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Sample records for hydrocarbon pah contamination

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  2. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  3. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contamination in Different Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un Hyuk Yim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon.

  4. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  5. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  6. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendyk Łukasz; Charzyński Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally imp...

  7. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase...... of the accessible fraction to 49 ± 2%, whereby primarily the accessibility of higher molecular weight PAHs (log Kow > 6) was affected. Competitive binding was verified using the same soil with only desorption-resistant PAHs present. In this experiment, passive dosing of toluene resulted in desorption of 13 ± 0...

  8. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  9. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a mixed culture and its component pure cultures, obtained from PAH-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzesicka-Mlynarz, D.; Ward, O. P.

    1995-06-01

    A mixed culture, isolated from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) grew on and degraded fluoranthene in aqueous media supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and peptone. A pure culture of Pseudomona sp. strain HL7b which was known to degrade fluoranthene was incorporated into initial experiments for comparative purposes. Increased complex nitrogen levels in the aqueous media promoted bacteria growth, and fluoranthene degradation, while high glucose levels diminished fluoranthene degradation. The mixed culture containing 4 Gram-negative rods biodegraded the PAH mixture better than the pure culture. Pure cultures exhibited a good capacity for removal of more water-soluble PAHs, but a lesser capacity for low water-soluble PAHs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 26 refs.

  10. Identification of polar transformation products and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil following bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Aitken, Michael D; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is a technique commonly used to reduce the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. However, the efficacy of bioremedial applications is evaluated based on the removal of a subset of parent (or unsubstituted) PAHs and does not incorporate toxic polar transformation products or the more mutagenic high molecular weight PAHs (MW≥302amu or MW302-PAHs). Previously, an effects-directed analysis approach was used to assess the effect of bioremediation on the toxicity of a coal tar-contaminated soil. Increased genotoxicity and developmental toxicity was measured postbioremedation in the more polar soil extract fractions, as compared to the less polar fractions where the targeted PAHs eluted, and could not be attributed to the 88 target PAHs analyzed for (including selected oxygen-containing PAHs). In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize transformation products in the soil extract fractions identified as toxic, previously. Additionally, the degradation of 12MW302-PAHs, picene (MW=278) and coronene (MW=300) were evaluated following bioremediation. Non-targeted analysis resulted in the tentative identification of 10 peaks with increased intensity postbioremediation (based on mass spectral library matching and fragmentation patterns from >5000 candidate peaks in the soil extracts). Several of these compounds contained oxygen, suggesting they would be relatively polar. MW302-PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation, suggesting that the carcinogenic potential associated with these PAHs might remain unchanged. The results of this study suggest that polar transformation products, and MW302-PAHs, should be considered for realistic risk assessment of bioremediated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  12. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Application of Cyclolipopeptide Amphisin: Feasibility Study as Additive to Remediate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Groboillot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To decontaminate dredged harbor sediments by bioremediation or electromigration processes, adding biosurfactants could enhance the bioavailability or mobility of contaminants in an aqueous phase. Pure amphisin from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSS73 displays increased effectiveness in releasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs strongly adsorbed to sediments when compared to a synthetic anionic surfactant. Amphisin production by the bacteria in the natural environment was also considered. DSS73’s growth is weakened by three model PAHs above saturation, but amphisin is still produced. Estuarine water feeding the dredged material disposal site of a Norman harbor (France allows both P. fluorescens DSS73 growth and amphisin production.

  14. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  15. Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil through composting with fresh organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Houot, Sabine; Qiao, Min; Nunan, Naoise; Garnier, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Composting may enhance bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils by providing organic substrates that stimulate the growth of potential microbial degraders. However, the influence of added organic matter (OM) together with the microbial activities on the dissipation of PAHs has not yet been fully assessed. An in-vessel composting-bioremediation experiment of a contaminated soil amended with fresh wastes was carried out. Four different experimental conditions were tested in triplicate during 60 days using laboratory-scale reactors: treatment S (100% soil), W (100% wastes), SW (soil/waste mixture), and SWB (soil/waste mixture with inoculation of degrading microorganisms). A dry mass loss of 35 ± 5% was observed in treatments with organic wastes during composting in all the treatments except treatment S. The dissipation of the 16 USEPA-listed PAHs was largely enhanced from no significant change to 50.5 ± 14.8% (for SW)/63.7 ± 10.0% (for SWB). More obvious dissipation was observed when fresh wastes were added at the beginning of composting to the contaminated soil, without significant difference between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling showed that fungi and G-bacteria dominated at the beginning of experiment and were probably involved in PAH dissipation. Subsequently, greater relative abundances of G + bacteria were observed as PAH dissipation slowed down. The results suggest that improving the composting process with optimal organic compositions may be a feasible remediation strategy in PAH-contaminated soils through stimulation of active microbial populations.

  16. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their metabolites in blood, feces, and urine of rats orally exposed to PAH contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, F J; Moonen, E J; van der Wal, L; Levels, P; Kleinjans, J C

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have become an ubiquitous upper soil component as a consequence of industrialization involving a multitude of combustion processes. Ingestion of PAH contaminated soil is considered to be a major exposure route, specifically for small children living on these soils. Health risk assessment is based on extrapolations from data obtained via studies performed with pure chemicals. Additionally it is assumed that after oral intake all PAH present in the soil will be absorbed by the human body. Interactions with the soil matrix, however, may modulate the bioavailability of PAH. In this study, we examined the absorption and excretion of PAH in rats orally exposed either to industrially contaminated soils or pure model compounds as anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). The model compounds and the metabolites, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-pyrene) and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OH-B[a]P), were measured in blood, feces or urine by means of HPLC with fluorescence detection. Because of rapid biotransformation only minimal levels of unmetabolized anthracene, pyrene and B[a]P in blood could be detected. The pharmacokinetic parameters were nonlinear and suggestive of enterohepatic cycling. Only low levels of the compounds were excreted unchanged in feces whereas the levels of the metabolites were considerably higher in feces and urine. These results indicate that the dosed PAH are largely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, subsequently metabolized and excreted as metabolites via urine and feces. Significant differences between the soil-treated group and the pure mixture-treated group could be observed; the soil-treated group showed higher fecal excretion of unchanged pyrene (0.5 versus 0.2% of the original dose) and B[a]P (1 versus 0.3%), lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in feces (5.1 versus 17. 0%), and lower excretion of 1-OH-pyrene in urine (0.2 versus 3.4%). The fecal excretion of 3-OH-B[a]P between the two groups was similar (8

  17. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  18. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  19. [Interaction of biosurfactant-microorganism to enhance phytoremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contaminated soils with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-wei; Yin, Rui; Lin, Xian-gui; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Xiao-min; Li, Xuan-zhen; Yang, Ting

    2010-04-01

    A pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out to investigate the interactive effect of rhamnolipids (RH) addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria (DB) inoculation on the phytoremediation efficiency for removal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from agricultural soils. Results indicated that RH addition and DB inoculation promoted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) growth and PAHs degradation in the soil. After 90 days, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 30.0% and 49.6% for the treatment of RH and DB, respectively, but only 21.7% for control. For the treatment of RH + DB, residual PAHs concentration in soil reduced 53.9%, showing synergy effect of RH addition and DB inoculation. In addition, the average PAHs degradation gradually reduced with the increase of the PAHs rings, but DB inoculation promoted the degradation of four-ring PAHs and five-ring PAHs. The number of PAHs degrading bacteria and dehydrogenase activity increased with the removal ratio of PAHs. Therefore RH addition and PAHs-specific degrading bacteria inoculation were effective in enhancing the phytoremediation efficiency of the long-term PAHs contaminated soils.

  20. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Molecular ratio analyses also show that petroleum origin is the chief source of PAHs contamination in all samples except in the control that is characterized with pyrogenic and petrogenic source. @JASEM. Key words: PAHs, soil Contamination, Abraka. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are group of organic compound that ...

  1. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femdot

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... hydrocarbons (PAHs) by gas chromatography after extracting with hexane and dichloromethane (3:1). The initial PAHs ... ostreatus is found more effective as a biodegradation agent for PAHs in contaminated soils when compared with P. ... compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls phenols and halogenated ...

  2. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  3. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  4. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  6. A comprehensive study of the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora: implication for plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-05-01

    These pot experiments aimed to investigate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant uptake, rhizophere, endophytic bacteria, and phytoremediation potentials of contaminated sediments. Salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora was selected and cultivated in phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-contaminated sediments (for 70 days). The results indicated that the amount of PHE removed from the sediments ranged from 13 to 36 %, while PYR ranged from 11 to 30 %. In rhizophere sediment, dehydrogenase activities were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by higher concentration of PHE treatments, while polyphenol oxidase activities were prohibited more than 10 % in non-rhizophere sediment. Compared with the control, PHE treatments had also significantly (P < 0.05) lower total microbial biomass; especially for gram-negative bacteria, this decrease was more than 24 %. However, the PYR treatments had little effect on the dehydrogenase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) biomass. The greatest abundance of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases isolated from gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHDα-GN) of rhizoplane and endophyte in roots were found at high concentration of PHE treatments and increased by more than 100- and 3-fold, respectively. These results suggested that PAH pollution would result in the comprehensive effect on S. alterniflora, whose endophytic bacteria might play important roles in the phytoremediation potential of PAH-contaminated sediments.

  7. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in historically contaminated soils after lab incubation with sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of application of sewage sludge-derived biochars for the immobilisation of freely dissolved (Cfree) and bioaccessible (Cbioacc) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Soil SL-COK collected from the area of a coking plant and soil SL-BIT collected from the area of a plant producing bituminous materials were chosen for the study. The biochars were produced from sewage sludge at temperatures of 500 °C (BC500) or 700 °C (BC700). The biochars were mixed with the soil at the dose of 5% and incubated for a period of 60 d. The content of PAHs was determined with the use of polyoxymethylene (POM) (Cfree) or a solution of cyclodextrins and silicon rod elastomer (Cbioacc). Biochars reduced the content of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs in soils. A higher level of reduction was noted for Cfree PAHs than for Cbioacc PAHs. Biochar produced at 700 °C was more effective in the reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc PAHs than biochar produced at 500 °C. It was found that in the soil in which the source of contamination were processes related with the production of bituminous materials (SL-BIT), the effect of reduction of Cfree and Cbioacc was greater than in soil SL-COK where the source of PAHs were coking processes. It also needs to be emphasised that soil SL-BIT, for which better reduction of PAHs was noted, was also characterised by a lower affinity towards those compounds than soil SL-COK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decadal trends in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in The Netherlands : Declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A. Dick; Baggelaar, Paul K.; van Lieverloo, J. Hein M; Ariese, Freek

    2016-01-01

    Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, were analyzed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  11. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available 32, 2317?2324. Huang, X.D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced toxicity ofPAHs to the f region of Brassica napus (canola) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in simulated solar radiation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety....F., Dixon, G., Greenberg, B.M., 1996. Photoinduced eVTects ofpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on Brassica napus (Canola) during germination and early seedling development. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 33, 73?80. Siciliano, S.D., Germida, J.J., 1999...

  12. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  13. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  14. Prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recalcitrant pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are difficult to degrade and have been the focus for biodegradation. They form a class of pollutant on a global scale. In an attempt to contribute to the search for suitable microbial culture with potential to biodegrade low and high molecular weight PAHs ...

  15. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  16. Selective treatment to reduce contamination of propolis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) still preserving its active polyphenol component and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Fabio; Crimaldi, Laura; Maccari, Francesca; Zaccaria, Vincenzo; Fachini, Alfredo; Volpi, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents. Extracts were characterised for total content of polyphenols, for in vitro antioxidant activity, and single classes of polyphenols evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Obtained propolis extracts were found to have PAH8 and specific benzo[a]pyrene content below limits recommended by EFSA. The reported extractive procedure is easily applicable for possible industrial productions and may also be adopted to the purification of polyphenols from other plant extracts and natural sources.

  17. APPLICATION OF FENTON’S REAGENT ON REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONs (PAHs) IN SPIKED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Nursiah La Nafie

    2010-01-01

    Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+) and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene,...

  18. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight PAHs are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...

  19. Decadal trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene in fish bile fluid in the Netherlands: declining in marine waters but still a concern in estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dick Vethaak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring data on the concentrations of biliary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr in flatfish, as a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH exposure, were analysed and evaluated to elucidate spatial differences and temporal trends in marine and estuarine PAH contamination in the Netherlands. Dab (Limanda limanda and flounder (Platichthys flesus with partly overlapping distributions were used as target species. In total 1831 bile samples were analysed individually: 417 dab in 1998-2005 and 1438 flounder in 1996-2012. The sampling procedure for flatfish and the PAH metabolites determination by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence (FL detection were based on international guidelines. Measuring the absorbance at 380 nm was tested to correct for possible differences in feeding status, but this turned out not to be a suitable parameter for the standardisation of PAH metabolite concentrations. Both fish species showed statistically significant differences in biliary 1-OHPyr concentrations between various locations. The highest level of PAH contamination was found in flounder from the estuarine Western Scheldt, which might be partly due to local dredging activities. Dab from the central North Sea (Dogger Bank showed the lowest level of PAH contamination. Analysis of all the data indicated mainly downward trends in PAH contamination, most clearly pronounced in the Dutch Wadden Sea. PAH exposure levels in the Dutch coastal waters including the Eastern Scheldt and the Wadden Sea, and also at the offshore North Sea monitoring sites represent levels of response that are not indicative of significant harm. In contrast, PAH contamination in the more industrialised Dutch estuaries (Western Scheldt and Ems Dollard is still a cause for concern. Future monitoring should register the total bile volume, the sex of the fish and the method of fishing to improve the interpretation of the data. In addition, the biliary

  20. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  1. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.; Flowers, T.H.; Duncan, H.J.; Alder, J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Glasgow Marine Technological Centre

    2006-06-15

    The relevance of germination trials for screening plants that may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated land was evaluated. The germination and subsequent growth of 7 grass and legume species were evaluated in soil spiked with a pure PAH mixture or coal tar and soil from a former coking plant heavily contaminated with aged PAHs. None of these treatments adversely affected germination of the plants. However, apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil. In the coal tar spiked soil 4 out of the 7 species showed reduced growth, as did 3 out of the 7 in the soil spiked with a mixture of 7 PAHs. Therefore, germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied.

  2. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase enzyme was produced from an isolate of the white rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum Chaaim-001 BCU. The enzyme was subsequently evaluated for its degradative ability towards sixteen types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The G. lucidum laccase degraded antracene completely with or without a ...

  4. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g-1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  5. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  6. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084

  7. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  8. Improving bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils by thermal pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their

  9. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  10. ASSESSING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF PAHS IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT USING XAD-2 ASSISTED DESORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the bioremediation of soils/sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is imperative to determine the fraction of the PAHs that is amenable to remediation. For example, what fraction of the PAHs is available to the indigenous microorganisms, i.e. bi...

  11. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  12. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (psoil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (psoil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  14. A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul; Brown, Richard J C

    2013-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of PAHs in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of PAHs in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by PAH exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of PAH exposure, this review offers an overview of PAH properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of PAH exposure and their significance are also discussed. © 2013.

  15. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.

  16. Remobilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils with a new bio-surfactant; Remobilisation d'Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) presents dans les sols contamines a l'aide d'un tensioactif d'origine biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabet, S.

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic pollutants released into the environment by combustion processes; Due to their high sorption capacity, soils constitute their main environmental sink. PAH are hydrophobic and weakly biodegradable, moreover they are toxic and considered as potent human carcinogen. Various technologies are used for the remediation of PAH-contaminated soils, but they are not cost effective and may be hazardous for the environment. Some recent studies suggest that the use of bio-surfactants is a promising method that enhances the removal of PAHs from soils. This study investigates the properties and the impact of a new bio-surfactant, on the mobilization of three PAH (fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene). The bio-surfactant seems to be weakly sorbed on the soil studied. Solubilizing effects have been studied by the Molar Solubilization Ratio (MSR). In the ternary mixture, the less hydrophobic PAH (fluorene) favors the micellar solubilization of the most hydrophobic one by decreasing interfacial tensions. The soil column studies revealed that the bio-surfactant was rapidly efficient. Results obtained in dynamic studies were consistent with those obtained in static studies. This work also investigated the effect of the contamination level on PAH remobilization. The study reveals that PAH solubilization increases with the contamination level until micelle saturation. The percentage re-mobilized depends on the contaminant studied and the content of organic matter rate. As a matter of fact, for the soil containing the higher OM rate, remobilization follows physico-chemical properties of the PAH. For the soil containing less OM, the mineral fraction seems to play a significant role on PAH adsorption. (author)

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  18. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑88BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑16EPABaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑88BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate. PMID:29051449

  19. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... PAHs in the environment include natural fires, volcanic eruptions, thermal .... the target compounds in a reasonable time of less than. 35 min. This was .... (PAH) determined in Nigerian Kundi (smoked dried meat). J. Sci.

  20. Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of PAH pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control PAH. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of PAH contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce PAH in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of the Grand-Lahou lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire) was investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total concentrations of PAHs were between 1.55 and 437.52 μg/g in the dry season. Pyrene, benzo (b) ...

  2. The Influence of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Bioavailability and Toxicity to Soil Microbial Communities in Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may affect bioavailability and toxicity of organic contaminants due to their adsorption properties. Recent studies have observed the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic contaminants. Greenh...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in livers of California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily

    2008-03-01

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to PAH exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operatorPAH concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operatorPAHs among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of PAHs in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of PAHs with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.

  4. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  5. ENVIROMENTAL HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN RICOTTA AND MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mercogliano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain. Aim of this study was the evaluation of PAHs in ricotta and mozzarella di bufala cheese, produced by milk of buffalo collected in three farms, located in a high contaminated area in Campania because of a waste treatment plant and illegal waste incineration. 11 PAHs were identified both in milk and dairy products. Carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(apyrene were found in a range including 0.42- 12.96 μg/kg and dibenzo(ahanthracene 0.21-10.08 μg/kg. Anthracene showed higher concentrations than the other PAHs (45.23-436.85 μg/kg.

  6. Biodegradation of PAHs in petroleum-contaminated soil using tamarind leaves as microbial inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Juntongjin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-contaminated soil contains various hazardous materials such as aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study focused on PAHs since they are potentially toxic,mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Bioremediation of PAHs was carried out by adding tamarind leaf inoculums into petroleum-contaminated soil. Tamarind and other leguminous leaves have been reported to containedseveral PAH-degrading microorganisms. To minimize the amount of leaves added, the preparation of tamarind leaf inoculums was developed by incubating tamarind leaves with a sub-sample of contaminated soil for 49 days. After that, the efficiency of tamarind leaf inoculums was tested with two soil samplescollected from a navy dockyard and railway station in Samutprakarn and Bangkok, respectively. These soil samples had different levels of petroleum contamination. Bioaugmentation treatment was carried out bymixing contaminated soil with the inoculum at the ratio of 9:1. For navy dockyard soil, the concentration of phenanthrene was decreased gradually and reached the undetectable concentration within 56 days in theinoculated soil; meanwhile 70-80% of fluoranthene and pyrene were remained at the end of treatment. For railway station soil, which had lower petroleum contamination, PAH degradation was more rapid, forexample, the concentration of phenanthrene was below detection limit after 28 days. Besides PAHs, the amounts of several hydrocarbons were also reduced after treatment. At the same time, numerousphenanthrene-degrading bacteria, which were used as representatives of PAH degraders, could be observed in both inoculated soils. However, higher numbers of bacteria were found in railway station soil, whichcorresponded with the lower amount of PAHs and higher amount of soil nutrients. The results showed that inoculum prepared from tamarind leaves could be used to degrade PAHs as well as clean-up petroleum contaminated soil.

  7. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  8. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  9. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin D; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24-7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5-119.8 ng m(-3) during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  10. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... to noise ratio of 3:1. The LOQ was determined by the signal to noise ratio of 10:1. The LOL was determined from the plot of the concentration versus response. The RSD for the sixteen compo- unds were ..... genic PAHs have greater resistance to microbial degra- dation (Yun et al., 2003), their limited water ...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enriching antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baowei; He, Rong; Yuan, Ke; Chen, Enzhong; Lin, Lan; Chen, Xin; Sha, Sha; Zhong, Jianan; Lin, Li; Yang, Lihua; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Zou, Shichun; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in modern environment raises an emerging global health concern. In this study, soil samples were collected from three sites in petrochemical plant that represented different pollution levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metagenomic profiling of these soils demonstrated that ARGs in the PAHs-contaminated soils were approximately 15 times more abundant than those in the less-contaminated ones, with Proteobacterial being the preponderant phylum. Resistance profile of ARGs in the PAHs-polluted soils was characterized by the dominance of efflux pump-encoding ARGs associated with aromatic antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones and acriflavine) that accounted for more than 70% of the total ARGs, which was significantly different from representative sources of ARG pollution due to wide use of antibiotics. Most of ARGs enriched in the PAHs-contaminated soils were not carried by plasmids, indicating the low possibilities of them being transferred between bacteria. Significant correlation was observed between the total abundance of ARGs and that of Proteobacteria in the soils. Proteobacteria selected by PAHs led to simultaneously enriching of ARGs carried by them in the soils. Our results suggested that PAHs could serve as one of selective stresses for greatly enriching of ARGs in the human-impacted environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of PAHs and the PAH-degrading genes in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng

    2017-04-01

    Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' is...

  14. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The internal surface of an Mg–Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by an- choring carboxy-methyl derivatized β-cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydro- phobic aromatic ...

  15. Inclusion of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The internal surface of an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide has been functionalized by anchoring carboxy-methyl derivatized -cyclodextrin cavities to the gallery walls. Neutral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been included within the functionalized solid by driving the hydrophobic aromatic molecules from ...

  16. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by white rot-fungus Pseudotrametes gibbosa isolated from the boreal forest in Northeast China. ... This study provides technical support for pollution amelioration using aboriginal white-rot fungus. Key words: White-rot fungus, laccase, polycyclic aromatic ...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  18. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    These findings suggest that study food crops from exposed areas are markedly contaminated by carcinogenic. PAHs and may pose public nutrition and health concerns. Also, determination of trace nutrient elements in papaya at contaminated sites ... 2015), coke production in the iron and steel industry, catalytic cracking in ...

  20. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of PAHs in spent and fresh cutting fluids (SCF and FCF) contaminated soils was investigated. Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids separately then ...

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao, E-mail: hernando.bacosa@utexas.edu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373 (United States); Inoue, Chihiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  2. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  3. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  4. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  5. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Zheng, Cheng-Gang

    2017-02-22

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  6. Energy sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [Carcinogenicity of PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Combustion is the predominant end-process by which fossil fuels are converted to energy. Combustion, particularly when inefficient, is also the primary technological source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released into the environment. The need for liquid fuels to supply the transportation industry and for nonpolluting fuels for heat and power generation provide the incentive to commercialize processes to convert coal to substitute natural gas and oil. These processes represent a potentially massive new source of environmental PAHs. Insuring an adequate supply of energy with minimum impact on the environment and on health is one of the most important, urgent, and challenging goals currently facing science and technology. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon related carcinogenesis is among the most important of possible occupational- and environmental-health impacts of much of the current and projected national energy base. An understanding of the relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to human cancer and a continued surveillance of energy sources for PAH content are necessary to minimize this impact.

  7. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, ...

  8. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Medicago sativa L. by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2017-04-01

    Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in PAH uptake, responses and degradation by plants. Thus, the present study aimed to detect the location of pyrene, anthracene and phenanthrene using fluorescence microscopy techniques in shoots and roots of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) plants grown in artificially contaminated soil (150ppm PAHs) for 40days. Leaflet and root samples were then collected and observed under a fluorescence microscope to detect the presence of PAHs in various tissues. One important finding of the present study was intense fluorescence in the glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) of plants grown in contaminated soil. These trichomes, with a previously unknown function, may be sites of PAH conjugation and degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  10. Ca2+ promoted the low transformation efficiency of plasmid DNA exposed to PAH contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Kang

    Full Text Available The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca(2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72-3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg · L(-1. The addition of Ca(2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca(2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and mass spectrometry (MS to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca(2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with "-POO(--" groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments.

  11. Spatial distribution of heavy hydrocarbons, PAHs and metals in polluted areas. The case of "Galicia", Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Chianese, E; Riccio, A; Delgado-Sanchez, A; Lacorte, S

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this work is to verify the impact of anthropogenic activities and the effects of accidental events, e.g. oil spills, on the marine environment. For this reason, marine sediments and soil samples were collected in the inner part of Vigo and Pontevedra bays, in the Galicia region, northwest Spain, an area interested by many events of oil spills and also characterized by coastal areas with intense anthropic activities; also Cíes Islands, a natural protected area facing the Vigo bay, was investigated, as background site. PAHs, heavy hydrocarbons and metals were analyzed according to standard methods, in order to satisfy quality assurance and quality check constraints. Total PAHs concentration (Σ 16 compounds) were in the range of 25-4000ng/g, and 30-800ng/g for marine sediments and soil samples, respectively. Even some samples from the Cíes Islands, show a contamination with values achieving >200ng/g of PAHs. Although contamination levels have been shown to be strong at several locations in the study area, their ranges are those typical of other estuarine sites, with PAHs and hydrocarbons primarily of pyrolytic origin. This observation was further confirmed by enrichment factors of some metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) that match to those of harbor and shipyard zones of the main industrial and commercial maritime areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parking lot sealcoat: a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban and suburban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Scoggins, Mateo; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative studies by the City of Austin and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar based sealcoat—the black, shiny emulsion painted or sprayed on asphalt pavement such as parking lots—as a major and previously unrecognized source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life. Studies in Austin, Texas, showed that particles in runoff from coal-tar based sealcoated parking lots had concentrations of PAHs that were about 65 times higher than concentrations in particles washed off parking lots that had not been sealcoated. Biological studies, conducted by the City of Austin in the field and in the laboratory, indicated that PAH levels in sediment contaminated with abraded sealcoat were toxic to aquatic life and were degrading aquatic communities, as indicated by loss of species and decreased numbers of organisms. Identification of this source of PAHs may help to improve future strategies for controlling these compounds in urban water bodies across the Nation where parking lot sealcoat is used.

  13. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation potential of a new acid tolerant, diazotrophic P-solubilizing and heavy metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus sp. MTS-7 isolated from long-term mixed contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    An isolate of Cupriavidus (strain MTS-7) was identified from a long-term PAHs and heavy metals mixed contaminated soil with the potential to biodegrade both LMW and HMW PAHs with added unique traits of acid and alkali tolerance, heavy metal tolerance, self-nutrient assimilation by N fixation and P solubilization. This strain completely degraded the model 3 (150 mg L(-1) Phe), 4 (150 mg L(-1) Pyr) and 5 (50 mg L(-1) BaP) ring PAHs in 4, 20 and 30 days, respectively. It could mineralize 90-100% of PAHs (200 mg L(-1) of Phe and Pyr) within 15 days across pH ranging from 5 to 8 and even in the presence of toxic metal contaminations. During biodegradation, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 (Cu(2+)) and 3 (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+)) mg L(-1) of the potentially bioavailable metal ions and over 17 mg L(-1) metal levels was lethal for the microbe. Further, it could fix 217-274 μg mL(-1) of N and solubilize 79-135 μg mL(-1) of P while PAHs degradation. MTS-7 as a superior candidate could be thus used in the enhanced bioaugmentation and/or phytoremediation of long-term mixed contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in the Italian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovici, M; Dolara, P; Casalini, C; Ciappellano, S; Testolin, G

    1995-01-01

    The content of total and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian foods was measured. The highest levels of PAHs were found in pizza baked in wood-burning ovens and barbecued beef and pork. Relatively high levels were also found in beet greens and squash, apples and bread, fried beef, pork and rabbit, cured meats and chocolate. Conversely low levels were detected in potatoes and cooked fish, beverages and eggs. The daily intake of total and carcinogenic PAHs also was calculated by multiplying the average consumption of each food by its mean concentration of PAHs. Cereal and milk products, meat, vegetables and fruits were the highest contributors to total PAH intake, since these products are the most important dietary components in Italy. The calculated total dietary PAH intake was 3 micrograms/day per person. The calculated intake of carcinogenic PAHs was 1.4 microgram/day per person. The dietary intake of PAHs was high compared with the calculated respiratory intake (370 ng/day) owing to polluted city air in Italy. These results confirm that food is the major source of human exposure to PAHs, due in particular to the high consumption of contaminated cereal products.

  15. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by composting: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajthaml, T; Bhatt, M; Sasek, V; Matĕjů, V

    2002-01-01

    Composting technique was used for bioremediation of industrial soil originating from a former tar-contaminated site. The composting process was regulated by aeration to keep optimal temperature gradient and concentrations of O2 and CO2 inside the composting pile. The efficiency of bioremediation was evaluated by performing analysis of 11 individual three- to six-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and estimating of changes in ecotoxicity of the contaminated soil. After 42 d of composting, PAH with 3-4 rings were removed from 42 to 68%, other higher-molar mass PAH from 35 to 57%. Additional 100 d of compost maturation in open-air field did not result in a further decrease of PAH. Ecotoxicity tests performed with bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischerii showed a decrease in toxicity both after composting and maturation phases. However, toxicity tests on mustard-seed germination did not reveal any significant changes during composting and maturation phases.

