oa horizons). In mineral soils, Σ32PAH were over an order of magnitude lower (average 37±8 ng g-1), which was attributed to higher bulk densities of mineral soils. However, standardized per unit of organic carbon (OC), Σ32PAH:OC ratios in mineral soils also were below levels observed in overlying litter, indicating a strong sorption capacity of organic horizons for atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, Σ32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ΣPAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus

  9. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  11. Distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Alaa R.; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Al-Alimi, Abdel Kawi A.; Barakat, Assem O.

    2009-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in sediments of Hadhramout coastal area, Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 17 surface sediment samples were collected in March-April 2005 and analyzed for PAHs with 2-6 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments were in the range of 2.2-604 ng g - 1 (average value: 82.4 ng g - 1 ). PAHs contamination is highest in proximity to harbour activities, near Al-Dhabah petroleum terminal and urban areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Hadhramout coastal sediments as low to moderate. Assessment of PAH sources in Hadhramout coastal sediments suggested that they originated largely from petrogenic sources. PAHs of pyrolytic origin were found in sediments from urbanized areas. Adverse effects on benthic communities are not expected at the levels of PAHs contamination observed from harbour and industrial areas.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  13. Health hazards involved with an environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rusin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds which belong to persistent organic pollutants group; some of which produce mutagenic and cancerogenic effects. These xenobiotics showed proven, negative effects on health preterm births and low infant birth weight. PAHs penetrate into the human body by three exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion and skin contact, of which the skin contact pathway is the least important in the case of environmental exposure. Transport, and industrial and municipal sections are also an important source of these compounds. The level of benzo(apyrene (BaP has been monitored in all the Polish provinces since 2005 in the air. BaP is a determinant of the level of all PAHs’ compounds. Despite of the permanent lowering of the level of BaP in the air since the 90s, the limit level (1 ng/m3 has been exceeded in most provinces of the country. In 2010 this situation concerned all Polish agglomerations and the biggest excess has been observed in the province of Silesia in the area of rybnicko-jastrzębska agglomeration. Of sixteen Polish provinces only Lublin and Podlasie provinces did not exceed the limit level, of BaP in the air in 2012. These data shows that a serious health risk may occur due to environmental pollution caused by PAHs compounds. It is necessary to take preventative action to limit a human exposure to these compounds.

  14. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  15. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

  17. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Dongqi; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L-1 and were correlated with temperature (PPAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60-92.15 mg·L-1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m-2·d-1 and 4.06 mg·m-2·d-1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 around 2013 Asian Youth Games period in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuxu; Kong, Shaofei; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Yuan, Liang; Li, Qi; Xiao, Hui; Chen, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 collected near the Nanjing Olympic Sports Center across the Asian Youth Games (AYG) period (from August 2 to August 28, 2013) were analyzed using GC-MS. Their levels, sources and health risks to human were discussed. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 were 9.43, 7.21 and 8.83 ng m- 3 for pre- (August 3-15), during- (August 16-24) and post- (August 25-28) AYG periods, respectively. They were dominated by 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs. Total PAHs concentrations in PM2.5 during AYG period decreased by 24%, when compared with those for pre-AYG period. For combustion-derived PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs, they decreased by 26% and 21%, respectively. It implied that the pollution control measures implemented during the AYG can effectively reduce the emission of PAHs from various sources. The poor correlations between PAHs and meteorological parameters also favored that the variations of PAHs were raised by the changes of emission sources. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis revealed that vehicle emission and coal combustion were the predominant contributors, with minimal effects from biomass burning and petroleum. The health risks for human exposed to PAHs in PM2.5 were quantitatively assessed by BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The estimated ILCR value of PAHs during the AYG periods decreased by 23% and 27% for children and adults when compared with those for the pre-AYG, respectively. It indicated that the pollution control measures reduced the risks of PAHs to sportsmen or human gathered around the Olympic Sport Center.

  19. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in creosote contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezza, Fisseha Andualem; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2016-02-01

    The potential for biological treatment of an environment contaminated by complex petrochemical contaminants was evaluated using creosote contaminated soil in ex situ bio-slurry reactors. The efficacy of biosurfactant application and stimulation of in situ biosurfactant production was investigated. The biosurfactant produced was purified and characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Biosurfactant enhanced degradation of PAHs was 86.5% (with addition of biosurfactant) and 57% in controls with no biosurfactant and nutrient amendments after incubation for 45 days. A slight decrease in degradation rate observed in the simultaneous biosurfactant and nutrient, NH4NO3 and KH2PO4, supplemented microcosm can be attributed to preferential microbial consumption of the biosurfactant supplemented. The overall removal of PAHs was determined to be mass transport limited since the dissolution rate caused by the biosurfactant enhanced the bioavailability of the PAHs to the microorganisms. The consortium culture was predominated by the aromatic ring-cleaving species Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  20. Effect of rhamnolipid on the aerobic removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and COD components from petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gök, Oğuzhan

    2010-02-01

    The removal efficiencies of 15 PAHs and some COD components (inert, readily degradable, slowly degradable and metabolic products) from a wastewater taken from a petrochemical industry treatment plant (Izmir, Turkey) have been determined using an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Addition of rhamnolipid surfactant (15 mg l(-1)) increased the removal efficiencies of PAHs and soluble COD from 72% and 90% to 80% and 99%, respectively. The rhamnolipid treatment caused a significant increase of 5- and 6-ring PAH degradation. The soluble COD removal efficiency was 93%, in CSTR reactors with rhamnolipid added. The inert COD removal efficiency was 60% in a CSTR reactor containing rhamnolipid. Batch tests showed that removal arising from the adsorption of the PAHs was low (between 1.88% and 4.84%) while the removal of PAHs from the petrochemical industry wastewater via volatilization varied between 0.69% and 5.92%. Low sorption capacity (K(p)) values for refinery activated sludge (approximately 2.98 l g(-1)) confirmed that bio-sorption was not an important mechanism controlling the fate of PAHs in aerobic CSTR reactors. Models proposed to simulate the PAH removal indicated that 94% of the PAHs were removed via biodegradation.

  1. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  2. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  3. Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Li, Jieming; Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Qingmin

    2009-10-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soils by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced during degradation, were analyzed. The results showed that the 19-d percentage degradation ranged from 72.77+/-1.39% to 25.50+/-3.41% for the three compounds, and the maximum LiP and MnP activities ranged from 0.16+/-0.005 to 0.05+/-0.002 U g(-1) and from 1.92+/-0.03 to 0.54+/-0.03 U g(-1), respectively. Degradation percentage and enzyme activities both exhibited inverse relationships with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of the compounds, indicating that LiP and MnP from P. chrysosporium may be the primary enzymes responsible for PAH degradation in soil. As the soil organic matter (SOM) content increased from 0.3% for Soil 1 to 19% for Soil 4, the 19-d degradation percentage of pyrene decreased from 66.20+/-2.72% to 32.42+/-1.05%, and correspondingly, the maximum of LiP and MnP activities increased from 0.05+/-0.002 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1) and from 0.34+/-0.03 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1), respectively. Hence, it is plausible to conclude that the P. chrysosporium appeared to degrade not only the PAHs with small molecular size but also the macromolecular SOM. When SOM differences are large, as in this study, SOM has greater influence on enzyme activity than low-level exotic pollutants.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. IR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela); Synthesis and Biotics Div., Indian Oil Corp., Research and Development Center, Haryana (India); Leon, V.; Materano, A.D.S.; Ilzins, O.A.; Galindo-Castro, I.; Fuenmayor, S.L. [Unidad de Biotecnologia del Petroleo, Centro de Biotecnologia, Fundacion Inst. de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-03-15

    We characterized a newly isolated bacterium, designated as IR1, with respect to its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to produce biosurfactants. Isolated IR1 was identified as Pseudomonas putida by analysis of 16S rRNA sequences (99.6% homology). It was capable of utilizing two-, three- and four-ring PAHs but not hexadecane and octadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR and DNA hybridization studies showed that enzymes involved in PAH metabolism were related to the naphthalene dioxygenase pathway. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants were produced by IR1 during growth on both water miscible and immiscible substrates. The biosurfactants lowered the surface tension of medium from 54.9 dN cm{sup -1} to 35.4 dN cm{sup -1} and formed a stable and compact emulsion with an emulsifying activity of 74% with diesel oil, when grown on dextrose. These findings indicate that this isolate may be useful for bioremediation of sites contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  5. The Effect of Interaction Between White-rot Fungi and Indigenous Microorganisms on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, C. in der [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)], E-mail: carsten.wiesche@fal.de; Martens, R. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany); Zadrazil, F. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)

    2003-05-15

    White-rot fungi applied for soil bioremediation have to compete with indigenous soil microorganisms. The effect of competition on both indigenous soil microflora and white-rot fungi was evaluated with regard to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with different persistence in soil. Sterile and non-sterile soil was artificially contaminated with {sup 14}C-labeled PAH consisting of three (anthracene), four (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene) and five fused aromatic rings (benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The two fungi tested,Dichomitus squalens and Pleurotus ostreatus, produced similar amounts of ligninolytic enzymes in soil, but PAH mineralization by P. ostreatus was significantly higher. Compared to the indigenous soil microflora, P.ostreatus mineralized 5-ring PAH to a larger extent, while the indigenous microflora was superior in mineralizing 3-ring and 4-ring PAH. In coculture the special capabilities of both soil microflora and P. ostreatus were partly restricted due to antagonistic interactions, but essentially preserved. Thus, soil inoculation with P. ostreatus significantly increased the mineralization of high-molecular-weight PAH, and at the same time reduced the mineralization of anthracene and pyrene. Regarding the mineralization of low-molecular-weight PAH, the stimulation of indigenous soil microorganisms by straw amendment was more efficient than application of white-rot fungi.

  6. Genomic insights into the metabolic potential of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz; Selesi, Draženka; Weinmaier, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Rattei, Thomas; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an important process during natural attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbon spills. However, knowledge about metabolic potential and physiology of organisms involved in anaerobic degradation of PAHs is scarce. Therefore, we introduce the first genome of the sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacterium N47 able to catabolize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, or 2-naphthoic acid as sole carbon source. Based on proteomics, we analysed metabolic pathways during growth on PAHs to gain physiological insights on anaerobic PAH degradation. The genomic assembly and taxonomic binning resulted in 17 contigs covering most of the sulfate reducer N47 genome according to general cluster of orthologous groups (COGs) analyses. According to the genes present, the Deltaproteobacterium N47 can potentially grow with the following sugars including d-mannose, d-fructose, d-galactose, α-d-glucose-1P, starch, glycogen, peptidoglycan and possesses the prerequisites for butanoic acid fermentation. Despite the inability for culture N47 to utilize NO(3) (-) as terminal electron acceptor, genes for nitrate ammonification are present. Furthermore, it is the first sequenced genome containing a complete TCA cycle along with the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The genome contained a significant percentage of repetitive sequences and transposase-related protein domains enhancing the ability of genome evolution. Likewise, the sulfate reducer N47 genome contained many unique putative genes with unknown function, which are candidates for yet-unknown metabolic pathways.

  7. Atmospheric levels and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Man, Ruilin; Ma, Shexia; Li, Juansheng; Wu, Qi; Peng, Juanying

    2015-11-15

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 contribute significantly to health risk. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and variation in the concentrations and sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs sampled from the atmosphere of a typical southeastern Chinese city (Guangzhou) from June 2012 to May 2013, with the potential risks being investigated. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 64.88μgm(-3). The annual average concentration of PAHs in PM2.5 was 33.89ngm(-3). Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was found to be the predominant PAH in all PM2.5 samples throughout the year, constituting approximately 8.78% of the total PAH content. The significant meteorological parameters for most of the PAHs were sunshine time, air pressure, and humidity, together representing 10.7-52.4% of the variance in atmospheric PAH concentrations. Motor-vehicle exhaust and coal combustion were probably the main sources of PAHs in PM2.5 in Guangzhou. The average inhalation cancer risk (ICR) for a lifetime of 70years was 5.98×10(-4) (ranging from 8.39×10(-5) to 1.95×10(-3)).

  8. Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments and plants of mangrove swamps in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenglan; Zeng, Xiaokang; Yang, Junda; Zhou, Kai; Zan, Qijie; Lei, Anping; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-08-30

    The concentrations of 16 individual and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑PAHs) in sediments, roots and leaves of three mangrove swamps in Shenzhen, China, namely Futian, Baguang and Waterlands, were determined. The mean concentration of ∑PAHs in Futian (4480 ng g(-1)) was significantly higher than that in Baguang (1262 ng g(-1)) and Waterlands (2711 ng g(-1)). Among the 16 PAHs, the concentration of naphthalene was the highest. Based on the ratios of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene, PAHs in Futian and Waterlands came from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources, while Baguang was mainly from pyrolytic. More PAHs were accumulated in leaves, as reflected by its higher mean concentration of ∑PAHs (3697 ng g(-1)) and bioconcentration factor of PAHs (BCF) (>1.5) than that in roots. The BCF values in plants collected from Futian were significantly higher than that from Waterlands. These results indicated that more attention should be paid to the PAH contamination in Futian.

  9. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Murakami, Michio; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-10-01

    We collected samples of roadside air, automobile exhaust soot, tires, asphalt, and used engine oil in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand, and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. The concentrations and compositions of PAHs and hopanes were utilized to identify the sources of PAHs in street dust, in which high concentrations of PAHs were reported in our previous study. Weight-based concentrations of total PAHs had the following order: gasoline-powered vehicle soot (2600+/-2900 microg/g; n=4)>diesel-powered vehicle soot (115+/-245 microg/g; n=7) approximately roadside aerosols (101+/-35 microg/g; n=5) approximately used engine oil (97+/-65 microg/g; n=4) approximately tire wear particles (82+/-41 microg/g; n=5)>asphalt (2.3+/-1.6 microg/g; n=3)>street dust (1.1+/-0.8 microg/g; n=10). In cluster analysis, all the source materials fell into different clusters from that in which street dust fell, indicating that multiple source materials contribute to PAHs in the street dust. Multiple regression analysis of PAH profiles and diagnostics of hopane compositions identified tire debris as the major contributor of PAHs to street dust, followed by diesel vehicle exhaust.

