WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon mixture content

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  2. Foaming of mixtures of pure hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. V.; Woods, W. W.

    1950-01-01

    Mixtures of pure liquid hydrocarbons are capable of foaming. Nine hydrocarbons were mixed in pairs, in all possible combinations, and four proportions of each combination. These mixtures were sealed in glass tubes, and the foaming was tested by shaking. Mixtures of aliphatic with other aliphatic hydrocarbons, or of alkyl benzenes with other alkyl benzenes, did not foam. Mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons with alkyl benzenes did foam. The proportions of the mixtures greatly affected the foaming, the maximum foaming of 12 of 20 pairs being at the composition 20 percent aliphatic hydrocarbon, 80 percent alkyl benzene. Six seconds was the maximum foam lifetime of any of these mixtures. Aeroshell 120 lubricating oil was fractionated into 52 fractions and a residue by extraction with acetone in a fractionating extractor. The index of refraction, foam lifetime, color, and viscosity of these fractions were measured. Low viscosity and high index fractions were extracted first. The viscosity of the fractions extracted rose and the index decreased as fractionation proceeded. Foam lifetimes and color were lowest in the middle fractions. Significance is attached to the observation that none of the foam lifetimes of the fractions or residue is as high as the foam lifetime of the original Aeroshell, indicating that the foaming is not due to a particular foaming constituent, but rather to the entire mixture.

  3. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  4. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  5. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  6. Catalyst mixture for aromatic hydrocarbon synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minderhoud, J.K.; Huizinga, T.; Sie, S.T.

    1989-06-06

    The present invention is concerned with catalyst mixtures consisting of two catalysts, characterized in that one, which is based on zinc, is capable of catalysing the conversion of a H/sub 2//CO mixture into oxygen-containing organic compounds, and the other is a crystalline iron/boron silicate which, after one hour's calcination in air at 500/sup 0/C, has the following properties: a certain X-ray powder diffraction pattern and, in the formula that represents the composition of the silicate, expressed in moles of the oxides, a SiO/sub 2//Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3 molar ratio that is 20-2000, a SiO/sub 2//B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ molar ratio 50-5000, and a Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3//B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ molar ratio higher than 1.0. Said catalyst mixtures show higher aromatics selectivity in the preparation of hydrocarbon mixtures from H/sub 2//CO mixtures than such a mixture comprising an iron silicate instead of the above iron/boron silicates. 3 tabs.

  7. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  8. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  9. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.

    1996-09-01

    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  11. Thermodiffusion in binary and ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon + alcohol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2012-12-01

    Thermodiffusion in complex mixtures, such as associating, molten metal, and polymer mixtures is difficult to model usually owing to the occurrence of a sign change in the thermodiffusion coefficient when the mixture concentration and temperature change. A mixture comprised of a nonpolar hydrocarbon and an alcohol is a complex and highly non-ideal mixture. In this paper an existing binary non-equilibrium thermodynamics model (Eslamian and Saghir, Physical Review E 80, 061201, 2009) developed for aqueous mixtures of alcohols is examined against the experimental data of binary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. For ternary mixtures, non-equilibrium thermodynamic expressions developed by the authors for aqueous mixtures of alcohols (Eslamian and Saghir, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, DOI 10.1002/cjce.20581) is used to predict thermodiffusion coefficients of ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. The rationale behind the sign change is elucidated and attributed to an anomalous change in the molecular structure and therefore viscosity of such mixtures. Model predictions of thermodiffusion coefficients of binary mixtures predict a sign change consistent with the experimental data although the model is still too primitive to capture all structural complexities. For instance, in the methanol-benzene mixture where the model predictions are poorest, the viscosity data show that when concentration varies, the mixture's molecular structure experiences a severe change twice, the first major change leading to a maximum in the thermodiffusion coefficient, whereas the second change causes a sign change.

  12. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents...

  13. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  14. Determination of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in multicomponent mixtures with iso-octane and n-heptane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnin, V. L.; Muradov, V. G.

    2011-11-01

    We have experimentally studied the absorption spectra of hydrocarbon mixtures based on n-heptane and isooctane with small (1%-2%) additions of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene). The study was conducted in the region of the first overtones of the vibrational spectra for the hydrocarbon groups CH3, CH2, CH. We show that four-component modeling of the absorption spectrum of the hydrocarbon mixture and minimization of the deviation of the model spectrum from the experimental spectrum allow us to separately determine the content of the aromatic additives for concentrations from 1%.

  15. Viscosity Prediction of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Based on the Friction Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2001-01-01

    The application and capability of the friction theory (f-theory) for viscosity predictions of hydrocarbon fluids is further illustrated by predicting the viscosity of binary and ternary liquid mixtures composed of n-alkanes ranging from n-pentane to n-decane for wide ranges of temperature and fro...

  16. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures: Experimental investigations and computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVaerenbergh, Stefan; Srinivasan, Seshasai; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2009-09-01

    In an unprecedented experimental investigation, a ternary and a four component hydrocarbon mixture at high pressure have been studied in a nearly convection free environment to understand the thermodiffusion process. A binary mixture has also been investigated in this environment. Experimental investigations of the three mixtures have been conducted in space onboard the spacecraft FOTON-M3 thereby isolating the gravity-induced convection that otherwise interferes with thermodiffusion experiments on Earth. The experimental results have also been used to test a thermodiffusion model that has been calibrated based on the results of previous experimental investigations. It was found that with an increase in the number of components in the mixtures, the performance of the thermodiffusion model deteriorated. Computational analysis was also made to estimate the possible sources of errors. Simulations showed that the vibrations of the spacecraft could influence the estimates of thermodiffusion factors. It was also found that they are sensitive to slight variations in the temperature of the mixture.

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Liquid Hydrocarbon Mixtures by Absorption Spectra of Their Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnin, V. L.

    2016-11-01

    Absorption spectra of saturated vapors of hydrocarbons and their mixtures were studied near their first overtones. Absorption spectra of hydrocarbons in the liquid and vapor states were compared. The ability to analyze qualitatively the compositions of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures using absorption spectra of their vapors was demonstrated. Indirect evidence suggested that the nonlinear absorption as a function of concentration that was seen in liquid hydrocarbon mixtures was negligible in their vapors.

  18. Thermodiffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Sara M.; Senthilnathan, Sid; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    Thermodiffusion in liquid mixtures may explain some counter-intuitive but naturally occurring phenomena such as hydrocarbon reservoirs with heavier component(s) stratified on top of lighter ones. However, beyond benchmark systems, systematic measurements of thermodiffusion in binary organic mixtures are lacking. We use an optical beam deflection apparatus to simultaneously probe Fickian and thermal diffusion in binary solution mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in alkanes, and measure both Fickian diffusion D and the Soret coefficient ST, and then obtain the thermodiffusion coefficient DT. In a series of nine binary mixtures, we vary both the size of the aromatic compound from two to four rings, as well as the length of the alkane chain from 6 to 16 carbons. To probe the effect of increasing ring size, we include a 6-ringed aromatic compound, coronene, and toluene as a solvent, due to the insolubility of coronene in alkanes. Our results suggest that Fickian diffusion increases with the inverse of solvent viscosity and also with decreasing molecular weight of the solute. While both of these trends match our intuition, the behavior of ST and DT is more complicated. We find that ST and DT increase with the solute molecular weight when the solvent is held fixed and that the impact of solute ring size is higher in shorter chain alkane solvents.

  19. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir, E-mail: lucas.koziol@exxonmobil.com, E-mail: ngoldman@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.

  20. Prebiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in impacting reduced astrophysical icy mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Nir; Koziol, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium time-scales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impact on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon and nitrogen bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding for hydrocarbon impact synthesis on early Earth and its role in producing life building molecules from simple starting materials. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. VLE MEASUREMENTS FOR ASYMMETRIC MIXTURES OF FISCHER-TROPSCH HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark C. Thies

    2004-01-12

    The ability to model the thermodynamic phase behavior of long-chain and short-chain alkane mixtures is of considerable industrial and theoretical interest. However, attempts to accurately describe the phase behavior of what we call asymmetric mixtures of hydrocarbons (AMoHs) have met with only limited success. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data are surprisingly scarce, and the limited data that are available suggest that cubic equations of state may not be capable of fitting (much less predicting) the phase behavior of AMoHs. The following tasks, which address the problems described above, were accomplished during the one-year period of this Phase I UCR grant: (1) A continuous-flow apparatus was modified for the measurement of AMoHs and used to measure VLE for propane + hexadecane mixtures at temperatures from 473 to 626 K and pressures up to the mixture critical pressures of about 100 bar. (2) The extent to which cubic vs. modern, statistical mechanics-based equations of state (EoS) are applicable to AMoHs was evaluated. Peng-Robinson (PR) was found to be a surprisingly accurate equation for fitting AMoHs, but only if its pure component parameters were regressed to liquid densities and vapor pressures. However, even this form of PR was still not a predictive equation, as there was a significant variation of kij with temperature. In spite of its deficiencies in terms of vapor-phase predictions and modeling of the critical region, PC-SAFT was found to be the most appropriate EoS for truly predicting the phase behavior of highly asymmetric mixtures of alkanes. (3) Finally, a dense-gas extraction (DGE) apparatus was designed and constructed for the fractionation of F-T waxes into cuts of pure oligomers. Such oligomers are needed in g-sized quantities to perform VLE measurements with long-chain alkanes with carbon numbers greater than 40. The dense gas and the solute mixture to be extracted are contacted in a packed column that has a separation power significantly

  2. Selection of ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aromatic/aliphatic mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G. Wytze; Podt, Anita (J.G.); Haan, de André B.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes) from C4 to C10 aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures is challenging since these hydrocarbons have boiling points in a close range and several combinations form azeotropes. In this work, we investigated the separation of t

  3. 40 CFR Table 2c to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reactivity Factors for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2C Table 2C to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Boiling range (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 21 280-290...

  4. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  5. MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

  6. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  7. A novel approach to predict the excess volume of hydrocarbon mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H. J.; Bosma, J. C.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether principles obtained for the packing of solid macroscopic particles can be applied to the study of excess volumes of liquid mixtures. The approach is applied to mixtures of 'pure' hydrocarbons, i.e. containing only C- and H-atoms. In this new approach a set of equations wa

  8. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  9. Dielectric constant of liquid alkanes and hydrocarbon mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Arakelian, T.

    1992-01-01

    The complex dielectric constants of n-alkanes with two to seven carbon atoms have been measured. The measurements were conducted using a slotted-line technique at 1.2 GHz and at atmospheric pressure. The temperature was varied from the melting point to the boiling point of the respective alkanes. The real part of the dielectric constant was found to decrease with increasing temperature and correlate with the change in the molar volume. An upper limit to all the loss tangents was established at 0.001. The complex dielectric constants of a few mixtures of liquid alkanes were also measured at room temperature. For a pentane-octane mixture the real part of the dielectric constant could be explained by the Clausius-Mosotti theory. For the mixtures of n-hexane-ethylacetate and n-hexane-acetone the real part of the dielectric constants could be explained by the Onsager theory extended to mixtures. The dielectric constant of the n-hexane-acetone mixture displayed deviations from the Onsager theory at the highest fractions of acetone. The dipole moments of ethylacetate and acetone were determined for dilute mixtures using the Onsager theory and were found to be in agreement with their accepted gas-phase values. The loss tangents of the mixtures exhibited a linear relationship with the volume fraction for low concentrations of the polar liquids.