  16. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  17. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  18. Application of magnetite-activated persulfate oxidation for the degradation of PAHs in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Ruby, C; Hanna, K

    2012-04-01

    In this study, feasibility of magnetite-activated persulfate oxidation (AP) was evaluated for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in batch slurry system. Persulfate oxidation activated with soluble Fe(II) (FP) or without activation (SP) was also tested. Kinetic oxidation of PAHs was tracked in spiked sand and in aged PAH contaminated soils at circumneutral pH. Quartz sand was spiked with: (i) single model pollutant (fluorenone) and (ii) organic extract isolated from two PAH contaminated soils (H and NM sampled from ancient coking plants) and was subjected to oxidation. Oxidation was also performed on real H and NM soils with and without an extraction pretreatment. Results indicate that oxidation of fluorenone resulted in its complete degradation by AP while abatement was very low (soil extracts spiked on sand, significant degradation of 16 PAHs was observed by AP (70-80%) in 1 week as compared to only 15% by SP or FP systems. But no PAH abatement was observed in real soils whatever the treatment used (AP, FP or SP). Then soils were subjected to an extraction pretreatment but without isolation of organic extract from soil. Oxidation of this pretreated soil showed significant abatement of PAHs by AP. On the other hand, very low degradation was achieved by FP or SP. Selective degradation of PAHs was observed by AP with lower degradation efficiency towards high molecular weight PAHs. Analyses revealed that no by-products were formed during oxidation. The results of this study demonstrate that magnetite can activate persulfate at circumneutral pH for an effective degradation of PAHs in soils. However, availability of PAHs and soil matrix were found to be the most critical factors for degradation efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (PAHs and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to provide an overview of the distribution pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site soils. PCA is the powerful multivariate method to identify the patterns in data and expressing their similarities and differences. Ten PAHs (naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) and four toxic heavy metals - lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) - were detected in the site soils. PAH contamination was contributed equally by both low and high molecular weight PAHs. PCA was performed using the varimax rotation method in SPSS, 17.0. Two principal components accounting for 91.7% of the total variance was retained using scree test. Principle component 1 (PC1) substantially explained the dominance of PAH contamination in the MGP site soils. All PAHs, except anthracene, were positively correlated in PC1. There was a common thread in high molecular weight PAHs loadings, where the loadings were inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and molecular weight of individual PAHs. Anthracene, which was less correlated with other individual PAHs, deviated well from the origin which can be ascribed to its lower toxicity and different origin than its isomer phenanthrene. Among the four major heavy metals studied in MGP sites, Pb, Cd and Cr were negatively correlated in PC1 but showed strong positive correlation in principle component 2 (PC2). Although metals may not have originated directly from gaswork processes, the correlation between PAHs and metals suggests that the materials used in these sites may have contributed to high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn. Thus, multivariate analysis helped to identify the sources of PAHs, heavy metals and their association in MGP site, and thereby better characterise the site risk, which would not be possible if one uses chemical analysis

  20. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Lin, Mei-Qing; Shen, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Wang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2014-07-01

    As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ∑16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey on Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of PAH-Contaminated Soils in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, S Rezaie, K Naddafi, Gh Omrani, M Yunesian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are one of the important groups of organic micro pollutants (Xenobiotics due to their widespread distribution and low degradability in the environment (atmosphere, water and soil. Some PAHs exhibit carcinogenic and/or mutagenic properties and are listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA and European Commission (EC as priority pollutants. In this research three petroleum contaminated sites in Iran were selected in order to separate and classify PAH-degrading microorganisms. Samples were analysed for: soil physico-chemical properties, soil particle size distribution, Ultrasonic extraction of PAH (phenanthrene and microbial analysis. Ultrasonic extraction method was shown to be a reliable procedure to extract a wide range of PAH concentrations from different soils, e.g. clay, silt, and clay-silt mixtures. Results showed that the extraction rate of phenanthreen in mentioned different soils was in the range of 85 – 100 percent. Results showed that two of three selected sites were contaminated with phenanthrene in the range of 10 – 100 mg/kg of soil, and had a reasonable population of PAH-degrading bacteria, which were enable to adaptate and degradate a concentration range of phenanthrene between 10 and 1000 mg/kg of soil. According to results, it can conclude that, the bioremediation of contaminated soils in Iran may be considered as a feasible practice.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contamination in aquatic environments adjacent to areas of multiple uses: to whom is that environmental liability?; Contaminacao por hidrocarbonetos aromaticos policiclicos (HPAS) em ambientes aquaticos adjacentes a areas de multiplos usos: a quem corresponde esse passivo ambiental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marina R.D.; Mirlean, Nicolai; Machado, Maria Isabel C.S. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil); Caramao, Elina B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Contamination often can be related to different activities, especially in areas with multiple uses. In these cases, studies are necessary to correctly evaluate the origin of contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds that have two main sources: pyrolytic and petrogenic processes. In Rio Grande City, located at the margins of Patos Lagoon estuary, south Brazil, there are several navigation and industrial activities. This work has the objective to determinate the origins of PAHs and to evaluate the contribution of different sources to the aquatic contamination. The sampling stations were classified according to three main types: industrial effluent, sewage and runoff. We collected sediments from the bottom of effluent channels and from the respective estuarine environments. The material was sieved (0,063 mm), dried, extracted in soxhlet apparatus with methylene chloride and GC-MS analyzed. The results showed that pyrolytic compounds were predominant, indicating the contribution of diffuse sources. This type of study was successful in relating PAHs with their sources, confirming the role of urban and other industries activities in this case of contamination, superimposed to the midstream e downstream activities of petroleum industry. (author)

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influx and sediment contamination in an urbanized estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marina R; Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo R; Caramão, Elina B

    2010-09-01

    Sediments from the Patos Lagoon Estuary in Southern Brazil and sludge from incoming effluents were assessed for the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shallow sediments adjoining the City of Rio Grande were found to be contaminated by PAHs mainly near urban effluent discharge, as well as in the port area. Effluents clustered into four groups according to their sources (sewage, industrial, runoff, and mixed), with each demonstrating different contributions of PAHs to the estuary. There was a predominance of runoff and mixed sources. Navigation activity was the second most important source of PAHs to sediments. The PAHs ratio identified the origin of these contaminants as essentially pyrolytic. The impact of PAHs as a result of uncontrolled disposal or accidental discharge of PAH-rich residues was suggested for several points. These points were primarily near gas stations and motor workshops. In about 30% of sampled sediments, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene surpassed the Threshold Effects Level adopted for marine environments.

  6. A review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) research progress in China based on CNKI database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    This article using the retroactive content analysis method summarizes the research progress of air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 1983 to 2016, and is based on the 72 search results about "Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" in CNKI database. This article directly points out the study achievements and improvements about air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 aspects, the reviews of the studies of PAHs in a special stage, the studies on PAHs determination and analysis method, the studies on PAHs concentration in different places and the studies on the relationship between PAHs concentration in air and human health, respectively.

  7. Importance of organic amendment characteristics on bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, B; Huguenot, D; Panico, A; Fabbricino, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the importance of the organic matter characteristics of several organic amendments (i.e., buffalo manure, food and kitchen waste, fruit and vegetables waste, and activated sewage sludge) and their influence in the bioremediation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soil. The removal of low molecular weights (LMW) and high molecular weights (HMW) PAHs was monitored in four bioremediation reactors and used as an indicator of the role of organic amendments in contaminant removal. The total initial concentration of LMW PAHs was 234 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight), while the amount for HMW PAHs was 422 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). Monitoring of operational parameters and chemical analysis was performed during 20 weeks. The concentrations of LMW PAH residues in soil were significantly lower in reactors that displayed a mesophilic phase, i.e., 11 and 15 %, compared to reactors that displayed a thermophilic phase, i.e., 29 and 31 %. Residual HMW PAHs were up to five times higher compared to residual LMW PAHs, depending on the reactor. This demonstrated that the amount of added organic matter and macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the biochemical organic compound classes (mostly soluble fraction and proteins), and the operational temperature are important factors affecting the overall efficiency of bioremediation. On that basis, this study shows that characterization of biochemical families could contribute to a better understanding of the effects of organic amendments and clarify their different efficiency during a bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil.

  8. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, A; Habeeb Rahman, K; Gireeshkumar, T R; Balachandran, K K; Jacob, Chacko; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2017-01-30

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed significant seasonal dynamics in surface sediments of a tropical ecosystem (Cochin estuary, south west coast of India). Concentrations ranged from 304 to 5874ngg-1 in pre-monsoon, 493 to 14,149ngg-1 in monsoon, and 194 to 10,691ngg-1 in post-monsoon. The estuary was moderately contaminated with low molecular weight PAH fractions, which increased rapidly during the monsoon season indicating land/river runoff as the major transport pathway. The dominance of 2-3 ring fractions in the PAH indicated petrogenic and low temperature combustion processes as major sources, while the very low levels of 5-6 ring components indicated low contribution from pyrolytic sources. Low molecular weight fractions were higher in concentration than the Effective Range-Median (ERM) levels, whereas high molecular weight PAHs were lower than the Effective Range-Low values (ERL). Calculated carcinogenic toxicity equivalents (TEQ) values ranged from 1 to 971ngg-1 in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  10. Contaminants as habitat disturbers: PAH-driven drift by Andean paramo stream insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants can behave as toxicants, when toxic effects are observed in organisms, as well as habitat disturbers and fragmentors, by triggering avoidance responses and generating less- or uninhabited zones. Drift by stream insects has long been considered a mechanism to avoid contamination by moving to most favorable habitats. Given that exploration and transportation of crude oil represent a threat for surrounding ecosystems, the key goal of the present study was to assess the ability of autochthonous groups of aquatic insects from the Ecuadorian paramo streams to avoid by drift different concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the soluble fraction of locally transported crude oil. In the laboratory, different groups of insects were exposed to PAH for 12h. Three different assays, which varied in taxa and origin of the organisms, concentrations of PAH (0.6-38.8µgL(-1)), and environment settings (different levels of refuge and flow) were performed. For Anomalocosmoecus palugillensis (Limnephilidae), drift was a major cause of population decline in low concentration treatments but at higher concentrations mortality dominated. PAH was highly lethal, even at lower concentrations, for Chironomidae, Grypopterygidae (Claudioperla sp.) and Hydrobiosidae (Atopsyche sp.), and, therefore, no conclusion about drift can be drawn for these insects. Contamination by PAH showed to be a threat for benthic aquatic insects from Ecuadorian paramo streams as it can cause a population decline due to avoidance by drift and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of nutrient supplements to increase the microbial degradation of PAH in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, L.M.; Pfaender, F.K. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is often low in soils due to unavailability of PAH and/or to conditions in the soil that are not favorable to microbial activity. As a result, successful bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils may require the addition of supplements to impact PAH availability or soil conditions. This paper reports on the addition of supplements (Triton X-100, Inopol, nutrient buffer, an organic nutrient solution, salicylic acid) on the fate of (9-{sup 14}C) phenanthrene, a model PAH, in creosote contaminated soils. Phenanthrene metabolism was assessed using a mass balance approach that accounts for metabolism of phenanthrene to CO{sub 2}, relative metabolite production, and uptake of phenanthrene into cells. Most of the supplements did not drastically alter the fate of phenanthrene in the contaminated soils. Additions of Inopol, however, increased phenanthrene mineralization, while salicylic acid decreased phenanthrene mineralization but greatly increased the production of polar and water soluble metabolites. All supplements (excluding salicylic acid and the organic nutrient solution) increased populations of heterotrophic microorganisms, as measured by plate counts. Phenanthrene degrader populations, however, were only slightly increased by additions of the nutrient buffer, as measured by the Most Probable Number assay.

  12. Removal of PAHs from contaminated clayey soil by means of electro-osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2011-06-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from clayey soils is an intricate task. The low porosity of compacted clayey soil hinders bacterial activity and makes convective removal by hydraulic flow impossible. Electro-osmosis is a process that has been used for the mobilization and cleanup of contaminants in clayey soils with varying successes. The present study focuses on the remediation of a contaminated peaty clay soil, located in Olst - the Netherlands, by means of electro-osmosis. The soil was originally contaminated by an asphalt production plant, active from 1903 to 1983, and presents high levels of all 16 priority PAHs indicated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such a long contact times of PAH with the soil (≥100 years) presents a unique study material with well established solid/liquid contaminant partitioning equilibrium, preferable to artificially spiked soil. A batch of 6 electro-osmosis laboratory experiments was carried out to study the removal of 16 PAHs through electro-osmosis. In these experiments, water and a surfactant (Tween 80) were used to enhance the PAH desorption. The electro-osmotic conductivities ranged from 2.88 × 10-10 to a substantial 1.19 × 10-7 m2 V-1 s -1 when applying a current density of 0.005-0.127 A m-2. Electro-osmosis was expected to occur towards the cathode, because of natural soil characteristics (negative zeta potential), but presented scattered directions. The use of reference electrodes proved to be very effective to the prediction of the flow direction. Finally, the addition of Tween 80 as a surfactant enhanced PAH removal up to 30% of the total PAH content of the soil in 9 days. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  14. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L; Aitken, Michael D; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (prebioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (postbioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, postbioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental toxicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, postbioremediation (p soil extract fraction, postbioremediation (p soil extract fractions in embryonic zebrafish, both pre- and postbioremediation. The increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase postbioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded.

  15. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  16. PCB and PAH speciation among particle types in contaminated harbor sediments and effects on PAH bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upal; Zimmerman, John R; Luthy, Richard G

    2003-05-15

    This research provides particle-scale understanding of PCB and PAH distribution in sediments obtained from three urban locations in the United States: Hunters Point, CA; Milwaukee Harbor, WI; and Harbor Point, NY. The sediments comprised mineral grains (primarily sand, silt, and clays) and carbonaceous particles (primarily coal, coke, charcoal, pitch, cenospheres, and wood). The carbonaceous sediment fractions were separated from the mineral fractions based on their lower density and were identified by petrographic analysis. In all three sediments, carbonaceous particles contributed 5-7% of the total mass and 60-90% of the PCBs and PAHs. The production of carbonaceous particles is not known to be associated with PCB contamination, and it is very unlikely that these particles can be the source of PCBs in the environment Thus, it appears that carbonaceous particles preferentially accumulate PCBs acting as sorbents in the aqueous environment if PCBs are released directly to the sediment or if deposited as airborne soot particles. Aerobic bioslurry treatment resulted in negligible PAH loss from the carbonaceous coal-derived material in Milwaukee Harbor sediment but resulted in 80% of the PAHs being removed from carbonaceous particles in Harbor Point sediment. Microscale PAH extraction and analysis revealed that PAHs in Harbor Point sediment were associated mainly with coal tar pitch residue. PAHs present in semisolid coal tar pitch are more bioavailable than PAHs sorbed on carbonaceous particles such as coal, coke, charcoal, and cenosphere. Results of this study illustrate the importance of understanding particle-scale association of hydrophobic organic contaminants for explaining bioavailability differences among sediments.

  17. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  18. Microorganism selection and performance in bioslurry reactors treating PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, D P; Hudak, A J

    2002-09-01

    A continuous-flow reactor (CSTR) and a soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR) were operated in 81 vessels for 200 days to treat a soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtered slurry samples were used to quantify bulk biosurfactant concentrations and PAH emulsification. Concentrations of Corynebacterium aquaticum, Flavobacterium mizutaii, Mycobacterium gastri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida were determined using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The CSTR and SS-SBR selected microbial consortia with markedly different surfactant-producing and PAH-degrading abilities. Biosurfactant levels in the SS-SBR reached 4 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) that resulted in considerable emulsification of PAH. In contrast, CSTR operation resulted in nomeasurable biosurfactant production. Total PAH removal efficiency was 93% in the SS-SBR, compared with only 66% in the CSTR, and stripping of PAH was 3 times less in the SS-SBR. Reversing the mode of operation on day 100 caused a complete reversal in microbial consortia and in reactor performance by day 140. These results show that bioslurry reactor operation can be manipulated to control overall reactor performance.

  19. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  20. Synthesis, modification and graft polymerization of magnetic nano particles for PAH removal in contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were modified with 3-Mercaptopropytrimethoxysiline (MPTMS) and grafted with allyl glycidyl ether for coupling with beta naphtol as a method to form a novel nano-adsorbent to remove two poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated water. The modified MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Results showed that the modified MNPs enhanced the process of adsorption. Tests were done on the adsorption capacity of the two PAHs on grafted MNPs; factors applied to the tests were temperature, contact time, pH, salinity and initial concentration of PAHs. Results revealed that adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 10 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 4.15 mg/g at pH = 7.0 and 20°C. The equilibrium adsorption data of the two PAHs by the modified MNPs were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. Equilibrium adsorption data was determined from the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin constants from tests under conditions of pH = 7 and temperature 20°C. Analysis of the adsorption-desorption process indicated that the modified MNPs had a high level of stability and good reusability. Magnetic separation in these tests was fast and this shows that the modified MNPs have great potential to be used as a new adsorbent for the two PAHs removal from contaminated water in water treatment. PMID:25101170

  1. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manli; Li, Wei; Dick, Warren A; Ye, Xiqiong; Chen, Kaili; Kost, David; Chen, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-polluted soil is carried out by various microorganisms. However, little information is available for the relationships between hydrocarbon degradation rates in petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity in laboratory assay. In a microcosm study, degradation rate and efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a petroleum-contaminated soil were determined using an infrared photometer oil content analyzer and a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the populations of TPH, alkane, and PAH degraders were enumerated by a modified most probable number (MPN) procedure, and the hydrocarbon degrading activities of these degraders were determined by the Biolog (MT2) MicroPlates assay. Results showed linear correlations between the TPH and alkane degradation rates and the population and activity increases of TPH and alkane degraders, but no correlation was observed between the PAH degradation rates and the PAH population and activity increases. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial population measured by MPN was significantly correlated with metabolic activity in the Biolog assay. The results suggest that the MPN procedure and the Biolog assay are efficient methods for assessing the rates of TPH and alkane, but not PAH, bioremediation in oil-contaminated soil in laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling Trade-off between PAH Toxicity Reduction and Negative Effects of Sorbent Amendments to Contaminated Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupryianchyk, D.; Rakowska, M.I.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Adding activated carbon (AC) to contaminated sediment has been suggested as an effective method for sediment remediation. AC binds chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thus reducing the toxicity of the sediment. Negative effects of AC on benthic organisms have also been

  3. An Optimised Method to Determine PAHs in a Contaminated Soil; Metodo Optimizado para la Determinacion de PAHs en un Suelo Contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2007-07-20

    An analytical study is presented based on an optimised method to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The work was focused to obtain reliable measurements of PAH in a gas work contaminated soil and was performed in the frame of the project 'Assessment of natural remediation technologies for PAHs in contaminated soils' (Spanish Plan Nacional l+D+i, CTM 2004-05832-CO2-01): First assays were focused to evaluate an initial proposed procedure by sonication extraction in the contaminated soil. Afterwards to extend the efficiency and reduce solvent and time consuming of extraction procedures, the more relevant parameters that affect the extraction step were investigated. A comparison between sonication and microwave procedures was done, and the influence of sample grinding was studied. In general, both extraction techniques led on comparable results, although sonication procedure needs to be more carefully optimised. Finally, as a final application of the optimised method, the effect of particle size on relative distribution of selected PAHs in the contaminated soil was investigated. Relative abundance of more volatile PAHs showed a decreasing according to lower grain size, while relative abundance of less volatile compounds indicated an increasing of concentration levels for lower grain size. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  6. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in top soils from rural terrains in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey; Gibson, Richard; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, María de Lourdes

    2012-03-01

    A soil survey was carried out to determine the levels and sources and concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 2 semi-rural terrains in Mexico City (Tlahuac and Milpa Alta) during 2008-2009. PAH determination was made by Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic clean-up with final analysis by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The concentrations in Tlahuac were 9.13 mg/kg (dry season) and 11.22 mg/kg (wet season) and in Milpa Alta were 11.43 mg/kg (dry season) and 35.77 mg/kg (wet season). The variation of total PAH concentrations are due to environmental and anthropogenic conditions within Mexico City and also the addition of compost to the soils. According to Mexican regulations BaP, DaA, BbF and Ind were within the permissible limit (2 mg/kg) for agricultural and residential soils and BkF was close to the limit (8 mg/kg). The total PAH concentrations do however surpass the permissible European limit of 1,000 μg/kg and there is probably some risk to human health, in spite of measures aimed at decreasing contamination in Mexico City. Long term monitoring of soils will be necessary.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Degradation and Detoxification in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Ban, Yeon-Hee; Ahn, Ji-Young; Ko, Jung Ho; Lee, Lyon; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Young-Chang; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2016-11-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly present xenobiotics in natural and contaminated soils. We studied three (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl) xenobiotics, catabolism, and associated proteins in Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Comparative analysis of the growth-dependent 2-DE results revealed that the intensity of 10 protein spots changed identically upon exposure to the three xenobiotics. Among the upregulated proteins, five protein spots, which were putative dehydrogenase, dioxygenase, and hydrolase and involved in the catabolic pathway of xenobiotic degradation, were induced. Identification of these major multifunctional proteins allowed us to map the multiple catabolic pathway for phenanthrene, naphthalene, and biphenyl degradation. A part of the initial diverse catabolism was converged into the catechol degradation branch. Detection of intermediates from 2,3-dihydroxy-biphenyl degradation to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA production by LC/MS analysis showed that ring-cleavage products of PAHs entered the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and were mineralized in S. chungbukense DJ77. These results suggest that S. chungbukense DJ77 completely degrades a broad range of PAHs via a multiple catabolic pathway.

  8. [Bioslurry remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z; Li, P; Guo, S; Jing, X; Wang, X; Zhang, H

    2001-09-01

    Through the operation of the pilot-scale slurry reactor, the operational parameters of bioslurry remediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), including temperature, ratio of water to soil, aeration flux, were determined. As the operational condition was that the ratio of water to soil was 2:1, the temperature was 20 degrees C-25 degrees C and aeration flux was 60 L/h, a good result of the remediation could be achieved. With the fungi isolated from contaminated soil as pure culture to degrade PAHs, after 34 days incubation, 90% of pyrene and 33.3% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Fusarium, 81.5% of pyrene and 49.2% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Mucor, 52% of pyrene and of 46% of benz[a]anthracene were degraded by Penicillium.

  9. Modeling PAH mass transfer in a slurry of contaminated soil or sediment amended with organic sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    A three-compartment kinetic partitioning model was employed to assess contaminant mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion in systems comprising dense slurries of polluted soil or aquifer sediment with or without sorbent amendments to sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The model was applied to simulate temporal changes in aqueous and particle-bound PAH concentrations comparing different pollution sources (heavy oil or tar sludge) and various sorbent amendments (polyoxymethylene (POM), coke breeze, and activated carbon). For the model evaluation, all the parameters needed were directly measured from a series of experiments, allowing full calibration and verification of model predictions without parameter fitting. The numerical model reproduced two separate laboratory-scale experiments reasonably: PAH uptake in POM beads and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices. PAH mass transfer was then simulated for various scenarios, considering different sorbent doses and mass transfer rates as well as biodegradation. Such model predictions provide a quick assessment tool for identifying mass transfer limitations during washing, stabilization, or bioslurry treatments of polluted soil or sediment in mixed systems. It appears that PAHs would be readily released from materials contaminated by small oil droplets, but not tar decanter sludge. Released PAHs would be sequestered rapidly by activated carbon amendment but to a much lesser extent by coke breeze. If sorbing black carbon is present in the slurries, POM pellets would not be effective as a sequestration amendment. High first-order biodegradation rates in the free aqueous phase, e.g., in the order of 0.001 s(-1) for phenanthrene, would be required to compete effectively with adsorption and mass transfer for strong sorbents.

  10. Modeling PAH mass transfer in a slurry of contaminated soil or sediment amended with organic sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.; Werner, D.; Luthy, R.G. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2008-06-15

    A three-compartment kinetic partitioning model was employed to assess contaminant mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion in systems comprising dense slurries of polluted soil or aquifer sediment with or without sorbent amendments to sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The model was applied to simulate temporal changes in aqueous and particle-bound PAH concentrations comparing different pollution sources (heavy oil or tar sludge) and various sorbent amendments (polyoxymethylene (POM), coke breeze, and activated carbon). For the model evaluation, all the parameters needed were directly measured from a series of experiments, allowing full calibration and verification of model predictions without parameter fitting. The numerical model reproduced two separate laboratory-scale experiments reasonably: PAH uptake in POM beads and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices. PAH mass transfer was then simulated for various scenarios, considering different sorbent doses and mass transfer rates as well as biodegradation. Such model predictions provide a quick assessment tool for identifying mass transfer limitations during washing, stabilization, or bioslurry treatments of polluted soil or sediment in mixed systems. It appears that PAHs would be readily released from materials contaminated by small oil droplets, but not tar decanter sludge. Released PAHs would be sequestered rapidly by activated carbon amendment but to a much lesser extent by coke breeze. If sorbing black carbon is present in the slurries, POM pellets would not be effective as a sequestration amendment. High first-order biodegradation rates in the free aqueous phase, e.g., in the order of 0.001 s{sup -1} for phenanthrene, would be required to compete effectively with adsorption and mass transfer for strong sorbents.

  11. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous...

  12. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  13. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS, roadside (RS and park (PS functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs varied in a range of 35.4–116 mg/kg, 5.93–66.5 mg/kg and 3.87–76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4–49.0%, followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9–24.5%. Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0–25 cm, 4.29 mg/kg (25–50 cm, 3.00 mg/kg (50–75 cm, 2.64 mg/kg (75–100 cm respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes.

  14. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Nana; Jin, Bo; Zhuang, Xuliang; Bai, Zhihui

    2017-10-09

    Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS), roadside (RS) and park (PS) functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs) varied in a range of 35.4-116 mg/kg, 5.93-66.5 mg/kg and 3.87-76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4-49.0%), followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9-24.5%). Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0-25 cm), 4.29 mg/kg (25-50 cm), 3.00 mg/kg (50-75 cm), 2.64 mg/kg (75-100 cm) respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg) according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq) were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg) and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes.

  15. Distributions and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils around a Chemical Plant in Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Nana; Jin, Bo; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Yearly the Shanxi coal chemical industry extracts many coal resources, producing at the same time many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are emitted as by-products of coal incomplete combustion. Methods: Sixty-six soil samples collected from 0 to 100 cm vertical sections of three different agricultural (AS), roadside (RS) and park (PS) functional soils around a chemical plant in Shanxi, China were analyzed for the presence of the 16 priority control PAHs. Results: The total concentrations (∑16PAHs) varied in a range of 35.4–116 mg/kg, 5.93–66.5 mg/kg and 3.87–76.0 mg/kg for the RS, PS and AS surface soil, respectively, and 5-ring PAHs were found to be dominant (44.4–49.0%), followed by 4-ring PAHs (15.9–24.5%). Moreover, the average value of ∑16PAHs decreased with the depth, 7.87 mg/kg (0–25 cm), 4.29 mg/kg (25–50 cm), 3.00 mg/kg (50–75 cm), 2.64 mg/kg (75–100 cm) respectively, in PS and AS soil vertical sections. Conclusions: The PAH levels in the studied soils were the serious contamination level (over 1.00 mg/kg) according to the Soils Quality Guidelines. The carcinogenic PAHs (ΣBPAHsBapeq) were approximately 14.8 times higher than the standard guideline level (0.60 mg/kg) and 90.3% of PAHs were produced by coal/wood/grass combustion processes. PMID:28991219

  16. Influence of activated sewage sludge amendment on PAH removal efficiency from a naturally contaminated soil: application of the landfarming treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Borislava; Huguenot, David; Panico, Antonio; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a naturally co-contaminated soil by PAHs and heavy metals with an initial concentration of 620 mg of total PAHs kg -1 dry soil was investigated. The efficiency of landfarming in removing phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs was evaluated. The process was biostimulated by adding centrifuged activated sewage sludge (SS) as an organic amendment. The tested ratios of contaminated soil to SS were 1:2, 1:1, 1:0.5 and 1:0 as wet weight basis. The process performance was monitored through chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses during 105 days of incubation. The results of analyses demonstrated that the treatment without centrifuged SS achieved a significantly higher total 16 US EPA PAH removal efficiency (i.e. 32%) compared to treatments with amendment. In the same treatment, the removal efficiency of the PAH bioavailable fraction was 100% for phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and the group of total 16 US EPA PAHs, whereas 76% for pyrene. Ecotoxicity test performed with bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri confirmed the effectiveness of landfarming. Finally, the results showed that indigenous microorganisms under certain and controlled operating conditions have greater potential for PAH biodegradation compared to allochthonous microorganisms.

  17. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  18. Sphingomonas from petroleum-contaminated soils in Shenfu, China and their PAHs degradation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the Sphingomonas genus are often isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils due to their unique abilities to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which are important for in situ bioremediation. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach using streptomycin-containing medium and Sphingomonas -specific PCR was developed to isolate and identify culturable Sphingomonas strains present in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Shenfu wastewater irrigation zone. Of the 15 soil samples examined, 12 soils yielded yellow streptomycin-resistant colonies. The largest number of yellow colony-forming units (CFUs could reach 105 CFUs g-1 soil. The number of yellow CFUs had a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 with the ratio of PAHs to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, indicating that Sphingomonas may play a key role in degrading the PAH fraction of the petroleum contaminants at this site. Sixty yellow colonies were selected randomly and analyzed by colony PCR using Sphingomonas -specific primers, out of which 48 isolates had PCR-positive signals. The 48 positive amplicons generated 8 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns, and 7 out of 8 phylotypes were identified as Sphingomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the representative strains. Within these 7 Sphingomonas strains, 6 strains were capable of using fluorene as the sole carbon source, while 2 strains were phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples.

  19. Combined effects of DOM and biosurfactant enhanced biodegradation of polycylic armotic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Huang, Guo-He; Xiao, Huining; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study systematically investigated the interactive effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in soil-water systems. The degradations of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were fitted well with first order kinetic model and the degradation rates were in proportion to the concentration of biosurfactant. In addition, the degradation enhancement of PHE was higher than that of PYR. The addition of soil DOM itself at an environmental level would inhibit the biodegradation of PAHs. However, in the system with co-existence of DOM and biosurfactant, the degradation of PAHs was higher than that in only biosurfactant addition system, which may be attributed to the formation of DOM-biosurfactant complex micelles. Furthermore, under the combined conditions, the degradation of PAH increased with the biosurfactant concentration, and the soil DOM added system showed slightly higher degradation than the compost DOM added system, indicating that the chemical structure and composition of DOM would also affect the bioavailability of PAHs. The study result may broaden knowledge of biosurfactant enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil and groundwater.

  20. Contaminants, benthic communities, and bioturbation: potential for PAH mobilisation in Arctic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalov, D.; Renaud, P.E.; Berge, J.; Voronkov, A.Y.; Cochrane, S.K.J. [Polar Environmental Center, Tromso (Norway)

    2010-07-01

    Marine benthic fauna and biological mixing were studied in relation to sediment organic enrichment and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bottom sediments of Svalbard. We investigated how organic enrichment may affect the fate and chemical composition of deposited contaminants by impacting biological reworking by faunal communities. Samples were collected near active coal mines at Barentsburg and at the mouth of Groenfjord. PAH sources in both areas were coal particles and pyrolytic compounds from coal-driven power stations. The results from a bioturbation experiment were consistent with the hypothesis that fauna enhance the vertical transport of PAHs within the sediment. Faunal community composition was similar at the two sites, with polychaete worms comprising 85% of the fauna. Abundances and taxon richness were eight and ten times higher in the organically enriched sediments near Barentsburg, and total PAH concentrations were up to three times higher in Barentsburg. Unlike expectations derived from models developed for temperate regions, organic enrichment in oligotrophic areas, such as this Arctic site, enhanced the biomass and bioturbation potential of benthic communities. Hence, new insights into the relationships among enrichment, benthic communities and the fate of contaminants must be considered in management and regulatory efforts in these areas.