  10. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Dust of Xi'an City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Li-jun; Shi, Xing-min; Lu, Xin-wei

    2016-04-15

    A total of 58 surface dust samples were collected from Xi'an city. The concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). At the same time, the distribution and sources of PAHs in surface dust were studied. The results showed that the concentrations of individual PAH ranged from 14.69 to 6370. 48 microg x kg(-1), and the total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) ranged from 5039.67 to 47,738.50 microg x kg(-1), with a mean of 13,845.82 microg x kg(-1). Compared to the Y PAHs levels of other cities, the ∑16 PAHs in surface dust of Xi'an belonged to a relatively higher level. PAHs in surface dust were mainly dominated by high molecular weight PAHs with 4-6 rings and the concentration of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (1 CPAHs) accounted for 46.08% of 3 16PAHs. The mean of ∑16 PAHs in surface dust had the highest concentration at industrial area; followed by the educational area, traffic area, business and traffic area; residential area and parks showed relatively lower concentration. The average content of ∑16 PAHs in surface dust presented an increasing trend along the main urban area--the second ring road--the third ring road. ∑16 PAHs in surface dust had higher concentrations at the industrial areas of the east and west suburbs of Xi'an, the south suburb and the north section of the second ring road; ∑16 PAHs concentrations in the main urban area, north suburb and southeast part of Xi'an were relatively lower. The results of ratio, cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that PAHs in surface dust were mainly originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and coal combustion. Among them, diesel combustion reached 36.07%, gasoline combustion accounted for 32.31%, and coal combustion was resposbe for 23.40%

  11. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  12. Spatial distribution, potential risk assessment, and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Lake Chaohu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaocan; Huo, Shouliang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Xi, Beidou; Zeng, Xiangying; Wu, Fengchang

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-nine sediment samples were collected from Lake Chaohu, a shallow eutrophic lake in Eastern China, and were analyzed for 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the spatial distribution and exposure risks of PAHs. Three receptor models, the principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the Unmix model, were used in combination with the PAHs diagnostic ratios to investigate the potential source apportionment of PAHs. A clear gradient in the spatial distribution and the potential toxicity of PAHs was observed from west to east in the sediments of Lake Chaohu. ∑15PAH concentrations and the TEQ were in the range of 80.82-30 365.01 ng g(-1) d.w. and 40.77-614.03, respectively. The highest values of the aforementioned variables were attributed to urban-industrial pollution sources in the west lake region, and the levels decreased away from the river inlets. The three different models yielded excellent correlation coefficients between the predicted and measured levels of the 15 PAH compounds. Similarly, source apportionment results were derived from the three receptor models and the PAH diagnostic ratios, suggesting that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from coal combustion and wood combustion, followed by vehicular emissions. The PMF model yielded the following contributions to the PAHs from gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, unburned petroleum emissions, and wood combustion: 34.49, 24.61, 16.11, 13.01, and 11.78 %, respectively. The PMF model produced more detailed source apportionment results for the PAHs than the PCA-MLR and Unmix models.

  13. Black Tattoos Entail Substantial Uptake of Genotoxicpolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Human Skin and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC – DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1–0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1–11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body. PMID:24670978

  14. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  15. Unravelling airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southern China using tree-rings of 100-yr old Pinus Kwangtungensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Y. W.; Huang, Z.H.; Wen, D Z; Li, J; L. B. Huang

    2011-01-01

    Reliable perennial biomonitoring of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is urgently necessary to detect long-term impacts of anthropogenic emission, in response to industrial policies and combustion technology adoption. One hundred records of airborne PAHs were novelly demonstrated by analyzing the tree-rings of Kwangtung pine (Pinus kwangtungensis) formed from 1883 to 2007 at Naling Mountains of southern China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) detec...

  16. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

  17. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchan, S; Britz, M L; Stanley, G A

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10, 201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO(2) by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization (53% of added [(14)C]benzo[a]pyrene was recovered as (14)CO(2) in 100 days), and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

  18. Photochemical degradation of hydroxy PAHs in ice: Implications for the polar areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Linke; Li, Jun; Na, Guangshui; Chen, Chang-Er; Huo, Cheng; Zhang, Peng; Yao, Ziwei

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are derived from hydroxylated PAHs as contaminants of emerging concern. They are ubiquitous in the aqueous and atmospheric environments and may exist in the polar snow and ice, which urges new insights into their environmental transformation, especially in ice. In present study the simulated-solar (λ > 290 nm) photodegradation kinetics, products and pathways of four OH-PAHs (9-Hydroxyfluorene, 2-Hydroxyfluorene, 1-Hydroxypyrene and 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene) in ice were investigated, and the corresponding implications for the polar areas were explored. It was found that the kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics with the photolysis quantum yields (Φs) ranging from 7.48 × 10(-3) (1-Hydroxypyrene) to 4.16 × 10(-2) (2-Hydroxyfluorene). These 4 OH-PAHs were proposed to undergo photoinduced hydroxylation, resulting in multiple hydroxylated intermediates, particularly for 9-Hydroxyfluorene. Extrapolation of the lab data to the real environment is expected to provide a reasonable estimate of OH-PAH photolytic half-lives (t1/2,E) in mid-summer of the polar areas. The estimated t1/2,E values ranged from 0.08 h for 1-OHPyr in the Arctic to 54.27 h for 9-OHFl in the Antarctic. In consideration of the lower temperature and less microorganisms in polar areas, the photodegradation can be a key factor in determining the fate of OH-PAHs in sunlit surface snow/ice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the photodegradation of OH-PAHs in polar areas.

  19. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  20. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  1. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  2. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  3. Using sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatmand, Mohammad; Ng, How Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was explored to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water originated from soil. The results showed consistent power generations of 6.02±0.34 and 3.63±0.37 mW/m(2) under an external resistance of 1500 Ω by the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively. Although the power generations were low, they had relatively low internal resistances (i.e., 436.6±69.4 and 522.1±1.8 Ω for the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively) in comparison with the literature. Nevertheless, the significant benefit of this system was its bioremediation capabilities, achieving 41.7%, 31.4% and 36.2% removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively, in the aerobic environment and 76.9%, 52.5% and 36.8%, respectively, in the anaerobic environment. These results demonstrated the ability of SMFCs in stimulating microorganisms for bioremediation of complex and recalcitrant PAHs.

  4. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. PAH Emission from Disks around Intermediate-Mass Stars: The Peculiar Aroma of Hydrocarbons Orbiting Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. D.; Sloan, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    Over half of the intermediate-mass young stellar objects in the Galaxy (e.g. Herbig Ae/Be stars or HAeBe) have high-contrast emission in the mid-infrared spectral features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the continuum produced by thermal emission from dust in the circumstellar disks. We have examined the PAH emission in detail for 30 HAeBe stars observed with the Spitzer IRS. We have identified some trends that, should they survive in a larger sample of HAeBe stars, will allow us to infer large-scale disk geometry (both inner and outer) and the degree of photo-processing of organic molecular material in HAeBe disks: HAeBe stars apparently have distinctive PAH spectra among the many other astronomical environments that are characterized by strong PAH emission; strong PAH emission is not necessarily an indicator of a particular disk geometry; PAH spectra of HAeBe stars change systematically with stellar effective temperature; PAH in HAeBe disks are ionized. As part of a Spitzer archival project we are applying our spectral analysis methods to an even larger sample of HAeBe stars observed with the IRS and currently available in the Spitzer archive. Here we report preliminary results as we begin the larger study.

  6. Increase in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to briquetting: A challenge to the coal briquetting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Chongguo Tian; Bi, Xinhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-09-01

    Both China and UNEP recommend replacing raw coal chunks with coal briquettes in household sector as clean coal technology (CCT), which has been confirmed by the decreased emissions of particulate matter and black carbon. However, the clean effect has never been systematically checked by other pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, 5 coals with different geological maturities were processed as both chunks and briquettes and burned in 3 typical coal stoves for the measurement of emission factors (EFs) of particle-bound PAHs. It was found that the EFs of 16 parent PAHs, 26 nitrated PAHs, 6 oxygenated PAHs, and 8 alkylated PAHs for coal briquettes were 6.90 ± 7.89, 0.04 ± 0.03, 0.65 ± 0.40, and 72.78 ± 18.23 mg/kg, respectively, which were approximately 3.1, 3.7, 1.9, and 171 times those for coal chunks, respectively. Such significant increases in PAH emissions increased human health risk and challenged the policy of CCT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution, origin, and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from 12 locations of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations varied from 472 to 16,201 ng g(-1) dry weight. The highest PAH concentrations were from the industrial zone docks situated in south Kaohsiung Harbor. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the industrial zone dock could be coal combustion while in the other zones it could be petroleum combustion. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQcarc) of PAHs varied from 55 to 1964 ng TEQ g(-1) dry weight. Higher total TEQcarc values were found at industrial zone docks (from 1404 to 1964 ng TEQ g(-1) dry weight). As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the observed levels of PAHs at industrial zone docks exceeded the effects range low (ERL), and could thus cause acute biological damage. However, the lower levels of PAHs at the other zones would probably not exert adverse biological effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions of aryl hydrocarbon receptor genetic variants to the risk of glioma and PAH-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Aihua; Ji, Guixiang; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Ailin; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Luo, Chengzhang; Yan, Wei; Zhao, Peng

    2012-08-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene is involved in the response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. To investigate the hypothesis that the genetic variants in the AHR gene might be a causal genetic susceptibility to PAH-DNA adduct formation and glioma risk, we conducted a case-control study of 384 glioma cases and 384 cancer-free controls to explore the association between six common single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the AHR gene and glioma risk. Using PAH-DNA adducts as biomarkers, we then evaluated the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and glioma risk based on a tissue microarray including 11 controls and 77 glioma patients. We further explored the contributions of the glioma risk-associated AHR polymorphisms to the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in glioma tissues based on 77 glioma patients. We found that PAH-DNA adduct staining existed in normal brain tissues and grades I-IV gliomas, and the staining intensity was significantly associated with the glioma grade. Two AHR polymorphisms (rs2066853 and rs2158041) demonstrated significant association with glioma risk. Intriguingly, we also found statistically significant associations between these two variants and PAH-DNA adduct levels in glioma tissue. These data suggest the contributions of AHR rs2066853 and rs2158041 to glioma risk and the PAH-DNA adduct levels, which shed new light on gene-environment interactions in the etiology of glioma. Further studies with a larger sample size and ethnically diverse populations are required to elucidate the potential biological mechanism for, as well as the impact of, the susceptibility to glioma due to genetic variants of AHR.

  9. Pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oily sludge from the Zhongyuan Oilfield and its peripheral soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Shaoping; XU Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of contamination caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oily sludge and soils around it in the Zhongyuan Oilfield. The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oily sludge samples were determined with HPLC. The contents of PAHs of oily sludge from three different oil production plants vary from high to low in the order of the Wenming oily sludge dumping site of No. 3 Oil Production Plant (3W)>the Mazhai oily sludge dumping site of No. 3 Oil Production Plant (3M)>the Wen'er oily sludge dumping site of No. 4 Oil Production Plant (4W). Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine and phenanthrene are the major pollutants of PAHs in oily sludge. The contents of PAHs in soil samples around the oily sludge dumping sites vary widely from 434.49 to 2408.8 ng/g. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene and pyrene are the characteristic factors of PAHs in soil samples of 3M and 3W, and naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine and phenanthrene are the characteristic factors of PAHs in soil samples of 4W. According to these data and the ratios of Fl/Py, PAHs in oily sludge samples come mainly from petrogenic sources, and soil samples are divided into petrogenic soil samples and mixed-source soil samples, and both petrogenic and pyrogenic soil samples in terms of the sources of PAHs. The classification by Nemero index P indicates that soils around the oily sludge dumping sites have been seriously polluted.

  10. Development and application of a simultaneous SPE-method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HET) and phenols in aqueous samples from German Rivers and the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, Anne-Kathrin; Mänz, Jan Sebastian; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Ruck, Wolfgang K L

    2015-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HETs), alkylated PAHs and phenols are known as the prevailing contaminants in groundwater at tar contaminated sites. Besides these local sources, the concentrations and the distribution in particular of NSO-HETs in environmental samples, such as rivers, have received notably less attention. To investigate their occurrence in river basins two sensitive analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of 86 substances including NSO-HETs, classical EPA-PAHs, alkylated PAHs and phenols were developed: liquid-liquid extraction for the whole water phase and solid phase extraction for the dissolved water phase only. Solely GC-MS or additionally LC-MSMS for fractionated basic nitrogen heterocycles (N-HETs) were used for quantification. Limits of quantification were in the low ngL(-1) range. Concentrations were determined in 29 aqueous samples from 8 relatively large rivers located in Lower Saxony (Germany) and the North Sea. NSO-HETs had comparable or even higher sum concentrations than EPA-PAHs. N-HETs, especially acridine and quinolines with concentrations of up to 20ngL(-1) per substance, were predominant.

  11. Salinity and Conductivity Amendment of Soil Enhanced the Bioelectrochemical Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhao, Qian; Yu, Binbin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    The extreme salinity and high internal resistance of saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons were two key limitations for using the bioelectrochemical remediation. In order to solve two problems, we simply rinsed soil, added carbon fiber to polluted soil. The charge output was enhanced by 110% with increase of the maximum current densities from 81 to 304 mA·m‑2 while hydrocarbons degradation rate enhanced by 484%, especially the high molecular weight fractions (C28–C36 of n-alkanes and 4–6 rings of PAHs). These effects were possibly due to the selective enrichment of species belonged to δ-Proteobacteria (Proteobacteria), Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) or Clostridia (Firmicutes), the activities of biological electron transfer and enzymes. As we know, oxygenase gene that directly decided the process of degradation, was surveyed for the first time in soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. The results confirmed that the bio-current stimulated the activities of naphthalene dioxygenase and xylene monooxygenase and thus the hydrocarbons degradation and the electricity generation. Given that electricity generation and the remediation performance are governed by multiple factors, understanding of microbial community and enzyme gene is crucial to promote the power yield and the bioelectrochemical remediation applicability.