  10. Changes in Brain Monoamines Underlie Behavioural Disruptions after Zebrafish Diet Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Environmental Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignet, Caroline; Trenkel, Verena M.; Vouillarmet, Annick; Bricca, Giampiero; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Cousin, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish were exposed through diet to two environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures of contrasted compositions, one of pyrolytic (PY) origin and one from light crude oil (LO). Monoamine concentrations were quantified in the brains of the fish after six month of exposure. A significant decrease in noradrenaline (NA) was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures, while a decrease in serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) was observed only in LO-exposed fish. A decrease in metabolites of 5HT and DA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures. Several behavioural disruptions were observed that depended on mixtures, and parallels were made with changes in monoamine concentrations. Indeed, we observed an increase in anxiety in fish exposed to both mixtures, which could be related to the decrease in 5HT and/or NA, while disruptions of daily activity rhythms were observed in LO fish, which could be related to the decrease in DA. Taken together, these results showed that (i) chronic exposures to PAHs mixtures disrupted brain monoamine contents, which could underlie behavioural disruptions, and that (ii) the biological responses depended on mixture compositions. PMID:28273853

  11. Experimental study and kinetic analysis of the oxidation of light hydrocarbons mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rota, R.; Bonini, F.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata

    1996-07-01

    The combustion of various C{sup 1}-C{sub 2} hydrocarbon mixtures has been experimentally investigated in a continuous perfectly stirred reactor, in a temperature range from 1,000 to 1,300 K, and at stoichiometric ratio values between 0.5 and 1.5. The concentration values of several molecular species have been measured by GC analysis. The data obtained have been compared with the predictions of two different detailed kinetic models; both fail to predict the experimental trends in various situations. This leads to the conclusion that experimental data based on mixtures of hydrocarbons must be obtained to validate detailed kinetic mechanisms.

  12. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  13. Explosion pressures of hydrocarbon-air mixtures in closed vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanu, Codina; Brinzea, Venera; Oancea, D

    2006-07-31

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of several gaseous fuel-air mixtures was performed, at various initial pressures within 0.3-1.2 bar and ambient initial temperature. Explosion pressures and explosion times are reported for methane-, n-pentane-, n-hexane-, propene-, butene-, butadiene-, cyclohexane- and benzene-air mixtures. The explosion pressures measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm) and in three cylindrical vessels with different diameter/height ratios are examined in comparison with the adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, fuel concentration and heat losses during propagation (determined by the size and shape of the explosion vessel and by the position of the ignition source) on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed for some of the examined systems.

  14. Viscosity prediction of carbon dioxide plus hydrocarbon mixtures using the friction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Cisneros, Sergio; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The general one-parameter f-theory model has been used in conjunction with the SRK and the PR EOS to predict the viscosity of well-defined carbon dioxide + hydrocarbon mixtures. The predicted viscosities are within the uncertainty appropriate for most industrial applications. Although the studied...

  15. Measurements on thermodiffusion in ternary hydrocarbon mixtures at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental investigations on thermodiffusion have been conducted for five different ternary mixtures of methane, n-butane, and n-dodecane at a high temperature and pressure. While the mole fraction of methane was fixed at 0.2 the mole fraction of n-dodecane was varied from 0.7 to 0.2. The experiments were performed in a microgravity environment on board the satellite FOTON-M3. It was found that in all mixtures, n-dodecane separated to the cold side whereas methane segregated to the hot side. n-butane, the species with an intermediate density, showed a change in sign as its mole fraction was increased. At low concentrations it collected on the cold side but moved in the opposite direction with an increase in its mole fraction. The role of the relative density coupled with the species concentrations has been used to explain the thermodiffusion factor in each mixture. Computational investigations showed a similar behavior. However, the theoretical model was not able to capture the sign change of n-butane accurately. The inadequate representation of the significance of the relative densities and the mole fraction of the species has been found as the reason for this.

  16. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  17. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data.

  18. Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation from xylenes and mixtures of toluene and xylenes in an atmospheric urban hydrocarbon mixture: Water and particle seed effects (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Haofei; Parikh, Harshal M.; Chen, Eric H.; Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Rosen, Elias P.; Wang, Wenxing; Kamens, Richard M.

    2011-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the photooxidation of o-, p-xylene, and toluene with xylene mixtures was investigated in the UNC dual outdoor smog chambers. Experiments were performed with different initial background aerosol concentrations and levels of relative humidity (RH) in the environment of an eleven component mixture of non-SOA-forming dilute urban hydrocarbon mixture, oxides of nitrogen and sunlight. Post-nucleation was observed in most of the experiments in the 14-20 nm range except under the conditions with high background aerosol (>5 μg m -3) and with low o-xylene concentrations (o-xylene varied from 0.8% to 6.5% depending on the RH and initial seed concentrations. p-Xylene had a lower SOA yield compared with o-xylene and the yields in experiments with toluene and xylene mixtures ranged from 1.1% to 10.3%. SOA yield was found to be positively correlated with the particle water (H 2Op) content. A new condensed aromatic kinetic mechanism employing uptake of organics in H 2Op as a key parameter was applied to all the experiments and the simulations showed reasonable fits to the observed data.

  20. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. Udaya S.; Gormley, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  1. Analysis of aromatic constituents in multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures by infrared spectroscopy using multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnin, V. L.; Muradov, V. G.

    2012-09-01

    Absorption spectra of multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures based on n-heptane and isooctane with addition of benzene (up to 1%) and toluene and o-xylene (up to 20%) were investigated experimentally in the region of the first overtones of the hydrocarbon groups (λ = 1620-1780 nm). It was shown that their concentrations could be determined separately by using a multiple linear regression method. The optimum result was obtained by including four wavelengths at 1671, 1680, 1685, and 1695 nm, which took into account absorption of CH groups in benzene, toluene, and o-xylene and CH3 groups, respectively.

  2. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to complex mixtures with aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state is applied to phase equilibria of mixtures containing alcohols, glycols, water, and aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. Previously, CPA has been successfully used for mixtures containing various associating compounds (alcohols, glycols, amines......, organic acids, and water) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. We show in this work that the model can be satisfactorily extended to complex vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria with aromatic or olefinic hydrocarbons. The solvation between aromatics/olefinics and polar compounds is accounted for. This is particularly...... of the model (the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state) can be obtained from mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. For mixtures of glycols with aromatic hydrocarbons, two parameters have been fitted to experimental data, one in the physical (SRK) part and one in the association part of the model...

  3. Analysis of siloxanes in hydrocarbon mixtures using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Seeley, Stacy K; Nartker, Steven R; Seeley, John V

    2014-09-19

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) method for separating siloxanes from hydrocarbons has been developed using a systematic process. First, the retention indices of a set of siloxanes and a set of hydrocarbons were determined on 6 different stationary phases. The retention indices were then used to model GC×GC separation on 15 different stationary phase pairs. The SPB-Octyl×DB-1 pair was predicted to provide the best separation of the siloxanes from the hydrocarbons. The efficacy of this stationary phase pair was experimentally tested by performing a GC×GC analysis of gasoline spiked with siloxanes and by analyzing biogas obtained from a local wastewater treatment facility. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental results. The SPB-Octyl×DB-1 stationary phase pair constrained the hydrocarbons to a narrow range of secondary retention times and fully isolated the siloxanes from the hydrocarbon band. The resulting GC×GC method allows siloxanes to be resolved from complex mixtures of hydrocarbons without requiring the use of a selective detector.

  4. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  5. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  6. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Identification of cytochrome P4501A inducers in complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, D.L. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); DeVita, W.M.; Crunkilton, R.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States). Coll. of Natural Resources

    1998-12-31

    An in vitro ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to study the ability of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mixtures of PAHs to induce Ah receptor (AhR) mediated cytochrome P4501A activity in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. The purpose was to identify the most potent inducers from a set of thirteen separate PAHs and describe interactions occurring in complex mixtures of these PAHs. Where possible, potency was expressed in terms of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TCDD-EQ) by normalizing the PAH results to a TCDD standard curve. The most potent inducers were benzo(k)fluoranthene > benzo(a)pyrene {approx} benzo(b)fluoranthene > chrysene {approx} benzo(a)anthracene. At equal concentrations, these PAHs yielded potencies of 1670, 940, 655, 255, and 185 pg TCDD-EQ/g, respectively. Analysis of various mixtures of the thirteen PAHs suggested that complex interactions may be occurring.

  8. Biodegradation kinetics of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures by Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Autenrieth, Robin L; Dimitriou-Christidis, Petros; McDonald, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Many contaminated sites commonly have complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) whose individual microbial biodegradation may be altered in mixtures. Biodegradation kinetics for fluorene, naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene and 1-methylfluorene were evaluated in sole substrate, binary and ternary systems using Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505. The first order rate constants for fluorene, naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene, and 1-methylfluorene were comparable; yet Monod parameters were significantly different for the tested PAHs. S. paucimobilis completely degraded all the components in binary and ternary mixtures; however, the initial degradation rates of individual components decreased in the presence of competitive PAHs. Results from the mixture experiments indicate competitive interactions, demonstrated mathematically. The generated model appropriately predicted the biodegradation kinetics in mixtures using parameter estimates from the sole substrate experiments, validating the hypothesis of a common rate-determining step. Biodegradation kinetics in mixtures were affected by the affinity coefficients of the co-occurring PAHs and mixture composition. Experiments with equal concentrations of substrates demonstrated the effect of concentration on competitive inhibition. Ternary experiments with naphthalene, 1,5-dimethylnaphthalene and 1-methylfluorene revealed delayed degradation, where depletion of naphthalene and 1,5-dimethylnapthalene occurred rapidly only after the complete removal of 1-methylfluorene. The substrate interactions observed in mixtures require a multisubstrate model to account for simultaneous degradation of substrates. PAH contaminated sites are far more complex than even ternary mixtures; however these studies clearly demonstrate the effect that interactions can have on individual chemical kinetics. Consequently, predicting natural or enhanced degradation of PAHs cannot be based on single compound kinetics as this

  9. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  10. Phases equilibria at low temperature between light hydrocarbons mixtures, methanol and water: measures and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossilhol, N.