  1. Surfactant-Enhanced Desorption and Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Aitken, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated two nonionic surfactants, one hydrophobic (Brij 30) and one hydrophilic (C12E8), for their ability to enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil after it had been treated in an aerobic bioreactor. The effects of each surfactant were evaluated at doses corresponding to equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations well above the surfactant’s critical micelle concentration (CMC), slightly above the CMC, and below the CMC. The concentrations of all 3- and 4-ring PAHs were significantly lower in the soil amended with Brij 30 at the two lower doses compared to controls, whereas removal of only the 3-ring PAHs was significantly enhanced at the highest Brij 30 dose. In contrast, C12E8 did not enhance PAH removal at any dose. In the absence of surfactant, soil over an 18-d period. Brij 30 addition at the lowest dose significantly increased the desorption of most PAHs, whereas the addition of C12E8 at the lowest dose actually decreased the desorption of all PAHs. These findings suggest that the effects of the two surfactants on PAH biodegradation could be explained by their effects on PAH bioavailability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the properties of the surfactant and its dose relative to the corresponding aqueous-phase concentration are important factors in designing systems for surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils in which PAH bioavailability is limited. PMID:20586488

  2. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  3. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p PAHs were also significantly reduced (p PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... concentrations were obtained for indirectly smoked trout (26 mu g kg-1). Principal component analysis was used to correlate processing parameters to PAH concentrations and to identify the effects of these parameters. The analysis showed that for salmon hot-smoking conditions lead to higher sigma PAH25 than cold...

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in vegetable oils and fats do not reflect the occurrence of the eight genotoxic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomirah, Husam; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Husain, Adnan; Sawaya, Wajih; Ahmed, Nisar; Gevao, Bondi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 115 samples of olive oil (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, olive oil, pomace olive oil and blended olive oil), cooking oil (corn oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, palm olein oil, soya oil, canola oil, mustard oil, peanut oil and mixed vegetable oil) and fat (butter and table margarine) collected from retail stores in Kuwait. Carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was detected in 43% of the samples analyzed. Benz[a]anthracene and chrysene were detected in 37 and 45% of the samples, respectively, that did not contain BaP. Of the individual non-carcinogenic PAHs, naphthalene showed the highest mean concentration (14 microg kg(-1)), while for the carcinogenic PAHs, BaP (0.92 microg kg(-1)) and chrysene (0.87 microg kg(-1)) showed the highest mean values. Approximately 20% of the samples within the olive oil and cooking oil sub-categories exceeded the EU maximum tolerable limit for BaP, with the highest level of 6.77 and 11.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. For the fat sub-category, 9% of the samples exceeded the tolerance limit, with the highest level of 3.67 microg kg(-1). The Kuwaiti general population's dietary exposure to the genotoxic PAHs (PAH8: benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene) was estimated to be 196 ng day(-1) (3.3 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), assuming an average adult body weight of 60 kg). Results indicated that PAH8 and BaP(eq) (total sum benzo[a]pyrene equivalents) are more reliable measures of the concentrations of other carcinogenic PAHs in oil and fat samples, while BaP and PAHs alone are not good indicators of the occurrence or degree of contamination by carcinogenic PAHs in these food products.

  6. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of southern Taiwan in relation to monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-O; Ko, Fung-Chi; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2016-08-01

    The concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were intensively measured in the Hengchun Peninsula of southern Taiwan. The concentrations of total PAH (Σ38PAH), including gas and particle phases, ranged from 0.85 to 4.40 ng m(-3). No significant differences in the PAH levels and patterns were found between the samples taken at day and at night. The gas phase PAH concentrations were constant year-round, but the highest levels of particle-associated PAHs were found during the northeast monsoon season. Long-range transport and rainfall scavenging mechanisms contributed to the elevated levels in aerosols andΣ38PAH concentrations. Results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the major sources of PAHs in this study were vehicular emissions. The back trajectories demonstrated that air mass movement driven by the monsoon system was the main influence on atmospheric PAH profiles and concentrations in the rural region of southern Taiwan. Gas-particle partition coefficients (K p ) of PAHs were well-correlated with sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (P (o) L ) and demonstrated significant seasonal variation between the northeast (NE) and the southwest (SW) monsoon seasons. This study sheds light on the role of Asian monsoons regarding the atmospheric transport of PAHs.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhong, N N; Hu, D M; Liu, Z Z; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of PAHs pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of PAHs in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of PAHs from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled PAHs ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L.The components of PAHs such as chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b + k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered PAHs leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of PAHs and the high concentrations of PAHs with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of PAHs except for penetration from coal gangue into groundwater in the Pingdingshan coal mine area.

  8. Characterisation and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste dismantling sites in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; He, Jiexin; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2017-10-01

    Environmental pollution due to primitive e-waste dismantling activities has been intensively investigated over the last decade in the south-eastern coastal region of China. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and plants around e-waste recycling sites in Longtang, Guangdong province, South China. The results indicated that PAH concentrations in rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil were in the range of 133 to 626 ng/g and 60 to 816 ng/g, respectively, while PAH levels in plant tissue were 96 to 388 ng/g in shoots and 143 to 605 ng/g in roots. PAHs were enriched in rhizosphere soils in comparison with non-rhizosphere soils. The concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues varied greatly among plant cultivars, indicating that the uptake of PAHs by plants is species-dependent. Different profiles of PAHs in the soil and the corresponding plant tissue implied that PAH uptake and translocation by plants were selective.The total daily intakes of PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs through vegetables at the e-waste recycling site were estimated to be 99 and 22 ng/kg/day, respectively, suggesting that potential health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables should not be ignored.

  9. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  10. Inoculum carrier and contaminant bioavailability affect fungal degradation performances of PAH-contaminated solid matrices from a wood preservation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Svobodová, Katerina; Cvancarová, Monika; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Federici, Federico; Kresinová, Zdena; Galli, Emanuela; Cajthaml, Tomás

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of chopped wheat straw (CWS), ground corn cobs (GCC) and commercial pellets (CP), as inoculum carriers, on both growth and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation performances of Dichomitus squalens, Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus. A historically-contaminated soil (HCS) and creosote-treated shavings (CTS) from the Sobeslav wood preservation plant, characterized by different relative abundances of the PAH bioavailable fractions, were used to assess the contaminated matrix effect and its interaction with both carrier and fungal strain. In HCS, best results were obtained with CP-immobilized P. ostreatus, which was able to deplete benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 69.1%, 29.7%, 39.7%, 32.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Only few high-molecular mass PAHs such as BbF, BkF and BaP were degraded beyond their respective bioavailable fractions and this effect was confined to a limited number of inoculants. In CTS, only phenanthrene degradation exceeded its respective bioavailability from 1.42 to 1.86-fold. Regardless of both inoculum carrier and fungal species, degradation was positively and significantly (P<0.001) correlated with bioavailability in fungal microcosms on HCS and CTS and such correlation was very similar in the two matrices (R(adj)(2) equal to 0.60 and 0.59, respectively). The ability of white-rot fungi to degrade certain PAHs beyond their bioavailability was experimentally proven by this study. Although CTS and HCS considerably differed in their physico-chemical properties, PAH contents and contaminant aging, the relationship between degradation and bioavailability was not significantly affected by the type of matrix.

  11. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  12. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC-MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D; Osborn, A Mark; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC-MS/MS. •Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils.•Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system.•This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils.

  13. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile as biomarkers of pollution in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from German rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, F; Kammann, U; Wagner, C; Hanel, R

    2012-02-01

    In the light of the alarming decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) population, there is an urgent need to define ecological indicators for eel habitat quality. Due to an increasing shortage of glass eels available for local stock enhancement, the decision of whether restocking is a valuable management tool to increase high-quality silver eel escapement to the sea needs to be evaluated. Organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are among the major threats to fish in their habitat. Therefore, the aim of the investigation presented here was to examine metabolites of PAHs in eel bile as one possible marker for habitat quality. In total, 170 yellow eels were collected in the rivers Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Havel, Schlei, Eider, Trave, Warnow, Peene, Uecker, and Oder in 2009. PAH metabolites in eel bile were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Metabolites of pyrene and phenanthrene were investigated. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in eel bile varied significantly between several rivers, with the highest mean concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene in eel bile from the river Trave (2421 and 632 ng/ml). Moreover, huge differences in the ratio of 1-hydroxypyrene to 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, with the highest mean value in eel bile from the river Ems (7.43) and the lowest mean value in eel bile from the river Uecker (0.70), indicate different sources of PAH contamination. A comparative analysis of PAH-metabolite contamination of eels in different river systems is seen as a first step toward a classification of freshwater habitats for restocking purposes.

  14. Comparison of the effectiveness of soil heating prior or during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc, Bérénice; Faure, Pierre; Croze, Véronique; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Simonnot, Marie-Odile

    2017-04-01

    Thermal treatments prior or during chemical oxidation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils have already shown their ability to increase oxidation effectiveness. However, they were never compared on the same soil. Furthermore, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (O-PACs), by-products of PAH oxidation which may be more toxic and mobile than the parent PAHs, were very little monitored. In this study, two aged PAH-contaminated soils were heated prior (60 or 90 °C under Ar for 1 week) or during oxidation (60 °C for 1 week) with permanganate and persulfate, and 11 O-PACs were monitored in addition to the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) PAHs. Oxidant doses were based on the stoichiometric oxidant demand of the extractable organic fraction of soils by using organic solvents, which is more representative of the actual contamination than only the 16 US EPA PAHs. Higher temperatures actually resulted in more pollutant degradation. Two treatments were about three times more effective than the others: soil heating to 60 °C during persulfate oxidation and soil preheating to 90 °C followed by permanganate oxidation. The results of this study showed that persulfate effectiveness was largely due to its thermal activation, whereas permanganate was more sensitive to PAH availability than persulfate. The technical feasibility of these two treatments will soon be field-tested in the unsaturated zone of one of the studied aged PAH-contaminated soils.

  15. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs by dietary fiber extracted from wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unintentional ingestion of carcinogenic xenobiotic substances leads to the high risk of cancer. Dietary fiber (DF may protect against cancer by sorbing such chemicals. To this end, the sorption of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to DF extracted from wheat bran (WB was studied. The strong affinity of PAHs to DF and WB indicated the effective binding of PAHs, and their distribution coefficients (Kd positively increased with the increase in hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The DF had much higher Kd values for all PAHs compared to those of the unprocessed WB. The DF extraction process removed hydrophilic residues, such as starch, from WB, and increased the roughness of DF surface. Loss of hydrophilic components from WB to DF led to much higher affinity of DF with PAHs than WB. The results indicate that the DF can effectively sorb and remove xenobiotics, thereby having the potential to lower carcinogenic risk to humans.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some Trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation provides data on the levels of PAHs and trace nutrient elements in selected tubers (yam and cassava) and fruits (orange and papaya) harvested from oil impacted and gas flaring areas in Akalaolu and Ogale Niger Delta communities. PAHs and heavy metals concentrations were analysed by Gas ...

  17. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hewlett Packard gas chromatographs equipped with mass spectrometer detectors (GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The monitoring data revealed that Sihwa major industrial zone have lower levels of PAHs in comparison to Sihwa minor industrial zone where increase levels of PAHs were observed in both the ...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor emission from decorative candles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates PAHs indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous PAHs emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase PAHs), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase PAHs). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total PAHs concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of PAHs emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 μg kg -1 and mean 15 μg kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic PAHs, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.

  19. Chemometric techniques in distribution, characterisation and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in aquaculture sediments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnam, Ananthy; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Kasim, Mohd Fadhil

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in surface sediments within aquaculture areas in Peninsular Malaysia using chemometric techniques, forensics and univariate methods. The samples were analysed using soxhlet extraction, silica gel column clean-up and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 20 to 1841 ng/g with a mean of 363 ng/g dw. The application of chemometric techniques enabled clustering and discrimination of the aquaculture sediments into four groups according to the contamination levels. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices was used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, oil combustion and biomass combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores-multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are vehicle emissions 54%, oil 37% and biomass combustion 9%. Land-based pollution from vehicle emissions is the predominant contributor of PAHs in the aquaculture sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  1. Bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the amphipod Corophium volutator relates to chemical desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, R H; Ciarelli, S; Tolls, J; Kater, B J; Belfroid, A

    2001-08-01

    In the present study, the relationship between bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic amphipods and the PAH desorption kinetics was examined. To that end, field-contaminated sediment was treated in three different ways. One subsample had no addition of PAHs and contained native PAHs only. To a second subsample, six PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene) were added in the laboratory. Two of the PAHs were added at higher concentrations to a third subsample, serving as a control for concentration-dependent uptake. Marine amphipods (Corophium volutator) were exposed to the three subsamples for a maximum of 25 d and were subsequently analyzed. Desorption kinetics were determined for both the lab-contaminated and the native PAHs. The biota-to-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of the individual native and lab-contaminated PAHs correlated well with the rapidly desorbing fraction (R2 = 0.76). The BSAFs were 1.4 to 3.3 higher for the lab-contaminated PAHs compared with the native PAHs, while the difference between the rapidly desorbing fractions was a factor of 1.1 to 1.8. The BSAFs of the lab-contaminated PAHs in the second and third subsample were equal, indicating concentration-independent accumulation. The results suggest that lab-contaminated PAHs are more available to amphipods than native PAHs and that differences in bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native PAHs to marine amphipods are related to differences in desorption behavior.

  2. Spatial distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the reservoir sediments after impoundment of Manwan Dam in the middle of Lancang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, NanNan; Liu, Shiliang; Yin, Yijie; Cheng, Fangyan; Dong, Shikui; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received increasing attentions owing to their carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and environmental toxicity. The studies on the spatial variations, sources identification and potential ecological risk assessment of PAHs in the reservoir sediments after dam construction are becoming new hotpots. Sixteen PAHs contamination levels were investigated from 15 sample sections in the sediments of Manwan Reservoir in the middle of Lancang River, China. Total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 14.4 to 137.7 ng g(-1) dw with a mean concentration of 70.68 ng g(-1) dw. The areas with residential settlement at large tributaries and near dam had higher PAHs concentrations. In the sight of classification of PAHs pollution levels, the sediments of Manwan Reservoir could be considered as low to moderate PAHs polluted levels. One-way analysis of variance for spatial analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (P PAHs at the reservoir head, centre and tail. Moreover, no significant differences (P PAH at the mainstream and tributaries except that BaP showed significant differences (P PAHs in Manwan Reservoir might be mixed, primarily including the petroleum source and coal combustion. As compared with sediment quality guidelines, the observed concentrations of PAHs in all sample sections did not exceed the effects range low (ERL) and the threshold effect level (TEL) values, suggesting that there were little harmful biological toxic effects on the aquatic organisms in Manwan Reservoir. The study provided a comprehensive overview on the PAHs contaminations on the reservoir sediments in the middle Lancang River, which may have an important significances on the international river management.

  3. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in soils contaminated long-term with PAHs and heavy metals: Implications to bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-05

    Diversity, distribution and composition of bacterial community of soils contaminated long-term with both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were explored for the first time following 454 pyrosequencing. Strikingly, the complete picture of the Gram positive (+ve) and Gram negative (-ve) bacterial profile obtained in our study illustrates novel postulates that include: (1) Metal-tolerant and PAH-degrading Gram -ves belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria persist relatively more in the real contaminated sites compared to Gram +ves, (2) Gram +ves are not always resistant to heavy metal toxicity, (3) Stenotrophomonas followed by Burkholderia and Pseudomonas are the dominant genera of PAH degraders with high metabolic activity in long-term contaminated soils, (4) Actinobacteria is the predominant group among the Gram +ves in soils contaminated with high molecular weight PAHs that co-exist with toxic heavy metals like Pb, Cu and Zn, (5) Microbial communities are nutrient-driven in natural environments and (6) Catabolically potential Gram +/-ves with diverse applicability to remediate the real contaminated sites evolve eventually in the historically-polluted soils. Thus, the most promising indigenous Gram +/-ve strains from the long-term contaminated sites with increased catabolic potential, enzymatic activity and metal tolerance need to be harnessed for mixed contaminant cleanups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55-1.72% for red, white and green teas.

  5. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Zachara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, i.e., benzo(apyrene and sum of benzo(apyrene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(bfluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD. The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE. Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(apyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas.

  6. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a

  7. Distributions, sources and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subsurface water of urban old industrial relocation areas: A case study in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Hai-Bo; Xu, Xin-Yang; Xiao, Si-Yao; Wang, Si-Qi

    2017-08-24

    During a 12-month study period, the levels, distributions, sources and ecological risk of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in subsurface water of Shenyang (the largest urban industrial relocation base in China). The results showed that ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.21 to 1.07 µg/L, in descending order as follows, summer, autumn, spring and winter. Comparing with the situations before relocation, there was a significant decrease in Fluorene, Phenanthrene and Anthracene levels. The content of Banzo[a]pyrene was in high level. Relatively high 16 EPA-PAHs concentrations were observed at downstream sites suggesting that after the industrial relocation, residual 16 EPA-PAHs in soil and sediments could be desorbed and resuspended in water. From a global perspective, contamination of subsurface water PAHs can be categorized as moderate level. Source analysis suggested that without industrial waste input, pyrogenic soureces were the major contributors for PAHs pollution in winter. Petrogenic and pyrogenic inputs were equally important sources for PAHs pollution in other seasons. Due to incomplete combustion of wood and coal, ecological risk of Banzo[a]pyrene was high in the winter, indicating that to alleviate 16 EPA-PAH contamination, segmented remediation and energy structure adjustment would be equally important in urban industrial relocation areas.

  8. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  9. Pig manure vermicompost (PMVC) can improve phytoremediation of Cd and PAHs co-contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zehnli [Florida Univ., Fort Pierce (United States). Indian River Research and Education Center; Alva, Ashok [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A major challenge to phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) by Sedum alfredii and dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by application of pig manure vermicompost (PMVC). Materials and methods: Soil contaminated by Cd (5.53 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene together (250 mg kg{sup -1} DW for each PAH). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with four treatments: (1) soil without plants and PMVC (Control), (2) soil planted with S. alfredii (Plant), (3) soil amended with PMVC at 5 % (w/w) (PMVC), and (4) treatment 2 + 3 (Plant + PMVC). After 90 days, shoot and root biomass of plants, Cd concentrations in plant and soil, and PAH concentrations in soil were determined. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil, soil bacterial community structure and diversity, and soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon were measured. Results and discussion: Application of PMVC to co-contaminated soil increased the shoot and root dry biomass of S. alfredii by 2.27- and 3.93-fold, respectively, and simultaneously increased Cd phytoextraction without inhibiting soil microbial population and enzyme activities. The highest dissipation rate of PAHs was observed in Plant + PMVC treatment. However, neither S. alfredii nor PMVC enhanced PAH dissipation when applied separately. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil was not significantly related to PAH dissipation rate. Plant + PMVC treatment significantly influenced the bacterial community structure. Enhanced PAH dissipation in the Plant + PMVC treatment could be due to the improvement of plant root growth, which may result in increased root exudates, and subsequently change bacterial community structure to be favorable for PAH dissipation. Conclusions: This

  10. Butyltin and PAH Contamination of Mar del Plata Port (Argentina) Sediments and Their Influence on Adjacent Coastal Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, María V; Castro, Ítalo B; Costa, Patrícia G; Fillmann, G; Cledón, M

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of butyltins (BTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in surface sediments to assess how relevant is Mar del Plata port (Argentina) as a source of contamination to the surrounding environments. Within the port, TBT concentrations ranged from 24.2 to 150 ng Sn g(-1) and PAHs (Σ16) from 180 to 17,094 ng g(-1). At the surrounding beaches, PAHs were detected at low concentrations and TBT concentrations reached 10.9 ng Sn g(-1). Although those low levels indicate that the Port might not be an important source of contamination to the surrounding beaches, the very low TOC content and the coarse grain size of the beaches sediments could explain the sedimentary levels. The results show a reduction in TBT levels in Mar del Plata port after national and international use restrictions of TBT-based antifouling paints.

  11. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  12. Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Hoon; Jeon, Hwang-Ju; Mo, Hyung-ho; Cho, Kijong; Ok, Yong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins PAHs tested in E. fetida.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda

    2012-01-15

    The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains PAHs from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of PAHs in unburned samples and a mixture of PAHs from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority PAHs found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW PAHs and greater abundance of HMW PAHs from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic PAHs in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Landfill leachate as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Malaysian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Geik, Kho Hiaw; Lee, Wong Yoon; Hayet, Razahidi

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemicals of environmental concern are those with known or potentially deleterious effects on natural resources and humans. These compounds are referred to as micro-organic pollutants. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most important classes of anthropogenic micro-organic pollutants that have long been the interest of environmental chemists. This concern arises primarily from the fact that a small fraction of the PAHs generated and released to environment has been ...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in starfish body and bottom sediments in Mohang Harbor (Taean), South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Joon; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Hye Eun; Yang, Dong Beom

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in bottom sediments and starfish from Mohang Harbor (MH) in Taean peninsula, South Korea. In December 2007, crude oil washed ashore from the M/V Hebei Spirit and was subsequently cleaned up within a few months of the incident. The ecological risk, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and composition of the 27 PAHs were examined. The PAH concentrations in the bottom sediment ranged from 24 to 366 μg/kg dried weight, and the ecological risk was determined as minimal (mERL-Q starfish species. Further, PAH fingerprint analysis (nine alkyl-substituted PAHs fraction, low molecular weight (LMW)/high molecular weight (HMW), Phe/Ant, and Flu/Pyr), and principal component analysis (PCA) based on three crude oil samples from the M/V Hebei Spirit showed no remaining influence of crude oil.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enrich their degrading genera and genes in human-impacted aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Chen, Baowei; Qing, Qing; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial degradation is an important clearance pathway for organic contaminants from highly human-impacted environments. However, it is not fully understood how organic contaminants are selected for degradation by bacteria and genes in aquatic environments. In this study, PAH degrading bacterial genera and PAH-degradation-related genes (PAHDGs) in sediments collected from the Pearl River (PR), the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the South China Sea (SCS), among which there were distinct differences in anthropogenic impact, were analyzed using metagenomic approaches. The diversity and abundance of PAH degrading genera and PAHDGs in the PR were substantially higher than those in the PRE and the SCS and were significantly correlated with the total PAH concentration. PAHDGs involved with the three key processes of PAH degradation (ring cleavage, side chain and central aromatic processes) were significantly correlated with each other in the sediments. In particular, plasmid-related PAHDGs were abundant in the PR sediments, indicating plasmid-mediated horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria or the overgrowth of the bacteria containing these plasmids under the stresses of PAHs. Our results suggest that PAH degrading bacteria and genes were rich in PAH-polluted aquatic environments, which could facilitate the removal of PAHs by bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal Distribution, Source Identification, and Toxicological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from Wadi El Bey Watershed in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdara, Imen; Zrafi, Ines; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Ghrabi, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Surface sediments were collected from the Watershed of Wadi El Bey in Tunisia to evaluate the degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. Sediments were collected during different seasons in 14 sites that received wastes from domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. Twenty-six individual PAHs were analyzed. The total PAH contents (Σ PAHs) in surface sediments showed wide variability, ranging from 6.89 ± 0.05 to 340 ± 0.1 ng g-1. The 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds were the most abundant PAHs detected at the majority of sites. Diagnostic concentration ratios between pairs of PAHs and molecular indices, calculated with the purpose of drawing information about pollution sources, indicated that PAHs were of both petrogenic and pyrolytic origins. Toxic contaminants concentrations were determined according to the numerical effect-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). PAH levels did not exceed the SQGs, indicating that PAHs seem to pose low and occasional toxicity risks. Total carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (TEQBaP and MEQBaP) ranged from 0.08 to 65 ng and from 0.02 to 135.0 ng g-1 of dry weight, respectively. Among the seven carcinogenic PAHs, BaP accounted for the majority of the potency and could potentially be used as a unique indicator of PAH toxicity. This study provides a baseline to promote environmental protection programs and pollution monitoring/control in Watershed and coastal areas.

  18. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    contain were analyzed by gas chromatography method. Four bioassays were used to measure toxicity during bio-remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons: Microtox(R) test, SOSchromotest, lettuce seed germination and sheep red blood cell (RBS) hemolysis assay. Rhizosphere remediation was found to be effective for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from soil with the use of alfalfa inoculated by the Pseudomonas stutzeri MEV-S1 strain (RU 2228952 patent) and oats inoculated by the Pseudomonas alcaligenes MEV strain (RU 2228953 patent) in vegetation and field experiments. The reduction of the TPH and PAH concentrations in soil was accompanied by the reduction of integral toxicity and genotoxicity, evaluated by bio-testing. It is conceivable, therefore, that a possible way to optimize petroleum hydrocarbons phyto-remediation is the use of selected plants and microbial inoculants with specific chemotactic affinities and bio-surfactant production. The proposed technology for soil bio-remediation with the use of integrated plant-microbial system is ecologically and toxicologically safe and economically attractive.

  19. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  20. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): understanding a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 PAHs. PAHs generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. PAHs are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including PAHs (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of PAHs is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of PAHs with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of PAHs depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on PAHs that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to PAHs. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable PAHs following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable PAHs from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound PAHs, (3

  1. Identification of an albumin-like protein in plasma of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and its biomarker potential for PAH contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Skogland Enerstvedt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased research efforts are currently focusing on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and its significance for monitoring the contaminant situation in marine environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are well known toxic and carcinogenic compounds, thus continuous monitoring is required to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. A sensitive biomarker of PAH exposure in humans is the detection of PAH metabolites bound to albumin in blood. The potential of a similar PAH-albumin biomarker in Atlantic cod was therefore investigated by a desktop bioinformatic study followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of plasma from 16 fish. For the first time, an albumin-like protein in plasma of Atlantic cod is described, and the biomarker potential based on PAH-albumin adduct detection is discussed. Due to the detected low abundance of the albumin-like protein, it was found unlikely to be applicable as a new biomarker tool for evaluation of PAH exposure.

  2. Identification of an albumin-like protein in plasma of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and its biomarker potential for PAH contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerstvedt, Karianne Skogland; Sydnes, Magne O; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-08-01

    Increased research efforts are currently focusing on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and its significance for monitoring the contaminant situation in marine environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known toxic and carcinogenic compounds, thus continuous monitoring is required to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. A sensitive biomarker of PAH exposure in humans is the detection of PAH metabolites bound to albumin in blood. The potential of a similar PAH-albumin biomarker in Atlantic cod was therefore investigated by a desktop bioinformatic study followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of plasma from 16 fish. For the first time, an albumin-like protein in plasma of Atlantic cod is described, and the biomarker potential based on PAH-albumin adduct detection is discussed. Due to the detected low abundance of the albumin-like protein, it was found unlikely to be applicable as a new biomarker tool for evaluation of PAH exposure.

  3. The Influence of Sandstorms and Long-Range Transport on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in PM2.5 in the High-Altitude Atmosphere of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5 samples were collected at Mount Heng and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. During sampling, a sandstorm from northern China struck Mount Heng and resulted in a mean PM2.5 concentration of 150.61 μg/m3, which greatly exceeded the concentration measured under normal conditions (no sandstorm: 58.50 μg/m3. The average mass of PAHs in PM2.5 was 30.70 μg/g, which was much lower than in the non-sandstorm samples (80.80 μg/g. Therefore, the sandstorm increased particle levels but decreased PAH concentrations due to dilution and turbulence. During the sandstorm, the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring PAHs were below their detection limits, and 6-ring PAHs were the most abundant. Under normal conditions, the concentrations of 2-, 3- and 6-ring PAHs were higher, and 4- and 5-ring PAHs were lower relative to the other sampling sites. In general, the PAH contamination was low to medium at Mount Heng. Higher LMW (low molecular weight concentrations were primarily linked to meteorological conditions, and higher HMW (high molecular weight concentrations primarily resulted from long-range transport. Analysis of diagnostic ratios indicated that PM2.5 PAHs had been emitted during the combustion of coal, wood or petroleum. The transport characteristics and origins of the PAHs were investigated using backwards Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling. Under normal conditions, the “footprint” retroplumes and potential source contributions of PAHs for the highest and lowest concentrations indicated that local sources had little effect. In contrast, long-range transport played a vital role in the levels of PM2.5 and PAHs in the high-altitude atmosphere.

  4. Sources appointment and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Erhai Lake, a low-latitude and high-altitude lake in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezhong, Yuan; Enlou, Zhang; Qi, Lin; Rong, Wang; Enfeng, Liu

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from the surficial sediments in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake in China. The results showed that except for acenaphthylene (Ace) Ace and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the central region contained individual PAHs at concentrations lower than those in other lake regions. Total concentration of the PAHsPAHs) in the sediments from Erhai Lake ranged from 32.42 to 558.53 mg/kg with a mean value of 256.70 mg/kg. The maximum value of ΣPAHs was observed in the north region of the lake and more than 10-fold higher than the minimum values. Moreover, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, especially 5-ring PAHs, accounted for higher ratios up to 76 % relative to other PAHs compound in almost all sampling sites. Molecular diagnostic ratios including anthtacene (Ant)/(Ant + phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flt)/(Flt + pyrene (Pyr)), benz(a)anthracene (BaA)/(BaA + chrysene (Chr)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IPY)/(IPY + benz(g,h,i)perylene (BPE)) were recorded at all sampling sites and indicated that the origin of PAHs in Erhai Lake was predominately pyrolytic. Furthermore, principal component analysis with component dominating by HMW PAHs showed that combustion origins were the primary contamination sources of PAHs in the sediments of Erhai Lake. Finally, ecological risk assessment indicated that the sediments from Erhai Lake are exposed to potential low risk for ΣPAHs, and the ecological risk decreases in the order of northern region > southern region > central region.

  5. Remarkable impact of PAHs and TPHs on the richness and diversity of bacterial species in surface soils exposed to long-term hydrocarbon pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Tibor; Vajna, Balázs; Táncsics, András; Márialigeti, Károly; Lányi, Szabolcs; Máthé, István

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, because of substantial use of petroleum-derived fuels the number and extension of hydrocarbon polluted terrestrial ecosystems is in growth worldwide. In remediation of aforementioned sites bioremediation still tends to be an innovative, environmentally attractive technology. Although huge amount of information is available concerning the hydrocarbon degradation potential of cultivable hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria little is known about the in situ long-term effects of petroleum derived compounds on the structure of soil microbiota. Therefore, in this study our aim was to determine the long-term impact of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs), total alkyl benzenes (TABs) as well as of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the structure of bacterial communities of four different contaminated soil samples. Our results indicated that a very high amount of TPH affected positively the diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This finding was supported by the occurrence of representatives of the α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Bacilli classes. High concentration of VPHs and TABs contributed to the predominance of actinobacterial isolates. In PAH impacted samples the concentration of PAHs negatively correlated with the diversity of bacterial species. Heavily PAH polluted soil samples were mainly inhabited by the representatives of the β-, γ-Proteobacteria (overwhelming dominance of Pseudomonas sp.) and Actinobacteria.