  12. Pilot scale ex-situ bioremediation of heavily PAHs-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by a PAHs-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Xu, Yang; Jin, Jing-Hua; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Luo, Mu; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-09-30

    This study aims at the remediation of heavily PAH-contaminated soil containing 375 mg of total PAHs per kilogram dry soil. Pilot scale bioremediation experiments were carried out by three approaches with contaminated soil from abandoned sites of Beijing Coking Plant using outdoor pot trials. The first approach was bioaugmentation with a bacterial strain which degrades PAH and produces bioemulsifier, the second approach comprised of biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms with supplementing nutrients and the last approach involved the combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation. An on-site land farming group was set as a control in which the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 23.4% and 10.1%, respectively after 175 days. Meanwhile, in the first approach group, the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 26.82% and 35.36%, respectively; in the second approach group both percentages were 33.9% and 11.0%, respectively; while in the third approach group, these pollutants were reduced by 43.9% and 55.0%, respectively. The results obtained suggested that biostimulation and bioaugmentation combined could significantly enhance the removal of PAHs in the contaminated soil.

  13. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  14. Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Magam, Sami M; Masood, Najat; Alkhadher, Sadeq A A; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the surface sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers were analyzed to identify the distributions, and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total PAH concentrations varied from 716 to 1210 and 1102 to 7938 ng g(-1)dw in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as moderate and high level of pollution in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The comparison of PAHs with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) indicates that the PAHs in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers may have the potential to cause adverse toxicity effects on the sampled ecosystems. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic- and pyrogenic-origin PAHs with dominance of pyrogenic source in both rivers. These findings demonstrate that the environmental regulations in Malaysia have effectively reduced the input of petrogenic petroleum hydrocarbons into rivers.

  15. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.P.; Tao, S.; Zhang, Z.H.; Lan, T.; Zuo, Q. [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Environmental Science

    2005-12-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C{sub max}) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C{sub n}) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m{sup -3} in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m{sup -3} in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP. mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of alpha-, beta-, delta- and gamma-HCH {Sigma} HCH) and the sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE {Sigma} DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m{sup -3} and 0.025-2.21 ng m{sup -3} respectively. In winter, {Sigma} HCH and {Sigma} DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m{sup -3} and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m{sup -3} respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in road dust from a metropolitan area, Hanoi-Vietnam: contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Misaki, Kentaro; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-09-01

    Dioxin-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) was applied to assess the total toxic activity of the mixture of PAHs and related compounds as well as dioxin-related compounds in road dust from urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. Road dust from Hanoi contained significantly higher DR-CALUX activities (3 to 39, mean 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw) than those from a rural site (2 to 13, mean 5 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw). The total concentrations of 24 major PAHs (Σ24PAHs) in urban road dust (0.1 to 5.5, mean 2.5 μg/g dw) were also 6 times higher than those in rural road dust (0.08 to 1.5, mean 0.4 μg/g dw). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated vehicular engine combustion as the major PAH emission source in both sites. PAHs accounted for 0.8 to 60% (mean 10%) and 2 to 76% (mean 20%) of the measured CALUX-TEQs in road dust for Hanoi the rural site, respectively. Benzo[b]-/benzo[k]fluoranthenes were the major TEQ contributors among PAHs, whereas DRCs contributed hydrocarbon receptor agonists in road dust. Significant PAH concentrations in urban dust indicated high mutagenic and carcinogenic potencies. Estimated results of incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that Vietnamese populations, especially those in urban areas such as Hanoi, are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact. This is the first study on the exposure risk of AhR agonists, including PAHs and DRCs, in urban road dust from a developing country using a combined bio-chemical analytical approach.

  17. Microcalorimetric investigation of the effect of non-ionic surfactant on biodegradation of pyrene by PAH-degrading bacteria Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Zhu, Qing; Qian, Yiguang; Song, Ying; Yao, Jun; Choi, Martin M F

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Surfactant has become a hot topic for its wide application in the bioremediation of PAHs. The aim of this work is to explore a microcalorimetric method to determine the toxic effect of pyrene on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and the PAH-degrading bacteria Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) and to evaluate the effect of Tween 80 on biodegradation of pyrene. Power-time curves were studied and calorimetric parameters including the growth rate constant (k), half inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀), and total thermal effect (Q(T)) were determined. B. subtilis, B. cepacia and B. cepacia with Tween 80 were completely inhibited when the concentration of pyrene were 200, 800 and 1600 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. B. cepacia shows better tolerance to pyrene than B. subtilis. Tween 80 significantly improves the biodegradation of pyrene by increasing the bioavailability of pyrene. In addition, the expression of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) in B. cepacia is responsible for the degradation of pyrene and plays an important role in improving the biodegradation of pyrene. Moreover, the activity of C23O increases with the application of Tween 80. The enhanced bioavailability and biodegradation of pyrene by Tween 80 shows the potential use of Tween 80 in the PAHs bioremediation.

  18. 土壤多环芳烃污染的植物根际降解研究%Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱军; 李晓亮; 王凤花; 谢文娟

    2011-01-01

    人类活动引起的土壤多环芳烃(PAHs)累积已经引起了土壤污染,并已经成为影响人体健康和农业生产的重要环境问题之一.在土壤环境中,植物根际过程是土壤多环芳烃消除的关键环节之一.为此,对土壤中多环芳烃污染的来源和危害进行了叙述,并对土壤多环芳烃污染生物降解的机制和影响因素进行了分析.说明了土壤根际降解在土壤多环芳烃污染修复中的作用和多环芳烃在根际降解中的限制因素,指出提高土壤多环芳烃修复的关键因素之一是提高土壤多环芳烃的生物可利用性,最后对环芳烃在根际降解研究的发展趋势进行了展望.%Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to a variety of anthropogenic activities were one class of toxic environmental pollutants that had accumulated in the soil environment and induced risk to human health and agriculture production. In the bioremediation of soil contaminated by PAHs, rhizosphere process played an important role. In the paper, the status of PAHs in soil and the toxicity induced by the accumulation of PAHs was reviewed. The effects of soil environment on the rhizosphere biodegradation and the mechanism of PAHs degradation were introduced in details and the bioremediation could be enhanced by increased the bioavailability of PAHs in soil. Finally, it was forecasted the trends of PAHs biodegradation in rhizosphere soil.

  19. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  20. Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Young Sung, E-mail: ysghim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Wangsan-ri, Mohyeon-myeon, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, BK21 Team for Biohydrogen Production, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young [Center for Environmental Technology Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Pyo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected air samples at a remote site during an Asian dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed levels, patterns, and gas/particle partitioning of PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particulate PAHs were highly correlated with PM{sub 2.5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fraction of particulate PAHs increased during the dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine particles might be an important carrier of PAHs emitted from China. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and total suspended particles were measured at Gosan, Jeju Island in Korea, a remote background site, for 15 days (March 29-April 12, 2002). During the sampling period, a severe three-day Asian dust (AD) event originating from Mongolia and northern China was observed throughout the Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island. In addition, pollution (PO) and normal (NO) periods were also identified based on the levels of anthropogenic pollutants. Despite a large difference of PM{sub 10} concentrations between the AD and PO periods, the levels of particulate PAHs in both periods were comparable (2.7 {+-} 1.0 and 2.4 {+-} 0.5 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) since they were determined by the concentration of anthropogenic PM{sub 2.5} transported from industrial areas of China. In the AD period, the level of gaseous PAHs, which were mostly from local sources, was the lowest due to strong winds; the gas/particle partitioning was close to equilibrium as the effect of long-range transport was manifested. The results of backward air trajectories, correlation analysis, and diagnostic ratios show that long-range transport of particulate PAHs produced by coal/biomass burning in China could strongly affect the levels and patterns of PAHs at Gosan, Korea.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from mangrove of Guadeloupe: levels, bioavailability, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdine, Gaëlle; Fichet, Denis; Louis, Max; Lemoine, Soazig

    2012-05-01

    Surface sediment and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from the coastlines of Guadeloupe were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using GC/MS. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were used to assess the response of these oysters to hydrocarbons exposure. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 49 to 1065 ng/g dw, while concentrations in oyster ranged from 66 to 961 ng/g dw. Molecular indices based on isomeric PAHs ratios characterize the pollution sources and show that most of the contaminations in sediment originate from pyrolytic inputs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) have been related to isomeric ratio calculated for oysters in order to refine PAHs sources. The variations of BAFs observed in the different compounds resulted from different uptake pathways in the mangrove oysters according to the type of inputs. Response of biomarkers showed inhibition of catalase and an increase of lipid peroxidation at the station where PAHs concentrations were the highest. Taken together, data obtained point to the relevance of considering environmental conditions as factors influencing biomarker responses in environmental monitoring programs. These data also indicate the need for regular environmental follow-up studies in Guadeloupe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupka Daniel

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The abilities of microorganisms to mineralize a wide range of pollutants are well known. Biological processes for the removal of crude oil hydrocarbons from environment are attractive because they consume less energy than conventional physico-chemical processes and offer possibilities for recycling chemicals in the framework of integrated system.

  3. PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), nitro-PAHs, and hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments of southern Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-07-15

    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ΣPAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1,291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metrictons per year (t/yr) of ΣPAH14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56 ± 18%), coal power plants (27 ± 14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16 ± 11%), and coke ovens (7 ± 12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAH levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for

  4. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Nitro-PAHs, Hopanes and Steranes Biomarkers in Sediments of Southern Lake Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ΣPAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metric tons per year (t/yr) of ΣPAH14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56±18%), coal power plants (27±14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16±11%), and coke ovens (7±12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAHs levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work

  5. Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Groboillot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production.

  6. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Crassostrea rhizophorae and Cathorops spixii from the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Gobin, Judith F; Beckles, Denise M; Lauckner, Bruce; Mohammed, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may pose serious threats to human health. However, within the Caribbean, quantitative assessments regarding the risks associated with dietary PAH exposure remain sparse. This study investigated PAH presence in edible biota from the Caroni Swamp and quantitatively assessed the potential health threat to human consumers. Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and Madamango sea catfish (Cathorops spixii) collected from seven sites in the Caroni Swamp were analysed for 16 priority PAHs. Total PAH levels ranged from 109 ± 18.4 to 362 ± 63.0 ng/g dry wt. in Crassostrea rhizophorae and 7.5 ± 0.9 to 43.5 ± 25.5 ng/g dry wt. in Cathorops spixii (average ± standard deviation). Benzo[a]pyrene levels in Crassostrea rhizophorae at all sites exceeded international guidelines from British Colombia (Canada) and the European Union (EU). Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values based on the ingestion of Crassostrea rhizophorae ranged from 8.4 × 10(-6) to 1.6 × 10(-5) and slightly exceeded the commonly used 1 × 10(-6) acceptable level of risk. Information from this study is important in understanding the potential health risks posed by PAHs, it is critical towards the protection of public health, and it serves as a useful baseline for comparison with future work.

  8. Distribution, sources and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in Guanting Reservoir sediments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sheng-biao; WANG Zi-jian; XU Yi-ping; MA Mei

    2005-01-01

    The Guanting Reservoir lost its function as the second biggest drinking water source for Beijing due to the pollutions from the upstream flow of Yongding River in 1997. From 1998, lots of studies were carryied out to renew the function of Guanting Reservoir as domestic drinking water source before 2008 Olympic Games. This is the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the surface sediment of Guanting Reservoir have been analyzed. A distinctive spatial distribution of PAHs was observed. Sediments from four sites along Inlet of Yongding River to reservoir bam had PAHs concentrations of 1377-2855 μg/g dw in descending order. The composition of PAHs is investigated and used to assess petrogenic,combustion and naturally derived of the sediments samples of Guanting Reservoir. Special PAHs ratios, such as phenanthrene/anthracene(P/A) and fluoranthene/pyrene(FI/Pyr) were calculated to assess the relative importance of different origins. The data confirmed a relatively high level of petrogenic contamination in four sites. These high PAHs levels were associated with the input of untreated and partially treated industrial sewage. In addition, the concentrations of PAHs compounds of samples indicated that sediments of reservoir were most likely to pose potential biological impairment.

  9. GammaProteobacteria as a potential bioindicator of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepceron, Maïté; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Crampon, Marc; Portet-Koltalo, Florence; Akpa-Vinceslas, Marthe; Legras, Marc; Bru, David; Bureau, Fabrice; Bodilis, Josselin

    2013-09-01

    The impact of a multiple contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied on permanent grassland soil, historically presenting low contamination (i.e. less than 1 mg kg(-1)). Soil microcosms were spiked at 300 mg kg(-1) with either single or a mixture of seven PAHs. While total dissipation of the phenanthrene was reached in under 90 days, only 60% of the PAH mixture were dissipated after 90 days. Interestingly, after 30 days, the abundance of the GammaProteobacteria class (assessed by qPCR) become significantly higher in microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. In addition, the specific abundance of the cultivable Pseudomonas spp., which belong to the GammaProteobacteria class, increased earlier and transiently (after 8 days) in the microcosms spiked with the PAH mixture. Consequently, we propose to use the GammaProteobacteria as a bioindicator to detect the impact on the bacterial community of a multiple contamination by PAHs in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of radiocarbon analysis and receptor modeling to the source apportionment of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The radiocarbon tracer technique was used to demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be used for quantitative receptor modeling of air pollution. Fine-particle samples were collected during December, 1985, in Albuquerque, NM. Motor vehicles (fossil) and residential wood combustion (RWC, modern) were the major PAH-sources. For each sample, the PAH-fraction was solvent-extracted, isolated by liquid chromatography, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The PAH-fractions from sixteen samples were analyzed for {sup 14}C by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Radiocarbon data were used to calculate the relative RWC contribution (f{sub RWC}) for samples analyzed for {sup 14}C. Normalized concentrations of a prospective motor vehicle tracer, benzo(ghi)perylene (BGP) had a strong, negative correlation with f{sub RWC}. Normalized BGP concentrations were used to apportion sources for samples not analyzed for {sup 14}C. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) vs. ADCS and BGP was used to estimate source profiles for use in Target Factor Analysis (TFA). Profiles predicted by TFA were used in Chemical Mass Balances (CMBs). For non-volatile, stable PAHs, agreement between observed and predicted concentrations was excellent. The worst fits were observed for the most volatile PAHs and for coronene. The total RWC contributions predicted by CMBs correlated well with the radiocarbon data.

  11. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  12. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively.