    1995-12-01

    In this work we discuss phase equilibria of mixtures similar to those formed during natural gas treatment (transportation and purification). The mixtures can contain light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, etc), acid gases (hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide), methanol (solvent, inhibitor) and (water). We present a low temperature phase equilibrium equipment to obtain two and three phase equilibrium data of light hydrocarbon-methanol-water mixtures. The realisation of the equipment, the measuring procedure and some determination of binary, ternary and quaternary systems are described. The range of application is - 100 deg. C to 0 deg. C in temperature and between 0 and 100 bar in pressure. The binary subsystems of the systems mentioned above are calculated in order to study the possibilities of the MHV2 and Wong and Sandler methods to represent simultaneously their vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria. According to the formalism proposed by the two methods, the cubic Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state is systematically combined with the NRTL excess Gibbs energy model. (authors). 72 refs., 47 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Investigation of bubble-point vapor pressures for mixtures of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiyun Sun; Wenjun Fang; Yongsheng Guo; Ruisen Lin [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Chemistry, Molecular Thermodynamics

    2005-05-01

    Bubble-point vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures for several mixtures with different mass fractions of a kerosene based endothermic hydrocarbon fuel (EHF) and ethanol were measured by comparative ebulliometry with inclined ebulliometers. Correlation between vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures by the Antoine equation was given with satisfactory precision. The bubble-point lines of pressure versus composition at different temperatures and temperature versus composition at different pressures were obtained. The pseudo binary systems of EHF+ethanol appear with very large positive deviations from Raoult's law. It follows that the addition of ethanol had a critical effect on the vapor pressure of fuels. Ethanol may be an effective oxygenated hydrocarbon additive to adjust the volatility of EHF. 17 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. [Biodegradability of the components of natural hydrocarbon mixtures previously submitted to landfarming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, G N; Pucci, O H

    2003-01-01

    The complex composition of the crude oil and the hydrocarbons that integrate the waste of the different stages of the oil industry turn this product a mixture that presents different difficulties for its elimination by biological methods. The objective of this paper was to study the biodegradation potential of autochthonous bacterial communities on hydrocarbons obtained from four polluted places and subjected to landfarming biorremediation system during a decade. The results showed a marked difference in biodegradability of the three main fractions of crude oil, aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions, obtained by column chromatography. All fractions were used as carbon source and energy. There were variations in the production of biomass among the different fractions as well as in the kinetics of biodegradation, according to the composition of each fraction.

  13. Determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaeser, H.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures are usually based on a butyric acid determination. This fatty acid is specific for milk fat. A conversion factor is used to calculate the milk fat content from the butyric acid content of the mixture. When applying this procedure, the natural variation of the butyric acid content of milk fat is not taken into consideration. Recently published data show that a considerable error may thus be introduced, making the interpretation of analytical results difficult. It is therefore proposed to envisage a control procedure which takes this aspect into consideration.Los métodos para la determinación del contenido de grasa de leche en mezclas de grasas se basan habitualmente en el análisis de ácido butiríco. Este ácido graso es específico de la grasa de la leche. Para el cálculo del contenido de grasa de leche a partir del contenido de ácido butírico de la mezcla se utiliza un factor de conversión. Cuando se aplica este procedimiento, no se tiene en cuenta la variación natural del contenido en ácido butírico de la grasa de leche. Datos publicados recientemente indican que si este factor no se tiene en cuenta se cometen importantes errores, haciendo difícil la interpretación de los resultados analíticos. Se propone, por tanto, un procedimiento de control que considere este aspecto.

  14. An analytical method of predicting Lee-Kesler-Ploecker binary interaction coefficients: Part 1, For non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.

  15. Trace Metals and Volatile Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    done with a view to assessing the level of attenuation of this particular group of crude hydrocarbons and the changes. /effects of some trace metals in the impacted soils. The aromatic hydrocarbon ... Nigeria has had its fair share of crude oil pollution. This problem is ... disintegration of natural organometalic plant metabolites.

  16. Laser synthesis of silicon carbide powders from silane and hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauchetier, M.; Croix, O.; Luce, M. (CEN Saclay, Gis sur Yvette (France))

    1988-11-01

    Ultrafine silicon carbide powders have been synthesized from mixtures of silane and hydrocarbons (with one to four carbon atoms) irradiated with an unfocused, high-power (1 kW), continuous-wave industrial CO{sub 2} laser. The chemistry of the reaction has been determined by analysis of the gaseous phase, either by infrared spectroscopy or by combined-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; reaction yields have been determined. A silicon carbide production rate of 30 g/h with a yield > 99% was obtained from silane and acetylene mixtures with a 600-W laser power. An attempt to approach a production rate of 100 g/h at laboratory scale has been successful. Powder characteristics, such as particle size (10 to 50 nm), crystallinity, and stoichiometry can be controlled through optimization of laser intensity, gas pressure, and flow rate. The powders consist of equiaxed particles which exhibit a narrow size distribution.

  17. Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes and methods of making and using same for separation of c2- and c3+ hydrocarbons and separation of propylene and propane mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2012-12-06

    Certain embodiments are directed to processes for fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes. These ZIF membranes can be used in separating C2-hydrocarbons from C3+ hydrocarbons and propylene/propane mixtures.

  18. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Content (TPH) As an Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    potential for hydrocarbon accumulation and could be evaluated for its efficacy as a tool in phytoremediation exercise ... and biological components of the ecosystem. ... changes of distilled water. .... low molecular weight polynuclear aromatic.

  19. Equilibrium water content measurements for acid gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.; Bernard, F.; Wan, H.H.; Lesage, K.L.; Davis, P.M.; Clark, P.D. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate understanding of acid gas and water equilibrium is needed in order to design safe acid gas injection facilities. This paper described a joint industry project conducted to measure the water content of acid gas mixtures under moderate pressures and temperatures. The study has accumulated over 160 data points. Techniques used to obtain the measurements have included visual dew point determination for liquid acid gas and hydrates; the equilibration of samples in stirred autoclaves; basic static equilibration cells; and an isolated floating piston with a micro-sampler used to inject gaseous and liquid acid gas phases. As a result of the project, a high pressure micro-sampling technique has been developed to pressure limits of 1000 bar. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Evaluation of Blood-Rumen content Mixture in the diets of starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Blood-Rumen content Mixture in the diets of starter chicks. ... weeks to determine the optimum level of inclusion of Blood-Rumen content Mixture ... to the high crude fiber content and possible amino acid imbalance of such diets.

  1. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman, Gabriel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Arthur W. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Worton, David R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kimmel, Joel R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Nah, Theodora [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hohaus, Thorsten [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gonin, Marc [Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Goldstein, Allen H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  2. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  3. Measurement and correlation of excess molar volumes for mixtures of 1-propanol and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlyan, Suman; Rani, Manju; Maken, Sanjeev Kumar [Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal (India); Lee, Inkyu; Moon, Il [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Excess molar volumes (V{sub m}{sup E} ) have been measured at 303.15 K for 1-propanol+benzene or toluene or o- or m- or p-xylene mixtures using V-shape dilatometer. The V{sub m}{sup E} values, for an equimolar composition, vary in the order: benzene>toluene-m-xylene>o-xylene>p-xylene. The V{sub m}{sup E} data have been used to calculate partial molar volumes, excess partial molar volumes, and apparent molar volumes of 1-propanol and aromatic hydrocarbons over the entire range of composition. The excess volume data have also been interpreted in terms of graph-theoretical approach and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory (PFP). While PFP theory fails to predict the V{sub m}{sup E} values for systems with s-shaped V{sub m}{sup E} versus x{sub 1} graph, the V{sub m}{sup E} values calculated by graph theory compare reasonably well with the corresponding experimental values. This graph theory analysis has further yielded information about the state of aggregation of pure components as well as of the mixtures.

  4. Importance of Aqueous-phase Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatics in an Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, H. M.; Carlton, A. G.; Vizuete, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, E.; Kamens, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Two new secondary organic aerosol (SOA) modeling frameworks are developed, one based on an aromatic gas and particle-phase kinetic mechanism and another based on a parameterized SOA model used in conjunction with an underlying gas-phase mechanism, both of which simulate SOA formation through partitioning to two stable liquid phases: one hydrophilic containing particle aqueous-phase and the other hydrophobic comprising mainly organic components. The models were evaluated against outdoor smog chamber experiments with different combinations of initial toluene, o-xylene, p-xylene, toluene and xylene mixtures, NOx, non-SOA-forming hydrocarbon mixture, initial seed type, and humidity. Aerosol data for experiments with either ammonium sulfate or initial background seed particles, in the presence of an atmospheric hydrocarbon mixture, NOx and in sunlight under a dry atmosphere (RH = 6 to 10%) show reduced SOA formation when compared to experiments with similar initial gas and particle concentrations at higher relative humidities (RH = 40 to 90%). Both frameworks simulated reasonable fits to the total observed SOA concentrations under all conditions. For both dry and wet experiments with low initial seed, semi-volatile product partitioning in particle organic-phase is mass-transfer limited and is modeled using a dynamic gas-particle partitioning algorithm with accommodation coefficient as the primary pseudo-transport parameter. Further, the modeled SOA product distributions for both frameworks clearly show the importance of the contribution of aqueous-phase SOA particularly under conditions of low initial seed concentrations and high-humidity. For both models, under these conditions, aqueous-phase SOA from uptake of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and related polar products to particle water phase dominates as compared to the partitioning of semi-volatiles to particle organic phase. Interestingly, both the kinetic and parameterized SOA frameworks simulate similar amounts of aqueous

  5. Assessing Energy Efficiency of Compression Heat Pumps in Drying Processes when Zeotropic Hydrocarbon Mixtures are Used as Working Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurayts Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of renewable energy.The paper proposes a design and a formula for assessing energy efficiency of the heat pump air dryer, which uses zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons as a working agent and applies the principle of a counter-current heat exchanger with a variable temperature of both the working and the drying agents. Energy efficiency of the heat pump is achieved by means of obtaining a greater part of heat from renewable energy sources, in this case by cooling the air and condensing the water vapors in the heat pump. A conducted analysis identified correlations in establishing the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryer running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures and operating a cycle with variable temperatures of both the working and the drying agent in the evaporator and the condenser of the heat pump. According to the established correlations, the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryers running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of 40 mol% of R600a and 60 mol% of R601 is 1.92 times higher than that of the same dryers running on only R600 (n-butane.

  6. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil spiked with model mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles using biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irina; Kostina, Ludmila; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya; Kuyukina, Maria; Peshkur, Tatyana; Anderson, Peter; Cunningham, Colin

    2016-07-15

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using biosurfactants (BS) produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 was studied in soil columns spiked with model mixtures of major petroleum constituents. A crystalline mixture of single PAHs (0.63g/kg), a crystalline mixture of PAHs (0.63g/kg) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and an artificially synthesized non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) containing PAHs (3.00g/kg) dissolved in alkanes C10-C19 were used for spiking. Percentage of PAH removal with BS varied from 16 to 69%. Washing activities of BS were 2.5 times greater than those of synthetic surfactant Tween 60 in NAPL-spiked soil and similar to Tween 60 in crystalline-spiked soil. At the same time, amounts of removed PAHs were equal and consisted of 0.3-0.5g/kg dry soil regardless the chemical pattern of a model mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles used for spiking. UV spectra for soil before and after BS treatment were obtained and their applicability for differentiated analysis of PAH and PASH concentration changes in remediated soil was shown. The ratios A254nm/A288nm revealed that BS increased biotreatability of PAH-contaminated soils.