  6. Dynamic changes in bacterial community structure and in naphthalene dioxygenase expression in vermicompost-amended PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Moreno, Beatriz; Annoni, Emanuele; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Benitez, Emilio

    2009-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential for using vermicompost from olive-mill waste as an organic amendment for enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. The focus was to analyse the genetic potential and the naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) expression of the bacterial communities involved in the degradation of naphthalene, as chemical model for the degradation of PAH. The structure of the metabolically active bacterial population was evidenced in the RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The relative expression of NDO was determined with real-time PCR in both the soil and the vermicompost cDNA. Naphthalene changed the structure of the metabolically active bacterial community in the vermicompost when this was artificially contaminated. When used as amendment, naphthalene-free vermicompost modified the bacterial population in the PAH-contaminated soil, evidenced in the DGGE gels after 1 month of incubation. In the amended soil, the vermicompost enhanced the NDO enzyme expression with a concomitant biodegradation of naphthalene. The effect of the vermicompost was to induce the expression of biodegradation indicator genes in the autochthonous bacterial community and/or incorporate new bacterial species capable of degrading PAH. The results indicated that vermicompost from olive-mill wastes could be considered a suitable technology to be used in PAH bioremediation.

  7. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  8. Ranking the factors influencing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Ma, Yukun; Deilami, Kaveh; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-05-01

    An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on PAHs build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of PAHs with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of PAHs build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) around tea processing industries using high-sulfur coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Khare, Puja; Saikia, Prasenjit; Saikia, Binoy K

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5, PM10 and dust particles emitted from two tea processing industrial units were studied that uses high-sulfur coal as their energy source. A total of 16 PAHs (viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), acenaphthylene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fluo), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were measured. The total PAH concentration was found to be 94.7 ng/m3 (∑4 PAHs) in the PM10 particle, 32.5 (∑12 PAHs) in PM2.5 and 1.08 ng/m3 (∑6 PAHs) in the dust sample from site A. In site B, the sum of the PAHs in the PM2.5, PM10 and dust samples are found to be 154.4 ng/m3 (∑7 PAHs), 165 ng/m3 (∑3 PAHs) and 1.27 ng/m3 (∑6 PAHs), respectively. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model study revealed the contribution of local or long-range transport of aerosol sources. Along with the coal combustion activities in the study sites, other sources such as biomass burning and vehicular emission may contribute to the PAHs in the aerosol samples.

  11. Presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in apple in rural terrains from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; González, Gilberto Díaz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Vega Y León, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes PAH concentrations in apple crops that are growing in rural terrains in Mexico City. The concentrations of individual PAHs showed great variability, there being low and high molecular weight compounds in dry (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 7.06 microg/g and Milpa Alta 3.96 microg/g) and wet months (high molecular weight for Tlahuac 11.25 microg/g and Milpa Alta 12.05 microg/g). Some PAHs indicators and cross plot ratios Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) define fossil fuels and vegetation combustion as the source of contamination over the cuticle of the apples. It is likely that deposition (dry and wet) is the principal source o f contamination over the apple surface. This study reveals the presence of PAHs in apples due to the high air contamination of Mexico City.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, Northeast China: Spatial distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Liang, Baocui; Fu, Wenjun; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2016-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can enter intertidal zones by various pathways and pose potential threats to intertidal ecosystem. We investigated distribution, composition, sources and risk assessment of PAHs in intertidal surface sediments of Bohai Bay. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2ng·g-1 to 206.6ng·g-1, among which high values occurred near Nanpaishuihe River Estuary and Haihe River Estuary. The composition patterns of PAHs were characterized by the predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, and acenaphthylene was the most dominant component. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis have confirmed that PAH contaminants originated from mixed sources, and the major was local combustion. The mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration of total PAHs in intertidal sediments was 15.67ng·g-1, which was mostly contributed by seven carcinogenic PAHs. According to ecological risk assessment, negative effects related to acenaphthylene would occur occasionally in partial survey regions of the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their first metabolic products in in vivo exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Le Goff, Jeremie; Skogland, Karianne; Marcucci, Cristian R; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Lorentzen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment is a worldwide activity since some of these compounds are well-established carcinogens and mutagens. Contaminants in this class are in fact regarded as priority hazardous substances for environmental pollution (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was selected to assess in vivo effects of two PAH and their first metabolic products, namely, the corresponding trans-dihydrodiols, using biological markers. Fish were exposed for 1 wk to a single PAH (naphthalene or chrysene) and its synthetic metabolites ((1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol and (1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrochrysene-1,2-diol) by intraperitoneal injection in a continuous seawater flow system. After exposure, PAH metabolism including PAH metabolites in bile and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, oxidative stress glutathione S-transferases (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and genotoxicity such as DNA adducts were evaluated, as well as general health conditions including condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and gonadosomatic index (GSI). PAH metabolite values were low and not significantly different when measured with the fixed-wavelength fluorescence screening method, while the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method showed an apparent dose response in fish exposed to naphthalene. DNA adduct levels ≥0.16 × 10(-8) relative adduct level (RAL) were detected. It should be noted that 0.16 × 10(-8) RAL is considered the maximal acceptable background level for this species. The other biomarkers activities of catalase, GST, and EROD did not display a particular compound- or dose-related response. The GSI values were significantly lower in some chrysene- and in both naphthalene- and naphthalene diol-exposed groups compared to control.

  14. Natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mangrove sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.S.H.; Wong, A.H.Y.; Yau, K.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The biodegradability of a mixture of PAHs, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr), in mangrove sediment slurry was investigated. At the end of week 4, natural attenuation based on the presence of autochthonous microorganisms degraded more than 99% Fl and Phe but only around 30% of Pyr were degraded. Biostimulation with addition of mineral salt medium degraded over 97% of all three PAHs, showing that nutrient amendment could enhance Pyr degradation. Bioaugmentation with inoculation of a PAH-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from mangrove sediments did not show any promotion effect and the degradation percentages of three PAHs were similar to that by natural attenuation. Some inhibitory effect was observed in bioaugmentation treatment in week 1 with only 50% Fl and 70% Phe degraded. These results indicate that autochthonous microbes may interact and even compete with the enriched consortium during PAH biodegradation. Natural attenuation appeared to be the most appropriate way to remedy Fl- and Phe-contaminated mangrove sediments while biostimulation was more capable to degrade Pyr-contaminated sediments. The study also shows that although a large portion of the added PAHs (more than 95%) was adsorbed onto the sediments at the beginning of the experiment, most PAHs were degraded in 4 weeks, suggesting that the degraders could utilize the adsorbed PAHs efficiently. PMID:16023146

  15. Temperature effects on bioremediation of PAHs and PCP contaminated South Louisiana soils: a laboratory mesocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, J.; Metosh-Dickey, C.; Portier, R.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2007-06-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Temperature and soil moisture content are important environmental variables in bioremediation technologies. Optimizing these variables in-situ would enhance and maintain remediation of hazardous wastes during cold winter seasons or in cold regions and may lead to reduced maintenance and/or cost. The effect of elevated temperature and soil moisture on bioremediation efficiency was investigated using a laboratory mesocosm approach. Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols degradation in contaminated flooded soils, commonly found in Superfund sites situated in coastal plains sediments/soils, were evaluated in the mesocosms. Materials and Methods: Four laboratory mesocosm treatments in triplicate simulating in-situ bioremediation of contaminated site soils using an immobilized microbe bioreactor system, i.e., bioplug, were established to evaluate temperature effects. Elevated temperature treatments of site soils with and without contaminant-specific microorganisms were established at a temperature of 42{+-}2 C. Similarly, treatment of site soils with and without contaminant-specific microorganisms were established at an ambient temperature of 21{+-}1 C. Composite samples were analyzed for selected PAHs and chlorinated phenols to determine rates of mineralization and overall remediation efficiency for different temperature regimes. Results: Mesocosm studies indicated that the high temperature inoculated treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in mean total PAHs and total phenols with a kinetic rate (KR) of 76{+-}13 ng g{sup -1}d{sup -1} in 49 days (approximately 84% reduction; p{<=}0.01). High temperature non-inoculated mesocosms exhibited significant mineralization of all constituents with KR of 15{+-}6 ng g{sup -1}d{sup -1} (p=0.1794). Phenol compounds in inoculated treatments were also significantly reduced (65%, p{<=}0.01) at elevated temperatures compared to ambient (52%, p{<=}0.01). (orig.)

  16. The possible existence of interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in collected interplanetary dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Extraterrestrial dust particles which are 3 to 50 microns in size are routinely collected in the stratosphere and are now available for general laboratory study. These grains represent true Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs). Issues associated with the carbon containing components of IDPs which occur in a variety of physical forms, including amorphous mantles and matrix materials, are addressed. The observed properties of the hydrocarbon phase in IDPs are compared with those expected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  17. Biomonitoring, status and source risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using honeybees, pine tree leaves, and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Navid; Matin, Golnar; Matin, Amir Abbas; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg-1 dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg-1 dw in pine leaf samples, and 798.61-2905.53 μg kg-1 dw in propolis samples. The total PAH concentrations can be ranked as follows: propolis > pine leaves > honeybees. The ring sequence pattern was 5 > 3 > 6 > 4 > 2 for honeybees, 5 > 3 > 4 > 6 > 2 for pine leaves, and 5 > 4 > 6 > 3 > 2 for propolis. The diagnostic ratios [fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene], [indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene], and [benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene] indicate coal and biomass combustion to be the dominant PAH source in the study area. In biomonitoring studies of airborne PAHs based on honeybees, fluoranthene is considered to be a characteristic PAH compound. Distribution maps with different numbers of PAH rings among the sampling sites show the advantages of honeybee samples as indicators due to the honeybee's provision of a broader range of information with respect to heavier pollutants that are typically not in the gas or suspended phase for long periods of time. Our correlation, factor analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate potential sources of PAH pollution in pine leaves and honeybees from airborne emissions, but we found propolis to be contaminated by PAHs due to the replacement of herbal sources of resins with synthetic gummy substances from paving materials (e.g., asphalt and tar leaks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Mandal, Asit [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Division of Soil Biology, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel metal-immobilizing organoclay (MIOC) synthesized and characterized. • MIOC immobilizes toxic metals and reduces metal bioavailability. • It enhances PAH-bioavailability to soil bacteria. • It improves microbial growth and activities in mixed-contaminated soils. • MIOC facilitates PAH-biodegradation in metal co-contaminated soils. - Abstract: Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad{sup ®} 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC > unmodified bentonite > Arquad–bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10–43%) as well as activities (respiration 3–44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  19. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Mandal, Asit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-15

    Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC>unmodified bentonite>Arquad-bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10-43%) as well as activities (respiration 3-44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  1. Role of sooty mold fungi in degradation of polycycllic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venera A. Jouraeva; David L. Johnson; John P. Hassett; David J. Nowak; Natalia A. Shipunova; Dana Barbarossa

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this research was on elucidation of the role of deciduous tree ecosystems in accumulation of fine-particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals on leaves of deciduous trees. The studied species were Tilia x euchlora (frequently infested by sooty mold fungi) and Pyrus calleryana (...

  2. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  3. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2017-08-11

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g-1 dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10-6-2.11 × 10-5 and 9.08 × 10-6-4.50 × 10-3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  4. Review of the quantification techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-10-13

    There is a growing need for accurate detection of trace-level PAHs in food products due to the numerous detrimental effects caused by their contamination (e.g., toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity). This review aims to discuss the up-to-date knowledge on the measurement techniques available for PAHs contained in food or its related products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive outline on the measurement techniques of PAHs in food to help reduce their deleterious impacts on human health based on the accurate quantification. The main part of this review is dedicated to the opportunities and practical options for the treatment of various food samples and for accurate quantification of PAHs contained in those samples. Basic information regarding all available analytical measurement techniques for PAHs in food samples is also evaluated with respect to their performance in terms of quality assurance.

  5. PAHs contamination in urban soils from Lisbon: spatial variability and potential risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Ruth; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can become major contaminants in urban and industrial areas, due to the existence of a plethora of diffuse and point sources. Particularly diffuse pollution, which is normally characterized by continuous and long-term emission of contaminants below risk levels, can be a major problem in urban areas. Since PAHs are persistent and tend to accumulate in soils, levels are often above the recommended guidelines indicating that ecological functions of soils may be affected. Moreover, due to the lipophilic nature, hydrophobicity and low chemical and biological degradation rates of PAHs, which leads to their bioconcentration and bioamplification, they may reach toxicological relevant concentrations in organisms. The importance and interest of studying this group of contaminants is magnified due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In this study, a risk assessment framework has been followed in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by the presence of PAHs in Lisbon urban soils. Hence, the first step consisted in screening the total concentrations of PAHs followed by the calculation of risks based on existing models. Considering these models several samples were identified as representing a potential risk when comparing with the guidelines for soil protection. Moreover, it was found that for 38% of samples more than 50% of species can be potentially affected by the mixture of PAHs. The use of geostatistical methods allowed to visualize the predicted distribution of PAHs in Lisbon area and identify the areas where possible risk to the environment are likely occurring However, it is known that total concentration may not allow a direct prediction of environmental risk, since in general only a fraction of total concentration is available for partitioning between soil and solution and thus to be uptake or transformed by organisms (bioacessible or bioavailable) or to be leached to groundwater. The

  6. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Hierarchy of factors which influence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Duodu, Godfred O; Mummullage, Sandya; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2017-04-01

    The sediment environment provides habitat for fauna and flora. As pollutants can interchange between water and sediments, pollution will exert a significant influence on the water environment. Previous studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution of sediments have primarily focused on the comparison of concentrations between seasons, land uses and species. Studies on the identification of the hierarchy of factors which influence PAHs distribution and its variability in river sediments are limited. This paper discusses a comprehensive investigation into the inherent variability of PAHs in sediments and the primary factors which influence this variability. The study outcomes confirmed that key factors exerting influence on PAH distribution in sediments can be ranked in the order: land use > population > seasons. Accordingly, intensive urban land use was identified as the most important factor influencing PAHs distribution. Additionally, it was found that with increasing urban development, PAHs concentrations and their variability in sediments increase in terms of the molecular weight of different species. The study outcomes are expected to enhance management strategies to mitigate PAHs pollution of urban water environments including the prioritisation of factors requiring management and the selection of appropriate approaches in the context of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHsPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  9. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption process to the "black carbon" (BC) component in river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    The importance of BC for the long term sequestration of organic carbon is actually discussed for mitigating climate change. In this context, the role of BC as a filter or source of nutrients or toxic chemicals is questioned. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is especially concerned. In this study, we have investigated the binding of PAH compounds, pyrene and phenanthrene, to Yangtze River sediments. For this purpose, the PAHs sorption to pristine and preheated sediments at 375°C was studied, which allow discriminating the contributions of amorphous organic carbon (AOC) and black carbon (BC) fractions to the PAH sorption extent. An analytical procedure for the determination of PAHs in the solution phase of the batch experiments has been developed with fluorescence spectroscopy. The PAHs sorption isotherms to pristine sediments were fitted by Freundlich and composite models as linear Langmuir model (LLM) and linear Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model (LPDMM). The sequential application of composite models LLM and LPDMM to the sorption isotherms allows assessing the partition of PAHs into AOC and its nonlinear adsorption in the porous structure of BC. The modelling results indicate that the PAHs sorption to minor BC component of sediments (molecular sieving plays an important role in the competitive PAHs sorption in a multi-solute system. J. Zhang, Ph.D. Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, Germany, 2010 J. Zhang et al., Effects of organic carbon and clay fractions on the pyrene sorption and distribution in Yangtze River sediments (submitted). J. Zhang et al., Pyrene and phenanthrene sorptions to Yangtze River sediments and their components in single and binary solute systems (submitted)

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  12. Distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in recent sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (SE Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Lubecki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in recent (0-10 cm sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 andcorrelated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła(Vistula, this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptionalmodel basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine thedistribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particlesediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep(ca 110 m, where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ~3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed.Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ~50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate transcriptional activation of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 gene via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-09-14

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics.

  15. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur

    OpenAIRE

    Jenessa Gjeltema; Michael Stoskopf; Damian Shea; Ryan De Voe

    2012-01-01

    Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species’ small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found ...

  17. Variations in concentrations and compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coals related to the coal rank and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, S; Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Achten, C; Sachsenhofer, R F; Schwarzbauer, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-10-01

    The release of unburnt coal particles and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause adverse impacts on the environment. This study assessed variations in the concentration and composition of PAHs in a set of fifty coal samples from eleven coal basins worldwide. The maximum PAH concentrations at high volatile bituminous rank were recorded in samples from a single basin. Considering the entire sample set, the highest PAH concentrations were in fact found outside of this rank range, suggesting that the maceral composition and thus the coal's origin also influenced PAH concentrations. The examination of the PAH compositions revealed that alkylated 2-3 ring PAHs remain dominant compounds irrespective of coal rank or origin. Multivariate analysis based on PAH and maceral content, bulk and maturity parameters allowed the recognition of seven groups with different rank and origin within the coal sample set. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of molecular fingerprinting for analysis of a PAH-contaminated soil microbiota growing in the presence of complex PAHs - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.7575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Britz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentrations in the soils of many industrial contaminated sites. Pollution by these compounds may stimulate growth of organisms able to live in these environments causing changes in the structure of the microbial community due to some cooperative process of metabolization of toxic compounds. A long-term PAH-contaminated soil was stored for several years and used to analyze the native microbiota regarding their ability to grow on pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, as well as in mixtures of LMW- and HMW-PAHs. Molecular profiles of the microbial community was assessed by PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene, and the number of bands observed in DGGE analyses was interpreted as dominant microbial members into the bacterial community. Results of PAH-contaminated soil microorganisms showed different profiles in the degradative dynamics when some nutrients were added. Predominant species may play a significative role while growing and surviving on PAHs, and some other metabolically active species have emerged to interact themselves in a cooperative catabolism of PAHs.

  19. Effect of oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on goat's milk contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Grova, Nathalie; Rychen, Guido; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno; Feidt, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    The impact of chronic exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on milk contamination was evaluated by oral administration of a mixture of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(k)fluorene, benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene at 0.02 mg/kg to lactating goats for 28 days. We analysed PAHs and their major metabolites in milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results evidence several major points: (1) benzo(k)fluorene, benzo(a)pyrene an...

  20. Concentrations and origin of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of western Spitsbergen fjords (Kongsfjorden, Hornsund, and Adventfjorden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, Anna; Zaborska, Agata; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    Contaminant profiles in sediment cores represent valuable natural archives of environmental contamination, by which contaminant sources and historical changes in contaminant input and cycling may be recognized. In the present study, we discuss the sedimentary profiles and historical trends of organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in three fjords of the Svalbard archipelago differing in environmental conditions and anthropogenic impact. The obtained results revealed no significant differences between the fjords Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, in the average levels of the analyzed contaminants. Levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 ng/g d.w. for ∑7 PCBs and from 37.3 to 1973 ng/g d.w. for ∑12 PAHs were measured. The observed spatial and temporal differences in contaminant levels are rather related to local variations in the fjords associated with the location of sampling stations. Higher concentrations of the ∑7 PCBs exceeding 1.00 ng/g d.w. were measured in sediment cores collected in the inner parts of both fjords, which remain under the influence of melting glacier outflows. Important concentrations of these contaminants were noticed in layers deposited recently, suggesting intensive supply of these substances from secondary sources. The observed levels are generally low and well below known established no effect levels. Only the concentration of fluoranthene exceeded the threshold effect level at several sampling stations. Moreover, fluoranthene concentrations in almost all Adventfjorden sediment layer samples were above probable effect levels, which can indicate a risk of adverse effects in exposed benthic organisms. The fluoranthene/pyrene and phenthrene/anthracene ratios, which are used for identification of hydrocarbon sources, suggest a dominance of PAHs of pyrolytic genesis in Kongsfjorden and Hornsund. In Adventfjorden, hydrocarbons of petrogenic origin were predominant. However, other sources

  1. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  2. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Larsen, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two...... contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below...

  3. Effects of PAH-Contaminated Soil on Rhizosphere Microbial Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pritchina, Olga; Ely, Cairn; Smets, Barth F.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial associations with plant roots are thought to contribute to the success of phytoremediation. We tested the effect of addition of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the structure of the rhizosphere microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum), lettuce (Lactuca...... sativa var. Tango), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo var. Black Beauty), and pumpkin (C. pepo spp. pepo var. Howden) 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of rhizosphere microbial communities from different soil/plant combinations were compared with a pairwise...

  4. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  5. Bench-scale optimization of bioaugmentation strategies for treatment of soils contaminated with high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, W.l.; Jones-Meehan, J.; Pritchard, P.H.; Jones, W.R. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States). Center of Marine Biotechnology

    1999-07-01

    The chemical composition of crude oil, creosote, and refined petroleum includes hundreds of different alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons, among which are the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are rapidly removed by the activities of autochthonous bacterial populations while other PAHs, especially those with four or more fused aromatic rings, are refractory to biodegradation. The persistence of high molecular weight of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (hPAHs) in soils implies either that their low solubility renders them poorly available to bacteria, or that autochthonous bacteria do not contain the metabolic or co-metabolic pathways required for their degradation or both. The rate and extent of PAH degradation in contaminated soil is not always predictable for standard biological treatment strategies. This study examines a matrix of treatments suitable for land farming in order to identify those that maximize the removal of hPAHs. The treatments include those intended to increase the bioavailability of hPAH, such as additions of biosurfactant-producing bacteria (i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 64) and addition of light oils, as well as treatments intended to increase the metabolic potential of the bacterial community. The latter includes the addition of inorganic nutrients and bacterial strains capable of degrading hPAHs co-metabolically (i.e. Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505). The efficacy of immobilizing PAH-degrading bacteria on vermiculite is also considered, as will be the monitoring of leachate for biodegradation of PAHs in a simulated land farming operation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  7. Implications of Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils for Human Health and Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L. [Department; Department; Stratton, Kelly G. [Pacific Northwest; Teeguarden, Justin G. [Pacific Northwest; Waters, Katrina M. [Pacific Northwest; Simonich, Staci L. Massey [Department; Department

    2017-08-09

    Background: Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Its success is largely evaluated through targeted analysis of PAH concentrations in soil and cancer risk (exposure) estimates. However, bioremediation often fails to significantly degrade the most carcinogenic PAHs and can initiate formation of more polar metabolites, some of which may be more toxic. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the cancer risk associated with PAH-contaminated soils was reduced post-bioremediation and to identify the most effective bioremediation strategies for degrading the carcinogenic and high molecular weight (≥MW302) PAHs. Methods: Pre- and post-bioremediation concentrations of eight B2 group carcinogenic PAHs in soils were collated from the literature and used to calculate excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) for adult populations exposed via non-dietary ingestion, per current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Due to the nature of the collated data (reported as mean concentrations ± standard deviations pre- and post-bioremediation), we used simulation methods to reconstruct the datasets and enable statistical comparison of ELCR values pre- and post-bioremediation. Additionally, we measured MW302 PAHs in a contaminated soil prior to and following treatment in an aerobic bioreactor and examined their contributions to cancer risk. Results: 120 of 158 treated soils (76%) exhibited a statistically significant reduction in cancer risk following bioremediation; however, 67% (106/158) of soils had post-bioremediation ELCR values over 10 fold higher than the USEPA health-based ‘acceptable’ risk level. Composting treatments were most effective at biodegrading PAHs in soils and reducing the ELCR. MW302 PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, alone, contributed an additional 35% to the cancer risk associated with the eight B2 group PAHs in the

  8. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  9. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Darja; Arias, Carlos A.; Matamoros, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...... with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of ΣPAH in the sediments varied between 6 ± 5 and 2,222 ± 603 ng g-1 dry weight (mean ± standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect...... concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHs in the effluents below the detection level. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  10. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  11. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  12. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhanced biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated microbial activity in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Jia, Zhongjun; Li, Zhengao; Teng, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soils by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a widespread environmental problem and the remediation of PAHs from these areas has been a major concern. The effectiveness of many in situ bioremediation systems may be constrained by low contaminant bioavailability due to limited aqueous solubility or a large magnitude of sorption. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) on bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 of an aged PAH-contaminated soil. When 10% (W/W) MCD amendment was combined with bioaugmentation by the PAH-degrading bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2, the percentage degradation of total PAHs was significantly enhanced up to 34.8%. Higher counts of culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and higher soil dehydrogenase and soil polyphenol oxidase activities were observed in 10% (W/W) MCD-assisted bioaugmentation soil. This MCD-assisted bioaugmentation strategy showed significant increases (p contaminated soil. The results suggest that MCD-aided bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 may be a promising practical bioremediation strategy for aged PAH-contaminated soils.

  14. Treatment of hydrocarbon contamination under flow through conditions by using magnetite catalyzed chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Faure, P; Lorgeoux, C; Ruby, C; Hanna, K

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution by hydrocarbons (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a major environmental issue. Various treatments have been used to remove them from contaminated soils. In our previous studies, the ability of magnetite has been successfully explored to catalyze chemical oxidation for hydrocarbon remediation in batch slurry system. In the present laboratory study, column experiments were performed to evaluate the efficiency of magnetite catalyzed Fenton-like (FL) and activated persulfate (AP) oxidation for hydrocarbon degradation. Flow-through column experiments are intended to provide a better representation of field conditions. Organic extracts isolated from three different soils (an oil-contaminated soil from petrochemical industrial site and two soils polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) originating from coking plant sites) were spiked on sand. After solvent evaporation, spiked sand was packed in column and was subjected to oxidation using magnetite as catalyst. Oxidant solution was injected at a flow rate of 0.1 mL min(-1) under water-saturated conditions. Organic analyses were performed by GC-mass spectrometry, GC-flame ionization detector, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Significant abatement of both types of hydrocarbons (60-70 %) was achieved after chemical oxidation (FL and AP) of organic extracts. No significant by-products were formed during oxidation experiment, underscoring the complete degradation of hydrocarbons. No selective degradation was observed for FL with almost similar efficiency towards all hydrocarbons. However, AP showed less reactivity towards higher molecular weight PAHs and aromatic oxygenated compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that magnetite-catalyzed chemical oxidation can effectively degrade both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (enhanced available contaminants) under flow-through conditions.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Martian (SNC) Meteorite ALH 84001: Hydrocarbons from Mars, Terrestrial Contaminants, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Romanek, C. S.; Macheling, C. R.; Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Score, R.; Zare, R. N.

    1995-09-01

    Previous work has shown that pre-terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and certain meteorites [1-3]. We previously reported the first observation of PAHs in the newest member of the SNC group, Allan Hills 84001 [4] and determined that particular types of organic compounds are indigenous to ALH 84001 because they are associated with certain mineralogical features [4]. We also analyzed two diogenites from Antarctica: one showed no evidence for aromatic hydrocarbons while the other contained PAHs with the same major peaks as those in ALH 84001[4]. PAHs in the diogenite meteorite are not associated with mineral features on the analyzed surface and the most abundant PAHs in the diogenite are lower by a factor of 3 than those in ALH 84001. Furthermore, ALH 84001 contains a number of minor PAHs not found in the diogenite or typical terrestrial soils [4]. In this study we are analyzing a more complete group of Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites, including SNCs, to determine: (1) PAHs abundance and diversity in Antarctic meteorites and (2) the contribution of PAHs in SNCs from martian and, possibly, terrestrial sources. ALH 84001 is an unusual orthopyroxenite which contains abundant carbonate spheroids which are ~100-200 micrometers in diameter and range in composition from magnesite to ferroan magnesite [5-7]. These spheroids are not the result of terrestrial contamination: oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that the carbonates probably precipitated from a low-temperature fluid within the martian crust [5] and carbon isotopic abundances are consistent with martian atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source [5]. PAHs may coexist with other low-temperature carbon-bearing phases in a subsurface martian environment. Samples: We are analyzing freshly-fractured meteorite samples, or chips, which have been extracted from the internal regions of the following meteorites: ALH 84001 (crush and uncrush zones), EETA79001

  16. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  17. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femdot

    2015-02-16

    Feb 16, 2015 ... 2Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Received 15 September ... Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids ... Indiscriminate disposal of lubricating oil by motor mechanics is a common source.

  18. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.99), Bt/Bb (0.99), Ct/Cb (0.98), Dt/Db (0.96) and Et/Eb (0.98) show a high and positive correlation between contaminants from top and bottom soil in each sample point. Molecular ratio analyses also show that petroleum origin is the chief ...

  19. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deary, Michael E., E-mail: michael.deary@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Ekumankama, Chinedu C. [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Cummings, Stephen P. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • 40 week study of the biodegradation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs in a soil with high organic matter. • Effects of cadmium, lead and mercury co-contaminants studied. • Novel kinetic approach developed. • Biodegradation of lower molecular weight PAHs relatively unaffected by Cd or Pb. • Soil organic matter plays a key role in the PAH removal mechanism. - Abstract: We report on the results of a 40 week study in which the biodegradation of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was followed in microcosms containing soil of high organic carbon content (11%) in the presence and absence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. The total spiked PAH concentration was 2166 mg/kg. Mercury amendment was also made to give an abiotic control. A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the observed biphasic nature of PAH degradation. The model assumes that PAHs are distributed across soil phases of varying degrees of bioaccessibility. The results of the analysis suggest that overall percentage PAH loss is dependent on the respective rates at which the PAHs (a) are biodegraded by soil microorganisms in pore water and bioaccessible soil phases and (b) migrate from bioaccessible to non-bioaccessible soil phases. In addition, migration of PAHs to non-bioaccessible and non-Soxhlet-extractable soil phases associated with the humin pores gives rise to an apparent removal process. The presence of metal co-contaminants shows a concentration dependent inhibition of the biological degradation processes that results in a reduction in overall degradation. Lead appears to have a marginally greater inhibitory effect than cadmium.

  20. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild marine organisms from South China Sea: Occurrence, sources, and human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chang-Liang; Gu, Yang-Guang; Liu, Qi; Li, Liu-Dong; Huang, Hong-Hui; Cai, Nan; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2017-04-15

    Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 15 marine wild organism species from South China Sea. The concentration (dry weight) of 16 PAHs ranged from 94.88 to 557.87ng/g, with a mean of 289.86ng/g. The concentrations of BaP in marine species were no detectable. The composition of PAHs was characterized by the 2- and 3-ring PAHs in marine species, and NA, PHE and FA were the dominant constituents. PAHs isomeric ratios indicated PAHs mainly originated from grass, wood and coal combustion, and petroleum. The human health risk assessment based on the excess cancer risk (ECR) suggested the probability of PAHs posing carcinogenic risk to human beings with consumption of marine organisms were negligible (probability<1×10 -6 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studying the Effects of Two Various Methods of Composting on the Degradation Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluszyńska, Joanna; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2017-01-01

    The research comprised of studying the effect composting sewage sludge with sawdust and vermicomposting with earthworm Eisenia fetida has on the degradation of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw rural sewage sludge prior composting was more contaminated with PAHs than urban sewage sludge, in both cases exceeding EU cutoff limits of 6 mg/kg established for land application. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBahAnt), acenaphtylene (Acy) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr) were predominant in rural sewage sludge, whilst the urban sewage sludge contained the highest concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFl), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkFl) and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene (IPyr). Thirty days of composting with sawdust has caused a significant reduction of 16 PAHs on average from 26.07 to 4.01 mg/kg (84.6%). During vermicomposting, total PAH concentration decreased on average from 15.5 to 2.37 mg/kg (84.7%). Vermicomposting caused full degradation of hydrocarbons containing 2 and 6 rings and significant reduction of PAHs with 3 aromatic rings (94.4%) as well as with 5 aromatic rings (83.2%). The lowest rate of degradation (64.4%) was observed for hydrocarbons with 4 aromatic rings such as fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and pyrene. On the other hand, the highest level of degradation was determined for PAHs with 2 rings (100%), 3 rings (88%) and 6 aromatic rings in the molecule (86.9%) after composting with sawdust. Acenaphthene and pyrene were found to be the most resistant to biodegradation during both composting methods.