  13. The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Across Reflection Nebulae: PAH Charge Balance and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction (f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μm PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  14. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  15. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  16. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  17. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking wastewater treatment plant residual by an O3/ultraviolet fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Zhang, Wanhui; Yuan, Mengyang; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) represents a typical point source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the water environment and threatens the safety of drinking water in downstream regions. To enhance the removal of residual PAHs from bio-treated coking wastewater, a pilot-scale O3/ultraviolet (UV) fluidized bed reactor (O3/UV FBR) was designed and different operating factors including UV irradiation intensity, pH, initial concentration, contact time, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were investigated at an ozone level of 240 g h(-1) and 25 ± 3 °C. A health risk evaluation and cost analysis were also carried out under the continuous-flow mode. As far as we know, this is the first time an O3/UV FBR has been explored for PAHs treatment. The results indicated that between 41 and 75 % of 18 target PAHs were removed in O3/UV FBR due to synergistic effects of UV irradiation. Both increased reaction time and increased pH were beneficial for the removal of PAHs. The degradation of the target PAHs within 8 h can be well fitted by the pseudo-first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.920). The reaction rate was also positively correlated with the initial concentrations of PAHs. The health risk assessment showed that the total amount of carcinogenic substance exposure to surface water was reduced by 0.432 g day(-1). The economic analysis showed that the O3/UV FBR was able to remove 18 target PAHs at a cost of US$0.34 m(-3). These results suggest that O3/UV FBR is efficient in removing residuals from CWWTP, thus reducing the accumulation of persistent pollutant released to surface water.

  18. Adaptability of microbial inoculators and their contribution to degradation of mineral oil and PAHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five dominant bacteria strains(Acetobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp.) and five fungi strains (Cephalosporium sp. I, Cephalosporium sp. Ⅱ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅰ, Aspergillus sp. Ⅱ and Fusarium sp.) isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil were used to assess the potential capability of mineral oil and PAH enhanced degradation separately and jointly using the batch liquid medium cultivation with diesel oil spiked at 1000 mg/L. The experiment was performed on a reciprocal shaker in the darkness at 25℃ to 30℃ for 100 d. The dynamic variation in the activity of microbial inoculators in each treatment and the degradation of the target pollutants during the period of experiment were monitored. Results showed a more rapid biodegradation of mineral oil and PAHs at the beginning of the experiment (about 20 d) by dominant bacteria, fungi and their mixture than that of the indigenous microorganisms, however, thereafter an opposite trend was exhibited that the removal ratio by indigenous microorganisms was superior to any other dominant treatments and the tendency lasted till the end of the experiment, indicating the limited competitive capability of dominant microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, and the natural selection of indigenous microorganisms for use in the removal of the contaminants. At the end of the experiment, the removal ratio of mineral oil ranged from 56.8 % to 79.2 % and PAHs ranged from 96.8 % to 99.1% in each treatment by microbial inoculators.

  19. Aqueous photochemical degradation of hydroxylated PAHs: Kinetics, pathways, and multivariate effects of main water constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Linke; Na, Guangshui [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Chang-Er [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Li, Jun [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Ju, Maowei; Wang, Ying; Li, Kai [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Peng, E-mail: pzhang@nmemc.org.cn [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China); Yao, Ziwei [Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas (SOA), National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are contaminants of emerging concern in the aquatic environment, so it is of great significance to understand their environmental transformation and toxicity. This study investigated the aqueous photochemical behavior of four OH-PAHs, 9-Hydroxyfluorene (9-OHFL), 2-Hydroxyfluorene, 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-Hydroxypyrene, under simulated sunlight irradiation (λ > 290 nm). It was observed that their photodegradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Based on the determined quantum yields, their calculated solar apparent photodegradation half-lives in surface waters at 45° N latitude ranged from 0.4 min for 9-Hydroxyphenanthrene to 7.5 × 10{sup 3} min for 9-OHFL, indicating that the OH-PAHs would intrinsically photodegrade fast in sunlit surface waters. Furthermore, 9-OHFL as an example was found to undergo direct photolysis, and self-sensitized photooxidation via ·OH rather than {sup 1}O{sub 2} in pure water. The potential photoreactions involved photoinduced hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and isomerization based on product identification by GC–MS/MS. 9-OHFL photodegraded slower in natural waters than in pure water, which was attributed to the integrative effects of the most photoreactive species, such as Fe(III), NO{sub 3}{sup −}, Cl{sup −} and humic acid. The photomodified toxicity was further examined using Vibrio fischeri, and it was found that the toxicity of photolyzed 9-OHFL did not decrease significantly (p > 0.05) either in pure water or in seawater, implying the comparable or higher toxicity of some intermediates. These results are important for assessing the fate and risks of OH-PAHs in surface waters. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous photochemical behavior of 4 hydroxylated PAHs is first reported on revealing the kinetics, mechanisms, toxicity, and multivariate effects of water constituents. - Highlights: • It is first reported on aqueous photochemical behavior of 4 hydroxylated

  20. Cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent characterisation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Guaymas Basin sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony eGutierrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the biodegradation of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the diversity and function of these organisms in deep-sea sediment. Here we used stable-isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading bacteria under aerobic conditions in sediments from Guaymas Basin with uniformly labeled [13C]phenanthrene. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from phenanthrene enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Cycloclasticus. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus to determine their abundance in sediment incubations amended with unlabeled phenanthrene and showed substantial increases in gene abundance during the experiments. We also isolated a strain, BG-2, representing the SIP-identified Cycloclasticus sequence (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, and used this strain to provide direct evidence of phenanthrene degradation and mineralization. In addition, we isolated Halomonas, Thalassospira and Lutibacterium spp. with demonstrable phenanthrene-degrading capacity from Guaymas Basin sediment. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of PAH-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea.

  1. The Influence of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Bioavailability and Toxicity to Soil Microbial Communities in Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may affect bioavailability and toxicity of organic contaminants due to their adsorption properties. Recent studies have observed the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic contaminants. Greenh...

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene by iron oxides and identification of degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Gupta, Bina

    2015-11-01

    Photocatalytic decay profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been investigated on various synthesized iron oxides and on soil surfaces under a set of diverse conditions. Samples were analysed using the developed HPLC procedure. Results of the present study demonstrate fastest photodisintegration of B[a]P on goethite followed by haematite, magnetite, akaganeite and maghemite, respectively. The effect of soil pH, irradiation wavelength and iron oxide and oxalic acid dose on the degradation of B[a]P was evaluated. The studies revealed enhancement in photodegradation in the presence of oxalic acid due to the occurrence of fenton like reaction. The results showed faster B[a]P degradation under short wavelength UV radiation. Rate constants in acidic, neutral and alkaline soils under optimum dissipation conditions were 1.11×10(-2), 7.69×10(-3) and 9.97×10(-3) h(-1), respectively. The study indicates that iron oxides along with oxalic acid are effective photocatalyst for the remediation of benzo[a]pyrene contaminated soil surfaces. The degradation products of B[a]P in the soils of different pH in presence of goethite were identified and degradation pathways proposed. Peaks due to toxic metabolites such as diones, diols and epoxides disappear after 120 h in all the three soils.

  3. Characterization of EPA's 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tank bottom solids and associated contaminated soils at oil exploration and production sites in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojes, Heidi K; Pope, Peter G

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of environmentally toxic and persistent chemicals, at contaminated oil exploration and production (E&P) sites located in environmentally sensitive and geographically distinct areas throughout Texas. Samples of tank bottom solids, the oily sediment that collects at the bottom of the tanks, were collected from inactive crude oil storage tanks at E&P sites and hydrocarbon contaminated soil samples were collected from the area surrounding each tank that was sampled. All samples were analyzed for the 16 PAH priority pollutant listed by US EPA and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The results demonstrate that overall average PAH concentrations were significantly higher in tank bottom solids than in contaminated soils. Total PAH concentrations decreased predictably with diminishing hydrocarbon concentrations; but the percent fraction of carcinogenic PAHs per total measured PAH content increased from approximately 12% in tank bottom solids to about 46% in the contaminated soils. These results suggest that the PAH content found in tank bottom solids cannot reliably be used to predict the PAH content in associated contaminated soil. Comparison of PAHs to conservative risk-based screening levels for direct exposure to soil and leaching from soil to groundwater indicate that PAHs are not likely to exceed default risk-based thresholds in soils containing TPH of 1% (10,000mg/kg) or less. These results show that the magnitude of TPH concentration may be a useful indicator of potential risk from PAHs in crude oil-contaminated soils. The results also provide credibility to the 1% (10,000mg/kg) TPH cleanup level, used in Texas as a default management level at E&P sites located in non-sensitive areas, with respect to PAH toxicity.

  4. The ecology of anaerobic degraders of BTEX hydrocarbons in aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Tillmann

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) contaminants in groundwater relies largely on anaerobic processes. While the physiology and biochemistry of selected relevant microbes have been intensively studied, research has now started to take the generated knowledge back to the field, in order to trace the populations truly responsible for the anaerobic degradation of BTEX hydrocarbons in situ and to unravel their ecology in contaminated aquifers. Here, recent advances in our knowledge of the identity, diversity and ecology of microbes involved in these important ecosystem services are discussed. At several sites, distinct lineages within the Desulfobulbaceae, the Rhodocyclaceae and the Gram-positive Peptococcaceae have been shown to dominate the degradation of different BTEX hydrocarbons. Especially for the functional guild of anaerobic toluene degraders, specific molecular detection systems have been developed, allowing researchers to trace their diversity and distribution in contaminated aquifers. Their populations appear enriched in hot spots of biodegradation in situ (13)C-labelling experiments have revealed unexpected pathways of carbon sharing and obligate syntrophic interactions to be relevant in degradation. Together with feedback mechanisms between abiotic and biotic habitat components, this promotes an enhanced ecological perspective of the anaerobic degradation of BTEX hydrocarbons, as well as its incorporation into updated concepts for site monitoring and bioremediation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in communication air of Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nine PAHs were surveyed in communication air of Hangzhou. The results indicated that the PAHs pollution is very serious and the total sum of 9 PAHs, on the average are 3.39- 13.82 μg/m3. The PAHs signatures for all streets are similar to each other. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate source apportionment for PAHs. A factor analysis/multiple regression model was successfully applied to the study. The most important three PAHs sources in communication air are diesel emission, gasoline engine emission, coal-burning accounting for 61. 1 ± 6.4%, 19.9± 8.3%, 10.8 ± 10.8% of total PAHs, respectively. The relationship for three source tracers and total PAHsis: [PAHs] =1.471(±0.155)[Phen] + 2.538 (±2.522)[1-Mepy] +2.254 (±0.943)[Chry] + 1.022 (± 1.767).

  6. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  7. Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.

  8. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  9. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  10. [Characterization of a thermophilic Geobacillus strain DM-2 degrading hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-kun; Wang, Jun; Li, Guo-qiang; Ma, Ting; Liang, Feng-lai; Liu, Ru-lin

    2008-12-01

    A thermophilic Geobacillus strain DM-2 from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir was investigated on its capability of degrading crude oil under various conditions as well as its characters on degrading hydrocarbons in optimal conditions. The results showed that Geobacillus strain DM-2 was able to degrade crude oil under anoxic wide-range conditions with pH ranging from 4.0 to 10.0, high temperature in the range of 45-70 degrees C and saline concentration ranging from 0.2% to 3.0%. Furthermore, the optimal temperature and pH value for utilizing hydrocarbons by the strain were 60 degrees C and 7.0, respectively. Under such optimal conditions, the strain utilized liquid paraffine emulsified by itself as its carbon source for growth; further analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and infrared absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that it was able to degrade n-alkanes (C14-C30), branched-chain alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil and could also utilize long-chain n-alkanes from C16 to C36, among of which the degradation efficiency of C28 was the highest, up to 88.95%. One metabolite of the strain oxidizing alkanes is fatty acid.While utilizing C16 as carbon source for 5 d, only one fatty acid-acetic acid was detected by HPLC and MS as the product, with the amount of 0.312 g/L, which indicated that it degraded n-alkanes with pathway of inferior terminal oxidation,and then followed by a beta-oxidation pathway. Due to its characters of efficient emulsification, high-performance degradation of hydrocarbons and fatty-acid production under high temperature and anoxic condition, the strain DM-2 may be potentially applied to oil-waste treatment and microbial enhanced heavy oil recovery in extreme conditions.

  11. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2017-03-01

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  12. An assessment of the concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aftermath of a chemical store fire incident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Radzi Bin Abas; Nasr Yousef M. J. Omar; M. Jamil Maah

    2004-01-01

    PM10 airborne particles and soot deposit collected after a fire incident at a chemical store were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs). The samples were extracted with 1:1 hexane-dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric(GC-MS) analysis. The total PAHs concentrations in airborne particles and soot deposit were found to be 3.27 ( 1.55 ng/m3 and 12.81 ( 24.37 μg/g, respectively. Based on the molecular distributions of PAHs and the interpretation of their diagnostic ratios such as PHEN/(PHEN + ANTH), FLT/(FLT + PYR) and BeP/(BeP + BaP), PAHs in both airborne particles and soot deposit may be inferred to be from the same source. The difference in the value of IP/(IP + BgP) for these samples indicated that benzo[g,h,i]perylene and coronene tend to be attached to finer particles and reside in the air for longer periods. Comparison between the molecular distributions of PAHs and their diagnostic ratios observed in the current study with those reported for urban atmospheric and roadside soil particles revealed that they are of different sources.

  13. Chronic Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination Is a Marginal Driver for Community Diversity and Prokaryotic Predicted Functioning in Coastal Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanbille, Mathilde; Gury, Jérôme; Duran, Robert; Tronczynski, Jacek; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Agogué, Hélène; Saïd, Olfa Ben; Taïb, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Garnier, Cédric; Auguet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales. PMID:27594854

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  15. PAH emission from Herbig AeBe stars: Do hydrocarbons in proto-planetary disks have a unique aroma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Luke; Sloan, Greg

    2008-03-01

    Over half of the intermediate-mass young stellar objects in the Galaxy (e.g. Herbig AeBe stars or HAeBe) have high-contrast emission in the mid-infrared spectral features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the continuum produced by thermal emission from dust in the circumstellar disks. We have examined the PAH emission in detail for a sample of 19 HAeBe stars observed with the Spitzer IRS as part of the IRS Disks GTO program. Even with this relatively small sample, we have identified some trends that, should they survive in a larger sample of HAeBe stars, will allow us to infer large-scale disk geometry (both inner and outer) and the degree of photo-processing of organic molecular material in HAeBe disks. The bottom line of our work thus far is that HAeBe apparently have distinctive PAH spectra among the many other astronomical environments that are characterized by strong PAH emission. We therefore propose to apply our spectral analysis methods to an additional 57 HAeBe observed with the IRS and currently (or soon to be) available in the Spitzer archive. Our total sample of 76 HAeBe stars will allow closer scrutiny of the trends that we have identified in our empirical study and will also be the subject of a detailed disk modeling effort that will include the PAH emission.