  7. Estimation of the minimum and maximum substrate temperatures for diamond growth from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Fangqing; Chen, Guanghua

    1994-12-01

    It is proposed in this paper that the minimum substrate temperature for diamond growth from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures be determined by the packing arrangements of hydrocarbon fragments at the surface, and the maximum substrate temperature be limited by the diamond growth surface reconstruction, which can be prevented by saturating the surface dangling bonds with atomic hydrogen. Theoretical calculations have been done by a formula proposed by Dryburgh [J. Crystal Growth 130 (1993) 305], and the results show that diamond can be deposited at the substrate temperatures ranging from ≈ 400 to ≈ 1200°C by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. This is consistent with experimental observations.

  8. Calculation Method to Determine the Group Composition of Vacuum Distillate with High Content of Saturated Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Galina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation method to determine the group composition of the heavy fraction of vacuum distillate with high content of saturated hydrocarbons, obtained by vacuum distillation of the residue from the West Siberian oil with subsequent hydrotreating, are given in this research. The method is built on the basis of calculation the physico-chemical characteristics and the group composition of vacuum distillate according to the fractional composition and density considering with high content of saturated hydrocarbons in the fraction. Calculation method allows to determine the content of paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic hydrocarbons and the resins in vacuum distillate with high accuracy and can be used in refineries for rapid determination of the group composition of vacuum distillate.

  9. Taguchi Method for Development of Mass Flow Rate Correlation using Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Mixture in Capillary Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM. The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach explores the economic benefit that lies in studies of this nature, where only a small number of experiments are required and yet valid results are obtained. Considering the effects of the capillary tube geometry and the inlet condition of the tube, dimensionless parameters were chosen. The new correlation was also based on the Buckingham Pi theorem. This correlation predicts 86.67% of the present experimental data within a relative deviation of -10% to +10%. The predictions by this correlation were also compared with results in published literature.

  10. Random mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectra match interstellar infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Marissa J F; Boersma, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR; 5-15~$\\mu$m) spectrum of a wide variety of astronomical objects exhibits a set of broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 $\\mu$m. About 30 years ago it was proposed that these signatures are due to emission from a family of UV heated nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), causing them to be referred to as aromatic IR bands (AIBs). Today, the acceptance of the PAH model is far from settled, as the identification of a single PAH in space has not yet been successful and physically relevant theoretical models involving ``true'' PAH cross sections do not reproduce the AIBs in detail. In this paper, we use the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, which contains over 500 quantum-computed spectra, in conjunction with a simple emission model, to show that the spectrum produced by any random mixture of at least 30 PAHs converges to the same 'kernel'-spectrum. This kernel-spectrum captures the essence of the PAH emission spectrum...

  11. Embryotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with different avian species have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 70% of the egg surface result in considerable reduction in hatching with teratogenicity and stunted growth. Other stUdies have shown that the embryo toxicity is dependent on the aromatic hydrocarbon content, further suggesting that the toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,7 2-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryo toxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 :I was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryo toxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil, with additional mortality occurring after outgrowth of the chorioallantois. Retarded growth, as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, was accompanied by teratogenicity. Abnormal embryos exhibited extreme stunting; eye, brain, and bill defects; and incomplete ossification. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  12. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J

    2004-02-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  13. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq....... 50) of 133 mmol kg-1 lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg-1 lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture...

  14. Control of hydrocarbon content of a reforming gas by using a hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    To control of hydrocarbon content in waste pyrolysis-gasification and reforming processes, the use of a hydrogenation catalyst was examined in a test system with a model gas. To reduce the concentration of benzene in the reforming gas, benzene was hydrogenated with a nickel catalyst. The catalyst is usually used to convert gas-phase unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated hydrocarbons, and the benzene was converted to cyclohexane at a temperature range of about 130 to 180 degrees C in the presence of steam. However, the conversion to methane occurred at about 250 to 300 degrees C. Methane seems to be a useful conversion compound because it does not cohere as a light tar. Sometimes the reforming gas needs to be cooled for use as generator fuel. In this case, it is possible to avoid the tar cohesion if the benzene in the gas is converted to methane at about 300 degrees C after the reforming. Reduction of the efficiency of conversion to methane was not observed over a 60h reaction period. The lower hydrocarbons (ethylene, ethane, and propylene) were also converted to methane at about 300 degrees C. Conversion of benzene was also possible when other hydrocarbons were present at high concentrations.

  15. Sharp separation of C2/C3 hydrocarbon mixtures by zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes synthesized in aqueous solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional high quality ZIF-8 membranes prepared through a novel seeded growth method in aqueous solutions at near room temperature exhibit excellent separation performance for C2/C3 hydrocarbon mixtures. The separation factors for mixtures of ethane/propane, ethylene/propylene and ethylene/propane are ∼80, ∼10 and ∼167, respectively. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    boundaries of halite crystals, on the surfaces and knuckles or inside of micro capillary tubes of anhydrite crystals and anhydrite clusters, in newly formed micro cracks due to drilling respectively preparational works or rarely in micro-porous parts of the Hauptsalz. In order to get additional information about the origin of hydrocarbons detected in the Gorleben Hauptsalz organic geochemical analyses of potential source rocks in the vicinity like the Stassfurt Carbonate (z2SK) have been provided. These analyses revealed that the level of maturity of hydrocarbons in the Gorleben Hauptsalz correspond to 0,8 to 1,2% vitrinite-reflection-equivalent for the oil, similar to the organic-petrographical data of Stassfurt Carbonate and Copper schist in the periphery of the Gorleben salt dome (Gerling et al. 2002; Senglaub 2001; Cramer 2005). The analyses of biomarkers (esp. triterpenoid biomarkers) detected in the hydrocarbon mixtures from the Hauptsalz point to the Stassfurt Carbonate as source rocks of most of the hydrocarbons.

  17. Investigation of non-volatile additives on the process of distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Б. Степанов

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The given results of researches of influence of nonvolatile additives on processes of distillation of individual hydrocarbons and their mixes, including petroleum and mineral oil. With the help of the developed computer system of the continuous control of distillation it is shown, that at the presence of small amounts of the additive decrease of temperature of the beginning of boiling of hydrocarbons is observed, their speeds of banish and exits of light fuel mineral oil grow during initial oil refining

  18. Effect of the Structure of Cations and Anions of Ionic Liquids on Separation of Aromatics from Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansheng; Zhang Zhongxin; Zhang Guofu; Liu Zhichang; Hu Yufeng; Shi Quan; Ji Dejun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the structure of typical cations and anions of ionic liquids on the separation of benzene and toluene from aromatic/paraffin mixtures were studied. The results showed that the corresponding separation factors were considerably larger than those of the traditional solvents (Benzene+Hexane+sulfolane), and that the ionic liquids could be used as novel solvents for the separation of aromatics from hydrocarbon mixtures. The key parameters governing the ability of ionic liquids for separating aromatics from hydrocarbon sources were investigated. It was found that the effectiveness of the ionic liquids, based on the same anion, changed in the cation order of [BIqu]+< [BPy]+< [BMIM]+. The selectivity of the ionic liquid toward aromatics decreased apparently with the increasing length of the substituted alkyl chain of its cationic head ring. The separation factors, based on the same cation, changed in the anion order of [Tf2N]-<[PF6]-<[BF4]-<[C2H5SO4]-. The solubilities of the aromatics were greater in the ionic liquids based on the former three anions than that in the ionic liquids involving [C2H5SO4]-.

  19. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ching Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surrogates to assess hazard or risk of exposure to the whole fractions. Membership in a TPH fraction is generally defined by the number of carbon atoms in a compound and by a compound's equivalent carbon (EC number index, which can predict its environmental fate. Here, we systematically and objectively re-evaluate the assignment of TPH to specific fractions using comparative molecular field analysis and hierarchical clustering. The approach is transparent and reproducible, reducing inherent reliance on judgment when toxicity information is limited. Our evaluation of membership in these fractions is highly consistent (̃80% on average across various fractions with the empirical approach of MADEP and TPHCWG. Furthermore, the results support the general methodology of mixture risk assessment to assess both cancer and noncancer risk values after the application of fractionation.

  20. Estimation of ecotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in soil based on HPLC-GCXGC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Debin; Lookman, Richard; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Weltens, Reinhilde; Vanermen, Guido; De Brucker, Nicole; Diels, Ludo

    2009-12-01

    Detailed HPLC-GCXGC/FID (high performance liquid chromatography followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection) analysis of oil-contaminated soils was performed to interpret results of selected acute ecotoxicity assays. For the five ecotoxicity assays tested, plant seed germination and Microtox were selected as most sensitive for evaluating ecotoxicity of the oil in the soil phase and in the leaching water, respectively. The measured toxicity for cress when testing the soil samples did not correspond to TPH concentration in the soil. A detailed chemical composition analysis of the oil contamination using HPLC-GCXGC/FID allows to better predict the ecotoxicological risk and leaching potential of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Cress biomass production per plant was well correlated to the total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration (R2=0.79, n=6), while cress seed germination was correlated (R2=0.82, n=6) with total concentration of "highly water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons" (HSaromatics). The observed ecotoxicity of the leaching water for Microtox-bacteria related well to calculated (based on the HPLC-GCXGC/FID results) petroleum hydrocarbon equilibrium concentrations in water.

  1. A closer look at bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oils) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, and adequate risk assessment is thus essential. Bioaccumulation plays a key role in risk assessment, but the current knowledge on bioaccumulation of oils is limited. Therefore, this process was studied in detail, using the aqua

  2. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  4. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  5. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  6. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  7. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  8. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound.