  3. Improving Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in Contaminated Soil Through Low-Level Surfactant Addition After Conventional Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Alden C; Singleton, David R; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs. This work extends that concept by treating the effluent from the slurry-phase bioreactor in a second-stage batch reactor, to which POESH was added, for an additional 7 or 12 days. Surfactant amendment removed substantial amounts of the PAHs and oxy-PAHs remaining after conventional slurry-phase bioremediation, including more than 80% of residual 4-ring PAHs. Surfactant-amended treatment decreased soil cytotoxicity, but often increased the genotoxicity of the soil as measured using the DT-40 chicken lymphocyte DNA damage response assay. Potential ecotoxicity, measured using a seed germination assay, was reduced by bioreactor treatment and was reduced further after second-stage treatment with POESH. Of bacteria previously implicated as potential PAH degraders under POESH-amended conditions in a prior study, members of the Terrimonas genus were associated with differences in high-molecular weight PAH removal in the current study. Research using submicellar doses of surfactant as a second-stage treatment step is limited and these findings can inform the design of bioremediation systems at field sites treating soil contaminated with PAHs and other hydrophobic contaminants that have low bioaccessibility.

  4. Dynamic Effects of Biochar on the Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Min; Ni, Ni; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-08-16

    Amending soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit a quadratic model. Before week 12 of the incubation, the incubation time was the main factor contributing to the changes in the soil bacterial community structure. However, biochar greatly affected the bacterial community structure after 12 weeks of amendment, and the effects were dependent upon the biochar type. Amendment with biochar mainly facilitated the growth of rare bacterial genera (relative abundance of 0.01-1%) in the studied soil. Therefore, the application of wheat straw biochar into PAH-contaminated soil can reduce the environmental risks of PAHs and benefit the soil microbial ecology.

  5. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglianti, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centre Sciences, Information et Technologies pour l' Environnement (SITE) - ENS de Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 cours Fauriel - 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: khalilhanna@hotmail.com; Brauer, Christine de [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Germain, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 {sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil.

  6. Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination of Breeding Pools Utilized by the Puerto Rican Crested Toad, Peltophryne lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Stoskopf, Michael; Shea, Damian; De Voe, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Habitat preservation and management may play an important role in the conservation of the Puerto Rican crested toad, Peltophryne lemur, due to this species' small geographic range and declining native wild population. Bioavailable water concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants within breeding pools at 3 sites were established using Passive Sampling Devices (PSDs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A more diverse population of PAH analytes were found in higher concentrations at the breeding site that allowed direct vehicular access, but calculated risk quotients indicated low risk to toad reproduction associated with the current PAH analyte levels.

  7. Occurrence and source of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in tidal flats of the Ariake Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoda, Kenshi; Kuribayashi, Tomonori; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2013-07-02

    In this study, we hypothesize that natural photochemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flats are responsible for the occurrence of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs). This study aims to survey the impact of photochemical reactions using a combination of field surveys and lab-scale experiments. Concentrations and profiles of PAHs and Cl-PAHs in road dust and sediments collected from seven tunnels and two watersheds, respectively, were determined. In the lab-scale experiments, anthracene was irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light under various salinity conditions. No detectable Cl-PAHs were found in the road dust. However, Cl-PAHs were detected in the sediments from 700 to 6.1 × 10(3) pg g(-1) and specifically from downstream sites. 2-Monochloroanthracene (2-Cl-ANT) and 9,10-dichloroanthracene (9,10-di-Cl-ANT) were dominant in the sediments. In the Domen River watershed, the ∑Cl-PAHs and the salinity showed a significant positive correlation (p PAHs. 2-Cl-ANT, 9-monochloroanthracene, and 9,10-di-Cl-ANT were identified as transformation products in the UV irradiation experiments. Production of these Cl-PAHs was dependent on the solution salinity. These results support our hypothesis, and we conclude that photochemical reactions significantly contribute to the occurrence of Cl-PAHs in the studied tidal flats.

  8. Phytotoxicity of ancient gaswork soils. Effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on plant germination

    OpenAIRE

    Henner, Pascale; Schiavon, Michel; Druelle, Vincent; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1999-01-01

    International audience; The phytotoxicity of various contaminated soils was assessed by plant inventories on ancient industrial fields and by phytotoxicity tests. Industrial fields are well colonised by numerous weedy plants. Phytotoxicity was tested with pure PAHs, ancient industrial soils, soil leaches, liquid tar and tar volatile compounds. Both field studies and toxicity tests show that contaminated samples can be classified into two categories: first, a recently excavated soil/liquid tar...

  9. Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Alfaro-Barta, Irene; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-21

    Soils impregnated with creosote contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). To bioremediate these soils and avoid PAH spread, different bioremediation strategies were tested, based on natural attenuation, biochar application, wheat straw biostimulation, Pleurotus ostreatus mycoremediation, and the novel sequential application of biochar for 21 days and P. ostreatus 21 days more. Soil was sampled after 21 and 42 days after the remediation application. The efficiency and effectiveness of each remediation treatment were assessed according to PAH degradation and immobilization, fungal and bacterial development, soil eco-toxicity and legal considerations. Natural attenuation and biochar treatments did not achieve adequate PAH removal and soil eco-toxicity reduction. Biostimulation showed the highest bacterial development but low PAH degradation rate. Mycoremediation achieved the best PAH degradation rate and the lowest bioavailable fraction and soil eco-toxicity. This bioremediation strategy achieved PAH concentrations below Spanish legislation for contaminated soils (RD 9/2005). Sequential application of biochar and P. ostreatus was the second treatment most effective for PAH biodegradation and immobilization. However, the activity of P. ostreatus was increased by previous biochar application and PAH degradation efficiency was increased. Therefore, the combined strategy for PAH degradation have high potential to increase remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  11. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  12. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  13. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  14. Remediation of a soil chronically contaminated with hydrocarbons through persulfate oxidation and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rocío; David Gara, Pedro Maximiliano; Fernández-González, Antonio José; Rosso, Janina Alejandra; Del Panno, María Teresa

    2018-03-15

    The impact of remediation combining chemical oxidation followed by biological treatment on soil matrix and microbial community was studied, of a chronically hydrocarbon contaminated soil sourced from a landfarming treatment. Oxidation by ammonium persulfate produced a significant elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an increase in PAH bioavailability. Organic-matter oxidation mobilized nutrients from the soil matrix. The bacterial populations were affected negatively, with a marked diminution in the diversity indices. In this combined treatment with oxidation and bioremediation working in tandem, the aliphatic-hydrocarbon fractions were largely eliminated along with additional PAHs. The chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated a change in soil nutrients. In spite of the high residual-sulfate concentration, a rapid recovery of the cultivable bacterial population and the establishment of a diverse and equitable microbial community were obtained. Pyrosequencing analysis demonstrated a marked succession throughout this twofold intervention in accordance with the chemical and biologic shifts observed. These remediation steps produced different effects on the soil physiology. Spectroscopic analysis became a useful tool for following and comparing those treatments, which involved acute changes in a matrix of such chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The combined treatment increased the elimination efficiency of both the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the PAHs at the expense of the mobilized organic matter, thus sustaining the recovery of the resilient populations throughout the treatment. The high-throughput-DNA-sequencing techniques enabled the identification of the predominant populations that were associated with the changes observed during the treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PCB and PAH speciation among particle types in contaminated harbor sediments and effects on PAH bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, U.; Zimmerman, J.R.; Luthy, R.G. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2003-05-15

    This research provides particle-scale understanding of PCB and PAH distribution in sediments obtained from three urban locations in the United States: Hunters Point, CA; Milwaukee Harbor, WI; and Harbor Point, NY. The sediments comprised mineral grains and carbonaceous particles (primarily coal, coke, charcoal, pitch, cenospheres and wood). Carbonaceous particles contributed 5-7% of the total mass and 60-90% of the PCBs and PAHs. It appears that carbonaceous particles preferentially accumulate PCBs acting as sorbents in the aqueous environment if PCBs are released directly to the sediment or if deposited as airborne soot particles. Aerobic bioslurry treatment resulted in negligible PAH loss from the carbonaceous coal-derived material in Milwaukee Harbor sediment but resulted in 80% of the PAHs being removed from carbonaceous particles in Harbor Point sediment. PAHs in Harbor Point sediment were associated with coal tar pitch residue. PAHs present in semisolid coal tar pitch are more bioavailable than PAHs sorbed on carbonaceous particles such as coal, coke, charcoal and cenospheres. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): The correlation with and impact on reproductive hormones in umbilical cord serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanshan; Tang, Mengling; Chen, Fangfang; Li, Tianle; Liu, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of ubiquitous pollutant with the potential ability to cause endocrine disruption that would have an adverse health impact on the general population. To assess the maternal exposure to PAHs in neonates and evaluate the possible impact of PAHs on reproductive hormone levels, the concentration of PAHs and reproductive hormone levels in the umbilical cord serum of 98 mother-infant pairs in the Shengsi Islands were investigated. The median concentration of total PAHs was determined to be 164 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR 93.6-267) ng g-1 lipid, and 68% of the PAHs were lower-molecule congeners. The highest level was found for pyrene (PYR) and naphthalene (NAP), which contributed 54.6% of all the PAHs present in the samples. The exposure to PAHs negatively affected estradiol (E2) and Anti-Mullerian hormones (AMH) and positively affected FSH in the umbilical cord serum. The result expanded the database of the human burden of PAHs and suggested that PAHs can act as a type of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical (EDC). These results may help to understand the complex pathways involved in disorders of human reproductive health associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-04-16

    Our study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these, 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples, and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2-, and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values <0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and nonsmokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol, and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or nonsignificant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r = 0.77) and urine NNAL (r = 0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4 ± 38.6, mean ± SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1

  18. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    choose to assess the quality of soil based on the content of total petroleum hydro arbons (TPH) and of a number of un-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Hydrocarbon contamination in soil is complex. Often hydrocarbon contamination is a mixture of thousands of compounds in varying...... criteria for TPH and/or individual compounds of PAHs. I found that the selected PAHs in the quality criteria are not representative of hydrocarbon contamination derived from petrogenic sources as the selected PAHs are all un-substituted and petrogenic PAHs are dominated by alkylsubstituted PAHs....... In the studied soils with petrogenic sources more than 94% of the total content of PAHs was alkyl-substituted and we therefore speculate that the concentration of PAHs in soils with petrogenic sources may be heavily underestimated. Source identification based on TPH and a number of un-substituted PAHs gives only...

  19. Characterization and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric Particulate of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin; Parmy, Saeid; Faridi, Sasan; Rafiee, Ata; Naddafi, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, atmospheric concentrations of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tehran megacity were determined to investigate the concentration, distribution, and sources of PAHs in PM10. The health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq through inhalation pathway was also assessed. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) approach was used for quantitative risk estimate, and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was calculated. PM10 samples were collected at ten sampling locations during the summer 2013 and winter 2014 by using two independent methods of field sampling. The PM10 concentration in winter (89.55 ± 15.56 μg m(-3)) was 1.19 times higher than that in summer (75.42 ± 14.93 μg m(-3)). Sixteen PAHs were measured with the total average concentrations of PAHs ranged from 56.98 ± 15.91 to 110.35 ± 57.31 ng m(-3) in summer and from 125.87 ± 79.02 to 171.25 ± 73.94 ng m(-3) in winter which were much higher than concentrations measured in most similar studies conducted around the world. Molecular diagnostic ratios were used to identify PAH emission sources. The results indicated that gasoline-driven vehicles are the major sources of PAHs in the study area. Risk analysis showed that the mean and 90 % probability estimated inhalation ILCRs were 7.85 × 10(-6) and 16.78 × 10(-6), respectively. Results of a sensitivity analysis indicated that BaP concentration and cancer slope factor (CSF) contributed most to effect on ILCR mean.

  20. Activity and functional diversity of microbial communities in long-term hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni, moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.

  1. Eco-physiological Effects of Atmospheric Ozone and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandai, S.; Sakugawa, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    [Introduction] Tropospheric ozone is one of most concerned air pollutant, by causing damage to trees and crops. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants found in various environmental compartments. Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs can be driven from formation of intracellular single oxygen and other reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) leading to biological damages.(1) In the present study, we measured photosynthesis rate and other variables to investigate the effects of ozone and PAHs on the eco-physiological status of plants such as eggplant, common bean and strawberry. Plants treated with the single or combined air pollutants are expected to exhibit altered physiological, morphological and possibly growth changes. [Materials and Methods] We performed three exposure experiments. Exp.1. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings, were placed in the open-top chambers (n=6 plants/treatment). Treatment system was ozone (O)(120ppb), phenanthrene (P)(10μM), O+P, fluoranthene (F)(10μM), O+F, mannitol (M)(1mM) and the control (Milli-Q water)(C). P, F and M were sprayed three times weekly on the foliage part of eggplant. Average volume sprayed per seedling was 50mL. The treatment period was 30days and [AOT 40 (Accumulated exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb)]=28.8 ppmh. Exp.2, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). The treatment system was the same as Exp.1. The treatment period was 40days and [AOT 40]=38.4ppmh. Exp.3. Strawberry (Fragaria L.) seedlings were used (n=5 plants/treatment). Treatment system was O (120ppb), F(10μM), O+F, F+M, O+M and C. The treatment period was 90days and [AOT 40]=86.4ppmh. Ecophysiological variables examined were photosynthesis rate measured at saturated irradiance (Amax), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), photochemical efficiency of PS2 in the dark (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll contents, visual symptom assessment and elemental composition in the

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  3. Effect of cropping and tillage on the dissipation of PAH contamination in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saison, Carine; Perrin-Ganier, Corinne; Schiavon, Michel; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2004-07-01

    This study examined the effect of regular tillage and cropping on the dissipation rate of PAHs in contaminated soil. Lysimeters were placed under natural climatic conditions for 2 years and designed to measure the concentration of PAHs in soil and leachates and their toxicity. The soil initially contained 2077 {mu}g PAHs g{sup -1}. The largest decrease in PAHs concentration occurred during the first 6 months. No further significant decrease was observed after this time. The surface soil layer always contained significantly less PAHs than the deeper layer, regardless of the treatments. Less than 8.4x10{sup -8}% of the PAH initially present in the soil (e.g. less or equal to 33 {mu}g PAHs per lysimeter) were leached from the soils during the experiment and the leachates presented no toxicity (as measured by the Microtox[reg] test). The toxicity of the soils decreased with time and was significantly lower on the cropped soil compared to the other treatments, despite the residual concentration of PAHs being the highest in this soil. This study demonstrated that the dissipation rates of PAHs were slow after using natural attenuation even when tillage and cropping were performed at the soil surface. - Dissipation rates of PAHs were slow using natural attentuation.

  4. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered.

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  6. Phytomediated Biostimulation of the Autochthonous Bacterial Community for the Acceleration of the Depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Di Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was to validate the vegetation of dredged sediments with Phragmites australis as an exploitable biostimulation approach to accelerate the depletion of PAHs in nitrogen spiked sediments. Vegetation with Phragmites australis resulted in being an efficient biostimulation approach for the depletion of an aged PAHs contamination (229.67±15.56 μg PAHs/g dry weight of sediment in dredged sediments. Phragmites australis accelerated the oxidation of the PAHs by rhizodegradation. The phytobased approach resulted in 58.47% of PAHs depletion. The effects of the treatment have been analyzed in terms of both contaminant depletion and changes in relative abundance of the metabolically active Gram positive and Gram negative PAHs degraders. The metabolically active degraders were quantified both in the sediments and in the root endospheric microbial community. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions have been performed on the retrotranscribed transcripts encoding the Gram positive and Gram negative large α subunit (RHDα of the aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. The Gram positive degraders resulted in being selectively favored by vegetation with Phragmites australis and mandatory for the depletion of the six ring condensed indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene.

  7. Study on the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coal pyrolysis by PY-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2012-12-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during the course of coal pyrolysis are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. The relation between the amount of PAHs from the raw coal and that generated from coal pyrolysis were studied. Firstly, three Chinese coals from Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi were respectively extracted by dichloromethane, and then, online pyrolysis analysis of the raw coals, their extraction residues and extracts were carried out respectively by PY (Pyro-probe CDS 5250)-GC-MS. The experimental results showed that the PAHs generated from the Huolinhe, Ximeng and Fenxi coals in the course of their pyrolysis was 523, 327 and 1707 μg/g, respectively, which were much higher than the free PAHs extracted from their corresponding raw coals. The PAHs in the raw coals were dominated by 4,5-ring PAHs, while those generated from the coal pyrolysis were dominated by lower-ring (2,3-rings) PAHs. A lot of important information about the generation of PAHs from residue pyrolysis was also included in the paper which indicated that the PAHs were mainly from complex chemical reactions of the coal pyrolysis, and PAHs were more likely to be generated from the residue pyrolysis due to the increased pores that appeared on the coal surface during the course of extraction operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  10. In situ electro-osmotic cleanup of tar contaminated soil—Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2012-12-01

    An in situ electro-osmosis experiment was set up in a tar contaminated clay soil in Olst, the Netherlands, at the site of a former asphalt factory. The main goal of this experiment was to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the contaminated clay layer by applying an electric gradient of 12 V m-1 across the soil over an electrode distance of 1 m. With the movement of water by electro-osmosis and the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80), the non-polar PAHs were dragged along by convection and removed from the fine soil fraction. Soil samples were taken at the start and after 159 days at the end of the experiment. Water at the electrode wells was sampled regularly during the course of the experiment. The results reflect the heterogeneity of the soil characteristics and show the PAH concentrations within the experimental set up. After first having been released into the anolyte solution due to extraction by Tween 80 and subsequent diffusion, PAH concentrations increased significantly in the electrode reservoirs at the cathode side after 90 days of experiment. Although more detailed statistical analysis is necessary to quantify the efficiency of the remediation, it can be concluded that the use of electro-osmosis together with a non-ionic surfactant is a feasible technique to mobilize non-polar organic contaminants in clayey soils. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAH) benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a) fluoranthene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene in a soil that was sterilized and inoculated with the nonligninolytic fungi, Fusarium flocciferum and Trichoderma spp. and the ligninolytic fungi, ...

  12. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons using bioslurry reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, S.K.; Zappi, M.E.; Teeter, C.L.; Gunnison, D.; Cullinane, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Defense has over 12,000 sites contaminated from military activities. This report presents data from two bench-scale and two pilot-scale studies that evaluated the suitability of the bioslurry process to bioremediate soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. Soils from two contaminated sites were studied. The first soil contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) compounds, ketones, and chlorinated ethanes; the second soil contained gasoline and associated compounds. Conceptual designs and costs of bioslurry processes for field applications are also presented. Bench-scale studies were performed in 5-L batch reactors, equipped with aeration and mixing equipment. Various nutrient amendments, surfactants, and selected microbial consortia were evaluated during the bench-scale studies. Several reactors were also operated using only native microbes.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries of China: Distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinxia; Liu, Jingling; Shi, Xuan; You, Xiaoguang; Cao, Zhiguo

    2016-08-15

    The distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries in Hai River Basin of China, which has been suffering from different anthropogenic pressures, were investigated. In three estuaries, the average concentration of ΣPAHs was the lowest in Luan River estuary, followed by Hai River estuary, and the highest in Zhangweixin River estuary. There were significant seasonal variations in ΣPAHs, the concentrations of ΣPAHs were higher in November than in May and August. The composition profiles of PAHs in different sites were significantly different, and illustrated seasonal variations. Generally, 2-ring (Nap) and 3-ring PAHs (Acp, Fl and Phe) were the most abundant components at most sampling sites in three estuaries. The PAHs in three estuaries were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. A method based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) was proposed to assess the ecological risk of ΣPAHs, with the ecological risk of individual PAHs being considered separately. The results showed that the ecological risks caused by ΣPAHs were high in Hai River estuary and Zhangweixin River estuary, and moderate in Luan River estuary. The mean values of ecological risk in August were lower than those in November. The contributions of individual PAHs to ecological risk were different in May, August and November. 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs accounted for much more ecological risk than 2-ring, 5-ring and 6-ring, although the contributions of 5-ring and 6-ring to ecological risk were higher than these to PAHs concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  15. Gas chromatographic retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-substituted PAHs on two stationary phases of different selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Federica; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    Retention indices (I) for 45 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 63 methyl-substituted PAHs were determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using two different stationary phases: a Rxi-PAH phase (a "higher phenyl-content stationary phase") and a 50% (mole fraction) liquid crystalline dimethylpolysiloxane phase. Retention data were obtained for parent PAHs from molecular mass (MM) 128 g/mol (naphthalene) to 328 g/mol (benzo[c]picene) and for 12 sets of methyl-PAHs (methylfluorenes, methylanthracenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylfluoranthenes, methylpyrenes, methylbenz[a]anthracenes, methylbenzo[c]phenanthrenes, methylchrysenes, methyltriphenylenes, methylbenzo[a]pyrenes, methylperylenes, and methylpicenes). Molecular shape descriptors such as length-to-breath ratio (L/B) and thickness (T) were determined for all the PAHs studied. Correlation between I and L/B ratio was evaluated for both stationary phases with a better correlation observed for the 50% liquid crystalline phase (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.22 to 1.00). Graphical Abstract GC separation of six methylchrysene isomers (m/z 242) on two different stationary phases: 50 % phenyl-like methylpolysiloxane phase and 50 % liquid crystalline phase. Retention indices (I) are plotted as a function of L/B for both phases. The data marker numbers identify each isomer based on methyl-substitution position.

  16. Removal of PAHs from contaminated calyey soil by means of electro-osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.T.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heister, K.; Loch, J.P.G.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from clayey soils is an intricate task. The low porosity of compacted clayey soil hinders bacterial activity and makes convective removal by hydraulic flow impossible. Electro-osmosis is a process that has been used for the mobilization and

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indoor Dusts of Guizhou, Southwest of China: Status, Sources and Potential Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4–6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10−6, 5.00×10−6, 3.08×10−6, 6.02×10−6 for children and 5.92×10−6, 4.83×10−6, 2.97×10−6, 5.81×10−6 for adults, respectively. PMID:25719362

  18. Effects of biochar and activated carbon amendment on maize growth and the uptake and measured availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Aoife; Moreno Jiménez, Eduardo; Alburquerque, José A; Knapp, Charles W; Switzer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    With the aim of investigating the effects of carbonaceous sorbent amendment on plant health and end point contaminant bioavailability, plant experiments were set up to grow maize (Zea mays) in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Maize and pine derived biochars, as well as a commercial grade activated carbon, were used as amendments. Plant growth characteristics, such as chlorophyll content and shoot to root biomass, improved with sorbent amendment to varying extents and contaminant uptake to shoots was consistently reduced in amended soils. By further defining the conditions in which sorbent amended soils successfully reduce contaminant bioavailability and improve plant growth, this work will inform field scale remediation efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  20. Lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil from day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Toril [Geological Survey of Norway, Leiv Erikssons vei 39, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: toril.haugland@kj.uib.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, Leiv Erikssons vei 39, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-05-15

    Surface soil (0-2 cm) quality in 87 day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway has been studied. Approximately 45% of the day care centres contained Pb and PAH values above recommended action levels. There are clear variations between different areas of the city. The old central part of the city hosts most of the contaminated day care centres. In suburban areas most of the day care centres have Pb and PAH concentrations below action levels. City fires, gas work emission, lead-based paint, and traffic are probably important anthropogenic contamination sources, together with uncontrolled transportation of soil from contaminated to clean areas. Geological or other natural sources are probably not an important contributor to the high levels of lead and PAH. - Surface soil in 45% of the studied day care centres was contaminated by lead and PAH.

  1. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  2. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SigmaPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SigmaPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dustfrom coal-tarsealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  3. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), petroleum derived hydrocarbons and phenol in leachate of large scaled lysimeter experiments for validation of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Ecological Chemistry (Germany)]|[TUM- Lehrstuhl fur Okologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik, Freising (Germany); Peschke, D. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Ecological Chemistry (Germany); Klotz, D. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Groundwater Ecology (Germany); Martens, Dieter [TUM- Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Umweltanalytik, 85350 Freising (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater contamination by organic chemicals has become an urgent problem. Besides of laboratory studies, high tier studies with lysimeters for the validation of mathematical models are urgently required, especially for persistent organic pollutants and related compounds. According to an expert panel there is a need for research in order to forecast and manage the protection of soil and groundwater. Before this background lysimeter studies were conducted and exposed to topsoil layers from remediation sites containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenol and petroleum derived hydrocarbons. The lysimeter of which the results are presented here consists of cylindric vessel of 1 m{sup 2} cross-section and a length of 2.05 m filled with soil (sandy silt) from Hipolstein, Bavaria. The lysimeter was equipped with different sensors (T, tension, TDR) and sampling units. The soil (1.2 m) was topped with 0.5 m contaminated homogenous organic soil layer from a superfund site. In addition this material was filled in small lysimeters of 0.1 m{sup 2} cross-section and 0.65 m length filled with the polluted soil at the same height and used for source term determination instead of using sampling points of the large lysimeter because there only low amounts of leachate could be expected. Both lysimeters receive the same wet and dry deposition during the experiment. In order to generate precise data for the chemicals concentration in the leachates a comprehensive analytical procedure for the chemicals under investigation using isotope dilution method and employing high resolution gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry was developed and validated for leachates from source-term experiments and the different sampling sites of lysimeters. The use of glassware and other materials is efficiently limited to minimize risk of contamination for the analytical method applicable in the ng/l range. The CV elaborated allows precise reliable measurements. LOD and recovery data are

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 around 2013 Asian Youth Games period in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuxu; Kong, Shaofei; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Yuan, Liang; Li, Qi; Xiao, Hui; Chen, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 collected near the Nanjing Olympic Sports Center across the Asian Youth Games (AYG) period (from August 2 to August 28, 2013) were analyzed using GC-MS. Their levels, sources and health risks to human were discussed. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 were 9.43, 7.21 and 8.83 ng m- 3 for pre- (August 3-15), during- (August 16-24) and post- (August 25-28) AYG periods, respectively. They were dominated by 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs. Total PAHs concentrations in PM2.5 during AYG period decreased by 24%, when compared with those for pre-AYG period. For combustion-derived PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs, they decreased by 26% and 21%, respectively. It implied that the pollution control measures implemented during the AYG can effectively reduce the emission of PAHs from various sources. The poor correlations between PAHs and meteorological parameters also favored that the variations of PAHs were raised by the changes of emission sources. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis revealed that vehicle emission and coal combustion were the predominant contributors, with minimal effects from biomass burning and petroleum. The health risks for human exposed to PAHs in PM2.5 were quantitatively assessed by BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The estimated ILCR value of PAHs during the AYG periods decreased by 23% and 27% for children and adults when compared with those for the pre-AYG, respectively. It indicated that the pollution control measures reduced the risks of PAHs to sportsmen or human gathered around the Olympic Sport Center.

  6. Algal tests with soil suspensions and elutriates: A comparative evaluation for PAH contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Justesen, Kasper Bo; Nyholm, Niels

    2002-01-01

    An algal growth inhibition test procedure with soil suspensions is proposed and evaluated for PAH-contaminated soil. The growth rate reduction of the standard freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) was used as the toxicity endpoint......, and was quantified by measuring the fluorescence of solvent-extracted algal pigments. No growth rate reduction was detected for soil contents up to 20 g/l testing five non-contaminated Danish soils. Comparative testing with PAH-contaminated soil elutriates and soil suspensions showed that the suspensions had...

  7. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  8. Exposure-response relationship between lung cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B G; Gibbs, G

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the exposure-response function associating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and lung cancer, with consideration of smoking. Mortality, occupational exposure and smoking histories were ascertained for a cohort of 16,431 persons (15,703 men and 728 women) who had worked in one of four aluminium smelters in Quebec from 1950 to 1999. A variety of exposure-response functions were fitted to the cohort data using generalised relative risk models. In 677 lung cancer cases there was a clear trend of increasing risk with increasing cumulative exposure to PAH measured as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). A linear model predicted a relative risk of 1.35 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.51) at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years, but there was a significant departure from linearity in the direction of decreasing slope with increasing exposures. Among the models tried, the best fitting were a two-knot cubic spline and a power curve (RR = (1+bx)(p)), the latter predicting a relative risk of 2.68 at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years. Additive models and multiplicative models for combining risks from occupational PAH and smoking fitted almost equally well, with a slight advantage to the additive. Despite the large cohort with long follow-up, the shape of the exposure-response function and the mode of combination of risks due to occupational PAH and smoking remains uncertain. If a linear exposure-response function is assumed, the estimated slope is broadly in line with the estimate from a previous follow-up of the same cohort, and somewhat higher than the average found in a recent meta-analysis of lung cancer studies.

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Dual (C, H) isotope fractionation in anaerobic low molecular weight (poly)aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation: potential for field studies and mechanistic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz D; Abu Laban, Nidal M F H; Meyer, Armin H; Elsner, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-08-15

    Anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a key process for natural attenuation of oil spills and contaminated aquifers. Assessments by stable isotope fractionation, however, have largely been limited to monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report on measured hydrogen isotope fractionation during strictly anaerobic degradation of the PAH naphthalene. Remarkable large hydrogen isotopic enrichment factors contrasted with much smaller values for carbon: ε(H) = -100‰ ± 15‰, ε(C) = -5.0‰ ± 1.0‰ (enrichment culture N47); ε(H) = -73‰ ± 11‰, ε(C) = -0.7‰ ± 0.3‰ (pure culture NaphS2). This reveals a considerable potential of hydrogen isotope analysis to assess anaerobic degradation of PAHs. Furthermore, we investigated the conclusiveness of dual isotope fractionation to characterize anaerobic aromatics degradation. C and H isotope fractionation during benzene degradation (ε(C) = -2.5‰ ± 0.2‰; ε(H) = -55‰ ± 4‰ (sulfate-reducing strain BPL); ε(C) = -3.0‰ ± 0.5‰; ε(H) = -56‰ ± 8‰ (iron-reducing strain BF)) resulted in dual isotope slopes (Λ = 20 ± 2; 17 ± 1) similar to those reported for nitrate-reducers. This breaks apart the current picture that anaerobic benzene degradation by facultative anaerobes (denitrifiers) can be distinguished from that of strict anaerobes (sulfate-reducers, fermenters) based on the stable isotope enrichment factors.