  16. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA, and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3, action level (0.1 mg/m3, and acceptable health risk (10−3, respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures.

  18. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  19. Chronic Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination Is a Marginal Driver for Community Diversity and Prokaryotic Predicted Functioning in Coastal Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanbille, Mathilde; Gury, Jérôme; Duran, Robert; Tronczynski, Jacek; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Agogué, Hélène; Saïd, Olfa Ben; Taïb, Najwa; Debroas, Didier; Garnier, Cédric; Auguet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  20. Inferring sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the western Taiwan Strait through end-member mixing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Guihua; Ma, Shengzhong; Liang, Kai; Yang, Chupeng; Li, Bo; Luo, Weidong

    2016-11-15

    Concentration, spatial distribution, composition and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated based on measurements of 16 PAH compounds in surface sediments of the western Taiwan Strait. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.41 to 218.54ngg(-1). Cluster analysis identified three site clusters representing the northern, central and southern regions. Sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic in the north, from pyrolytic in the central, and from petrogenic in the south. An end-member mixing model was performed using PAH compound data to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end-members (i.e., extreme-value sample points) proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the analyzed samples can be expressed as mixtures of three end-members, and the mixing of different end-members was strongly related to the transport pathway controlled by two currents, which alternately prevail in the Taiwan Strait during different seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils using ultrasonic agitation, heater/mini condenser tube and gaseous chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of gas stations in Brazil made it also possible the increase in the risk of underground waters contamination due to fuel spill. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are petroleum-derived components and constitute a group of organic pollutants which are persistent in the environment and have highly carcinogenic capacity. In this work it was developed a PAHs analysis methodology in soils for quantifying these components, using the gaseous chromatography technique, through the optimization and validation of the chromatographic as well as the extraction, concentration and purification conditions of the PAHs. A good resolution for the sixteen PAHs was obtained, with retention times ranging from 6.1 to 43.7 minutes. The tube-heater/mini condenser system used for the solvent evaporation also showed satisfactory recovery for the naphthalene (83% as well as the extraction method by ultrasonic agitation with dichloromethane, obtaining recoveries that ranged from 74 to 104%. The analysis method proved to be appropriate for the quantification of the 16 PAHs in the evaluation of the environmental contamination in gas stations.

  2. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inputs from the Rhône River to the Mediterranean Sea in relation with the hydrological cycle: impact of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Fernandes, Milena B; Pont, Didier

    2008-11-01

    The concentrations of dissolved and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in waters of the Rhône River (France) every fortnight for a full calendar year, from June 1994 to May 1995. All flood events occurring over the course of the experiment were sampled at higher frequency to better quantify the impact of these extreme hydrological episodes on the annual export of PAHs to the Mediterranean Sea. This time-series indicates that more than 90% of the annual load of particulate PAHs is transported during flood episodes, with 77% discharged during the course of only one extreme flood event occurring in November 1994. During these intense events, riverine particles are depleted in PAHs while at low river discharge particles are PAH-enriched. Dissolved PAHs were less variable and less abundant than adsorbed PAHs, consistently with the low solubility of these compounds.

  3. Selective treatment to reduce contamination of propolis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) still preserving its active polyphenol component and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Fabio; Crimaldi, Laura; Maccari, Francesca; Zaccaria, Vincenzo; Fachini, Alfredo; Volpi, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents. Extracts were characterised for total content of polyphenols, for in vitro antioxidant activity, and single classes of polyphenols evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Obtained propolis extracts were found to have PAH8 and specific benzo[a]pyrene content below limits recommended by EFSA. The reported extractive procedure is easily applicable for possible industrial productions and may also be adopted to the purification of polyphenols from other plant extracts and natural sources.

  4. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscales, Jose L., E-mail: jlroscales@iqog.csic.es [Research Institute of Biodiversity (IRBio) and department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Barcelona University, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob [Research Institute of Biodiversity (IRBio) and department of Animal Biology (Vertebrates), Barcelona University, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calabuig, Pascual [Wildlife Fauna Tafira Recuperation Center, Cabildo de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Jimenez, Begona [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: > PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. > Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. > Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  5. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arterial street air of Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The presence of particulate and vapor PAHs, SO2 and Nox and other interrelated conditions (temperature, traffic intensity and wind velocity) were investigated in the arterial street air of Hangzhou. The concentration of the nine PAHs in the air was mean to 11.7 μg/m3, and the content of benzo(a)pyrene was up to 0.108 μg/m3. The contents of PAHs in the sampling sites were in good relation to the traffic intensity, and would be also affected by the terrain and meteorological conditions. The occurrences of PAHs in ambient air were mainly affected by their physical, chemical characters and temperature. The three- and four-ring PAHs (MW>228) mainly existed in the vapor phase and the five-ring PAHs (MW>228) existed predominately in the particulate phase. The fraction of vapor PAHs in the total nine PAHs was 84.2% in the air of the sampling sites. In the morning and evening, the concentrations of PAHs in the arterial street air were higher than that on the noon and the diurnal variation of PAHs was similar to that of the traffic gas NOx. A conclusion would be drawn that the major source of PAHs in the arterial street air was the traffic. And the results indicated that 75% of BaP would come from traffic source and remaining 25% of BaP would come from non-traffic source.

  6. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.

  7. PROPERTIES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE NORTHWEST PHOTON DOMINATED REGION OF NGC 7023. III. QUANTIFYING THE TRADITIONAL PROXY FOR PAH CHARGE AND ASSESSING ITS ROLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer/IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed. Here, results from fitting the 5.2–14.5 μm spectrum at each pixel using exclusively PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb/) and observed PAH band strength ratios, determined after isolating the PAH bands, are combined. This enables the first quantitative and spectrally consistent calibration of PAH charge proxies. Calibration is straightforward because the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio varies linearly with the ionized fraction (PAH ionization parameter) as determined from the intrinsic properties of the individual PAHs comprising the database. This, in turn, can be related to the local radiation field, electron density, and temperature. From these relations diagnostic templates are developed to deduce the PAH ionization fraction and astronomical environment in other objects. The commonly used 7.7/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio fails as a charge proxy over a significant fraction of the nebula. The 11.2/12.7 μm PAH band strength ratio, commonly used as a PAH erosion indicator, is revealed to be a better tracer for PAH charge across NGC 7023. Attempting to calibrate the 12.7/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio against the PAH hydrogen adjacency ratio (duo+trio)/solo is, unexpectedly, anti-correlated. This work both validates and extends the results from Paper I and Paper II.

  8. Contribution of commonly analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to potential toxicity in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, H.; Ishaq, R.; Tjarnlund, U.; Akerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Bandh, C.; Broman, D.; Balk, L. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science

    2006-06-15

    The potential toxicity of sediment extracts from a contaminated bay in Sweden was investigated through a series of bio-effect-directed fractionation experiments. The aim of the study was to determine the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to potential toxicity in early life stages of rainbow trout. The connection between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and toxicopathic effects caused by environmental polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) mixtures was also investigated. Although samples from PAC polluted areas cause mortalities and toxicopathic effects, the mechanisms of toxicity have been established for only a few PACs. Ten samples of the top 10 cm of bottom sediment were collected from the polluted bay. A synthetic PAC mixture was prepared with 17 commonly analyzed PAHs in amounts equimolar to those found in the sediment PAC fraction. The synthetic PAC mixture was injected into eggs in 3 graded doses corresponding to the analyzed amount of PAHs in the sediment PAC fraction. Ten subfractions were isolated from the sediment PAC fraction and from the synthetic PAC mixture. Toxicopathic variables and hepatic Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities were recorded in larvae. Abnormalities in newly hatched larvae included hemorrhages in the yolk sac, head, trunk and tail region; edemas in the yolk sac; pericardium, and fins; and asymmetric yolk sacs. The 17 PAHs were unable to account for the toxicopathic effects, and could explain less than 4 per cent of the total EROD induction. Results indicated that mortalities caused by complex environmental PAC mixtures may involve mechanisms other than AhR mediation. Only a small percentage of the potential toxicity from a polluted sediment sample to early life stages of fish could be attributed to the 17 PAHs. It was concluded that the lack of a clear relationship between toxicopathic effects and EROD induction emphasizes the need for a battery of bio-markers for estimating environmental risk. 30 refs

  9. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Starch-enhanced degradation of HMW PAHs by Fusarium sp. in an aged polluted soil from a coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ou-Ya; Zhang, Xue-Na; Feng, Sheng-Dong; Zhang, Li-Xiu; Shi, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Chena, Miao-Miao; Fanga, Xue-Dan

    2017-05-01

    The present study used strain ZH-H2 (Fusarium sp.) isolated by our group as the PAH-degrading strain and 5-6-rings PAHs as degradation objects. The soil incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the starch-enhanced degradation effects of HMW PAHs by Fusarium sp. in an Aged Polluted Soil from a Coal Mining Area. The results showed that the removal rates of BaP, InP and BghiP increased with increasing inoculation rate of ZH-H2 in the unsterile aged polluted soil of coal mining area, with the exception of BbF degradation which increased in the H2 treatment and then decreased. Different addition dosage of starch apparently resulted in degradation of 4 PAHs in soil, with removal rates of 14.47% for BaP, 23.83% for DbA, 30.77% for BghiP and 31.00% for InP obtained with treatment D2, respectively higher than in treatment D1. So starch addition apparently enhanced the degradation of the 4 PAHs, especially InP and BghiP, by native microbes in the aged HMW PAH-polluted soil. By adding starch to these aged polluted soils with inoculated strain ZH-H2, HMW-PAHs degradation was further improved and addition of 0.5 g kg(-1) starch to soils with 1.0 g kg(-1) Fusarium ZH-H2 (D2 + H2) performed best to the 4 HMW-PAHs in all of these combination treatments by a factor of up to 3.09, depending on the PAH. We found that the highest polyphenol oxidase activities under D2 + H2 treatments are consistent with the results of removal rates of 4 PAHs. Our findings suggest that the combination of Fusarium sp. ZH-H2 and starch offers a suitable alternative for bioremediation of aged PAH-contaminated soil in coal mining areas, with a recommended inoculation size of 0.5 g Fusarium sp. ZH-H2 and addition of 0.5 g kg(-1) starch per kg soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments from urban and industrial areas of Asaluyeh Harbor, Iran: distribution, potential source and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Alireza; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Seifi, Morteza; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    The distribution and toxicity levels of 16 EPA priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Asaluyeh shore, Iran were investigated. The total concentrations of the PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 1,054 to 17,448 ng/g dry weights with a mean concentration of 8,067 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs showed that PAH levels are much higher in the industrial areas in comparison with urban areas. Based on diagnostic ratios, pyrogenic activities were dominant sources of PAHs pollution in sediments comparing petroleum sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ Carc) of PAHs ranged from 172 to 2,235 ng TEQ/g with mean value of 997.9. Toxicity levels were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Samples were collected from industrial and urban stations in Asaluyeh shores. According to SQGs, ΣPAHs concentrations in sediments of urban areas were below the ERL (effects range low), but the industrial samples had ΣPAHs concentrations between ERL and ERM (effects range median). Furthermore, ΣHPAHs (heavy PAHs) and some individual PAHs in some industrial stations exceeded ERM, indicating adverse ecological risk effects frequently occur. Findings demonstrate that the surface sediment from Asaluyeh shore is highly to very highly contaminated with PAHs.

  12. Eco-physiological Effects of Atmospheric Ozone and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandai, S.; Sakugawa, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] Tropospheric ozone is one of most concerned air pollutant, by causing damage to trees and crops. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants found in various environmental compartments. Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs can be driven from formation of intracellular single oxygen and other reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) leading to biological damages.(1) In the present study, we measured photosynthesis rate and other variables to investigate the effects of ozone and PAHs on the eco-physiological status of plants such as eggplant, common bean and strawberry. Plants treated with the single or combined air pollutants are expected to exhibit altered physiological, morphological and possibly growth changes. [Materials and Methods] We performed three exposure experiments. Exp.1. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings, were placed in the open-top chambers (n=6 plants/treatment). Treatment system was ozone (O)(120ppb), phenanthrene (P)(10μM), O+P, fluoranthene (F)(10μM), O+F, mannitol (M)(1mM) and the control (Milli-Q water)(C). P, F and M were sprayed three times weekly on the foliage part of eggplant. Average volume sprayed per seedling was 50mL. The treatment period was 30days and [AOT 40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb)]=28.8 ppmh. Exp.2, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). The treatment system was the same as Exp.1. The treatment period was 40days and [AOT 40]=38.4ppmh. Exp.3. Strawberry (Fragaria L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). Treatment system was O (120ppb), F(10μM), O+F, F+M, O+M and C. The treatment period was 90days and [AOT 40]=86.4ppmh. Ecophysiological variables examined were photosynthesis rate measured at saturated irradiance (Amax), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), photochemical efficiency of PS2 in the dark (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll contents, visual symptom assessment and elemental composition in the

  13. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  14. Biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their first metabolic products in in vivo exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Le Goff, Jeremie; Skogland, Karianne; Marcucci, Cristian R; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Lorentzen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment is a worldwide activity since some of these compounds are well-established carcinogens and mutagens. Contaminants in this class are in fact regarded as priority hazardous substances for environmental pollution (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was selected to assess in vivo effects of two PAH and their first metabolic products, namely, the corresponding trans-dihydrodiols, using biological markers. Fish were exposed for 1 wk to a single PAH (naphthalene or chrysene) and its synthetic metabolites ((1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol and (1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrochrysene-1,2-diol) by intraperitoneal injection in a continuous seawater flow system. After exposure, PAH metabolism including PAH metabolites in bile and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, oxidative stress glutathione S-transferases (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and genotoxicity such as DNA adducts were evaluated, as well as general health conditions including condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and gonadosomatic index (GSI). PAH metabolite values were low and not significantly different when measured with the fixed-wavelength fluorescence screening method, while the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method showed an apparent dose response in fish exposed to naphthalene. DNA adduct levels ≥0.16 × 10(-8) relative adduct level (RAL) were detected. It should be noted that 0.16 × 10(-8) RAL is considered the maximal acceptable background level for this species. The other biomarkers activities of catalase, GST, and EROD did not display a particular compound- or dose-related response. The GSI values were significantly lower in some chrysene- and in both naphthalene- and naphthalene diol-exposed groups compared to control.