  9. Performance and energy saving analysis of a refrigerator using hydrocarbon mixture (HC-R134a) as working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, M. N.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of hydrocarbon mixture as a working fluid in a refrigerator system is rarely explored. Almost all domestic refrigerators use hydroflourocarbon R134a (HFC-R134a) as refrigerants. In this study, hydrocarbon gas (HC-R134a) is used as the alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-R134a. It has a composition of R290 (56%), R600a (54.39%) and additive (0.1%wt) blended for the trials. The experiments were conducted with 105 g and 52.5 g refrigerant mass charge, subjected to internal heat load of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg respectively. The study investigates the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator (COPR) and energy consumption. The results show that the use of HC-R134a as the replaceable refrigerant can save energy ranging from 2.04% to 7.09%, as compared to the conventional HFC-R134a refrigerant. Naturally, the COPR improvement and temperature distribution using HC-R134a are much better than HFC-R134a

  10. Predicting the vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrocarbon binary mixtures and polymer solutions using predetermined pure component parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang Kyu [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: ycbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed a close-packed lattice model for chain-like molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chain length dependence determined from Monte-Carlo simulation results were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To consider the volume effect, hole theory and two mixing steps were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A lattice fluid equation of state (LF-EoS) is presented for VLE of hydrocarbon mixtures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of pure polymer solutions data with use of the LF-EoS. - Abstract: In our previous work, a new close-packed lattice model was developed for multi-component system of chain fluids with taking the chain length dependence from Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation results into account. In this work, we further extend this model to describe pressure, volume and temperature (PVT) properties, such as vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). To consider the effect of pressure on the phase behavior, the volume change effect is taken into account by introducing holes into the incompressible lattice model with two mixing steps. The corresponding new lattice fluid equation of state (LF-EoS) is applied to predict the thermodynamic properties of pure and binary mixtures of hydrocarbons as well as pure polymer solutions. The results of the proposed model are compared to other predictive approaches based on VLE calculations using predetermined pure model parameters without further adjustment. Thermodynamic properties predicted using the method developed in this work are consistent with the experimental data.

  11. Photoinduced toxicity single and binary mixtures of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Diatom Skeletonema costatum Cleve is one of the main predominant phytoplankton species in the Changjiang Estuary in China. In order to provide some basic information for future assessment of the potential risk on phytoplankton communities in this estuary caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), this alga was selected as a representative to investigate the photoinduced toxicity of PAHs, in single and mixture. Four PAHs including three-ring phenanthrene and anthracene, four-ring fluoranthene and pyrene were tested in the laboratory. The single toxicity of each PAH on this microalga was compared with and without the simulated solar UV radiation. The results showed that this microalga was sensitive to PAH's photoinduced toxicity. Ratios of the 72 h median effect concentration obtained for fluorescent and UV light tests were about 8.4 for phenanthrene, 13.0 for anthracene, 6.5 for fluoranthene, and 5.7 for pyrene, indicating that UV light enhanced the PAH toxicity to this alga significantly. Under the fluorescent radiation (lacking UV), the dose-response curves based on chemical concentrations revealed that the order of toxic strength was fluoranthene greater than pyrene greater than anthracene greater than phenanthrene; while under the UV radiation (476 μW/cm2 for UVA, 6.5 μW/cm2 for UVB) it became fluoranthene approximately equaling anthracene greater than pyrene greater than phenanthrene, indicating that the UV light also changed its relative toxicity to this alga. The photoinduced toxicity of PAHs to the marine diatom S. costatum might be a synergistic effect of photosensitization reactions (e.g., generation of single-state oxygen) and photomodification (photooxidation and/or photolysis).The combined effects of six binary mixtures on the marine diatom S. costatum were investigated using the additive-index method. Four binary-mixtures (phenanthrene plus anthracene; phenanthrene plus pyrene; anthracene plus fluoranthene; anthracene plus pyrene) were found

  12. NON-EQUILIBRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS USED TO OBTAIN SORET COEFFICIENTS OF BINARY HYDROCARBON MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Boundary Driven Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (BD-NEMD method is employed to evaluate Soret coefficients of binary mixtures. Using a n-decane/n-pentane mixture at 298 K, we study several parameters and conditions of the simulation procedure such as system size, time step size, frequency of perturbation, and the undesired warming up of the system during the simulation. The Soret coefficients obtained here deviated around 20% when comparing with experimental data and with simulated results from the literature. We showed that fluctuations in composition gradients and the consequent deviations of the Soret coefficient may be due to characteristic fluctuations of the composition gradient. Best results were obtained with the smallest time steps and without using a thermostat, which shows that there is room for improvement and/or development of new BD-NEMD algorithms.

  13. Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Liquid Mixtures of 2-Pyrrolidinone with Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jaibir S.; Sharma, Dimple; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2010-02-01

    Molar excess volumes, {V^E_{ijk}}, and speeds of sound, u ijk , of 2-pyrrolidinone (2-Py) ( i) + toluene ( j) + o-xylene or p-xylene ( k) ternary mixtures have been determined by using a dilatometer and interferometer as a function of composition at 308.15 K. The speeds of sound of ternary mixtures have been utilized to predict their excess isentropic compressibilities. The Redlich-Kister equation has been fitted to the molar excess volumes, {V^E_{ijk}}, and excess isentropic compressibilities, {left( {kappa _S^E}right)_{ijk}}, to predict ternary adjustable parameters and standard deviations. The observed data have been analyzed in terms of the Flory theory and the Sanchez and Lacombe theory.

  14. Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in binary mixtures: Effects on gene expression and DNA adduct formation in precision-cut rat liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Y.C.M.; Pushparajah, D.S.; Herwijnen, M.H.M. van; Gottschalk, R.W.H.; Maas, L.M.; Ioannides, C.; Schooten, F.J. van; Delft, J.H.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Although exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs mostly through mixtures, hazard and risk assessment are mostly based on the effects caused by individual compounds. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether interactions between PAHs occur, focusing on gene expr

  15. Phase behaviour in water/hydrocarbon mixtures involved in gas production systems; etude des equilibres des systemes: eau-hydrocarbures-gaz acides dans le cadre de la production de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapoy, A.

    2004-11-15

    Inside wells, natural gases frequently coexist with water. The gases are in equilibrium with the sub-adjacent aquifer. Many problems are associated with the presence of water during the production, transport and processing of natural gases. Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the water/hydrocarbon and water-inhibitor/hydrocarbon equilibria near the hydrate forming conditions, at sub-sea pipeline conditions and during the transport is crucial for the petroleum industry. An apparatus based on a static/analytic method combined with a dilutor apparatus to calibrate on the gas chromatograph (GC) detectors with water was used to measure the water content of binary systems (i.e.: water - methane, ethane - water, nitrogen - water...) as well of a synthetic hydrocarbon gas mixture (i.e.: 94% methane, 4% ethane and 2% n-butane) with and without inhibitor. This same apparatus was also used generate data of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and nitrogen solubility in water and also the solubilities of a synthetic mixture in water. In-house software has been developed in order to fit and model the experimental data. (author)

  16. Regarding the effect that different hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon surfactant mixtures have on their complexation with HSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elena; Messina, Paula; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2006-06-15

    The complexations between human serum albumin (HSA) and the sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate/sodium dodecanoate systems have been studied by a combination of electrical conductivity, ion-selective electrode, electrophoresis, and spectroscopy measurements. The binary mixtures of the surfactants deviated slightly from ideality. Binding plots revealed the existence of two specific binding sites, the first site being more accessible than the second. Positive cooperative binding has been found, thus revealing the importance of the hydrophobic interactions in both kinds of surfactants. The Gibbs energies of binding per mole of surfactant (DeltaG(nu)) were calculated from the Wyman binding potential where, on the basis of the elevated number of binding sites, a statistical contribution has been included. Initially these energies are large and negative, gradually decreasing as saturation is approached. Changes in the slope of Gibbs energies have been identified with the saturation of the first binding set. These facts denote that the surfactants under study have different favorite adsorption sites along the protein and that the adsorption process of perfluorooctanoate is more closely followed by dodecanoate than by octanoate. Finally, electrophoresis and spectroscopy measurements suggest induced conformational changes on HSA depending on the surfactant mixture as well as the mixed ratio.

  17. Thermodynamic Functions of Solvation of Hydrocarbons, Noble Gases, and Hard Spheres in Tetrahydrofuran-Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, I A; Magsumov, T I

    2015-07-16

    Thermodynamic solvation properties of mixtures of water with tetrahydrofuran at 298 K are studied. The Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of solvation of n-octane and toluene are determined experimentally. For molecular dynamics simulations of the binary solvent, we have modified a TraPPE-UA model for tetrahydrofuran and combined it with the SPC/E potential for water. The excess thermodynamic functions of neon, xenon, and hard spheres with two different radii are calculated using the particle insertion method. Simulated and real systems share the same characteristic trends for the thermodynamic functions. A maximum is present on dependencies of the enthalpy of solvation from the composition of solvent at 70-90 mol % water, making it higher than in both of the cosolvents. It is caused by a high enthalpy of cavity formation in the mixtures rich with water due to solvent reorganization around the cavity, which is shown by calculation of the enthalpy of solvation of hard spheres. Addition of relatively small amounts of tetrahydrofuran to water effectively suppresses the hydrophobic effect, leading to a quick increase of both the entropy and enthalpy of cavity formation and solvation of low polar molecules.

  18. Determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixture using gas chromatography-polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lidong; Bian, Xinchao; Chen, Zhiming; Xiang, Sheng; Liu, Yanlong; Sun, Bin; Li, Gao; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-03-01

    An analytical method has been proposed to quantify the D-lactide content in a lactide stereoisomeric mixture using combined gas chromatography and polarimetry (GC- polarimetry). As for a lactide stereoisomeric mixture, meso-lactide can be determined quantitatively using GC, but D- and L-lactides cannot be separated by the given GC system. The composition of a lactide stereoisomeric mixture is directly relative to its specific optical rotation. The specific optical rotations of neat L-lactide were obtained in different solutions, which were -266.3° and -298.8° in dichloromethane (DCM) and toluene solutions at 20°C, respectively. Therefore, for a lactide sample, the D-lactide content could be calculated based on the meso-lactide content obtained from GC and the specific optical rotations of the sample and neat L-lactide obtained from polarimetry. The effects of impurities and temperature on the test results were investigated, respectively. When the total content of impurities was not more than 1.0%, the absolute error for determining D-lactide content was less than 0.10% in DCM and toluene solutions. When the D-lactide content was calculated according to the specific optical rotation of neat L-lactide at 20°C, the absolute error caused by the variation in temperature of 20±15°C was not more than 0.2 and 0.7% in DCM and toluene solutions, respectively, and thus usually could be ignored in a DCM solution. When toluene was used as a solvent for the determination of D-lactide content, a temperature correction for specific optical rotations could be introduced and would ensure the accuracy of results. This method is applicable to the determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixtures. The standard deviation (STDEV) of the measurements is less than 0.5%, indicating that the precision is suitable for this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analytical method validation of GC-FID for the simultaneous measurement of hydrocarbons (C2-C4 in their gas mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Zuas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of light hydrocarbons (C2-C4 in their gas mixture. The validation parameters were evaluated based on the ISO/IEC 17025 definition including method selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ, and ruggedness. Under the optimum analytical conditions, the analysis of gas mixture revealed that each target component was well-separated with high selectivity property. The method was also found to be precise and accurate. The method linearity was found to be high with good correlation coefficient values (R2 ≥ 0.999 for all target components. It can be concluded that the GC-FID developed method is reliable and suitable for determination of light C2-C4 hydrocarbons (including ethylene, propane, propylene, isobutane, and n-butane in their gas mixture. The validated method has successfully been applied to the estimation of hydrocarbons light C2-C4 hydrocarbons in natural gas samples, showing high performance repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD less than 1.0% and good selectivity with no interference from other possible components could be observed.