  11. Possible impacts of Hg and PAH contamination on benthic foraminiferal assemblages: An example from the Sicilian coast, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Bellanca, Adriana [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: bellanca@unipa.it; Capotondi, Lucilla [ISMAR-CNR, Marine Geology Section, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cundy, Andrew [School of the Environment, University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Neri, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The Palermo and Augusta urban/industrial areas (Sicily) are examples of contaminated coastal environments with a relatively high influx of unregulated industrial and domestic effluents. Three sediment box-cores were collected offshore of these urban/industrial areas in water depths of 60-150 m during two cruises (summers 2003/2004), dated by {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs, and analysed for total mercury concentration and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were also examined (in terms of their distribution and morphology) to assess the potential use of benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of pollutant input and environmental change in these Mediterranean shelf environments. The Hg and PAHs vs depth profiles show a clear increase in concentration with decreasing depth. Most of the sediments are highly enriched in mercury and show concentrations more than 20 times the background mercury value estimated for sediments from the Sicily Strait. The Hg and PAH concentrations appear to be potentially hazardous, grossly exceeding national and international regulatory guidelines. A reduction in abundance of benthic foraminifera, increasing percentages of tests with various morphological deformities, and the dominance of opportunistic species in more recent sediments can be correlated to anthropogenic impact.

  12. Historical changes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) input in Lake Baiyangdian related to regional socio-economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Pei, Yuansheng; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, He

    2011-03-15

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over a period of almost 180 years was studied in a sediment core collected from Lake Baiyangdian in northern China. Total PAHs concentration varied from 97.2 to 2402 ng g(-1) dry weight. We found the highest total PAH concentration in 1940s and 1990s, and a decreasing trend from 1990 until present. The warfare and increasing economic activity had the largest impact on the PAH vertical distribution. The implemented measures for pollution control in catchment since 1990 might reduce point source input of PAH in some degree in recently. The historical record of PAHs is different from the developed countries and areas due to difference in socio-economic development condition. PAHs in the core are dominantly pyrogenic in source, i.e., they are mainly from the incomplete combustion of wood and coal. PAHs from terrigenous organic matter input decreased obviously from the 1950s due to rainfall reduction during this period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Mu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  14. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Chen, Ying; Přibylová, Petra; Teich, Monique; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Guangjie; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Qiang; Herrmann, Hartmut; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Spichtinger, Peter; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module) to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  15. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ecological risk in surface seawater from the west Bohai Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X. M.; Li, J. Y.; Tian, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in west Bohai Bay, China, the sixteen PAHs listed by US EPA in surface seawater were investigated in the Qinhuangdao (QHD), Caofeidian (CFD) and Huanghuagang (HHG) areas. Distribution and composition of PAHs in the dissolved phase (DP) and the suspended particulate associated phase (SP) were detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. An ecological risk assessment was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). The results showed that the 16 PAHs were prevalent in west Bohai Bay and the 2-3 rings PAHs were the predominant chemicals. The QHD area had the highest concentration of total PAHs (TPAHs), which ranged from 186.3 to 531.3 ng/L in DP and 222.7 to 715.7 ng/L in SPM. In all three areas, the PAHs levels in SPM were higher than those in DP. The risk assessment showed that there was a relatively low potential ecological risk of PAHs in the coastal regions of Bohai Bay.

  16. Investigating the potential impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gene biomarker expression and global DNA methylation in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocci, Paolo; Mosconi, Gilberto; Bracchetti, Luca; Nalocca, John Mark; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Marini, Mauro; Caprioli, Giovanni; Sagratini, Gianni; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro

    2017-11-11

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are priority contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food webs and affect the biology of a variety of resident and migratory species, including sea turtles. Few studies have evaluated toxicological biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and PCBs in these animals. The present paper reports the results of an initial field study to quantify the association between plasma concentrations of PAHs/PCBs and whole blood cell expression of gene biomarkers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) rescued along the Italian coasts of the northern and central areas of the Adriatic Sea. While detectable levels of PAHs were found in all plasma samples examined, only three PCB congeners (PCB52, PCB95, and PCB149) were noted, with detection percentages ranging between 48% and 57%. A significant correlation was found between 3 of the 6 gene biomarkers assessed (HSP60, CYP1A and ERα) and plasma levels of some PAH congeners. In contrast, no significant association between PCB burden and gene expression was observed. The global DNA methylation levels were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of most of the PAHs and only one of the PCB congeners (PCB52). The relation between PAH concentration and gene expression in whole blood cells suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for the development of biomarkers for monitoring sea turtle exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  18. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  19. Sediment records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the continental shelf of China: implications for evolving anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-19

    Sources, compositions, and historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea were analyzed to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities. The occurrence of PAHs was mainly derived from various combustion sources, especially the combustion of biomass and domestic coal. Uniform composition of sedimentary PAHs (52-62% of phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) suggested air-borne mixtures intractable to degradation. The concentrations of the sum of 15 PAHs (16 priority pollutants designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene; designed as Σ(15)PAH) in Yellow Sea sediment cores were generally higher than those in the South China Sea. The profiles of Σ(15)PAH concentrations recorded in the sediment cores closely followed historical socioeconomic development in China. In general, Σ(15)PAH concentrations started to increase from the background pollution level posed by agricultural economy at the turn of 20th century. In addition, a Σ(15)PAH concentration reduction was observed during the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), suggesting them as setbacks for economic development in Chinese history. Increasing PAH emissions as a result of increasing coal combustion associated with the rapid urbanization and industrialization since the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy (since 1978) accounted for the fast growth of Σ(15)PAH concentrations in sediment cores. The decline of Σ(15)PAH concentrations from subsurface maximum until sampling time was inconsistent with current-day economic development in China, and may possibly suggest emission reductions due to decreasing proportional use of domestic coal and increasing consumption of cleaner energies (natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

  20. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic matter in surface sediments of an estuary under petroleum activity influence, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Almeida, Marcos; Escobar, Narayana C F; Ferreira, Sergio L C; Mortatti, Jefferson; Queiroz, Antônio F S

    2017-06-30

    The present study evaluated the origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the organic matter (OM) in the surface sediment of the São Paulo River estuary, Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazil. The samples were collected in the rainy (CP1) and the dry (CP2) seasons. We analyzed the 16 PAHs from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant list, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (N), and stable carbon isotope (δ13C). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 11.45±1.28 to 1825.35±107.96ngg-1, while TOC ranged from 3.8 to 27.7gkg-1. CP1 showed the highest concentrations for all parameters. The δ13C ratio indicated terrigenous OM (-23.81 to -26.63‰). The TOC/N ratio (C/N) indicated transitional OM (12.32 to 24.39), in addition to the continental origin. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs origin revealed only pyrolytic source, although close to areas with a history of petroleum contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Quantitation and prediction of sorptive losses during toxicity testing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitrated PAH (NPAH) using polystyrene 96-well plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Anna C; Tanguay, Robert L; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    Developing zebrafish are increasingly being used for rapid assessments of chemical toxicity, and these assays are frequently conducted in multi-well plastic plates. This study investigated the sorptive behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) to uncoated 96-well polystyrene plates typically used for zebrafish (Danio rerio) testing. We measured the percent sorption in the presence and absence of zebrafish embryos, at two exposure concentrations, as well as using two different procedures (addition of embryos to polystyrene plates either before analyte addition, or allowing 24h of equilibrium between analyte addition and embryo addition to the polystyrene plates). Following exposure, the plates were extracted with hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Allowing 24h of pre-incubation between the addition of analytes and embryos did not significantly impact the percent sorption. The percent sorption was higher for both PAHs and NPAHs at the lower exposure concentration, and sorption was lower in the presence of zebrafish embryos. A mass balance model was developed to predict the sorption to polystyrene plates, based on the PAH and NPAH mass distribution ratios between polystyrene and water. While PAH sorption was significantly correlated with subcooled liquid solubility, NPAH sorption did not correlate with any of the physical-chemical properties investigated. This indicates the need to better understand the sorptive behavior of hydrophobic analytes to plastics, and to better account for sorptive losses during toxicity testing in polystyrene plates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO3-) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO3- injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-liquid-phase system: A promising technique for predicting bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congying; Wang, Ziyu; Li, Zengbo; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-02-01

    A two-liquid-phase system (TLPS), which consisted of soil slurry and silicone oil, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four long-term contaminated soils in order to assess the bioavailability of PAHs. Extraction kinetics of six PAHs viz. phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene were selected to investigate as they covered the susceptible and recalcitrant PAHs in soil. A parallel experiments were also carried out on the microbial degradation of these PAHs in soil with and without biostimulation (by adding (NH4)2HPO4). The rapidly desorbed fraction of fluoranthene, as indicated by the two-fraction model, was found the highest, ranging from 21.4% to 37.4%, whereas dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene was the lowest, ranging from 8.9% to 20.5%. The rapid desorption of selected PAHs was found to be finished within 24 h. The rapidly desorbed fraction of PAHs investigated using TLPS, was significantly correlated (R2 = 0.95) with that degraded by microorganisms in biostimulation treatment. This suggested that the TLPS-assisted extraction could be a promising technique in determining the bioavailability of aged PAHs in contaminated soils. It also suggested that applying sufficient nutrients in bioremediation of field contaminated soils is crucial. Further work is required to test its application to more hydrophobic organic pollutants in long-term contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study of phytoremediation of brownfield soil contaminated by PAHs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Rezek, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    599-600, DEC 1 (2017), s. 572-580 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Brownfield * Energy plants * Phytoremediation * Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  5. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  7. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emissions of particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Fu Gui-shan Tunnel of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Hu, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2013-04-01

    Real-world vehicle emission factors for PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mixed vehicles were quantified in the Fu Gui-shan Tunnel of Nanjing during summer and winter of 2010. Concentrations of PM10 and sixteen particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the entrance and exit of the tunnel were studied. The results showed that the four most abundant particular phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of motor vehicle were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. The emission factors for PM10 and particle-phase PAHs were 687 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and 18.853 mg veh- 1 km- 1 in summer, 714 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and 20.374 mg veh- 1 km- 1 in winter. Higher particle-phase PAH emission factors were found to be associated with a high proportion of diesel-fueled vehicles (DV). The estimated PM10 emission factor of gasoline-fueled vehicles (GV) was 513 mg veh- 1 km- 1 and the value for DV was 914 mg veh- 1 km- 1, while EFDV of particulate PAH (31.290 mg veh- 1 km- 1) was nearly 4 times higher than EFGV (9.310 mg veh- 1 km- 1). The five highest emission factors of diesel-fueled vehicles (DV) were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, which was similarly found in the gasoline-fueled vehicles (GV). The sum of these five emission factors accounted for ~ 69% of the total particle-phase PAH of DV and ~ 67% of GV.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two Spanish traditional smoked sausage varieties: "Chorizo gallego" and "Chorizo de cebolla".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Purriños, Laura; Bermudez, Roberto; Cobas, Noemí; Figueiredo, Maria; García Fontán, María C

    2011-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in two traditional smoked sausages from Spain was determined. Results showed, that total average levels of PAHs found were higher in "Chorizo de cebolla" (101.81 vs. 98.48 μgkg(-1)). Most contents of PAHs found in both sausages were phenanthrene, naphthalene and anthracene. The maximum level for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of 5 μgkg(-1) in smoked meat products was not exceeded in any samples. BaP represented a 0.73% and 1.15% with respect to the total sum of the 15 PAHs that were investigated in this study for "Chorizo gallego" and "Chorizo de cebolla", respectively. Correlation statistic analysis (P cebolla" samples (R(BaP/7EPA) = 0.95) and in "Chorizo gallego" samples (R(BaP/7EPA) = 0.81). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatmand, Mohammad; Ng, How Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was explored to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water originated from soil. The results showed consistent power generations of 6.02±0.34 and 3.63±0.37 mW/m(2) under an external resistance of 1500 Ω by the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively. Although the power generations were low, they had relatively low internal resistances (i.e., 436.6±69.4 and 522.1±1.8 Ω for the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively) in comparison with the literature. Nevertheless, the significant benefit of this system was its bioremediation capabilities, achieving 41.7%, 31.4% and 36.2% removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively, in the aerobic environment and 76.9%, 52.5% and 36.8%, respectively, in the anaerobic environment. These results demonstrated the ability of SMFCs in stimulating microorganisms for bioremediation of complex and recalcitrant PAHs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  13. Enhanced biodegradation of PAHs in historically contaminated soil by M. gilvum inoculated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bijing; Zhang, Youchi; Hou, Yanwei; Arp, Hans Peter H; Reid, Brian J; Cai, Chao

    2017-09-01

    The inoculation of rice straw biochar with PAH-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum (1.27 × 1011 ± 1.24 × 1010 cell g-1), and the subsequent amendment of this composite material to PAHs contaminated (677 mg kg-1) coke plant soil, was conducted in order to investigate if would enhance PAHs biodegradation in soils. The microbe-biochar composite showed superior degradation capacity for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Phenanthrene loss in the microbe-biochar composite, free cell alone and biochar alone treatments was, respectively, 62.6 ± 3.2%, 47.3 ± 4.1% and non-significant (P > 0.05); whereas for fluoranthene loss it was 52.1 ± 2.3%; non-significant (P > 0.05) and non-significant (P > 0.05); and for pyrene loss it was 62.1 ± 0.9%; 19.7 ± 6.5% and 13.5 ± 2.8%. It was hypothesized that the improved remediation was underpinned by i) biochar enhanced mass transfer of PAHs from the soil to the carbonaceous biochar "sink", and ii) the subsequent degradation of the PAHs by the immobilized M. gilvum. To test this mechanism, a surfactant (Brij 30; 20 mg g-1 soil), was added to impede PAHs mass transfer to biochar and sorption. The surfactant increased solution phase PAH concentrations and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced PAH degradation in the biochar immobilized M. gilvum treatments; indicating the enhanced degradation occurred between the immobilized M. gilvum and biochar sorbed PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PAH contamination in Beijing’s topsoil: A unique indicator of the megacity’s evolving energy consumption and overall environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinguo; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Lin, Zhongrong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-09-01

    To improve its air quality, Beijing, the capital of China, has implemented high-cost pollution control measures mainly focused on shifting its energy mix. However, the effectiveness of these measures has long been questioned, especially given the recent problem of severe haze. The main study objectives are to achieve independent, although indirect, information on Beijing’s air pollution by measuring the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in topsoil and to examine how soil contamination reflects energy consumption. Soil sampling data from two years, 2004 and 2013, were used. The key findings are as follows: 1) although the total PAH content in the topsoil did not significantly decrease from 2004 to 2013, the composition changed considerably; 2) as of 2013, vehicle emissions replaced coal combustion as the leading source of soil PAHs, which validates the existing policy measures regarding vehicle purchasing and traffic volume; 3) the regional transport of atmospheric pollutants, as indicated by the contribution of coking sources in 2013, is not negligible; and 4) appropriate policy measures are needed to control the growing practice of burning biomass. Overall, this study demonstrates that the PAH contamination in topsoil represents an informative indicator of Beijing’s energy consumption and overall environmental quality.

  15. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  16. Baseline distributions and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the Prai and Malacca Rivers, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Magam, Sami M; Masood, Najat; Alkhadher, Sadeq A A; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the surface sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers were analyzed to identify the distributions, and sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total PAH concentrations varied from 716 to 1210 and 1102 to 7938 ng g(-1)dw in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as moderate and high level of pollution in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers, respectively. The comparison of PAHs with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) indicates that the PAHs in the sediments of the Malacca and Prai Rivers may have the potential to cause adverse toxicity effects on the sampled ecosystems. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic- and pyrogenic-origin PAHs with dominance of pyrogenic source in both rivers. These findings demonstrate that the environmental regulations in Malaysia have effectively reduced the input of petrogenic petroleum hydrocarbons into rivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Marie; Starren, Amandine; Deleu, Magali; Lognay, Georges; Colinet, Gilles; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, threatening ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs and require remediation. Researches to develop bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques are being conducted as alternatives to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the potential of saponins (natural surfactants) as extracting agents and as bioremediation enhancers on an aged-contaminated soil. Two experiments were conducted on a brownfield soil containing 15 PAHs. In a first experiment, soil samples were extracted with saponins solutions (0; 1; 2; 4 and 8 g.L-1). In a second experiment conducted in microcosms (28 °C), soil samples were incubated for 14 or 28 days in presence of saponins (0; 2.5 and 5 mg g-1). CO2 emissions were monitored throughout the experiment. After the incubation, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined. In both experiments PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection. The 4 g.L-1 saponins solution extracted significantly more acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene than water. PAHs remediation was not enhanced in presence of saponins compared to control samples after 28 days. However CO2 emissions and dehydrogenase activities were significantly more important in presence of saponins, suggesting no toxic effect of these surfactants towards soil microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in road dust from a metropolitan area, Hanoi-Vietnam: contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Le Huu; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Misaki, Kentaro; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-09-01

    Dioxin-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) was applied to assess the total toxic activity of the mixture of PAHs and related compounds as well as dioxin-related compounds in road dust from urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. Road dust from Hanoi contained significantly higher DR-CALUX activities (3 to 39, mean 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw) than those from a rural site (2 to 13, mean 5 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw). The total concentrations of 24 major PAHs (Σ24PAHs) in urban road dust (0.1 to 5.5, mean 2.5 μg/g dw) were also 6 times higher than those in rural road dust (0.08 to 1.5, mean 0.4 μg/g dw). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated vehicular engine combustion as the major PAH emission source in both sites. PAHs accounted for 0.8 to 60% (mean 10%) and 2 to 76% (mean 20%) of the measured CALUX-TEQs in road dust for Hanoi the rural site, respectively. Benzo[b]-/benzo[k]fluoranthenes were the major TEQ contributors among PAHs, whereas DRCs contributed hydrocarbon receptor agonists in road dust. Significant PAH concentrations in urban dust indicated high mutagenic and carcinogenic potencies. Estimated results of incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that Vietnamese populations, especially those in urban areas such as Hanoi, are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact. This is the first study on the exposure risk of AhR agonists, including PAHs and DRCs, in urban road dust from a developing country using a combined bio-chemical analytical approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabova, Lucie; Pulkrabova, Jana; Kalachova, Kamila; Tomaniova, Monika; Kocourek, Vladimir; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-10-15

    A simple, fast, and cost effective sample preparation procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of 15+1 European Union Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (15+1 EU PAHs) in dried tea leave samples. Based on a critical assessment of several sample extraction/clean-up approaches, the method based on the ethyl acetate extraction followed by the use of PAHs dedicated cartridges with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been found as an optimal alternative in terms of time demands and obtained good extract purity. For the final identification/quantification of target PAHs, two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used. The performance characteristics of the overall analytical method for individual PAHs determined at three spiking levels (0.5, 2.5 and 5 μg kg(-1)) were in following ranges: limits of quantitation (LOQs) 0.05-0.2 μg kg(-1), repeatabilities 2-9%, and recoveries 73-103%. The recoveries achieved by the newly developed sample preparation procedure when employed for naturally contaminated sample ("incurred" PAHs) were comparable to those obtained by other routinely used approaches employing sonication and/or pressurised liquid extraction for sample analytes isolation. The validated method was subsequently used for the determination of selected genotoxic PAHs in 36 samples of black and green tea obtained from the Czech retail market. The levels of ΣPAH4 (sum of benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)) in black and green tea leaves ranged from 7.4 to 700 μg kg(-1) and from 4.5 to 102 μg kg(-1), respectively. Contamination of tested tea samples by BaP was in the range of 0.2-152 μg kg(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  2. Enhanced phytoremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs by arbuscular mycorrhiza and rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Kong, Cun-Cui; Bian, Bian; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Luo, Yong-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Hong

    2017-09-02

    Greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a legume (Sesbania cannabina), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus mosseae), and rhizobia (Ensifer sp.) symbiosis for remediation of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spiked soil. AMF and rhizobia had a beneficial impact on each other in the triple symbiosis. AMF and/or rhizobia significantly increased plant biomass and PAHs accumulation in plants. The highest PAHs dissipation was observed in plant + AMF + rhizobia treated soil, in which >97 and 85-87% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, had been degraded, whereas 81-85 and 72-75% had been degraded in plant-treated soil. During the experiment, a relatively large amount of water-soluble phenolic compounds was detected in soils of AMF and/or rhizobia treatment. It matches well with the high microbial activity and soil enzymes activity. These results suggest that the mutual interactions in the triple symbiosis enhanced PAHs degradation via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity. The mutual interactions between rhizobia and AMF help to improve phytoremediation efficiency of PAHs by S. cannabina.

  3. Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Young Sung, E-mail: ysghim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Wangsan-ri, Mohyeon-myeon, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, BK21 Team for Biohydrogen Production, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young [Center for Environmental Technology Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Pyo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected air samples at a remote site during an Asian dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed levels, patterns, and gas/particle partitioning of PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particulate PAHs were highly correlated with PM{sub 2.5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fraction of particulate PAHs increased during the dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine particles might be an important carrier of PAHs emitted from China. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and total suspended particles were measured at Gosan, Jeju Island in Korea, a remote background site, for 15 days (March 29-April 12, 2002). During the sampling period, a severe three-day Asian dust (AD) event originating from Mongolia and northern China was observed throughout the Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island. In addition, pollution (PO) and normal (NO) periods were also identified based on the levels of anthropogenic pollutants. Despite a large difference of PM{sub 10} concentrations between the AD and PO periods, the levels of particulate PAHs in both periods were comparable (2.7 {+-} 1.0 and 2.4 {+-} 0.5 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) since they were determined by the concentration of anthropogenic PM{sub 2.5} transported from industrial areas of China. In the AD period, the level of gaseous PAHs, which were mostly from local sources, was the lowest due to strong winds; the gas/particle partitioning was close to equilibrium as the effect of long-range transport was manifested. The results of backward air trajectories, correlation analysis, and diagnostic ratios show that long-range transport of particulate PAHs produced by coal/biomass burning in China could strongly affect the levels and patterns of PAHs at Gosan, Korea.

  4. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and hydrocarbon contaminated soils; Phytoremediation des sols contamines aux metaux lourds et aux hydrocarbures recalcitrants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, R.; Chateauneuf, G.; Sura, C. [Inspec-Sol Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Labrecque, M.; Galipeau, C. [Jardin botanique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Institut de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale; Greer, C.; Delisle, S.; Roy, S.; Labelle, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Research in Biotechnology

    2003-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses plants to decontaminate soils and underground water. Inspec-Sol, a company located in Montreal, Quebec, conducted a two-year study to evaluate the decontamination capabilities of this technology. Trials in greenhouses and field studies at the Pitt Park along the Lachine Canal were conducted. The soils chosen for the studies were soils with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc) higher than those prescribed for the safe utilization of soils. The trials identified the three plant species (Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Festuca arundinacea) which had the best characteristics for phytoremediation. Controlled experiments were performed to optimize the technology to achieve the maximum extraction of contaminant. It was concluded that phytoremediation has potential for the remediation of urban soils contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants.

  5. Lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil from day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Toril; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Volden, Tore

    2008-05-01

    Surface soil (0-2cm) quality in 87 day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway has been studied. Approximately 45% of the day care centres contained Pb and PAH values above recommended action levels. There are clear variations between different areas of the city. The old central part of the city hosts most of the contaminated day care centres. In suburban areas most of the day care centres have Pb and PAH concentrations below action levels. City fires, gas work emission, lead-based paint, and traffic are probably important anthropogenic contamination sources, together with uncontrolled transportation of soil from contaminated to clean areas. Geological or other natural sources are probably not an important contributor to the high levels of lead and PAH.

  6. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs, azaarenes) in soils along a climosequence in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcke, Wolfgang; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, Maria Gomez; Ruppenthal, Marc; Del Valle, Hector; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of soil properties and climate on concentrations of parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and OPAHs) and azaarenes (AZAs) in topsoil and subsoil at 20 sites along a 2100-km north (N)-south (S) transect in Argentina. The concentrations of Σ29PAHs, Σ15OPAHs and Σ4AZAs ranged 2.4-38 ng g(-1), 0.05-124 ng g(-1) and not detected to 0.97 ng g(-1), respectively. With decreasing anthropogenic influence from N to S, low molecular weight PAHs increasingly dominated. The octanol-water partitioning coefficients correlated significantly with the subsoil to topsoil concentration ratios of most compounds suggesting leaching as the main transport process. Organic C concentrations correlated significantly with those of many compounds typical for atmosphere-soil partitioning. Lighter OPAHs were mainly detected in the S suggesting biological sources and heavier OPAHs in the N suggesting a closer association with parent-PAHs. Decreasing alkyl-naphthalene/naphthalene and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANQ)/anthracene ratios from N to S indicated that 9,10-ANQ might have originated from low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of core microbial consortia to hydrocarbon contaminations in coastal sediment habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, microbial surveys investigating the effect of chronic anthropogenic pressure such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminations consider just the alpha and beta diversity and ignore the interactions among the different taxa forming the microbial community. Here, we investigated the ecological relationships between the three domains of life (i.e. Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya using 454 pyrosequencing data of the 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from chronically impacted and pristine sediments, along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion, Vermillion coast, Corsica, Bizerte lagoon and Lebanon and the French Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay and English Channel. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework for the partition of the taxa abundance distribution into 859 core OTUs and 6629 satellite OTUs. OTUs forming the core microbial community showed the highest sensitivity to changes in environmental and contaminant variations, with salinity, latitude, temperature, particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC and PAH concentrations as main drivers of community assembly. The core communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria for Bacteria, by Thaumarchaeota, Bathyarchaeota and Thermoplasmata for Archaea and Metazoa and Dinoflagellata for Eukarya. In order to find associations among microorganisms, we generated a co-occurrence network in which PAHs were found to impact significantly the potential predator – prey relationship in one microbial consortium composed of ciliates and Actinobacteria. Comparison of network topological properties between contaminated and non-contaminated samples showed substantial differences in the structure of the network and indicated a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations in the contaminated sediments.

  9. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  10. CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HIDROCARBONS (PAHs DURING BIOREMEDIATION PROCESSES OF OIL-CONTAMINATED BEACH SEDIMENTS IN KARANG SONG BEACH, INDRAMAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Khozanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation research was conducted from June to September, 2010 in oil-contaminated beach sediment in Karang Song Beach, Indramayu. The objective of this paper is to determine concentration and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH during bioremediation processes. Upon 90 days biodegradation treatment, PAH concentration was reduced in several mesocosms. Concentration of PAH before treatment and after 90 day incubation were follows, Mesocosm A (110.499 mg/kg to 16.125 mg/kg,  Mesocosm B (217.067 mg/kg to  12.239 mg/kg,  Mesocosm C (102.016 mg/kg to  16.695 mg/kg, Mesocosm D (124.256 mg/kg to  60.869 mg/kg, Mesocosm E (117.723 mg/kg  to 50.663 mg/kg, Mesocosm F (143.495 mg/kg to 38.310 mg/kg, and Mesocosm G (9.838 mg/kg to 4.248 mg/kg. Generally, all mesocosms treatment  was reduced of PAH concentration, but there are no stable degraded after 60, and 90 days incubation. Fertilizer application has showed good influence for increasing degradation rate of bacteria to degraded oil contaminant.

  11. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] in processed meat products using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked, grilled and boiled meats were determined using gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GC-FID). PAHs in the processed meats were extracted in n-hexane after hydrolysis with methanolic KOH. Clean-up was achieved using solid phase extraction in neutral-Si/basic-Si/acidic-Si/neutral-Si frits. The fractions, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkP), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[123-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were separated and quantified using GC-FID. The method and instrument limits of detections were 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3μg/kg and 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5μg/kg, respectively, for BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP. The method's recovery and precision generally varied between 83.69% and 94.25% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.18-15.60%; and 90.38-96.71% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.82-12.87% respectively. The concentration of BkP, BaP, IP and BghiP in smoked, grilled and boiled meat samples were ranged 0.64-31.54μg/kg, 0.07-7.04μg/kg, 0.09-15.03, 0.51-46.67μg/kg and 0.01-5.11μg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  13. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical ... Ground water contamination by crude oil therefore is becoming an increasing sensitive issue in Nigeria because most of the water supply is derived from shallow and ..... patches of weathered, partially degraded oil on the.

  14. Field evaluation and calibration of a small axial passive air sampler for gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Arnoldsson, Kristina; Lejon, Christian; Hägglund, Lars; Wingfors, Håkan

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated analogues (OPAHs) are ubiquitous air pollutants known to cause adverse health effects. PAH air levels are commonly monitored by active sampling but passive sampling has become popular because of its lower cost and simplicity, which facilitate long-term sampling and increased spatial coverage. However, passive samplers are less suitable for short-term sampling and are in general less accurate than active samplers because they require reliable sampling rate (Rs) measurements for individual analytes under diverse environmental conditions. In this study a small passive sampler designed to sample both particle-bound and gaseous compounds was evaluated and calibrated for PAHs and OPAHs in a traffic environment by co-deployment with active samplers for two weeks. Despite the relatively low average air concentrations of PM10 (20 μg/m(3)), PM2.5 (5 μg/m(3)), total PAHs (4.2 ng/m(3)), and OPAHs (2.3 ng/m(3)) at the site, detectable quantities (on average 24 times above blank values) of the full range of PAHs and OPAHs were captured, with low variability (average RSD of 16%). This was accomplished by using a Tenax(®) TA-modified glass fiber substrate that is compatible with highly sensitive thermal desorption GC-MS analysis, which made it possible to achieve detection limits per sample in the pg range. Experiments with inverted samplers revealed that the relative contribution of gravitational settling to the sampling of particles carrying PAHs and OPAHs was around 3.5 times larger than other deposition mechanisms. Average Rs values for individual OPAHs and PAHs were 0.046 ± 0.03 m(3)/day and 0.12 ± 0.07 m(3)/day, respectively, with no appreciable difference between the values for particle-associated and gaseous compounds. Furthermore, the Rs values were competitive with other currently used passive samplers if normalized for substrate area. Overall, the new sampler's performance, simplicity and

  15. Contamination and health risk assessment of PAHs in soils and crops in industrial areas of the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaofang; Ling, Wanting; Liu, Rui; Liu, Juan; Kang, Fuxing; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-02-01

    This is the first investigation into both soil and crop contamination and associated health risks by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial areas of the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR). Soil and crop samples were collected from farmland surrounded by three typical industries (a steelworks [SW], a petrochemical facility [PF] and a power plant [PP]), and the concentrations and health risks of PAHs in soils and crops were evaluated. The average concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface soil and subsoil were 471.30 μg kg-1 and 341.40 μg kg-1, respectively. The respective average concentrations of 16 PAHs in amaranth, spinach, Chinese chive, and rice tissues were 1710.49, 1176.96, 1218.36 and 352.12 μg kg-1. Based on both the results of a principal component analysis (PCA) and the PAH ratios, the main sources of the PAHs in soils were determined to be the combustion of coal and petroleum. The total values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for males induced by both soils and crops were 2.19 × 10-4, 2.53 × 10-4, and 9.17 × 10-4, and for females were 2.21 × 10-4, 2.50 × 10-4, and 9.68 × 10-4 for childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, respectively. Soils contaminated with PAHs posed a lower risk than crops, but the ILCR values, 4.40 × 10-5 and 3.82 × 10-5 for males and females, was still much higher than the baseline value. The results of this investigation provide novel information for contamination evaluation and human health risk assessment in PAH-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  18. Native oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Lundstedt, Staffan; Josefsson, Sarah; Cornelissen, Gerard; Enell, Anja; Allard, Ann-Sofie; Kleja, Dan Berggren

    2014-10-07

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, Cpw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, KTOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed KTOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native KTOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, Cpw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, Clipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than Cpw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically

  19. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  20. Chemical profiling of oil and PAH polluted soil and drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen

    Hydrocarbons are some of the most common pollutants in soil. Groups of hydrocarbons have been classified as toxic, carcinogenic, and/or mutagenic and they pose an existing threat to human health and the environment. However, prohibition of hydrocarbons is not an option as the pollution sources...... concentrations and of varying compounds, depending on the pollution sources and the extent to which contaminants are weathered and degraded. In our work with the complex chemical composition and source identification of hydrocarbon contamination in soil, we have asked the same questions over and over again......-substituted PAHs and as petrogenic sources predominantly contains alkyl-substituted PAHs, derived O-PAHs from alkyl-substituted PAHs are more likely to be found. It is important to know the fate of hydrocarbons and PAHs in soil in order to make a proper risk assessment. The PAHs generally have low water solubility...