  15. Microbial degradation mechanisms of soil high molecular weight PAHs and affecting factors: A review%土壤中高分子量PAHs微生物降解机理及影响因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭静静; 王宁; 黎慧娟; 蔡超

    2011-01-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( HMW PAHs) are a group of widespread and persistent organic pollutants with complex chemical structure and high hydropho-bicity, whereas microorganisms play a key role in the biodegradation of HMW PAHs. This paper summarized the bacterial strains that can degrade HMW PAHs, related degradation mechanisms, and the environmental factors ( soil nutrient contents, soil pH, soil structure and aeration, and combined pollution) affecting the biodegradation of HMW PAHs, and discussed the further research directions and focuses on the HMW PAHs-contaminated soil, aimed to provide references on the researches of bioremediation of HMW PAHs-contaminated environments and molecular mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of HMW PAHs.%高分子量多环芳烃( HMW PAHs)分子结构复杂,疏水性强,是环境中广泛存在的难降解的有机污染物.微生物降解是去除HMW PAHs的主要途径.本文介绍了PAHs降解菌株的种类和降解机理,以及不同环境因子(营养元素、pH值、土壤结构、通气状况和复合污染)对HMW PAHs降解的影响,提出HMW PAHs污染土壤的进一步研究的方向与重点,旨在为HMW PAHs污染修复研究和微生物降解机理研究提供参考.

  16. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  17. A complete re-assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Saguenay Fjord (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, E.; Cote, N.; Curtosi, A.; St-Louis, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski

    2003-07-01

    The sediments in the Saguenay Fjord and the Baie des HaHa were contaminated during the 1960s and 1970s. A study was conducted in the Spring of 2002 to obtain new data on the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments. Five sediment cores were sampled from different areas of the Fjord and analyzed for their PAH content by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAHs were reported for the first 28 cm of each core. The mean concentration in the surface layer was 310 ng/g with a maximum value of 460 ng/g found in the North Arm of the Fjord. The lowest value of 227 ng/g was found in the Baie des HaHa. Surface values were between 10 and 30 times lower than those reported in samples from a 1982 study. The maximum PAH values were found in layers between 15 and 28 cm in depth, suggesting a slow burying process of the highly contaminated sediments.

  18. Occurrence and Source Appraisal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Waters of the Almendares River, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jorge Luis; Massone, Carlos German; Valdés, Michel; Vazquez, Rene; Lima, Lázaro Antonio; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana

    2015-08-01

    In this work, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant priority list were analyzed in the surface water of the upper urbanized part of Almendares River, the most important water course in Havana, Cuba. Surface water from five sampling sites was collected at the end of dry season and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method after solid phase extraction procedure. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 836 to 15 811 ng L(-1) with a geometric mean value of 2512 ng L(-1). PAH typology was dominated by low molecular-weight PAHs (2- to 3-ring components). Pollutant source appraisal was determined by diagnostic ratios method in five sampling sites. Factor analysis of normalized samples was used to concentration identified two factors as the main significant pollutant sources and to cluster similar sampling sites corresponding to petrogenic and combustion inputs, respectively. Ecological risks were considered. For animal aquatic life, acute toxicity values exceed the permissible values in the more-polluted sampling sites.

  19. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the spider webs in the vicinity of road traffic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Justyna; Olejniczak, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Studies focused on the possible use of spider webs as environmental pollution indicators. This was a first time ever attempt to use webs as indicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution. The aim of the study was (a) to evaluate whether webs are able to accumulate PM-associated road traffic emissions and be analyzed for organic toxics such as PAHs, (b) to assess if the distance from emission sources could have an influence on the accumulation level of pollutants, and (c) to determine types of pollution sources responsible for a structure of monitoring data set. Webs of four species from the family Agelenidae were sampled for PAHs presence. Data from vehicle traffic sites (i.e., road tunnel, arterial surface road, underground parking) and from railway traffic sites (i.e., two railway viaducts) in the city of Wroclaw (Southwest of Poland) showed a significantly higher mean concentrations of PAHs than the reference site 1 (municipal water supply works). We also found a significant differences at sites differed by the distance from emission sources. The result of PCA analysis suggested three important sources of pollution. We conclude that spider webs despite of some limitations proved useful indicators of road traffic emissions; they could be even more reliable compared to use of bioindicators whose activity is often limited by a lack of water and sun.

  20. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  1. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  2. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Renee J; Jeffries, Thomas C; Adetutu, Eric M; Fairweather, Peter G; Mitchell, James G

    2013-01-01

    The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  4. Determining the metabolic footprints of hydrocarbon degradation using multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee J Smith

    Full Text Available The functional dynamics of microbial communities are largely responsible for the clean-up of hydrocarbons in the environment. However, knowledge of the distinguishing functional genes, known as the metabolic footprint, present in hydrocarbon-impacted sites is still scarcely understood. Here, we conducted several multivariate analyses to characterise the metabolic footprints present in a variety of hydrocarbon-impacted and non-impacted sediments. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS and canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP showed a clear distinction between the two groups. A high relative abundance of genes associated with cofactors, virulence, phages and fatty acids were present in the non-impacted sediments, accounting for 45.7% of the overall dissimilarity. In the hydrocarbon-impacted sites, a high relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy and sporulation, motility, metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell signalling were observed, accounting for 22.3% of the overall dissimilarity. These results suggest a major shift in functionality has occurred with pathways essential to the degradation of hydrocarbons becoming overrepresented at the expense of other, less essential metabolisms.

  5. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    Hydrocarbons are some of the most common pollutants in soil. Groups of hydrocarbons have been classified as toxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic and they pose an existing threat to human health and the environment. However, prohibition of hydrocarbons is not an option as the pollution sources...... concentrations and of varying compounds, depending on the pollution sources and the extent to which contaminants are weathered and degraded. In our work with the complex chemical composition and source identification of hydrocarbon contamination in soil, we have asked the same questions over and over again......-substituted PAHs and as petrogenic sources predominantly contains alkyl-substituted PAHs, derived O-PAHs from alkyl-substituted PAHs are more likely to be found. It is important to know the fate of hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil in order to make a proper risk assessment. The PAHs generally have low water solubility...

  6. Degradation of phenanthrene by Novosphingobium sp. HS2a improved plant growth in PAHs-contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Conde, Sara; Molina, Lázaro; González, Paola; García-Puente, Alicia; Segura, Ana

    2016-12-01

    At the same time that the European Union (EU) policy recommend to direct efforts towards reductions of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mining residues, there is the need to increase the cultivable areas within Europe to cope with the increasing demands for food and energy crops. Bioremediation is a good technique for the restoration of contaminated soils; however, it has not been used extensively because of the variability of the outcome. This variability is frequently due to a bad establishment of foreign degrading populations in soil. We have demonstrated that Novosphingobium sp. HS2aR (i) is able to compete with other root colonizers and with indigenous bacteria, (ii) is able to establish in high numbers in the contaminated environments and (iii) is able to remove more than 90 % of the extractable phenanthrene in artificially contaminated soils. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the capacity to remove phenanthrene is linked to the ability to promote plant growth in contaminated environments. The fact that the presence of Novosphingobium sp. HS2aR improves the growth of plants in contaminated soil suggests that it may be a useful strain for utilization in amelioration of soil quality while improving the growth of economically important energy crops, thus adding value to the bioremediation strategy.

  7. Decontamination of PAH polluted soils by fungi. Subproject: PAH degradation balance and testing of the extended laboratory process. Final report; Dekontamination von PAK belasteten Boeden durch Pilze. Teilprojekt: Bilanzierung des PAK-Abbaus und Erprobung des erweiterten Laborverfahrens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.; Wolter, M.; Bahadir, M.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the research project was first to select a fungus with a high potential for mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and a good ability to colonize different soils. The application of this fungus for a degradation of PAH in soil had to be tested. In a screening of 57 white rot fungi the fungus Pleurotus sp. Florida fulfilled these requirements best. In pure culture it was able to metabolize and mineralize highly condensed 4-6 ring PAH to a great extent. For instance, up to 50% of {sup 14}C-pyrene or 39% of {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene was mineralized to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 15 weeks. If different carriers for {sup 14}C-pyrene were used the mineralization correlated with the bioavailability, which was characterized by the desorption of the compound from the carriers with water. The mineralization of {sup 14}C-pyrene, {sup 14}C-benz(a)anthracene; {sup 14}C-benzo(a)-pyrene and {sup 14}C-dibenz(a, h)anthracene in native soils showed that a colonization with Pl. sp Florida inhibited the degradation of the less recalcitrant {sup 14}C-pyrene by the indigenous soil microflora. However, the mineralization of the carcinogenic, very recalcitrant and high condensed {sup 14}C-PAH was considerably supported by the fungus. Therefore this capabilities of the fungus could not be proven in a joint medium-scale soil experiment (0.8 m{sup 3} soil) which had been conducted within a parmership with scientists in Jena and an industriell firm. Because of safety aspects only the low condensed less recalcitrant PAH could be applied in this experiment. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, zunaechst aus einer groesseren Zahl von Weissfaeulepilzen Pilze zu selektieren, die ein hohes Abbaupotential fuer PAK besitzen. Fuer die effektive Bildung der fuer den Xenobiotika-Abbau wahrscheinlich verantwortlichen lignolytischen Enzyme sollten die Pilze auf Stroh mit einer Kontamination von {sup 14}C-Pyren angezogen werden. An Hand der Freisetzung von {sup 14

  8. Occurrence of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mytillus galloprovincialis from the traditional market in Marseille, France, by Gas Chromatography triplequadropole tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-QQQ/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Yelmiza; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Bucharil, B.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean mussel, Mytillusgalloprovincialis collected from the traditional market in Marseille, France,have been analysed using GC-QQQ/MS for their hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) extentwith two different solvent extraction, such as heptane:dichloromethane (HEP:DCM;1:1) and heptane:acetone (HEP:ACE; 1:1). The results showed hydrocarbons yielded from heptane:acetone extractionwere 28335 μg.kg- 1mussels dw (Ʃ n-alkanes C15-34) and 202 μg.kg-1mussels dw(ƩPAHs) while the yield from heptane:DCM extract was lower ca. 27026 μg.kg-1musselsdw and 133 μg.kg-1 mussels dw respectively from the Ʃn-alkanesC15-34and ƩPAHs. High hydrocarbon levels can be affected by the presence of lipids or other metabolites in mussels that have the same polarity with hydrocarbon compounds which has interferred the measurement. Several ratio parameter of n- alcanes and PAHs source in the mussels were evaluated to asses the origins of their hydrocarbons in mussels from which we suggested origins of hydrocarbons were pyrolytic and biogenic rather than petrogenic.

  9. Occurrence, distribution, environmental risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Liaohe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yangwei; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Changsheng; Lv, Jiapei; Wan, Jun

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water and sediments in Liaohe River Basin. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 111.9 to 2,931.6 ng/L in water and from 92.2 to 295,635.2 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediments. The PAHs in water were dominated by 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs, which accounted for 42.8 %, 39.4 % and 14.2 % of the total PAHs, respectively, while in sediment PAHs were dominated by 3-, 4- and 5-ring PAHs, which accounted for 26.5 %, 44.2 % and 17.4 % of the total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalents for water samples showed that in 37 out of 50 sites the values were greater than the national standard, and the environmental risk assessment indicated that high environmental risk of PAHs existed in sediments. Using the molecular ratio method for the source identification it was concluded that PAHs were determined to be from mixed sources (petroleum and combustion) in Liaohe River system and combustion sources in Daliao River system.

  10. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-08-08

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  11. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by free and nanoclay-immobilized manganese peroxidase from Anthracophyllum discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, F; Pizzul, L; Castillo, M Dp; González, M E; Cea, M; Gianfreda, L; Diez, M C

    2010-06-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by Anthracophyllum discolor, a Chilean white rot fungus, was immobilized on nanoclay obtained from volcanic soil and its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with the free enzyme was evaluated. At the same time, nanoclay characterization was performed. Nanoclay characterization by transmission electronic microscopy showed a particle average size smaller than 100 nm. The isoelectric points (IEP) of nanoclay and MnP from A. discolor were 7.0 and 3.7, respectively, as determined by micro electrophoresis migration and preparative isoelectric focusing. Results indicated that 75% of the enzyme was immobilized on the nanoclay through physical adsorption. As compared to the free enzyme, immobilized MnP from A. discolor achieved an improved stability to temperature and pH. The activation energy (Ea) value for immobilized MnP (51.9 kJ mol(-1)) was higher than that of the free MnP (34.4 kJ mol(-1)). The immobilized enzyme was able to degrade pyrene (>86%), anthracene (>65%), alone or in mixture, and to a less extent fluoranthene (MnP from A. discolor, the enzyme immobilized on nanoclay enhanced the enzymatic transformation of anthracene in soil. Overall results indicate that nanoclay, a carrier of natural origin, is a suitable support material for MnP immobilization. In addition, immobilized MnP shows an increased stability to high temperature, pH and time storage, as well as an enhanced PAHs degradation efficiency in soil. All these characteristics may suggest the possible use of nanoclay-immobilized MnP from A. discolor as a valuable option for in situ bioremediation purposes.