  20. The total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in residues from biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    In the situation of increasing agricultural utilization of residues from biogas production (RBP) it is important to determine the concentration of contaminants, which could occur in these materials. The group of contaminants that requires special attention are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of the study was to determine the total and freely dissolved (Cfree) of PAHs in RBP from 6 different biogas plants operating under various temperature conditions and without or with the separation into the solid and liquid fractions. The freely dissolved PAHs were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM method). The total content of the Σ16 PAHs in RBP varied from 449 to 6147 μg/kgdw, while that of Cfree PAHs was at the level from 57 to 653 ng/L. No significant differences were noted in the content of the Σ16 PAHs (total) between the solid and the liquid fractions. This indicates that in the course of the separation, the PAHs are distributed proportionally between the fractions. However in the case of Cfree, PAHs content in the solid fraction was over twice as high as in the liquid fraction. This was probably due to the greater affinity of the particles present in the liquid fraction to the analysed PAHs than to the particles of the solid fraction. Higher affinity to liquid fraction was also confirmed by the distribution coefficients KTOC determined on the basis of Cfree.

  1. PERMEABILITY AND CONSOLIDATION OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES AS FUNCTION OF SAND CONTENT AND CLAY MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The current study is the first step in a systematic experimental research on the erosion behaviour of sand-mud mixtures. It concerns the effect of a varying sand content and clay mineralogy on the porosity, structure, strength and permeability of artificially generated sediment mixtures. The permeability of a sediment mixture is an especially significant parameter concerning the type of erosion that occurs. It determines ifthe erosion of the bed is either a drained or an undrained process,respectively indicating surface erosion or mass erosion. Measurements on various mixtures concerning the consolidation coefficient and the permeability have been executed. Results show a distinct transition of behaviour between a sand-silt dominated network structure and a clay-water matrix. The occurrence of these two types of structures appears to depend on the porosity of the volume fraction of sand related to silt, which is, therefore, an important parameter concerning the type of erosion. Finally, the study provides a valuable data set that can be used as a reference for following stages of this research on the erosion behaviour of natural cohesive sediments.

  2. Impact of biocatalyst and moisture content on toluene/xylene mixture biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Klapková

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the influence of microbial inoculation on degradation efficiency. Three biofilters were used for the treatment of waste gas. A mixture of compost and perlite (8:2 served as the packing material. One biofilter was inoculated with a constructed microbial population. The second remained uninoculated, having the natural population present in the compost. The third biofilter was uninoculated and the packing material was sterilized. The degradation ability of the uninoculated biofilter started to drop after 18 days, while the removal efficiency of inoculated biofilter was stable. The sterile biofilter proved to have no removal efficiency. Moisture content of the packing and ability of the packing to keep moisture was tested. The results showed a significant dependence of the degradation efficiency on the packing moisture content, with highest removal efficiency observed at 70 % moisture content.

  3. Impact of biocatalyst and moisture content on toluene/xylene mixture biofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapková Eva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the influence of microbial inoculation on degradation efficiency. Three biofilters were used for the treatment of waste gas. A mixture of compost and perlite (8:2 served as the packing material. One biofilter was inoculated with a constructed microbial population. The second remained uninoculated, having the natural population present in the compost. The third biofilter was uninoculated and the packing material was sterilized. The degradation ability of the uninoculated biofilter started to drop after 18 days, while the removal efficiency of inoculated biofilter was stable. The sterile biofilter proved to have no removal efficiency. Moisture content of the packing and ability of the packing to keep moisture was tested. The results showed a significant dependence of the degradation efficiency on the packing moisture content, with highest removal efficiency observed at 70 % moisture content.

  4. Free Energy-Based Coarse-Grained Force Field for Binary Mixtures of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fenglei; Deetz, Joshua D; Sun, Huai

    2017-01-23

    The free energy based Lennard-Jones 12-6 (FE-12-6) coarse-grained (CG) force field developed for alkanes1 has been extended to model small molecules of light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and isobutane), nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The adjustable parameters of the FE-12-6 potential are determined by fitting against experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) curves and heat of vaporization (HOV) data for pure substance liquids. Simulations using the optimized FE-12-6 parameters correctly reproduced experimental measures of the VLE, HOV, density, vapor pressure, compressibility, critical point, and surface tension for pure substances over a wide range of thermodynamic states. The force field parameters optimized for pure substances were tested on methane/butane, nitrogen/decane, and carbon dioxide/decane binary mixtures to predict their vapor-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams. It is found that for nonpolar molecules represented by different sized beads, a common scaling factor (0.08) that reduces the strength of the interaction potential between unlike beads, generated using Lorentz-Berthelot (LB) combination rules, is required to predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria accurately.

  5. Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslyng, Margit D.; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Jensen, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that, when meat is barbecued, several harmful components, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), may be formed. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA and PAH content in meat (pork, chicken and beef) when barbecued at home...

  6. Evaluation of solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ethyl lactate/water versus ethanol/water mixtures for contaminated soil remediation applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiew Lin Yap; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng

    2012-01-01

    Solubility data of recalcitrant contaminants in cosolvents is essential to determine their potential applications in enhanced soil remediation.The solubilities of phenanthrene,anthracene,fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in ethyl lactate/water and ethanol/water mixtures were measured using equilibrium techniques.The cosolvency powers derived from solubility data were then applied to the model developed from the solvophobic approach to predict the capability of ethyl lactate and ethanol in enhancing the desorption of contaminants from soils.Both ethyl lactate and ethanol cosolvents were shown to be able to enhance the solubilisation of the tested four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by > 4 orders of magnitude above the levels obtained with water alone.However,ethyl lactate demonstrated a greater capacity to enhance PAH solubility than ethanol.The cosolvency powers of ethyl lactate/water system obtained from the end-to-end slope (σ) and the end-to-half slope (σ0.5) of the solubilisation curve were 1.0-1.5 and 2.0-2.9 higher than ethanol/water system respectively.In line with this,ethyl lactate/water was demonstrated to enhance the desorption of contaminants from soil by 20%-37% and 18%-61% higher compared to ethanol/water system in low organic content and high organic content soils respectively,with a 2:1 (V/W) ratio of solution:soil and with cosolvent fraction as low as 0.4.With the exception of benzo[a]pyrene,the experimental desorption results agreed fairly with the predicted values,under an applied solution:soil ratio that was enough to hold the capacity of released contaminants.

  7. Thermal diffusivity of peat, sand and their mixtures at different water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, Anna; Arkhangelskaya, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Thermal diffusivity of peat, sand and their mixtures at different water contents was studied using the unsteady-state method described in (Parikh et al., 1979). Volume sand content in studied samples was 0 % (pure peat), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 55 and 62 % (pure sand). Thermal diffusivity of air-dry samples varied from 0.6×10-7m2s-1 for pure peat to 7.0×10-7m2s-1 for pure sand. Adding 5 and 10 vol. % of sand didn't change the thermal diffusivity of studied mixture as compared with that of the pure air-dry peat. Adding 15 % of sand resulted in significant increase of thermal diffusivity by approximately 1.5 times: from 0.6×10-7m2s-1 to 0.9×10-7m2s-1. It means that small amounts of sand with separate sand particles distributed within the peat don't contribute much to the heat transfer through the studied media. And there is a kind of threshold between the 10 and 15 vol. % of sand, after which the continuous sandy chains are formed within the peat, which can serve as preferential paths of heat transport. Adding 20 and 30 % of sand resulted in further increase of thermal diffusivity to 1.3×10-7m2s-1 and 1.7×10-7m2s-1, which is more than two and three times greater than the initial value for pure peat. Thermal diffusivity vs. moisture content dependencies had different shapes. For sand contents of 0 to 40 vol. % the thermal diffusivity increased with water content in the whole studied range from air-dry samples to the capillary moistened ones. For pure peat the experimental curves were almost linear; the more sand was added the more pronounced became the S-shape of the curves. For sand contents of 50 % and more the curves had a pronounced maximum within the range of water contents between 0.10 and 0.25 m3m-3 and then decreased. The experimental k(θ) curves, where k is soil thermal diffusivity, θ is water content, were parameterized with a 4-parameter approximating function (Arkhangelskaya, 2009, 2014). The suggested approximation has an advantage of clear

  8. Impact of oxidation process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content in bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Juery, Catherine; Thiebaut, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the oxidation process on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in blown bitumen and identified some key contributing parameters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's PAH list was used for this study. PAHs are considered a good toxicological marker, and measurement of PAHs in bitumen can be performed easily. The results of PAH content in blown bitumen and the corresponding feedstock was determined from the limit of detection up to 120 mg/kg for 24 samples. Compared to PAH levels in coal tar pitch, PAH levels in bitumen are very low. Measurements were performed by three laboratories using different methods to allow robust conclusions. The results highlight the difficulties in measuring PAHs in bitumen with accuracy for values below 30 mg/kg; therefore the discussion is based on summary statistics by adding concentrations of PAHs with common ring sizes. Incorporation of flux oil in the feed of the blowing bitumen unit tends to increase PAH content in feed stock and in blown bitumen, particularly the 4- to 6-ring PAHs, which are the most carcinogenic as identified by an animal skin painting test. The amount of PAH content from blown bitumen with flux oil can be at least three times higher than the amount in blown bitumen without flux oil, depending on the quality and quantity of the flux oil used. This study shows that the blowing process does not produce PAHs in bitumen. Conversely, it appears to reduce them in the final product. Close to 10 to 30% of PAHs are probably stripped from the liquid phase of bitumen during the blowing operation.

  9. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary mixtures - Case of -C28H58: -CH2+2 ( = 10, 12, 14, 16)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B V Prasad; P B Shashikanth; P Neelima

    2005-01-01

    Powder XRD data of mixtures of title compounds are interpreted in terms of superlattices (SL). It is suggested that SL configurations (orthorhombic-orthorhombic, orthorhombic-monoclinic, monoclinic-monoclinic) are realizable, because of discrete orientational changes in the alignment of molecules of -C28H58 hydrocarbon, through an angle , where = 1, 2, 3 $\\ldots$ and angle has an average value of 3.3°. Supporting literature evidence on the inclinations are discussed.

  10. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S6/1195: Bilateral comparison of liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures in constant pressure (piston) cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S.; Downey, Michael L.; Milton, Martin J. T.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Zalewska, Ewelina T.; Li, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Traceable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and LNG (liquefied natural gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large European industrial market. The development of traceable liquid hydrocarbon standards by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) was still at a relatively early stage at the time this comparison was proposed in 2011. NPL and VSL, who were the only NMIs active in this area, had developed methods for the preparation and analysis of such standards in constant pressure (piston) cylinders, but neither laboratory had Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. This report presents the results of EURAMET 1195, the first comparison of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures between NMIs, which assessed the preparation and analytical capabilities of NPL and VSL for these mixtures. The comparison operated between August 2011 and January 2012. Each laboratory prepared a liquid hydrocarbon standard with nominally the same composition and these standards were exchanged for analysis. The results of the comparison show a good agreement between the laboratories' results and the comparison reference values for the six components with amount fractions greater than 1.0 cmol/mol (propane, propene, iso-butene, n-butane, iso-butane and 1-butene). Measurement of the three components with lower amount fractions (1,3-butadiene, iso-pentane and n-pentane) proved more challenging. In all but one case, the differences from the comparison reference values for these three components were greater than the expanded measurement uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  11. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture...... exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑Clipid eq., and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure....