  1. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  2. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  3. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  4. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  5. Distributions and source apportionment of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau; Yusuff, Ferdius Mohamat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the distributions and sources of sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in the Malaysian rivers and estuaries were evaluated. The concentrations of 16 USEPA PAHs varied from 225.5 to 293.9 (Perlis River), 195.2 to 481.2 (Kedah River), 791.2 to 1995.4 (Merbok River), 231.2 to 426.7 (Perak River), and 3803.2 to 7442.7 ng g(-1) (Klang River) dry weight. PAHs can be classified as moderate in the Perlis, Kedah, and Perak Rivers, moderate to high in the Merbok River, and high to very high in the Klang River. The comparison of PAHs with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicates that occasionally adverse biological effects may occur from total PAHs, low molecular weight (LMW), and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs at stations 1, 2, and 3 of the Klang River and from total PAHs at station 2 of the Merbok River. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic origin PAHs with significant dominance of pyrogenic sources in the study areas. The results suggest that Malaysian sediments had hopane ratios (C29/C30) similar to MECO suggesting MECO as a major source of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sediments, which is consistent with results reported in previous studies. These findings demonstrate that effective and improved environmental regulations in Malaysia have shifted the source of petroleum hydrocarbons from petrogenic to pyrogenic origin.

  6. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  7. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, PPAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  8. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic......, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources...

  9. Inferring sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the western Taiwan Strait through end-member mixing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Guihua; Ma, Shengzhong; Liang, Kai; Yang, Chupeng; Li, Bo; Luo, Weidong

    2016-11-15

    Concentration, spatial distribution, composition and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated based on measurements of 16 PAH compounds in surface sediments of the western Taiwan Strait. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.41 to 218.54ngg-1. Cluster analysis identified three site clusters representing the northern, central and southern regions. Sedimentary PAHs mainly originated from a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic in the north, from pyrolytic in the central, and from petrogenic in the south. An end-member mixing model was performed using PAH compound data to estimate mixing proportions for unknown end-members (i.e., extreme-value sample points) proposed by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the analyzed samples can be expressed as mixtures of three end-members, and the mixing of different end-members was strongly related to the transport pathway controlled by two currents, which alternately prevail in the Taiwan Strait during different seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-I; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Wang-Yi; Yoon, Chungsik; Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2014-01-01

    An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF) and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr) and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr) as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA), and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3), action level (0.1 mg/m3), and acceptable health risk (10−3), respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures. PMID:25226413

  11. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O.

    2017-03-01

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (Kb), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated Kb and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81 × 10- 7 M for anthracene and 3.48 × 10- 8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a

  12. PCB and PAH contamination of soils in parts of Bavaria remote from industrial zones; PCB- und PAK-Belastung von Boeden in industriefernen Regionen Bayerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joneck, M. [Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt, Aussenstelle Bamberg (Germany); Prinz, R. [Bayerisches Geologisches Landesamt, Aussenstelle Bamberg (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    In order to interpret and evaluate soil data, knowledge of current soil contamination levels for comparison is indispensable. The article reports corresponding investigations regarding levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural parts of Bavaria at a great distance from industrial sites by type of land use (farmland, pasture). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Interpretation und Beurteilung von Bodenuntersuchungen ist die Kenntnis der aktuellen Bodenbelastung als Vergleichsgrundlage notwendig. Entsprechende Untersuchungen hinsichtlich der Gehalte polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCBs) und polyaromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAKs) in industriefernen - d.h. laendlichen - Raeumen Bayerns werden, nach Standortnutzung differenziert (Acker, Gruenland), vorgestellt. (orig./SR)

  13. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  15. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok [Disaster Scientific Investigation Division, National Disaster Management Research Institute, 365 Jongga-ro Jung-gu, Ulsan 44538 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Deuk, E-mail: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khcho@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  16. Biosurfactant-enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude biosurfactant extract produced by two microbial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei were used to enhance the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in a mangrove swamp in Nigeria. Nutrient application in combination with biosurfactants showed very significant ...

  17. Cleaning of contaminated soils with hydrocarbons by biocell; Saneamiento de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos mediante biopilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe-Arguelles, R.; Flores-Torres, C; Chavez-Lopez, C.; Roldan-Martin, A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In 1990 the Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, initiated an evaluation through the soil and groundwater sampling and a risk health assessment in a Mexican refinery. An extended area was found contaminated with hydrocarbons. This area requires a soil remediation, taking into account that some zones present more than 30 000 mg/kg of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Biopile system was recommended as the best remediation method to diminish TPG and some poliaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). Therefore an experimental biopile of 30 m3 was constructed with contaminated soil. After 22 weeks, results show more than 80 % of TPH and PAH remotion. [Spanish] El grupo de saneamiento de suelos y acuiferos del Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, inicio en 1999 la evaluacion de la contaminacion del subsuelo de una refineria en una zona costera del pais, mediante el muestreo de 425 puntos a 1.5 m de profundidad y con el analisis de los siguientes parametros: hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP), hidrocarburo poliaromaticos (HAP), diesel, gasolina, metilterbutileter (MTBE) y los metales hierro, vanadio, zinc, cadmio, cromo y plomo. Asimismo, se lleva a cabo una evaluacion de riesgo a la salud a fin de determinar los niveles de limpieza de las areas contaminadas. Una vez realizado el estudio se propuso probar a nivel piloto dos tecnicas de saneamiento para las areas contaminadas con valores superiores a 30 000 mg/Kg de http, o bien, para las zonas en donde la evaluacion de riesgo a la salud indica la existencia de riesgo para uno o mas compuestos. Las tecnicas propuesta son biopilas y lavado de suelos con surfactantes. En este trabajo se presenta la prueba piloto con biopilas, de la cual se obtuvo una eficiencia de remocion de http del 80 porciento con cinco meses de operacion. Se muestra las partes de una biopila y se dan los resultados de la biopila experimental en la refineria Francisco I. Madero.

  18. Diurnal variations of residential particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-04-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), Low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) and Semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA) were identified. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. A clear impact of the week and weekend days on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening; during the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached one maxima early in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at Seiffen. This result highlights the important contribution of residential wood

  19. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Spatial-temporal trend and health implications of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in resident oysters, South China Sea: A case study of Eastern Guangdong coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zi-Ling; Lin, Qin; Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia

    2016-09-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Eastern Guangdong coast, China. Total PAH concentrations in oysters ranged from 231 to 1178ng/g with a mean concentration of 622ng/g dry weight. Compared with other bays and estuaries, PAH levels in oysters were moderate. Spatial distribution of PAHs was site specific, with relatively high PAH concentrations observed in Zhelin Bay and Kaozhouyang Bay. Based on the Spearman test analysis, only PAH concentration in oysters from Jiazi Harbor showed a significant increasing trend (P<0.05). Three-ring PAHs were the most abundant, accounting for 54.2%-88.4% of total PAHs. Diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs were derived mainly from petroleum origin. BaP and ∑4PAH concentrations were well within the European Union limits (5ng/g and 30ng/g wet weight, respectively). The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for PAHs were <10(-5), indicating that the adverse health risks associated with oyster consumption in this area were minimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs in River Sediment of Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.

  2. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...... revealed a mixture with high proportions of high-molecular-weight PAHs, indicating a pyrogenic/weathered petrogenic source. Samples from Hendijan coast contained low relative concentrations of PAHs, thus only little information on pollution sources....

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determined by pine needles and semipermeable membrane devices along an altitude profile in Taurus Mountains, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Cafer; Mazmanci, Mehmet Ali; Mazmanci, Birgül; Yalçın, Melis; Karakuş, PerihanBinnur Kurt; Atatanir, Levent; Keski, Menekşe; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1.5-year-old, and 9.7 to 85,335 pg g/fw in 2.5-year-old needles. Mass of PAHs collected by SPMDs varied from PAH profiles were dependent on the seasonal differences and locations. Roughly, clear decreasing trends with altitude were observed both with SPMD and needles for many individual and groups of PAHs except for the SPMD-summer short-time data. A cross-plot of Fluo/(Fluo+Pyr) vs Ant/(Ant+Phe) diagnostic ratios indicated grass/wood burning (possibly due to forest fires) in summer and petrogenic combustion in winter. Results of the study showed that SPMD and conifer needles are effective passive samplers to measure PAHs in the environment.

  4. An evaluation of the ability of chemical measurements to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen M; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Hawthorne, Steven B; Nakles, David V; Neuhauser, Edward F

    2010-07-01

    The present study examined the ability of three chemical estimation methods to predict toxicity and nontoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) -contaminated sediment to the freshwater benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca for 192 sediment samples from 12 field sites. The first method used bulk sediment concentrations of 34 PAH compounds (PAH34), and fraction of total organic carbon, coupled with equilibrium partitioning theory to predict pore-water concentrations (KOC method). The second method used bulk sediment PAH34 concentrations and the fraction of anthropogenic (black carbon) and natural organic carbon coupled with literature-based black carbon-water and organic carbon-water partition coefficients to estimate pore-water concentrations (KOCKBC method). The final method directly measured pore-water concentrations (pore-water method). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's hydrocarbon narcosis model was used to predict sediment toxicity for all three methods using the modeled or measured pore-water concentration as input. The KOC method was unable to predict nontoxicity (83% of nontoxic samples were predicted to be toxic). The KOCKBC method was not able to predict toxicity (57% of toxic samples were predicted to be nontoxic) and, therefore, was not protective of the environment. The pore-water method was able to predict toxicity (correctly predicted 100% of the toxic samples were toxic) and nontoxicity (correctly predicted 71% of the nontoxic samples were nontoxic). This analysis clearly shows that direct pore-water measurement is the most accurate chemical method currently available to estimate PAH-contaminated sediment toxicity to H. azteca. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  5. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  6. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to

  7. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  8. Low temperature formation of naphthalene and its role in the synthesis of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Y. Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Landera, Alexander; Kislov, Vadim V.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are regarded as key molecules in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest prototype—naphthalene (C10H8)—has remained an open question. Here, we show in a combined crossed beam and theoretical study that naphthalene can be formed in the gas phase via a barrierless and exoergic reaction between the phenyl radical (C6H5) and vinylacetylene (CH2 = CH-C ≡ CH) involving a van-der-Waals complex and submerged barrier in the entrance channel. Our finding challenges conventional wisdom that PAH-formation only occurs at high temperatures such as in combustion systems and implies that low temperature chemistry can initiate the synthesis of the very first PAH in the interstellar medium. In cold molecular clouds, barrierless phenyl-type radical reactions could propagate the vinylacetylene-mediated formation of PAHs leading to more complex structures like phenanthrene and anthracene at temperatures down to 10 K. PMID:22198769

  9. Occurrence and Source Appraisal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Waters of the Almendares River, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Jorge Luis; Massone, Carlos German; Valdés, Michel; Vazquez, Rene; Lima, Lázaro Antonio; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana

    2015-08-01

    In this work, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant priority list were analyzed in the surface water of the upper urbanized part of Almendares River, the most important water course in Havana, Cuba. Surface water from five sampling sites was collected at the end of dry season and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method after solid phase extraction procedure. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 836 to 15 811 ng L(-1) with a geometric mean value of 2512 ng L(-1). PAH typology was dominated by low molecular-weight PAHs (2- to 3-ring components). Pollutant source appraisal was determined by diagnostic ratios method in five sampling sites. Factor analysis of normalized samples was used to concentration identified two factors as the main significant pollutant sources and to cluster similar sampling sites corresponding to petrogenic and combustion inputs, respectively. Ecological risks were considered. For animal aquatic life, acute toxicity values exceed the permissible values in the more-polluted sampling sites.

  10. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  11. Pollution Level, Sources, and Lung Cancer Risk of PM10-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Summer in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the pollution level, sources, and lung cancer risk of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in summer in Nanjing, China. PM10 samples were collected in summer of the year 2015 in Nanjing. 16 USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. The mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq were 7.49±2.60 and 1.21±0.24 ng/m3, respectively, being in a middle level among results from regions worldwide. According to the results of diagnostic ratios, PAHs originated mainly from traffic exhaust, especially diesel vehicle emissions. Owing to the inhalation exposure, the median values of incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR were estimated to be 3.36×10-8, 2.50×10-8, 1.69×10-7, 2.54×10-8, 1.38×10-7, 1.18×10-7, 1.27×10-7, and 1.11×10-7 for boys, male adolescents, male adults, male seniors, girls, female adolescents, female adults, and female seniors, respectively, indicating low potential lung cancer risk.

  12. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4) levels in women from Mexico exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; González-Palomo, Ana K; Almendarez-Reyna, Claudia I; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a very important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Correspondingly, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein (FABP4, also known as aP2 and AFABP) has been proposed as a new, meaningful and useful biomarker to predict metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate serum FABP4 levels in Mexican women exposed to PAHs. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene ((1-OHP), exposure biomarker for PAHs) levels were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, and serum FABP4 concentrations were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The mean urinary 1-OHP level found in women participating in this study was 1.30 ± 1.10 μmol/mol creatinine (2.45 ± 2.10 μg/g creatinine). Regarding serum FABP4 concentrations, the levels ranged from 3.80 to 62.5 ng/mL in the assessed population. Moreover, a significant association (p PAHs), large epidemiological studies are necessary.

  14. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and some physicochemical parameters were investigated in Ochani Stream site in Ejamah Ebubu, Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State. The results show that a major crude oil spillage occurred at Ejamah Ebubu, Rivers State, Nigeria approximately 30 ...

  15. Prediction of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Clemens, R.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, several laboratory methods have been developed for the prediction of contaminant bioavailability. So far, none of these methods has been extensively tested for petroleum hydrocarbons. In the present study we investigated solid-phase extraction and persulfate oxidation for the prediction of

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Zhelin Bay, the largest mariculture base on the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: Characterization and risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Ke, Chang-Liang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Qin

    2016-09-15

    We investigated distribution, sources, and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from the largest mariculture base in the eastern part of the province of Guangdong in southern China. Total concentrations of ∑PAHs were 29.38-815.46ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 421.48ng/g. The composition of PAHs was characterized by an abundance of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 benzenoid ring), and Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (AN) and Fluoranthene (FA) were the predominant constituents. PAHs in this area appear to have mainly originated from petroleum sources and the combustion of grass, wood, and coal. PAHs in surface sediments of Zhelin Bay had a 9% incidence of causing adverse biological effects on aquatic organisms, according to the mean effects range-median quotient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of the Bílina River (Czech Republic using passive water samplers and fish biliary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination on the Bílina River (the Czech Republic by measurement of three PAH biliary metabolites in fish and 16 PAHs in passive samplers. A total of sixty-one fish were collected; the indicator species were chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.; n = 25, roach (Rutilus rutilus L.; n = 17 and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.; n = 19. Three biliary PAH metabolites were measured: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, 2-naphtol, and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, but only 1-OHP was detected in all fish. The highest median value of 32.3 ng·mg-1of 1-OHP was found at Ústí nad Labem, while the lowest median value of 27.6 ng·mg-1was found in the control site, Březenec. No significant differences (P < 0.05 among the sites were found. The highest concentration of PAH was detected in Litvínov-Záluží (172.0 ng·l-1 and the lowest concentration (7.9 ng·l-1 was detected in Březenec. A positive, but non-significant correlation (rs = 0.8 was confirmed between biliary 1-OHP and total PAH in passive samplers. These results indicate the highest pollution in the middle stretches of the Bílina River, especially at Litvínov-Záluží. We confirmed 1-OHP as the most prevalent PAH biliary metabolite in fish that could be used as a biomarker for assessment of PAH pollution of the aquatic ecosystem. The main importance of the present study is in the combination of biochemical and chemical monitoring that provides complex evaluation of aquatic environment contamination. It was the first study on the Bílina River, in which the assessment of PAH contamination in the aquatic ecosystem was realized using combination of biotic and abiotic monitoring.

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  19. Succession of phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic community characteristics during in vitro bioslurry treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelberg, D B; Talley, J W; Perkins, E J; Tucker, S G; Luthy, R G; Bouwer, E J; Fredrickson, H L

    2001-04-01

    Dredged harbor sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was removed from the Milwaukee Confined Disposal Facility and examined for in situ biodegradative capacity. Molecular techniques were used to determine the successional characteristics of the indigenous microbiota during a 4-month bioslurry evaluation. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), multiplex PCR of targeted genes, and radiorespirometry techniques were used to define in situ microbial phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic responses, respectively. Soxhlet extractions revealed a loss in total PAH concentrations of 52%. Individual PAHs showed reductions as great as 75% (i.e., acenapthene and fluorene). Rates of (14)C-PAH mineralization (percent/day) were greatest for phenanthrene, followed by pyrene and then chrysene. There was no mineralization capacity for benzo[a]pyrene. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a threefold increase in total microbial biomass and a dynamic microbial community composition that showed a strong correlation with observed changes in the PAH chemistry (canonical r(2) of 0.999). Nucleic acid analyses showed copies of genes encoding PAH-degrading enzymes (extradiol dioxygenases, hydroxylases, and meta-cleavage enzymes) to increase by as much as 4 orders of magnitude. Shifts in gene copy numbers showed strong correlations with shifts in specific subsets of the extant microbial community. Specifically, declines in the concentrations of three-ring PAH moieties (i.e., phenanthrene) correlated with PLFA indicative of certain gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Rhodococcus spp. and/or actinomycetes) and genes encoding for naphthalene-, biphenyl-, and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase degradative enzymes. The results of this study suggest that the intrinsic biodegradative potential of an environmental site can be derived from the polyphasic characterization of the in situ microbial community.

  20. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Figure 3. Changes in the respiration rates of compost inhabiting microorganisms during composting. Values are means of three replicates ± 1 Standard Error. Table 1. Changes in the C:N ratios of compost mixture during incubation. Treatment. 0. 6 Months. 12 Months. 18 Months. Contaminated soil (control ...

  1. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, F. [Dip. Scienze Biologiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)], E-mail: flavia.denicola@unisannio.it; Maisto, G. [Dip. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Prati, M.V. [Istituto Motori del CNR, via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy); Alfani, A. [Dip. Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves. - Different Quercus ilex leaf accumulation of trace elements and PAHs.

  2. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  3. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori

    OpenAIRE

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from...

  4. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  5. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  6. Occurrence of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mytillus galloprovincialis from the traditional market in Marseille, France, by Gas Chromatography triplequadropole tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-QQQ/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Yelmiza; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Bucharil, B.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Mediterranean mussel, Mytillusgalloprovincialis collected from the traditional market in Marseille, France,have been analysed using GC-QQQ/MS for their hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) extentwith two different solvent extraction, such as heptane:dichloromethane (HEP:DCM;1:1) and heptane:acetone (HEP:ACE; 1:1). The results showed hydrocarbons yielded from heptane:acetone extractionwere 28335 μg.kg- 1mussels dw (Ʃ n-alkanes C15-34) and 202 μg.kg-1mussels dw(ƩPAHs) while the yield from heptane:DCM extract was lower ca. 27026 μg.kg-1musselsdw and 133 μg.kg-1 mussels dw respectively from the Ʃn-alkanesC15-34and ƩPAHs. High hydrocarbon levels can be affected by the presence of lipids or other metabolites in mussels that have the same polarity with hydrocarbon compounds which has interferred the measurement. Several ratio parameter of n- alcanes and PAHs source in the mussels were evaluated to asses the origins of their hydrocarbons in mussels from which we suggested origins of hydrocarbons were pyrolytic and biogenic rather than petrogenic.

  7. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration as an exposure biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mexican women from different hot spot scenarios and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Orta-García, Sandra T; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge A; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    Recently, in developing countries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been considered contaminants of grave concern for women and children. Therefore, the aim of this study was twofold: (1) evaluate exposure assessment to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker and (2) perform a health risk assessment in women from four different high risk scenarios in Mexico. From 2012 to 2013, in a cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 184 healthy women from the following scenarios: (A) indoor biomass combustion site (n = 50); (B) brick manufacturing site using different materials such as fuel sources (n = 70); (C) industrial site (n = 44); and (D) high vehicular traffic site (n = 20). 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Afterward, a probabilistic health risk assessment was performed (Monte Carlo analysis). Mean urinary 1-OHP levels found were 0.92 ± 0.92; 0.91 ± 0.83; 0.22 ± 0.19; and 0.14 ± 0.17 μg/L for scenario A, B, C, and D, respectively. Then, based on the measured urinary 1-OHP levels, the estimated median daily intake doses of pyrene were calculated: 659, 623, 162, and 77.4 ng/kg/day for the women participating in the study living in areas A, B, C, and D, respectively, and finally, the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated (22 ± 21, 21 ± 20, 5.5 ± 5.5, and 2.6 ± 3.5; for areas A, B, C, and D, respectively), high health risk was noted for the women living in the studied communities. The data shown in this study (exposure levels to PAHs and health risk assessment) made it reasonable to conclude that the exposure levels found have a significant potential for generating adverse effects on human health in the studied scenarios.

  8. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Effect of rhizosphere enzymes on phytoremediation in PAH-contaminated soil using five plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil.

  10. Effect of rhizosphere enzymes on phytoremediation in PAH-contaminated soil using five plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea, and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix, dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix, and urease (except Medicago sativa L. were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592. The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d. At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil.

  11. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Asante, Kwadwo A; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-09-01

    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GMSG, indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or "treatment of various ailments". The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43-5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02-3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39-8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27-7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21-60. The present study showed a

  12. Understanding the Impacts of Land Uses on the Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Contamination By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons throughout a Small State in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants that enter the environment through combustion processes and are often found in higher concentration of urban areas. However, once released, these compounds can travel long distances via transport through the atmosphere and can be deposited on the landscape far away from their original source. This PAH deposition pattern can slowly lead to the diffuse contamination of whole landscapes. Since most of the air masses entering the northeastern United States originate from the Midwest where coal burning power plants are plentiful, several atmospheric pollutants are introduced to the region in addition to local sources. Here, atmospheric deposition of PAHs in six different locations throughout Rhode Island was measured using passive bulk-deposition samplers for 3 years. The data were analyzed statistically by principal component analysis and factor analysis to identify the source of contamination and respective apportionment. The data clearly show that an urban-to- rural gradient exists where deposition rates are significantly higher in urban areas (up to 12325 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) compared to rural areas (as low as 11 ng/d m2 ∑PAH) and also follow seasonal trends that show higher deposition rates in the fall and winter compared to the summer and spring time. Further, based on PAH source apportionment ratios, contamination origins differ spatially. For example, fossil fuel, coal, and vehicle combustion is present in all samples; however fossil fuel combustion is dominant in urban samples. In Rural areas biomass combustion is much more prevalent and is not as greatly represented in urban or suburban areas. Therefore, even in a small state such as Rhode Island airborne PAH contamination can be fingerprinted readily for different sampling areas, indicating that distant emission sources have a widespread impact on regional air quality.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metal contamination of coastal sediment and biota from Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnandi, Kissao; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Porrachia, Magali; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The state of contamination of tropical environments, particularly in Africa, remains a relatively under explored subject. Here, we determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and trace metal concentrations in coastal sediment and biota samples (fish and mussels) from Togo (West Africa). In the sediments, the ∑21 PAH concentrations ranged from sediment samples, and that PAHs originated mainly from anthropogenic combustion activities. The sediments were also analyzed for major elements and a total of 15 trace metals, which were found in elevated concentrations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) values relative to the Earth's crust show that the contamination is extremely severe for Cd (EF = 191), severe for Cr (EF = 18) and U (EF = 17.8), moderately severe for Zr (EF = 8.8), for Ni (EF = 6.8), Sr (EF = 5.9) and Ba (EF = 5.4), and moderate for V (EF = 3.6) and Zn (EF = 3.4). Sediments sampled in areas affected by the dumping of phosphorite mine tailings showed particularly high concentrations of trace metals. Overall, concentrations of both PAHs and trace metals in sediment tend to increase from the coastline to the open sea (2 km offshore). This is attributable to the increasingly finer texture of coastal sediment found offshore, which has a terrigenous origin and appears loaded with various contaminants through adsorption processes. Such high loads of trace metals were also found in the biota (fish and mussels). The ratio of measured trace metal concentrations in biota to threshold limits set by the World Health Organization herein defined as relative health factor (RHF) was high. Average RHF values in fish were highest for Se (470), As (250), Ag (97), Ni (78), Mn (63), Fe (53), Pb (36), Cd (10), and Cr (7) while lowest for Cu (0.08) and Zn (0.03). Cd and Al did not bioaccumulate in the analyzed fish species. In mussels, the RHF values were highest for Fe (9,108), As (295), Pb (276), Se (273), Mn (186), Ni (71), Ag (70), Cd (14), and Cu (4).

  14. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Maisto, G; Prati, M V; Alfani, A

    2008-05-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves.

  15. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  16. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge organic matter pools as a driving force of their fate during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemig, Quentin; Chéron, Claire; Delgenès, Nadine; Jimenez, Julie; Houot, Sabine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The fate of organic matter during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in batch systems thanks to a sequential chemical fractionation of the particulate phase coupled to fluorescence spectroscopy. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution within the organic pools was characterized from their analysis in the residual fraction after each extraction. Both methods were combined to understand the link between PAHs presence in organic pools and their spectral characterization after extraction. Two batch systems (sludge and inoculum mixture) were set up to study the impact of PAHs spiking on their fate and distribution. The sequential fractionation allowed us to extract and characterize about 50% of total Chemical Oxygen Demand. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy helped us to understand the organic pools evolution: the most easily extracted pools composed of protein-like molecules were highly degraded meaning that chemical accessibility mimics the bioaccessibility to degrading microorganisms. PAHs were present in all pools of organic matter but native PAHs were mainly present in low accessible (hardly extractable) fractions and during anaerobic digestion, they accumulated in the non-accessible (non extractable) fraction. Spiked PAHs were more dissipated during anaerobic digestion since spiking made them present in more accessible fractions. During the anaerobic digestion, contrary to native PAHs, spiked ones relocated toward less accessible organic fractions confirming the ageing phenomenon. PCA analysis showed that, in spiked mixture, PAHs presence in organic pools is linked to both PAHs physical-chemical properties and quality/quantity of the associated organic pools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterizations, relationship, and potential sources of outdoor and indoor particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a community of Tianjin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B; Bai, Z; Liu, Y; You, Y; Xu, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, J; Niu, C; Zhang, N; He, F; Ding, X

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic air pollutants in China. However, because there are unsubstantial data on indoor and outdoor particulate PAHs, efforts in assessing inhalation exposure and cancer risk to PAHs are limited in China. This study measured 12 individual PAHs in indoor and outdoor environments at 36 homes during the non-heating period and heating period in 2009. Indoor PAH concentrations were comparable with outdoor environments in the non-heating period, but were lower in the heating period. The average indoor/outdoor ratios in both sampling periods were lower than 1, while the ratios in the non-heating period were higher than those in the heating period. Correlation analysis and coefficient of divergence also verified the difference between indoor and outdoor PAHs, which could be caused by high ventilation in the non-heating period. To support this conclusion, linear and robust regressions were used to estimate the infiltration factor to compare outdoor PAHs to indoor PAHs. The calculated infiltration factors obtained by the two models were similar in the non-heating period but varied greatly in the heating period, which may have been caused by the influence of ventilation. Potential sources were distinguished using a diagnostic ratio and a mixture of coal combustion and traffic emission, which are major sources of PAHs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Distribution, Levels, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Some Water Bodies along the Coastal Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofi Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID. The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 μg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 μg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 μg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 μg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 μg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 μg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(aanthracene, and benzo(j,kfluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime.

  19. The relevance of monitoring of antibodies against the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-DNA adducts in serum in relation to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauk, N.; Klimešová, Š.; Kára, J.; Topinka, Jan; Lábaj, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 182-187 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06150 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * anti-PAH antibodies * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  20. Shifts in microbial community structure during in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingwen; Li, Feng; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the microbial mechanism of in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR). Various concentrations of rhamnolipids, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) were separately sprayed onto soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for years. Within 90 days, the highest level of degradation (95 %) was observed in the soil treated with rhamnolipids (10 mg/kg), followed by 92 % degradation with Tween 80 (50 mg/kg) and 90 % degradation with SDBS (50 mg/kg). The results of the microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) suggest that bacteria dominated the enhanced PAH biodegradation (94 % of the maximum contribution). The shift of bacterial community structure during the surfactant treatment was analyzed by using the 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. In the presence of surfactants, the number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas increased from 2-3 to 15-30 % at the end of the experiment (two to three times of control). Gene prediction with phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) shows that the PAH-degrading genes, such as 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenase and PAH dioxygenase large subunit, significantly increased after the surfactant applications (p < 0.05). The findings of this study provide insights into the surfactant-induced shifts of microbial community, as well as critical factors for efficient bioremediation.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Soils of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala: Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaraneni, Varun K; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sum of the concentrations of these PAHs at the urban and peri-urban sites ranged from 460 to 3251 μg kg (mean, 1401 μg kg), whereas at agricultural sites the range was 350 to 2087 μg kg (mean, 1038 μg kg). Analysis to identify and apportion the source showed that the PAHs emitted from wood stoves contributed 71 and 76% of the total PAHs in urban and agricultural areas soils, respectively. The calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk due to the ingestion of soil, dermal contact, and dietary intake through corn consumption was greater than the acceptable level of 10 established by the USEPA. Our findings suggest that the residents of rural communities can be at increased cancer risk despite little or no industrial activity in the local area. Alternate domestic fuel sources should be considered to reduce the health risk in local communities. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  3. Chitosan application as a biocoagulant in wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Álava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The environment contamination in Ecuador, done by the production, transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons, requires further research regarding new treatment alternatives that use biodegradable substances. In this study, abdominal shrimp shell waste, Litopenaeus vannamei was used to obtain chitosan and then apply it as a biocoagulant to a wastewater sample contaminated with hydrocarbon products. The produced chitosan was characterised by potentiometric titration, resulting in a deacetylation degree (%DD of 87.18%– 93.72% and by intrinsic viscosimetry, obtaining an average molecular weight (g/mol of 5.2x105 –5.4x105. The application of chitosan was done in a jar test, for which a completely randomised factorial design 2k was set, resulting in an evident statistically significant effect for all the factor studied, that is, pH (Initial, chitosan type and agitation method, using the turbidity percentage removal as the response variable. As a result, a pH of 5.5, a 2 mg(Chitosan/L(sample and a fast agitation method were applied to a contaminated sample reducing the turbidity in 98.19%, the oxygen chemical demand in 78.17%, color in 91.45% and total petroleum hydrocarbon in 99.09%.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area.