  12. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater at low temperatures (0-5 degrees C) and bacterial communities associated with degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Bonaunet, Kristin

    2006-02-01

    In this study biodegradation of hydrocarbons in thin oil films was investigated in seawater at low temperatures, 0 and 5 degrees C. Heterotrophic (HM) or oil-degrading (ODM) microorganisms enriched at the two temperatures showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities to several bacteria of Arctic or Antarctic origin. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with a crude mineral oil immobilized as thin films on hydrophobic Fluortex adsorbents in nutrient-enriched or sterile seawater. Chemical and respirometric analysis of hydrocarbon depletion showed that naphthalene and other small aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs) were primarily biodegraded after dissolution to the water phase, while biodegradation of larger polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and C(10)-C(36) n-alkanes, including n-hexadecane, was associated primarily with the oil films. Biodegradation of PAH and n-alkanes was significant at both 0 and 5 degrees C, but was decreased for several compounds at the lower temperature. n-Hexadecane biodegradation at the two temperatures was comparable at the end of the experiments, but was delayed at 0 degree C. Investigations of bacterial communities in seawater and on adsorbents by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE analysis indicated that predominant bacteria in the seawater gradually adhered to the oil-coated adsorbents during biodegradation at both temperatures. Sequence analysis of most DGGE bands aligned to members of the phyla Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria) or Bacteroidetes. Most sequences from experiments at 0 degree C revealed affiliations to members of Arctic or Antarctic consortia, while no such homology was detected for sequences from degradation experiment run at 5 degrees C. In conclusion, marine microbial communities from cold seawater have potentials for oil film HC degradation at temperatures bacteria may play an important role during oil HC biodegradation in seawater close to freezing point.

  13. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    The genus Marinobacter is amongst the most ubiquitous in the global oceans and strains have been isolated from a wide variety of marine environments, including offshore oil-well heads, coastal thermal springs, Antarctic sea water, saline soils and associations with diatoms and dinoflagellates. Many strains have been recognized to be important hydrocarbon degraders in various marine habitats presenting sometimes extreme pH or salinity conditions. Analysis of the genome of M. aquaeolei revealed enormous adaptation versatility with an assortment of strategies for carbon and energy acquisition, sensation, and defense. In an effort to elucidate the ecological and biogeochemical significance of the Marinobacters, seven Marinobacter strains from diverse environments were included in a comparative genomics study. Genomes were screened for metabolic and adaptation potential to elucidate the strategies responsible for the omnipresence of the Marinobacter genus and their remedial action potential in hydrocarbon-polluted waters. The core genome predominantly encodes for key genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation, biofilm-relevant processes, including utilization of external DNA, halotolerance, as well as defense mechanisms against heavy metals, antibiotics, and toxins. All Marinobacter strains were observed to degrade a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon species, including aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic as well as acyclic isoprenoid compounds. Various genes predicted to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation, e.g. alkane 1-monooxygenase, appear to have originated from lateral gene transfer as they are located on gene clusters of 10-20% lower GC-content compared to genome averages and are flanked by transposases. Top ortholog hits are found in other hydrocarbon degrading organisms, e.g. Alcanivorax borkumensis. Strategies for hydrocarbon uptake encoded by various Marinobacter strains include cell surface hydrophobicity adaptation via capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment

  14. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, L.; Lassen, P.; Pritzl, G.; Erecius Poulsen, M. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Environmental Chemistry (Denmark); Willumsen, P.A.; Karlson, U. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology (Denmark)

    1997-05-01

    The environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) is reviewed in order to elucidate the actual chemical, physico-chemical and microbiological processes which determine the behaviour of PAH`s in the environment. The review focusses on the terrestrial environment, where the fate of PAH`s is determined by an interplay between several soil such as pH, redox conditions, organic matter content and microbial biomass. The report summarizes the sources for PAH contamination, a wide range of reactions determining the availability of PAH`s as well as the microbiology of PAH degradation. Thus, processes controlling the availability of PAH`s, such as diffusion/dispersion/convection, solubility, evaporation and sorption/desorption, are reviewed with special emphasis on parameters as temperature, ionic strength and the possible presence of organic co-solutes or surfactants. Attention is given to the role of naturally occuring organics such as humic material. A theoretical study, based on calculations using the COLUMN2 computer code elucidates the migration potential of PAH`s. The microbiology of PAH`s is reviewed with respect to biodegradation of PAH`s, including surfactant-enhaced degradation, and bioavailability. The method for analysis of PAH`s in soils based on Soxhlet extraction of the samples followed by quantification using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry is described. (EG) 147 refs.

  15. Biomarkers of Microbial Metabolism for Monitoring in-situ Anaerobic PAH Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L.; Phelps, C.; Battistelli, J.

    2002-12-01

    Monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds found in petroleum and its products are subject to biodegradation in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobic pathways reveal novel mechanism of microbial transformation through a series of metabolites and intermediates which are unique to the anaerobic degradation process. The presence of these compounds in-situ, then conceptually can serve as indicators that anaerobic degradation is taking place. We have laboratory studies and field samples which support this concept for BTX and PAH compounds. Environments in which these anaerobic degradation processes have been observed include freshwater and estuarine sediments, groundwater from impacted aquifers at a former manufactured gas plant and gasoline station, and a creosote-contaminated aquifer. Analytical protocols were developed to detect nanomolar concentrations from soil slurries and groundwater samples and microcosm studies verified their formation from field samples and use as biomarkers of activity. Recent studies on the mechanisms of anaerobic naphthalene and methylnaphthalene metabolism have identified several unusual compounds that can serve as biomarkers for monitoring in situ PAH biodegradation. For naphthalene these include 2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (TH-2-NA), hexahydro-2-naphthoic acid (HH-2-NA) and methylnaphthoic acid (MNA) generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading naphthalene or methylnaphthalene. Groundwater samples were analyzed from wells distributed throughout an anaerobic, creosote-contaminated aquifer and also from a leaking underground storage site. Samples were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. The concentration of 2-NA at each monitoring well was quantified and correlated to the zones of naphthalene contamination. Taken together with measurements of the aquifer's physical characteristics, these biomarker data can be used to describe the extent of naphthalene biodegradation at these site.

  16. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  17. Children and elders exposure assessment to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the city of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Gariazzo, Claudio; Gordiani, Andrea; L'Episcopo, Nunziata; Gherardi, Monica

    2014-12-01

    It has been amply demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have adverse effects on human health, affecting especially the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Among population, school-age children and elders present particular susceptibilities and unique exposures to environmental factors. The study presented in this paper belongs to the Project EXPAH, founded by the European (EU) LIFE+ instrument, and consists of the personal monitoring of five elementary school children and four elders during the spring and the summer/autumn of the year 2012 in the city of Rome, Italy. The average exposure, expressed as the sum of eight high-molecular-weight PAHs, resulted equal to 0.70 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.37) for children and 0.59 ng/m(3) (SD = 0.23) for the elderly people. The mean levels of gravimetric PM2.5 were equal to 23 μg/m(3) (SD = 10) and 15 μg/m(3) (SD = 4) for children and elders, respectively. During spring and summer seasons, personal BaPeq resulted well below the EU Air Quality reference value of 1 ng/m(3). The personal monitoring average values were in the same order of magnitude with available indoor and outdoor environmental data in Rome during the same periods, for both PAHs and PM2.5. The results suggest that, during non-heating seasons, the personal exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome can be mainly ascribed to the urban background, especially traffic emissions and road dust resuspension; secondhand cigarette smoke can be also considered another possible source of PAHs personal exposure.

  18. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  19. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available 32, 2317?2324. Huang, X.D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced toxicity ofPAHs to the f region of Brassica napus (canola) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in simulated solar radiation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety...Conkey, B.J., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1994. Photoinduced toxicity ofthree polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CRuoranthene, pyrene and naphthalene) to the duckweed Lemma gibba L.G3. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 28, 160?171. Ren, L., Zeiler, L...

  20. Peroxidases from root exudates of Medicago sativa and Sorghum bicolor: Catalytic properties and involvement in PAH degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Golubev, Sergey; Muratova, Anna; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Bondarenkova, Anastasiya; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases from root exudates of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were purified and characterized, and their ability to oxidize native PAHs and PAH-derivatives was evaluated. The obtained data confirm that peroxidases are involved in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Nondenaturing PAGE showed that the peroxidases of both plants were represented by a range of isoforms/isoenzymes (five to eight). Minor forms were lost during further purification, and as a result, the major anionic form from alfalfa root exudates and the major cationic form from those of sorghum were obtained. Both electrophoretically homogeneous peroxidases were monomeric proteins with a molecular weight of about 46-48 kDa. The pH optima and the main catalytic constants for the test substrates were determined. On the basis of their molecular and catalytic properties, the obtained enzymes were found to be typical plant peroxidases. Derivatives of PAHs and potential products of their microbial degradation (9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone), unlike the parent PAH (phenanthrene), inhibited the catalytic activity of the peroxidases, possibly indicating greater availability of the enzymes' active centers to these substances. Peroxidase-catalyzed decreases in the concentrations of a number of PAHs and their derivatives were observed. Sorghum peroxidase oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene, while alfalfa peroxidase oxidized only phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was best oxidized by peroxidase of alfalfa. However, quinone derivatives of PAHs were unavailable to sorghum peroxidase, but were oxidized by alfalfa peroxidase. These results indicate that the major peroxidases from root exudates of alfalfa and sorghum can have a role in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs.

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  2. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  3. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water in industrial affected areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binghui; Ma, Yingqun; Qin, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yanmin; Cao, Wei; Yang, Chenchen; Han, Chaonan

    2016-12-01

    Water samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), drain water (DW), major tributaries (MT), and main course of the Yangtze River (MY) in areas of three industrial parks (IPs) in Chongqing city in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). Sixteen EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants were quantified to identify the effects of industrial activities on water quality of the TGR. The results showed that 11 individual PAHs were quantified and 5 PAHs (naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP)) were under detection limits in all of the water samples. Three-ring and four-ring PAHs were the most detected PAHs. Concentrations of individual PAHs were in the range of not detected (nd) to 24.3 ng/L. Total PAH concentrations for each site ranged from nd to 42.9 ng/L and were lower compared to those in other studies. The mean PAH concentrations for sites WWTP, DW, MT, and MY showed as follows: DW (25.9 ng/L) > MY (15.5 ng/L) > MT (14.0 ng/L) > WWTP (9.3 ng/L), and DW contains the highest PAH concentrations. Source identification ratios showed that petroleum and combustion of biomass coal and petroleum were the main sources of PAHs. The results of potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that, although PAH concentrations in MT and MY are likely harmless to ecosystem, contaminations of PAHs in DW were listed as middle levels and some management strategies and remediation actions, like strengthen clean production processes and banning illegal sewage discharging activities, etc., should be taken to lighten the ecosystem risk caused by PAHs especially risks caused by water discharging drains.

  4. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated digested sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Martinez, Arodi; Patureau, Dominique; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France); Carrere, Helene [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F11100 (France)], E-mail: carrere@supagro.inra.fr

    2009-03-15

    PAH are particularly monitored because of their carcinogenic properties and their ubiquity in the environment. Their presence in municipal sewage sludge is a major problem due to the environmental risks associated with the sludge spreading on agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to asses the removal of PAH naturally present in sludge by continuous anaerobic digestion with recirculation of ozonated sludge. Recirculation of ozonated digested sludge allowed to enhance PAH removals, the highest efficiency was obtained with the highest ozone dose (0.11 g O{sub 3}/g{sub TS}). In order to study the effect of recirculation, a reactor was operated without recirculation but was fed with a mixture of raw and ozonated digested sludge. This process led to the best performances in terms of PAH and solid removals. This pointed out some accumulation of nonbiodegradable or recalcitrant compounds during recirculation assay. Smallest and most soluble compounds presented the highest biodegradation efficiencies.

  6. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  7. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Martin [Department of Soil Science, Institute of Ecology, Berlin University of Technology, Salzufer 11-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Wilcke, Wolfgang [Department of Soil Science, Institute of Ecology, Berlin University of Technology, Salzufer 11-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfgang.wilcke@tu-berlin.de; Martius, Christopher [Center for Development Research (ZEF), Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Bandeira, Adelmar G. [Departamento de Sistematica e Ecologia, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Garcia, Marcos V.B. [Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, Caixa Postal 319, 69011-970 Manaus/AM (Brazil); Amelung, Wulf [Department of Soil Science, Institute of Ecology, Berlin University of Technology, Salzufer 11-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m{sup -3} in air (>85% of the {sigma}21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in plants (>90%), 477 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in litter (>90%), 32 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in topsoil (>90%), and 160 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 {mu}g kg{sup -1} compared to <3 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in interior parts) and high PERY concentrations in all compartments (12-86 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), indicating an in situ production of PERY in the nests. Our results demonstrate that the deposition of pyrolytic PAHs from the atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin. - Evidence of non-pyrolytic, biogenic production of PAHs is provided.

  8. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  9. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils.

  10. Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in forest soils from urban to rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-03-04

    The upper layer of forest soils (0-20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban-suburban-rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area.

  11. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p PAHs were also significantly reduced (p PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event.

  12. Distribution and transportation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the Humen river mouth in the Pearl River delta and their influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yang, Qingshu; Hu, Yujie; Du, Huanhuan; Yuan, Fei

    2014-07-15

    Five different water samples were collected from the surface to the bottom layers at the Humen river mouth in the Pearl River delta during the flood and ebb tides in August 2011, respectively. Changes in the distribution and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined to explore their transportation process. More than 62 types of PAHs were detected in the water columns. The mean concentration of the total PAHs ranged from 849.33 to 1370.53 ng/l and from 629.21 to 2019.91 ng/l during the flood and ebb tides, respectively. Furthermore, 2-ring PAHs were the most abundant species, followed by 3-ring PAHs. There were different composition patterns of the PAHs during the flood and ebb tides. And the transportation process of PAHs was influenced by their sources and different estuarine hydrodynamics. Analysis of the sources of the PAHs indicated that the PAHs were derived from primarily petroleum and coal combustion sources.