  12. Changes in the contents of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of various types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach-Szott, Magdalena; Debska, Bozena; Wisniewska, Alicja; Pakula, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the stability and the decomposition intensity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene) in soils that are under agricultural use. Soil was sampled from the arable layer that is representative of the Kujawy and Pomorze Provinces, which are located in the northwestern part of Poland. The soil samples were polluted with selected PAHs at an amount corresponding to 10 mg PAHs/kg. PAH-polluted soil samples were incubated for 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 days at a temperature of 20-25 °C and a fixed moisture of 50% field water capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the content of PAHs. It was found that the process of the degradation of PAHs was most intensive during the first 30 days of the experiment; however, three-ring PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) definitely decomposed faster than the four-ring ones (pyrene and chrysene). The results also confirm the significant role of soil organic matter in sorption and activation processes of PAHs.

  13. Degradation of a mixture of hydrocarbons, gasoline, and diesel oil additives by Rhodococcus aetherivorans and Rhodococcus wratislaviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, Marc; Labbé, Diane; Thouand, Gérald; Greer, Charles W; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    Two strains, identified as Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016 and Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017, were isolated from a microbial consortium that degraded 15 petroleum compounds or additives when provided in a mixture containing 16 compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, octane, hexadecane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane [isooctane], cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, naphthalene, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate [2-EHN]). The strains had broad degradation capacities toward the compounds, including the more recalcitrant ones, MTBE, ETBE, isooctane, cyclohexane, and 2-EHN. R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016 degraded and mineralized to different extents 11 of the compounds when provided individually, sometimes requiring 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as a cosolvent. R. aetherivorans IFP 2017 degraded a reduced spectrum of substrates. The coculture of the two strains degraded completely 13 compounds, isooctane and 2-EHN were partially degraded (30% and 73%, respectively), and only TBA was not degraded. Significant MTBE and ETBE degradation rates, 14.3 and 116.1 mumol of ether degraded h(-1) g(-1) (dry weight), respectively, were measured for R. aetherivorans IFP 2017. The presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) had a detrimental effect on ETBE and MTBE biodegradation, whereas octane had a positive effect on the MTBE biodegradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. BTEXs had either beneficial or detrimental effects on their own degradation by R. wratislaviensis IFP 2016. Potential genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation in the two strains were identified and partially sequenced.

  14. Evaluation of Chemical Analysis Method and Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content from Seafood and Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Shin, Han-Seung

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate contents of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from frequently consumed seafood and dairy products and to evaluate their chemical analysis methods. Samples were collected from markets of 9 cities in Korea chosen as the population reference and evaluated. The methodology involved saponification, extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica cartridges and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Validation proceeded on 2 matrices. Re...

  15. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysík, Zdeněk; Vondráček, Jan; Marvanová, Soňa; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neča, Jiří; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Mahadevan, Brinda; Topinka, Jan; Baird, William M; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-09-01

    Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of AhR-mediated responses, including induction of the AhR-mediated transcription, such as cytochrome P450 1A1/1B1 expression, and the AhR-dependent cell proliferation. Importantly, these toxic events occurred at doses one order of magnitude lower than DNA damage. The AhR-mediated activity of the neutral fraction was linked to PAHs and their derivatives, as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls were only minor contributors to the overall AhR-mediated activity. Taken together, our data suggest that more attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban PM constituents, especially PAHs and their derivatives.

  16. High performance direct absorption spectroscopy of pure and binary mixture hydrocarbon gases in the 6-11 μm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Robert; Popescu, Alexandru; Hangauer, Andreas; Strzoda, Rainer; Höfling, Sven

    2017-08-01

    The availability of accurate and fast hydrocarbon analyzers, capable of real-time operation while enabling feedback-loops, would lead to a paradigm change in the petro-chemical industry. Primarily gas chromatographs measure the composition of hydrocarbon process streams. Due to sophisticated gas sampling, these analyzers are limited in response time. As hydrocarbons absorb in the mid-infrared spectral range, the employment of fast spectroscopic systems is highly attractive due to significantly reduced maintenance costs and the capability to setup real-time process control. New developments in mid-infrared laser systems pave the way for the development of high-performance analyzers provided that accurate spectral models are available for multi-species detection. In order to overcome current deficiencies in the availability of spectroscopic data, we developed a laser-based setup covering the 6-11 μm wavelength range. The presented system is designated as laboratory reference system. Its spectral accuracy is at least 6.6× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} with a precision of 3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1}. With a "per point" minimum detectable absorption of 1.3× 10^{-3} cm^{-1} Hz^{{-}{1/2}} it allows us to perform systematic measurements of hydrocarbon spectra of the first 7 alkanes under conditions which are not tabulated in spectroscopic database. We exemplify the system performance with measured direct absorption spectra of methane, propane, iso-butane, and a mixture of methane and propane.

  17. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrysik, Zdenek; Vondracek, Jan [Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics AS CR, Kralovopolska 135, 61265 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Toxicology, Pharmacology and Immunotherapy, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno (Czech Republic); Marvanova, Sona; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neca, Jiri; Pencikova, Katerina [Department of Toxicology, Pharmacology and Immunotherapy, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno (Czech Republic); Mahadevan, Brinda [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, ALS 1007, Corvallis, OR 97331-7301 (United States); Topinka, Jan [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Baird, William M. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, ALS 1007, Corvallis, OR 97331-7301 (United States); Kozubik, Alois [Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics AS CR, Kralovopolska 135, 61265 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Miroslav, E-mail: machala@vri.cz [Department of Toxicology, Pharmacology and Immunotherapy, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62100 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} SRM1649a extract and its fractions are potent activators of AhR in a model of epithelial cells. {yields} AhR-dependent effects include both induction of CYP1 enzymes and disruption of cell proliferation control. {yields} Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the neutral SRM1649a fraction are major contributors to the AhR-mediated toxic effects. {yields} Activation of AhR and related nongenotoxic effects occur at significantly lower doses than the formation of DNA adducts and activation of DNA damage response. {yields} More attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban particulate matter constituents. - Abstract: Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of Ah

  18. Influence of some anti-inflammatory drugs on the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, M.H.; Sheweita, S.A.; Abdel-Moneam, N.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt))

    1990-06-01

    The metabolism of benzo({alpha})pyrene is mediated by the mixed function oxidase system including the cytochrome P450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The data of the present study revealed the ability of various commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs to alter the activity of this enzyme system, where all the tested drugs, namely phenyl butazone, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and acetaminophen, caused an increase in both the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and the cytochrome P450 content whether administered as a single dose or as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The percentage of change for all drugs except phenyl butazone was proportional to the duration of drug administration. On the other hand, pyrazole which is chemically related to phenyl butazone, had no significant effect when administered as a single dose but caused a decrease in both studied parameters when administered as a repeated dose for 6 consecutive days. The mechanisms by which these commonly used drugs modify the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and the cytochrome p450 content are discussed in the text.

  19. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Wilson, Eric; Baines, Kevin; West, Robert; Bjoraker, Gordon; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  20. Photochemistry in Saturn's Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Modulation of Hydrocarbons and Observations of Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, S. G.; Atreya, S. K.; Wilson, E. H.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Fletcher, L. N.; Momary, T.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini has been orbiting Saturn for over twelve years now. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere with solar inclination of 24 degrees to covering a large swath south of the equator and it continues to move southward. At Saturn Orbit Insertion in 2004, the projection of the A-ring onto Saturn reached as far as 40N along the central meridian (52N at the terminator). At its maximum extent, the ring shadow can reach as far as 48N/S (58N/S at the terminator). The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn's axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. Here, we report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow on the photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons (acetylene, ethane, propane, and benzene) and phosphine in Saturn's stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on phosphine abundance, a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini's CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content of the northern hemisphere and we will begin to assess the implications for dynamical mixing. In particular, we will examine how the now famous hexagonal jet stream acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn's north polar region from outside transport of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was carried out

  1. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Bio-removal of mixture of benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,and xylenes/total petroleum hydrocarbons/trichloroethylene from contaminated water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIM Hojae; MA Wei; LIN Aijun; CHAN Kaicho

    2009-01-01

    Four pure cultures were isolated from soil samples potentially contaminated with gasoline compounds either at a construction site near a gas station in Fai Chi Kei,Macau SAR or in the northern parts of China (Beijing,and Hebei and Shandong provinces).The effects of different concentrations of benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,and three isomers (ortho-,meta-,and para-) of xylene (BTEX),total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH),and trichloroethylene (TCE),when they were present in mixtures,on the bio-removal efficiencies of microbial isolates were investigated,together with their interactions during the bio-removal process.When the isolates were tested for the BTEX (50-350 mg/L)/TPH (2000 mg/L) mixture,BTEoX in BTEoX/TPH mixture was shown with higher bio-removal efficiencies,while BTEmX in BTEmX/TPH mixture was shown with the lowest,regardless of isolates.The TPH in BTEmX/TPH mixture,on the other hand,were generally shown with higher bio-removal efficiencies compared to when TPH mixed with BTEoX and BTEpX.When these BTEX mixtures (at 350 mg/L) were present with TCE (5-50 mg/L),the stimulatory effect of TCE toward BTEoX bio-removal was observed for BTEoX/TCE mixture,while the inhibitory effect of TCE toward BTEmX for BTEmX/TCE mixture.The bio-removal efficiency for TPH was shown lower in TPH (2000 mg/L)/TCE (5-50 mg/L) mixtures compared to TPH present alone,implying the inhibitory effect of TCE toward TPH bio-removal.For the mixture of BTEX (417 mg/L),TPH (2000 mg/L) along with TCE (5-50 mg/L),TCE was shown co-metabolically removed more efficiently at 15 mg/L,probably utilizing BTEX and/or TPH as primary substrates.