  5. Effect of activated carbon and biochars on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industrially contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    Coal production negatively affects the environment by the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two soils (KOK and KB) from a coking plant area was investigated and their total PAH concentration was 40 and 17 mg/kg for the sum (∑) 16 US EPA PAHs, respectively. A third soil was sampled from a bitumen plant area and was characterized by 9 mg/kg ∑16 US EPA PAHs. To reduce the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of the PAHs in the soil pore water, active carbon (AC) and two biochars pyrolysed from wheat straw (biochar-S) and willow (biochar-W) were added to the soils at 0.5-5 % (w/w), each. The AC performed best and reduced the Cfree by 51-98 % already at the lowest dose. The biochars needed doses up to 2.5 % to significantly reduce the Cfree by 44-86 % in the biochar-S and by 37-68 % in the biochar-W amended soils. The high black carbon (BC) content of up to 2.3 % in the Silesian soils competed with the sorption sites of the carbon amendments and the performance of the remediation was a consequence of the contaminant's source and the distribution between the BC and the AC/biochars. In contrast, the carbon amendment could best reduce the Cfree in the Lublin soil where the BC content was normal (0.05 %). It is therefore crucial to know the contaminant's source and history of a sample/site to choose the appropriate carbon amendment not only for remediation success but also for economic reasons.

  6. Towards field detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment water using a self-assembled SERS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Xu; Jia, Wenjie; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A self-assembled surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is reported in this paper. To achieve high sensitivity, a high sensitive SERS substrate and a high efficient self-constructed light path were made. The SERS substrate was composed by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, pH=13), glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) porous material and syringe filter. The substrate had a good repeatability, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the same substrate was less than 5%. The efficiency of the self-constructed light path is about two times better than RPB Y type reflection fiber when the energy density was roughly equal on samples. The size of the SERS sensor is 350×300×180 mm and the weight is 15 kg. Its miniaturization and portable can comply with the requirements of field detection. Besides, it has good sensitivity, stability and selectivity. For lab experiments, strong enhancements of Raman scattering from organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecules were exhibited. The dependences of SERS intensities on concentrations of PAHs were investigated, and the results indicated that they revealed a satisfactory linear relationship in low concentrations. The limits of detection (LODs) of PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene are 8.3×10-10 mol/L and 7.1×10-10 mol/L respectively [signal to noise ratio (S/N) =3]. Based on this SERS sensor, signals of benzo (a) pyrene and pyrene were found in environmental water and the sensor would be an ideal candidate for field detection of PAHs.

  7. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  8. Biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community and bioaugmentation of selected bacterial strains for the depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a historically contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGregorio, Simona; Ruffini Castglione, Monica; Gentini, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was (1) to validate the biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial population by the amendment of lignocellulosic matrices inoculated with white rot fungi, to be exploited for the depletion of PAHs (5687 ppm) in a historical contaminated soil. (2) to validate the isolation of autochthonous bacterial strains capable to use PAHs as sole carbon source and their massive bioaugmentation for PAH depletion in a historical contaminated soil. The validation has been performed at mesocosm and pilot scale (7 tons of soil in a biopile). The two approaches end up with the complete depletion of the PAHs. A genotoxicological assessment of the process and of the soil at the end of the process of decontamination has been performed. The process of soil decontamination showed an increase in the genotoxicity of either the soil and the deriving elutriates. The bioaugmetation of selected bacterial strains determined the complete detoxification of the decontaminated soil after 21 weeks. The microbial ecology of the system during the process of decontamination has been monitored.

  9. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  10. On PAHs as interstellar grains - Infrared absorption coefficients. [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, D. W.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Donn, B.; Khanna, R. K.; Moore, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the proposal that PAHs are the source of IR continuum and emission features and the visible diffuse bands. Absolute IR cross-sections have been obtained for eight PAHs. The results show that a thermal continuum is not consistent with the spectra obtained, and that an array of normal molecules shows a spectrum that is more complex than the observed spectrum. The cross-sections of the UV spectra are 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than those of the IR spectra. It is suggested that, to account for these observations, structure must be produced in the UV extinction curve.

  11. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyun Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP, from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM, and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge by ultrasound combined zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xiaoyuan; Ning, Xun-An; Zou, Haiyuan; Liang, Jieying; Sun, Jian; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Jiekui

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined ultrasound (US) and zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air (ZEA) system to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge. The removal efficiencies of 16 PAHs using ZEA, US/Air (air injected into the US process), and US/ZEA treatments were investigated, together with the effects of various operating parameters. The enhanced mechanisms of US and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in removing PAHs in the US/ZEA system were explored. Results showed that only 42.5% and 32.9% of ∑16 PAHs were removed by ZEA and US/Air treatments respectively, whereas 70.1% were removed by US/ZEA treatment, (with favorable operating conditions of 2.0 mM EDTA, 15 g/L ZVI, and 1.08 w/cm3 ultrasonic density). The US/ZEA system could be used with a wide pH range. US led to synergistic improvement of PAHs removal in the ZEA system by enhancing sludge disintegration to release PAHs and promoting ZVI corrosion and oxygen activation. In the US/ZEA system, PAHs could be degraded by ROS (namely OH, O2-/HO2, and Fe(IV)) and adsorbed by ZVI, during which the ROS made the predominant contribution. This study provides important insights into the application of a US/ZEA system to remove PAHs from sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based biosensor for quantifying 3–5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aqueous environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are highly sensitive for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and can be employed to determine concentrations in near real-time. A sensitive generic mAb against PAHs, named as 2G8, was developed by a three-step screening procedure. It exhibited nearly uniformly high sensitivity against 3-ring to 5-ring unsubstituted PAHs and their common environmental methylated PAHs, with IC50 values between 1.68 and 31 μg/L (ppb. 2G8 has been successfully applied on the KinExA Inline Biosensor system for quantifying 3–5 ring PAHs in aqueous environmental samples. PAHs were detected at a concentration as low as 0.2 μg/L. Furthermore, the analyses only required 10 min for each sample. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2G8-based biosensor, the total PAH concentrations in a series of environmental samples analyzed by biosensor and GC–MS were compared. In most cases, the results yielded a good correlation between methods. This indicates that generic antibody 2G8 based biosensor possesses significant promise for a low cost, rapid method for PAH determination in aqueous samples.

  14. Effect of charcoal types and grilling conditions on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, O; Novo, P; Pinto, E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2012-06-01

    Grilling muscle foods involves high temperatures that lead to production of cooking toxicants, such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To obtain realistic exposure levels of these two groups of mutagens analyses of the same samples using similar separation/detection techniques were performed. HAs and PAHs were quantified in well-done meat and fish samples grilled with wood and coconut shell charcoal at 200°C. Quantitative HAs and PAHs profiles were different for beef and salmon using the same type of charcoal. Higher levels of HAs and PAHs were found in salmon samples. No significant differences were observed for HAs and PAHs in beef samples grilled with both charcoal types, whereas salmon grilled with coconut shell charcoal presented significantly lower amounts of HAs and PAHs than salmon grilled with usual wood charcoal. Continuous barbecuing with the same charcoal shown that combustion of fat that dropped along the grilling period contributed to higher formation of HAs and PAHs. Special attention must be given to the intake of barbecued foods since high amounts of HAs and PAHs can be taken in a single meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment from a river basin: sediment-water partitioning, source identification and environmental health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyun; Zhang, Jiquan; Ma, Qiyun; Chen, Yanan; Ju, Hanyu

    2017-02-01

    The information on concentration levels, partitioning and sources of pollutants in aquatic environment is quite necessary for pollution treatment and quality criteria. In this work, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the water and sediment of Yinma River Basin were firstly investigated. Among 16 individual PAHs, naphthalene was the highest average concentration in water samples as well as in sediment samples, 67.2 ng/L and 825.06 ng/g, respectively, whereas benzo(g,h,i)perylene was undetected in water samples nor in sediment samples. For three PAH compositional patterns, concentrations of light (2-3 ring) PAHs were dominant in water and sediment, accounting for 71.69 and 86.98 % respectively. The PAH partitioning in the sediment-water system was studied, results showed that PAH partitioning was in an unsteady state and tended to accumulate in the sediment. The possible sources of PAHs in water and sediment were both identified as a mixed source of petroleum and combustion. The benzo(a)pyrene equivalents (EBaP) values for PAHs in the water and sediment in some sites were relatively higher, suggesting the existence of environmental health risk.

  16. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyun; Jia, Rui; Yang, Shengke

    2015-11-06

    Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP), from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM), and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene) and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene) reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  17. Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Cochin estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramzi, A.;; Rahman, K.H.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Balachandran, K.K.; Jacob, C.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    as the major transport pathway. The dominance of 2–3 ring fractions in the PAH indicated petrogenic and low temperature combustion processes as major sources, while the very low levels of 5–6 ring components indicated low contribution from pyrolytic sources...

  18. Cyclopenta-Fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (CP-PAH). Recurring Combustion Effluents and Their Biological Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero Lobato, María José

    2004-01-01

    The convenient synthesis of a large set of (multiple) CP-PAH by Flash Vacuum Thermolysis (FVT), which have all been identified in combustion exhausts, allows their systematic assessment for mutagenicity in the bacterial mutagenicity assay (Ames-assay, TA98±S9-mix). Consequently, the physico-chemical

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the settled dust of automobile workshops, health and carcinogenic risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Khoder, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Al Khalaf, Abdulrahman; Costa, Max

    2017-12-01

    There are studies available on the occurrence of PAHs in indoor settled dust from residential and different occupational settings in literature but limited data is available on their occurrence and potential health risk assessment in automobile workshops. In recent decades Saudi Arabia has experienced tremendous growth in the petroleum industry and as a result, the automobile industry is booming. People working in automobile workshops are at a greater risk of exposure to chemicals releasing from the petroleum products. The main objective of this study was to report PAHs in settled dust from different automobile workshops of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and evaluate health risk for workers through dust exposure. Pyrene (1585-13500ng/g), Benz[a]anthracene (automobile workshops in the studied area are getting expose to high levels of PAHs via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This is the first study reporting PAHs in automobile workshops settings from Middle East. The incremental lifetime cancer risk to workers via dust exposure exceeded set limits of USEPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  1. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MIXTURES FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly contaminated (with PAHs) topsoils were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the feasibility and mechanism of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Effect of SCF density, temperature, cosolvent type and amount, and of slurrying the soil with water were ...

  2. Sampling and analysis of PAH and oxygenated PAH in diesel exhaust and ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Tatry, Véronique; Carlier, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated derivatives occur in particles or in the vapour phase in the atmosphere. Some of these compounds, particularly the PAH, are known as strong carcinogens and/or mutagens. Emissions from diesel engines are an important source of these contaminants in urban air. In this work, the chemical composition of diesel particles was studied from two different perspectives: the gaz/particule partitioning and the different size fractions of these c...

  3. Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g -1 , with a mean of 3800 ng g -1 . Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7-23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g -1 , respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.

  4. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  6. 16S rDNA-based probes for two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading soil Mycobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaswami, M.; Feldhake, D.J.; Loper, J.C. [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    PAHs are a class of widespread pollutants, some of which have been shown to be genotoxic, hence the fate of these compounds in the environment is of considerable interest. Research on the biodegradation of 4 and 5 ring PAHs has been limited by the general lack of microbial isolates or consortia which can completely degrade these toxicants. Heitkamp and Cerniglia have described an oxidative soil Mycobacterium-strain PYR-1 that metabolizes pyrene and fluoranthene more rapidly than the 2 and 3 ring naphthalene and phenanthrene; although some metabolites of benzo-(a)-pyrene (BaP) were detected, no mineralization of BaP was observed. In 1991 Grosser et al. reported the isolation of a Mycobacterium sp. which mineralizes pyrene and also causing some mineralization of BaP. Their study describes a comparative analysis of these two strains, which show very similar colony morphology, growth rate and yellow-orange pigmentation. Genetic differences were shown by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) using two arbitrary GC-rich octanucleotide primers, and by sequence comparison of PCR amplified 16S rDNA, although both strains show similarity closest to that of the genus Mycobacteria. These 16S rDNA sequences are in use for the construction of strain-specific DNA probes to monitor the presence, survival and growth of these isolates in PAH-contaminated soils in studies of biodegradation.

  7. Bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: albert.juhasz@unisa.edu.a [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Smith, Euan [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Waller, Natasha [CSIRO Land and Water, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Stewart, Richard [Remediate, Kent Town, SA 5067 (Australia); Weber, John [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The impact of residual PAHs (2250 +- 71 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) following enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 +- 1286 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. Microtox{sup TM} results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in EC{sub 50} values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. However, in studies conducted with Eisenia fetida, PAH bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a result of ENA. Similarly, Beta vulgaris L. biomass yields were increased 2.1-fold following ENA of creosote-contaminated soil. While earthworm and plant assays indicated that PAH bioavailability was reduced following ENA, the residual PAH fraction still exerted toxicological impacts on both receptors. Results from this study highlight that residual PAHs following ENA (presumably non-bioavailable to bioremediation) may still be bioavailable to important receptor organisms such as earthworms and plants. - Residual PAHs in creosote-contaminated soil following enhanced natural attenuation impacted negatively on ecological receptors.

  8. Influence of pre-treatment step on PAHs analyses in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkessam, Laurence; Lecomte, Paul; Milon, Véronique; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    There is no specific standardization for the pre-treatment of a soil sample for PAHs analyses. The ISO/FDIS 14507 method for soil quality gives a guidance for sample pre-treatment before measurement of organic contaminants in soil. It refers to cryogenic crushing which is not so easy to carry out. So, analysts lead to develop in house methods which can be very different from a laboratory to another and can involve deviations in the pollution quantification. This study has explored different ways of drying, grinding and sieving in order to determine the influence of the soil sample handling on the measured pollutant concentration. It appears that the influence of pre-treatment depends on the soil nature and on the PAHs distribution. As a conclusion, it is advised "light" drying ways like air drying or drying at 40 degrees C in a drying oven instead of more "drastic" ways (freeze-drying, cryogenic crushing) which can induce some losses. Crushing and sieving are also recommended for more reproducible measures.

  9. Pore Water PAH Transport in Amended Sediment Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, P. T.; Kwon, S.; Ghosh, U.

    2009-05-01

    Capping is a common remediation strategy for contaminated sediments that creates a physical barrier between contaminated sediments and the water column. Diffusive flux of contaminants through a sediment cap is small. However, under certain hydrodynamic conditions such as groundwater potential and tidal pumping, groundwater advection can accelerate contaminant transport. Hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be transported through the cap under advective conditions. To better understand PAH migration under these conditions, physical models of sediment caps were evaluated in the laboratory through direct measurement of pore water using solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Contaminated sediment and capping material was obtained from an existing Superfund site that was capped at Eagle Harbor, Washington. A PAH dissolution model linked to an advection-dispersion equation with retardation using published organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc) was compared to measured PAHs in the sediment and cap porewater of the physical model.

  10. Hydrocarbon Contamination Decreases Mating Success in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics. PMID:22053187

  11. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  12. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  13. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...

  14. Natural attenuation in contaminated soils with hydrocarbons; Atenuacion natural en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona Ramirez, L.; Iturbide Arguelles, R. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    A contaminated soil experiment was performed using simples from a refinery, containing oil derivative hydrocarbons, specifically those with high concentrations of polyaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). The testing consisted in 7 pans with 7 kg of soil, the preparation of 6 pans under specific conditions and one as a blank, the conditions were: water content (15 y 30%), addition a non-ionic surfactant. The process consisted in the daily aeration and water control of the samples. The PAH were analyzed: anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. The results after 8 weeks showed a gradual degradation of PAH, indicating a better removal obtained when the water content was 30% with nutrients addition. [Spanish] Se realizo un experimento con suelo contaminado proveniente de una refineria, el cual contaba con hidrocarburos derivados de petroleo, especificamente con concentraciones elevadas de hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP). El estudio consistio en preparar 7 cajones con 7 kg de suelo, cada uno con las siguientes condiciones: S1suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos y 15% de contenido de agua. S2 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de Nitrogeno y Fosforo (N y P) con 15% de contenido de agua. S3 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de N y P mas un surfactante no ionico, Emulgin W600, con 15% de contenido de agua. S4 igual a S1 pero con 30% de contenido de agua. S5 igual a S2, con 30% de contenido de agua. S6 igual S3 con 30% de contenido de agua. S7 suelo contaminado testigo, sin control de humedad y sin aireacion. La experimentacion consistio en airear el suelo diariamente y controlar el contenido de agua de manera que este fuera constante. Los resultados, indican que la mejor remocion se obtuvo para el contenido de agua de 30%, con adicion de nutrientes y surfactante. Los compuestos con mayor eficiencia de remocion para todas las opciones son naftaleno y antraceno. Por lo tanto, de acuerdo con los resultados, los compuestos

  15. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. I. PAH Size, Charge, Composition, and Structure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, Jesse; Allamandola, L. J

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 micron spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 micron features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into "principal" subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 micron region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, Brazil: Particle size distribution, sources and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Caroline Fernandes Jaegger; de Resende, Michele Fabri; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Eberlin, Marcos N; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two fractions (<63μm and 63-850μm) of street dust samples collected in different urban areas of Rio de Janeiro and Niterói cities, Brazil. Individual PAH concentrations and total PAH concentrations (∑PAH) were evaluated considering geographic and particle size distributions, PAH source and cancer risk. In 53% of the samples, ∑PAH values were higher in the smallest particles than in the largest ones, whereas the inverse was true for 23.5% of the samples. In 23.5% of the samples, both classes of particles showed comparable ∑PAH. The highest ∑PAH concentrations were found in areas of limited air dispersion, resulting in PAH accumulation in street dust. The diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated a strong influence of pyrogenic sources on PAH concentration, mainly of vehicular emissions. The cancer risk levels for children and adults, for both particulate size fractions (<63μm and 63μm-850μm), were comparable for dermal contact and by ingestion, and ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-6), whereas in certain cases the cancer risk level for adults by dermal contact was 2 to 3 times larger than for children. The cancer risk levels via inhalation always ranged from 10(-13) to 10(-10), so this exposure pathway was almost 10(4) less severe than through ingestion and dermal contact, and thus negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in women from Poland, Serbia and Italy--relation between PAH metabolite excretion, DNA damage, diet and genotype (the EU DIEPHY project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Robert; Antić, Ruža; Berni, Andrea; Dallner, Gustav; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Joksić, Gordana; Lundin, Cecilia; Palitti, Fabrizio; Prochazka, Gabriela; Rydzynski, Konrad; Segerbäck, Dan; Souček, Pavel; Tekle, Michael; Seidel, Albrecht

    2013-03-01

    Exposure of the general population to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is ubiquitous. The aim of this study was to analyze biomarkers associated with the uptake of PAH in 428 non-smoking women from Łodz (Poland), Viterbo (Italy), Belgrade (Serbia) and from the Pančevo area, where the petrochemical complex was destroyed by the air raids in 1999. Urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was lowest in Italian women, intermediary for Serbian and highest in Polish women, who predominantly excreted hydroxy phenanthrenes as metabolites of phenanthrene. Bulky DNA adduct levels were highest in Italian and Polish women. Genotype or PAH ambient air levels could not explain the dissimilarities between the study groups with respect to biomarker patterns, which probably reflected differences in life style-associated factors.

  18. Shallow sublittoral meiofauna communities and sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content on the Galician coast (NW Spain), six months after the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, P; Rubal, M; Besteiro, C

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to detect the impact of Prestige oil spill on meiobenthic community structure at higher levels of taxonomic aggregation. In addition, the relationship between sediment individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration and meiofauna community structure was investigated. Six months after the Prestige oil spill, meiobenthos community and sediment PAHs content from seven shallow subtidal localities along the Galician coast were studied. Two sites presented differences in community structure, characterized by high densities of nematodes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians, and low densities of copepods. Chrysene and triphenylene were only found at these two disturbed sites and could be responsible for differences of meiobenthos community structure. However, differences in community structure of sites could be linked with sedimentary parameters, and discrimination between the effect of PAHs and sedimentary parameters was impossible due to the lack of baseline studies on meiobenthos and PAHs contents in this area.

  19. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  20. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  1. Fate and stability of nonextractable residues of [{sup 14}C]PAH in contaminated soils under environmental stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschenbach, A.; Mahro, B. [Hochschule Breman (Germany). Inst. fuer Technischen Umweltschutz; Wienberg, R. [Umwelttechnisches Buero und Labor, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    It has been recognized during recent years that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may form nonextractable residues in soil and that this process may be stimulated by microbial activities. To use that process intentionally for soil bioremediation, one must ensure that the formed nonextractable PAH residues will not be released from the soil on the long run. The long-term stability of four different nonextractable [{sup 14}C]PAH residues ([{sup 14}C]naphthalene, [{sup 14}C]anthracene, [{sup 14}C]pyrene, and [{sup 14}C]benzo[a]pyrene) was therefore monitored under different ecological stress conditions. It was found that a considerable fraction of the total [{sup 14}C]PAH residues could be released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from the soil being partly due to a biogenic reduction of the nonextractable {sup 14}C residue fraction. The turnover of this fraction was comparable to the natural turnover rate for humic substances. Neither the addition of humus-degrading microorganisms nor a mechanical stress treatment of the soil structure by freezing and thawing led to a mobilization of the nonextractable [{sup 14}C]PAH residues. However, a significant mobilization of the nonextractable {sup 14}C activity occurred when EDTA was added to the soil. The metal-organic soil complexes were destabilized by this complexing agent and released {sup 14}C activity that was attached to colloidal or dissolved organic matter.

  2. Magnetic properties changes due to hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to understand the mechanisms and conditions which control the formation and transformation of ferro(i)magnetic minerals caused by hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater, in particular in the zone of fluctuating water levels. The work extends previous studies conducted at the same site. The study area is a former military air base at Hradčany, Czech Republic (50°37'22.71"N, 14°45'2.24"E). The site was heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, due to leaks in petroleum storage tanks and jet fuelling stations over years of active use by the Soviet Union, which closed the base in 1991. The site is one of the most important sources of high quality groundwater in the Czech Republic. In a previous study, Rijal et al. (2010) concluded that the contaminants could be flushed into the sediments as the water level rose due to remediation processes leading to new formation of magnetite. In this previous study three different locations were investigated; however, from each location only one core was obtained. In order to recognize significant magnetic signatures versus depth three cores from each of these three locations were drilled in early 2012, penetrating the unsaturated zone, the groundwater fluctuation (GWF) zone and extending to about one meter below the groundwater level (~2.3 m depth at the time of sampling). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) profiles combined with other magnetic properties were analyzed to obtain a significant depth distribution of the ferro(i)magnetic concentration. Sediment properties, hydrocarbon content and bacterial activity were additionally studied. The results show that the highest ferrimagnetic mineral concentrations exist between 1.4-1.9 m depth from the baseline which is interpreted as the top of the GWF zone. Spikes of MS detected in the previous studies turned out to represent small-scale isolated features, but the trend of increasing MS values from the lowermost position of the groundwater table upward was verified

  3. Diversity of Soil Nematodes in Areas Polluted with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content ( p plant parasites ( p plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), ΣMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, ΣMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes.

  4. Development of a lab-on-chip electrochemical immunosensor for detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Shifa; Vazquez, Patricia; Dehnert, Jan; Goridko, Vadim; Tijero, Maria; Moore, Eric

    2017-06-01

    The work described in this manuscript focuses on how the integration of immunoassay techniques in combination with electrochemical detection can provide a portable and very accurate solution for detection of water pollutants that are detrimental for human health. In particular, we focus our work on the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted water. Our integrative approach facilitates a real-time detection of this family of organic compounds, by reducing the time of analysis to less than one hour. Additionally, the use of a lab-on-a-chip platform delivers a portable solution that could be used in situ. Optimization of a displacement assay that investigates the presence and concentration of Benzo[a]pyrene in water, allows with the miniaturization of the standard ELISA format into a highly accurate system that provides fast results. The limits of detection obtained are comparable to those of available state-of-the art tools, and achieve the values set by European Drinking Water Directive, 0.10ng/l, as the limit for PAHs in drinking water.

  5. Combined effects of land reclamation, channel dredging upon the bioavailable concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Victoria Harbour sediment, Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T K; Leung, H M; Yue, P Y K; Au, C K; Wong, Y K; Cheung, K C; Li, W C; Yung, K K L

    2017-01-15

    The up-to-date concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment materials of Victoria Harbour was investigated so as to evaluate the pollution potential associated with the reclamation projects in Hong Kong. A total of 100 sediment samples were collected at 20 locations. Except the control point in reservoir, the PAHs concentrations were detectable levels all sites (131-628.3ng/g, dw) and such values were higher than Dutch Target and Intervention Values (the New Dutch standard in 2016). The PAHs concentration indicating that construction waste and wastewater discharges were the main pollutant sources. Results of correlation in single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) studies also revealed that the PAHs concentration was highly correlated (PAHs. The above observation indicates that the PAHs present in the sediment may substantially effect the marine ecosystem. Although the dredged sediment can be a useful sea-filling material for land reclamation; however, the continuing leaching of PAHs and its impact on the aquatic environment need to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New naphthalene whole-cell bioreporter for measuring and assessing naphthalene in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Dayi; Ding, Aizhong; Chen, Cheng; Huang, Wei E; Zhang, Huichun

    2017-11-01

    A new naphthalene bioreporter was designed and constructed in this work. A new vector, pWH1274_Nah, was constructed by the Gibson isothermal assembly fused with a 9 kb naphthalene-degrading gene nahAD (nahAa nahAb nahAc nahAd nahB nahF nahC nahQ nahE nahD) and cloned into Acinetobacter ADPWH_lux as the host, capable of responding to salicylate (the central metabolite of naphthalene). The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter could effectively metabolize naphthalene and evaluate the naphthalene in natural water and soil samples. This whole-cell bioreporter did not respond to other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; pyrene, anthracene, and phenanthrene) and demonstrated a positive response in the presence of 0.01 μM naphthalene, showing high specificity and sensitivity. The bioluminescent response was quantitatively measured after a 4 h exposure to naphthalene, and the model simulation further proved the naphthalene metabolism dynamics and the salicylate-activation mechanisms. The ADPWH_Nah bioreporter also achieved a rapid evaluation of the naphthalene in the PAH-contaminated site after chemical spill accidents, showing high consistency with chemical analysis. The engineered Acinetobacter variant had significant advantages in rapid naphthalene detection in the laboratory and potential in situ detection. The state-of-the-art concept of cloning PAHs-degrading pathway in salicylate bioreporter hosts led to the construction and assembly of high-throughput PAH bioreporter array, capable of crude oil contamination assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenylacetylene and PAH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other related aromatic compounds, such as ionized PAHs, have received considerable attention from astronomers, astrobiologists, environmentalists, and the combustion community. In the interstellar medium, PAH like species account for up to 10% of ...

  8. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Zeng, Fangang [School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Xue, Nandong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: ligulax@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (< 2 {mu}m clay, 2-20 {mu}m silt, 20-200 {mu}m fine sand, and > 200 {mu}m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 {mu}g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 {mu}g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil organic

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Exposed-Lawn Soils from 28 Urban Parks in the Megacity Guangzhou: Occurrence, Sources, and Human Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Chang-Liang; Gu, Yang-Guang; Liu, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils may pose a serious threat to human health via oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and particulate inhalation, especially in public parks and playgrounds, with children and senior citizens showing the highest susceptibility. Several studies have been undertaken identifying PAHs in urban soils, but no studies to date have assessed PAHs in urban parks, in particular in exposed-lawn soils. In recent decades, unprecedented rates of urbanization and industrialization in China have resulted in significant levels of urban environmental pollution. However, concentrations, sources, and the health risk associated with PAH exposure via urban park lawn soils in China remain unknown. The concentrations, sources, and health risk of exposure to 16 PAHs in surface-exposed lawn soils were studied in 28 urban parks in Guangzhou. Concentrations of Σ16PAHs ranged from 76.44 to 890.85 ng/g with a mean of 286.11 ng/g. PAH composition was mostly characterized by 2- and 4-ring PAHs in most sampling parks; Nap, Flua, Pyr, Phe, and Chr were the dominant constituents. Principle component analysis coupled with multivariate linear regression indicated that vehicular and coal combustion emissions contributed to 50.53 and 49.46% of PAHs in Guangzhou's urban park soils, respectively. Total cancer risk (TCR) analysis found that 22 parks (accounting for 78.57% total parks) designed for children's use and general-use park areas presented a potentially high risk (>1 × 10-4) for all users.

  10. Long-term trends (1990-2014), health risks, and sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Xue, Zhuqing; Zhu, Xianlei; Jia, Chunrong

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a category of over 100 various chemicals released from numerous combustion sources. The ubiquity and toxicity of PAHs have posed high health risks on human populations. This study aims to examine the long-term trends of atmospheric PAHs at the national-level in the U.S., and evaluate their cancer risks. Daily concentrations of PAHs measured at 169 monitoring stations between 1990 and 2014 were obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Temporal trends were examined using generalized linear model with generalized estimating equations. Random-effects analysis of variance was performed to explore variance between regions, sites, years, and months with a hierarchical structure. Source categories were identified using diagnostic ratios. National population level cancer risks were estimated using the relative potency factors and inhalation unit risk method. Ambient PAH concentrations displayed an overall downward trend (6-9% annual reduction) in urban areas, but not in rural areas. Seasonal and weekday/weekend effects were significant. Urban concentrations were twice of the rural level. The between-site variation outweighed the temporal variation, indicating large spatial heterogeneity. The predominant PAH sources were from traffic and non-traffic related fuel combustions with a dominant contribution from diesel emissions. The average excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 9.3 ± 30.1 × 10-6 (GM: 4.2 × 10-6) from exposure to ten carcinogenic PAHs. This is the first comprehensive study of the spatiotemporal trends of ambient PAHs at the U.S. national level. The results indicate that future efforts aimed to reduce PAH exposures should focus on diesel emission controls and extending the geographic coverage of air monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microscale spatial distribution and health assessment of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nine communities in Xi'an, China.