  13. Characterizations, relationship, and potential sources of outdoor and indoor particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a community of Tianjin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B; Bai, Z; Liu, Y; You, Y; Xu, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, J; Niu, C; Zhang, N; He, F; Ding, X

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic air pollutants in China. However, because there are unsubstantial data on indoor and outdoor particulate PAHs, efforts in assessing inhalation exposure and cancer risk to PAHs are limited in China. This study measured 12 individual PAHs in indoor and outdoor environments at 36 homes during the non-heating period and heating period in 2009. Indoor PAH concentrations were comparable with outdoor environments in the non-heating period, but were lower in the heating period. The average indoor/outdoor ratios in both sampling periods were lower than 1, while the ratios in the non-heating period were higher than those in the heating period. Correlation analysis and coefficient of divergence also verified the difference between indoor and outdoor PAHs, which could be caused by high ventilation in the non-heating period. To support this conclusion, linear and robust regressions were used to estimate the infiltration factor to compare outdoor PAHs to indoor PAHs. The calculated infiltration factors obtained by the two models were similar in the non-heating period but varied greatly in the heating period, which may have been caused by the influence of ventilation. Potential sources were distinguished using a diagnostic ratio and a mixture of coal combustion and traffic emission, which are major sources of PAHs.

  14. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Xiao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Terry L; Sericano, José L; Sweet, Stephen T; Knap, Anthony H; Guinasso, Norman L

    2016-02-15

    Pre-spill background concentrations of TPH and PAH in water samples from the Gulf of Mexico are compared with samples (over 20,000) collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident (13,000 stations). Samples were collected by multiple response agencies, trustees and BP and reported in the Gulf Science Data. The samples were collected from a few m to over 800 km in all directions from the wellhead. During the incident, samples with the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons were collected proximal to the wellhead or in samples collected from surface slicks and dispersant use. Of the 13,172 water sample TPH concentrations reported, 84% were below 1 μg/L (background). Of the 16,557 water sample PAH concentrations reported, 79% were below 0.056 μg/L (the median field blank, background). The percentage of samples below background increased rapidly after the well was capped. The spatial and temporal distributions of these hydrocarbon data are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Particle size distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in urban and industrial aerosol of Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladji, R; Yassaa, N; Balducci, C; Cecinato, A

    2014-02-01

    The distribution of ambient air n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to particles with aerodynamic diameters lesser than 10 μm (PM(10)) into six fractions (five stages and a backup filter) was studied for the first time in Algeria. Investigation took place during September of 2007 at an urban and industrial site of Algiers. Size-resolved samples (particles ≤ 1.5 μm in both urban and industrial atmosphere. In both cases, the n-alkane contents exhibited bimodal or weakly bimodal distribution peaking at the 0.95-1.5-μm size range within the fine mode and at 7.3-10 μm in the coarse mode. Low molecular weight PAHs displayed bimodal patterns peaking at 0.49-0.95 and 7.3-10 μm, while high molecular weight PAHs exhibited mono-modal distribution with maximum in the particles ≤ 0.95 μm in diameter which could induce adverse health effects to the population living in these areas.

  17. Distribution, Levels, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Some Water Bodies along the Coastal Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofi Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID. The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 μg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 μg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 μg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 μg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 μg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 μg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(aanthracene, and benzo(j,kfluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime.

  18. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  19. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  20. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  1. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate transcriptional activation of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 gene via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-09-14

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics.

  3. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Pseudomonas sp.JM2 isolated from active sewage sludge of chemical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Li Xu; Lingyun Jia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to screen strains that can decompose polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) completely and rapidly with good adaptability for bioremediation in a local area.A bacterial strain JM2,which uses phenanthrene as its sole carbon source,was isolated from the active sewage sludge from a chemical plant in Jilin,China and identified as Pseudomonas based on 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.Although the optimal growth conditions were determined to be pH 6.0 and 37℃,JM2 showed a broad pH and temperature profile.At pH 4.5 and 9.3,JM2 could degrade more than 40% of fluorene and phenanthrene (50 mg/L each) within 4 days.In addition,when the temperature was as low as 4℃,JM2 could degrade up to 24% fluorene and 12% phenanthrene.This showed the potential for JM2 to be applied in bioremediation over winter or in cold regions.Moreover,a nutrient augmentation study showed that adding formate into media could promote PAH degradation,while the supplement of salicylate had an inhibitive effect.Furthermore,in a metabolic pathway study,salicylate,phthaiic acid,and 9-fluorenone were detected during the degradation of fluorene or phenanthrene.In conclusion,Pseudomonas sp.JM2 is a high performance strain in the degradation of fluorene and phenanthrene under extreme pH and temperature conditions.It might be useful in the bioremediation of PAHs.

  4. Spatial distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the reservoir sediments after impoundment of Manwan Dam in the middle of Lancang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, NanNan; Liu, Shiliang; Yin, Yijie; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received increasing attentions owing to their carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and environmental toxicity. The studies on the spatial variations, sources identification and potential ecological risk assessment of PAHs in the reservoir sediments after dam construction are becoming new hotpots. Sixteen PAHs contamination levels were investigated from 15 sample sections in the sediments of Manwan Reservoir in the middle of Lancang River, China. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 14.4 to 137.7 ng g(-1) dw with a mean concentration of 70.68 ng g(-1) dw. The areas with residential settlement at large tributaries and near dam had higher PAHs concentrations. In the sight of classification of PAHs pollution levels, the sediments of Manwan Reservoir could be considered as low to moderate PAHs polluted levels. One-way analysis of variance for spatial analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (P PAHs at the reservoir head, centre and tail. Moreover, no significant differences (P PAH at the mainstream and tributaries except that BaP showed significant differences (P PAHs in Manwan Reservoir might be mixed, primarily including the petroleum source and coal combustion. As compared with sediment quality guidelines, the observed concentrations of PAHs in all sample sections did not exceed the effects range low (ERL) and the threshold effect level (TEL) values, suggesting that there were little harmful biological toxic effects on the aquatic organisms in Manwan Reservoir. The study provided a comprehensive overview on the PAHs contaminations on the reservoir sediments in the middle Lancang River, which may have an important significances on the international river management.

  5. Sources appointment and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Erhai Lake, a low-latitude and high-altitude lake in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezhong, Yuan; Enlou, Zhang; Qi, Lin; Rong, Wang; Enfeng, Liu

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from the surficial sediments in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake in China. The results showed that except for acenaphthylene (Ace) Ace and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the central region contained individual PAHs at concentrations lower than those in other lake regions. Total concentration of the PAHsPAHs) in the sediments from Erhai Lake ranged from 32.42 to 558.53 mg/kg with a mean value of 256.70 mg/kg. The maximum value of ΣPAHs was observed in the north region of the lake and more than 10-fold higher than the minimum values. Moreover, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, especially 5-ring PAHs, accounted for higher ratios up to 76 % relative to other PAHs compound in almost all sampling sites. Molecular diagnostic ratios including anthtacene (Ant)/(Ant + phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flt)/(Flt + pyrene (Pyr)), benz(a)anthracene (BaA)/(BaA + chrysene (Chr)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IPY)/(IPY + benz(g,h,i)perylene (BPE)) were recorded at all sampling sites and indicated that the origin of PAHs in Erhai Lake was predominately pyrolytic. Furthermore, principal component analysis with component dominating by HMW PAHs showed that combustion origins were the primary contamination sources of PAHs in the sediments of Erhai Lake. Finally, ecological risk assessment indicated that the sediments from Erhai Lake are exposed to potential low risk for ΣPAHs, and the ecological risk decreases in the order of northern region > southern region > central region.

  6. The Influence of Sandstorms and Long-Range Transport on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in PM2.5 in the High-Altitude Atmosphere of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5 samples were collected at Mount Heng and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. During sampling, a sandstorm from northern China struck Mount Heng and resulted in a mean PM2.5 concentration of 150.61 μg/m3, which greatly exceeded the concentration measured under normal conditions (no sandstorm: 58.50 μg/m3. The average mass of PAHs in PM2.5 was 30.70 μg/g, which was much lower than in the non-sandstorm samples (80.80 μg/g. Therefore, the sandstorm increased particle levels but decreased PAH concentrations due to dilution and turbulence. During the sandstorm, the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were below their detection limits, and 6-ring PAHs were the most abundant. Under normal conditions, the concentrations of 2-, 3- and 6-ring PAHs were higher, and 4- and 5-ring PAHs were lower relative to the other sampling sites. In general, the PAH contamination was low to medium at Mount Heng. Higher LMW (low molecular weight concentrations were primarily linked to meteorological conditions, and higher HMW (high molecular weight concentrations primarily resulted from long-range transport. Analysis of diagnostic ratios indicated that PM2.5 PAHs had been emitted during the combustion of coal, wood or petroleum. The transport characteristics and origins of the PAHs were investigated using backwards Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling. Under normal conditions, the “footprint” retroplumes and potential source contributions of PAHs for the highest and lowest concentrations indicated that local sources had little effect. In contrast, long-range transport played a vital role in the levels of PM2.5 and PAHs in the high-altitude atmosphere.

  7. Screening and degrading characteristics and community structure of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium from contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run Sun; Jinghua Jin; Guangdong Sun; Ying Liu; Zhipei Liu

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation with efficient microbes had been proved to be the most important way for the bioremediation of polluted environments.For the treatment of abandoned site of Beijing Coking Chemical Plant contaminated with high level of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs),a bacterial consortium capable of degrading HMW-PAHs,designated 1-18-1,was enriched and screened from HMW-PAHs contaminated soil.Its degrading ability was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),and the community structure was investigated by construction and analyses of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (A,B and F) at different transfers.The results indicated that 1-18-1 was able to utilize pyrene,fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene as sole carbon and energy source for growth.The degradation rate of pyrene and fluoranthene reached 82.8% and 96.2% after incubation for 8 days at 30℃,respectively;while the degradation rate of benzo[a]pyrene was only 65.1% after incubation for 28 days at 30℃.Totally,108,100 and 100 valid clones were randomly selected and sequenced from the libraries A,B,and E Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the clones could be divided into 5 groups,Bacteroidetes,α-Proteobacteria,Actinobacteria,β-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria.Sequence similarity analyses showed total 39 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the libraries.The predominant bacterial groups were α-Proteobacteria (19 OTUs,48.7%),γ-Proteobacteria (9 OTUs,23.1%) and β-Protcobacteria (8 OTUs,20.5%).During the transfer process,the proportions of α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria increased greatly (from 47% to 93%),while γ-Proteobacteria decreased from 32% (library A) to 6% (library F);and Bacteroidetes group disappeared in libraries B and F.

  8. An approach to assess ecological risk for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water from Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yang; Xuan Shi; P.K. Wong; Richard Dawson; Fuliu Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-15

    Three approaches were applied and compared to evaluate additive toxic effects of eight PAHs to aquatic organisms in rivers in the Tianjin area. Although the toxicity of the studied PAH compounds did not significantly increase the risk to aquatic organisms, the results of all three approaches indicated that the additive effect of the eight PAHs was significantly stronger than any individual compound acting alone, which indicated the applicability of the approaches. Further, of the compounds studied, anthracene was the major contributor to the overall toxic effect of the mixture. The calculated geometric means of the hazard quotient for the additive effect varied from 0.00055 to 0.00062, compared to the hazard quotient of individual PAHs which ranged from 5.1 10{sup -6} to 0.00053. The hazard quotient distribution geometric mean was 0.00058, with 95% of the quotient between 6.610{sup -5} and 0.051. Overlapping areas varied from 0.00015 to 0.02 for individual PAHs and was 0.03 for additive toxicity.

  9. High Voltage Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) as a New Method for Detection of PAH During Screening for PAH-Degrading Microbial Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staninska, Justyna; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna; Staninski, Krzysztof; Czarny, Jakub; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Nowak, Jacek; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Cyplik, Paweł

    The search for new bacterial consortia capable of removing PAH from the environment is associated with the need to employ novel, simple, and economically efficient detection methods. A fluorimetric method (FL) as well as high voltage electrochemiluminescence (ECL) on a modified surface of an aluminum electrode were used in order to determine the changes in the concentrations of PAH in the studied aqueous solutions. The ECL signal (the spectrum and emission intensity for a given wavelength) was determined with the use of an apparatus operating in single photon counting mode. The dependency of ECL and FL intensity on the concentration of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene was linear in the studied concentration range. The biodegradation kinetics of the particular PAH compounds was determined on the basis of the obtained spectroscopic determinations. It has been established that the half-life of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at initial concentrations of 50 mg/l (beyond the solubility limit) reached 41, 75, and 130 h, accordingly. Additionally, the possibility of using ECL for rapid determination of the soluble fraction of PAH directly in the aqueous medium has been confirmed. Metagenomic analysis of the gene encoding 16S rRNA was conducted on the basis of V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and allowed to identify 198 species of bacteria that create the S4consortium. The consortium was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (78.82 %), Flavobacteria (9.25 %), Betaproteobacteria (7.68 %), Sphingobacteria (3.76 %), Alphaproteobacteria (0.42 %), Clostridia (0.04 %), and Bacilli (0.03 %).

  10. Degradation of phenolics, nitrogen-heterocyclics and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in a rotating biological contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, Hansa; Mukherji, Suparna

    2012-05-01

    The degradation of phenolics, heterocyclics and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a synthetic biomass gasifier wastewater with average COD of 1388 mg/L was studied in a three stage rotating biological contactor (RBC) using the pyrene degrader, Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and activated sludge consortia (1:3 v/v). As the organic loading rate (OLR) was varied from 3.3 to 14 g/m(2)/d, the COD removal ranged from 63.3% to 92.6%. Complete removal of all the constituents was observed at the lowest OLR of 3.3g/m(2)/d. At 24h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and OLR of 6.6g/m(2)/d complete removal of pyridine, quinoline and benzene and 85-96% removal of phenol, naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene was observed. E. aurantiacum was found to be the dominant bacteria in the biofilm. Clark's model provided good fits to data for all the three stages of the RBC.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max

    2017-12-01

    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (risk assessment was calculated based on benzo[a]pyrene equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and daily exposure to PAHs via dust ingestion. The median concentration of BaPE was 285ng/g, ILCR was up to 6.78×10(-3) (exceeded reference values of USEPA (range between 1×10(-6) and 1×10(-4))), and worker's exposure via dust ingestion on daily bases reached up to 33ng/kgbw/day for ∑12PAHs. This study showed people working in automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On PAHs as interstellar grains - Infrared absorption coefficients. [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, D. W.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Donn, B.; Khanna, R. K.; Moore, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the proposal that PAHs are the source of IR continuum and emission features and the visible diffuse bands. Absolute IR cross-sections have been obtained for eight PAHs. The results show that a thermal continuum is not consistent with the spectra obtained, and that an array of normal molecules shows a spectrum that is more complex than the observ