  4. Effect of SO2 concentration on SOA formation in a photorreactor from a mixture of anthropogenic hydrocarbons and HONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; Santiago, Manuel; García Diego, Cristina; Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Martínez-Tarifa, Adela

    2010-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important urban atmospheric pollutant, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur. In the atmosphere, SO2 can react with OH radicals to form sulfuric acid, which can condense to form acidic aerosol. Sulfuric acid particles act as an acid catalyst for some heterogeneous carbonyl reactions like hydration, polymerization or acetals formation, which may lead to a large increase on SOA mass. In order to evaluate the effect of the SO2 concentration on SOA formation, 3 experiments were performed during the campaign carried out by CIEMAT on the EUPHORE facility (CEAM, Valencia, Spain) during June- July 2008. The objective of the campaign was to evaluate the effect of different experimental conditions on SOA formation from the photooxidation of some anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs using HONO as oxidant. Experiment on 6/17/08 was selected as base case (no SO2 was introduced) and experiments 6/26/08 and 7/1/08 were selected as high SO2 (2600 ug/m3) and low SO2 (60 ug/m3) concentration experiments respectively. In the three experiments a mixture of toluene, 1,3,5-TMB (trimethylbenzene), o-xylene and octane was selected as the parent VOCs. Single and coupled to mass spectroscopy gas cromatography (GC and GC/MS), as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to measure the initial VOCs and oxidant concentrations decay and the formation of gas phase oxidation products through the experiments. Aerosol size distribution and concentration were measured with SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer) and TEOM (tapered element oscillating monitor) respectively. In addition, analysis of the organic and inorganic aerosol content was also performed via filter sampling followed by GC/MS and ionic chromatography (for organic and inrganic content respectively). Comparing the filters collected in the three experiments, clearly the largest mass aerosol formation is observed

  5. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  6. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  7. Changes in the contents of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of various types

    OpenAIRE

    Banach-Szott, Magdalena; Debska, Bozena; Wisniewska, Alicja; Pakula, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the stability and the decomposition intensity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluorene, anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene) in soils that are under agricultural use. Soil was sampled from the arable layer that is representative of the Kujawy and Pomorze Provinces, which are located in the northwestern part of Poland. The soil samples were polluted with selected PAHs at an amount corresponding to 10?mg PAHs/kg. PAH-polluted soil samples were in...

  8. Applying petroleum biomarkers as a tool for confirmation of petroleum hydrocarbons in high organic content soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.J.; Waddell, J.; Sandau, C.D. [TRIUM Environmental Solutions, Cochrane, AB (Canada); Denham, G. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Samis, M.W. [Great Plains Environmental Management Ltd., Medecine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    It is often difficult to separate naturally occurring phytogenic organic materials from petrogenic sources in routine gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analyses. Phytogenic compounds include tannins, waxes, terpenes, fats and oils. This study examined the use of petroleum biomarkers as a means of determining the nature, sources, type and geological conditions of the formation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). The analysis was conducted at a former well site consisting of low-lying peat marshlands that had the potential to interfere with the delineation of PHC impacts. Fourteen boreholes and 8 hand auger holes were placed at the site. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, metals, and PHC constituents. Biomarker targets included acyclic isoprenoid compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, terpanes, hopanes, and triaromatic steranes. A grain-size analysis showed the presence of peat materials within the saturated zone. Results of the study demonstrated the presence of PHC constituents that exceeded applicable guidelines. The biomarker analysis was used to statistically determine site-specific background levels of hydrocarbons. Nearly 3000 tonnes of soil were excavated from the site. It was concluded that site-specific conditions should be taken into consideration when evaluating reclamation targets. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. PAH-CALUX, an optimized bioassay for AhR-mediated hazard identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as individual compounds and in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, B; Felzel, E; Winter, R; van der Burg, B; Brouwer, A

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a class of ubiquitously occurring environmental compounds that are implicated in a wide range of toxicological effects. Routine measurement of PAH contamination generally involves chemical analytical analysis of a selected group of representatives, for example, EPA-16, which may result in underestimation of the PAH-related toxicity of a sample. Many high molecular weight PAHs are known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nuclear receptor that mediates toxic effects related to these compounds. Making use of this property we developed a PAH CALUX assay, a mammalian, H4IIe- cell-based reporter assay for the hazard identification of total PAH mixtures. The PAH CALUX reporter cell line allows for specific, rapid (4 h exposure time) and reliable quantification of AhR-induced luciferase induction relative to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), which is used as a positive reference PAH congener. Full dose response relationships with inductions over 100-fold were reached within only 2 h of exposure to BaP. The PAH CALUX is highly sensitive, that is, using a 4 h exposure time, a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.2 × 10(-11) M BaP was achieved, and highly accurate, that is, a repeatability of 5.9% and a reproducibility of 6.6% were established. Screening of a selection of PAHs that were prioritized by the European Union and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency showed that the PAH CALUX bioassay has a high predictability, particularly for carcinogenic PAHs. Experiments with synthetic mixtures and reference materials containing complex PAH mixtures show the suitability of the assay for these types of applications. Moreover, the presented results suggest that application of the PAH CALUX will result in a lower risk of underestimation of the toxicity of a sample than chemical analytical approaches that focus on a limited set of prioritized compounds.

  10. Tumour promotion by complex mixtures of polyhalogeneted aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) an the applicability of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept

    OpenAIRE

    Plas, van der, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project described in this thesis consisted of two main objectives, first, to examine the tumour promotion potential of complex, environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p -furans (PCDFs) and secondly, to evaluate the applicability of the Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) concept for the tumour promotion potential of complex mixtures of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, the effe...

  11. The influence of aerosol size and organic carbon content on gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenberg, J.H.; Baker, J.E. [University of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Paths) were measured on size segregated airborne particulate matter and in the gas phase during 12h periods in urban Chicago and over southern Lake Michigan during July 1994 and January 1995 as part of the atmospheric exchange over lakes and oceans (AEOLOS) project. In the 19 paired gas phase and size segregated particle samples, partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure, (p{sub l}{sup 0}) within an aerosol size class. However, partition coefficients differ systematically according to particle size and aerosol organic carbon content. Approximately 68% of the observed variability in measured PAH partition coefficients is explained by a three dimensional multiple linear regression that includes vapor pressure of the compound of interest, aerosol particle aerodynamic equivalent diameter, aerosol organic carbon content and interaction terms. However, addition of both particle size and the fraction organic carbon terms, while statistically significant, appear to be of minimal importance in improving our ability to model gas/particle partitioning in the atmosphere. The influence of either particle size or fraction organic carbon is nearly as large as the calculated random error in partition coefficients, and suggests that an important factor in predicting gas/particle partitioning has not yet been incorporated in the current model. [author].

  12. The role of NH3 and hydrocarbon mixtures in GaN pseudo-halide CVD: a quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, Oleg B; Sennikov, Peter G; Petrov, Alexander I; Kachel, Krzysztof; Golka, Sebastian; Gogova, Daniela; Siche, Dietmar

    2014-11-01

    The prospects of a control for a novel gallium nitride pseudo-halide vapor phase epitaxy (PHVPE) with HCN were thoroughly analyzed for hydrocarbons-NH3-Ga gas phase on the basis of quantum chemical investigation with DFT (B3LYP, B3LYP with D3 empirical correction on dispersion interaction) and ab-initio (CASSCF, coupled clusters, and multireference configuration interaction including MRCI+Q) methods. The computational screening of reactions for different hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, and C2H2) as readily available carbon precursors for HCN formation, potential chemical transport agents, and for controlled carbon doping of deposited GaN was carried out with the B3LYP method in conjunction with basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ. The gas phase intermediates for the reactions in the Ga-hydrocarbon systems were predicted at different theory levels. The located π-complexes Ga…C2H2 and Ga…C2H4 were studied to determine a probable catalytic activity in reactions with NH3. A limited influence of the carbon-containing atmosphere was exhibited for the carbon doping of GaN crystal in the conventional GaN chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with hydrocarbons injected in the gas phase. Our results provide a basis for experimental studies of GaN crystal growth with C2H4 and C2H2 as auxiliary carbon reagents for the Ga-NH3 and Ga-C-NH3 CVD systems and prerequisites for reactor design to enhance and control the PHVPE process through the HCN synthesis.

  13. Research Of Polytropic Exponent Changing For Influence Evaluation Of Actual Mixture Composition On Hydrocarbons Concentration Decreasing On Deep Throttling Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Smolenskii, V. V.; Bobrovskij, I.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present study of polytropic exponent as rating of thermodynamic process in internal combustion motor operating to deep throttling in a subcase of idle running. It is necessary to consider the influence of hydrocarbon part in exhaust gases in a process of development a new internal combustion engines especially on deep throttling operation: on combustion procedure, on irregularity of exhaust gases composition.

  14. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  16. Atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures. Pt. 3. Fuels for combustion engines; Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische. T. 3. Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, H.G. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The justification paper atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures, part 3 - ``fuels for combustion engines`` (gasolines, diesel fuel and kerosene) is currently in preparation. This third part gives information on industrial hygiene regarding the different fuels and describes the application of atmospheric limiting values for fuels. The article offers information on industrial hygiene regarding Otto engine fuel and aviation fuel, which needs to be taken into account in discussions concerning the laying down of atmospheric limiting values. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Das Begruendungspapier Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische Teil 3 `Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren` (Gasoline, Dieselkraftstoff und Kerosin) ist z.Z. in Vorbereitung. In diesem dritten Teil werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu den verschiedenen Kraftstoffen gegeben und die Anwendung der Luftgrenzwerte fuer Kraftstoffe beschrieben. Im folgenden werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu Ottokraftstoff und Avgas gegeben, die es bei den Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich der Festlegung eines Luftgrenzwertes zu beruecksichtigen gilt. (orig./ABI)

  17. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Bradfield, Christopher A; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Pereira, Cliff B; Löhr, Christiane V; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs).

  19. Influences of oxygen content on characteristics of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in argon/oxygen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge generated in argon/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and the effect of oxygen content on discharge characteristics at applied voltage of 4.5 kV is studied by means of electrical measurements and optical diagnostics. The results show that the filaments in the discharge regime become more densely packed with the increasing in the oxygen content, and the distribution of the filaments is more uniform in the gap. An increase in the oxygen content results in a decrease in the average power consumed and transported charges, while there exists an optimal value of oxygen content for the production of oxygen radicals. The maximal yield of oxygen radicals is obtained in mixtures of argon with 0.3% oxygen addition, and the oxygen radicals then decrease with the further increase in the oxygen content. The oxygen/argon plasma is employed to modify surface hydrophilicity of the PET films to estimate the influence of oxygen content on the surface treatment, and the static contact angles before and after the treatments are measured. The lowest contact angle is obtained at a 0.3% addition of oxygen to argon, which is in accordance with the optimum oxygen content for oxygen radicals generation. The electron density and electron temperature are estimated from the measured current and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The electron density is found to reduce significantly at a higher oxygen content due to the increased electron attachment, while the estimated electron temperature do not change apparently with the oxygen content. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  20. Application of a biofilm formed by a mixture of yeasts isolated in Vietnam to degrade aromatic hydrocarbon polluted wastewater collected from petroleum storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi Cong, Le Thi; Ngoc Mai, Cung Thi; Thanh, Vu Thi; Nga, Le Phi; Minh, Nghiem Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three good biofilm-forming yeast strains, including Candida viswanathii TH1, Candida tropicalis TH4 and Trichosporon asahii B1, were isolated from oil-contaminated water and sediment samples collected in coastal zones of Vietnam. These strains were registered in the GenBank database with the accession numbers JX129175, JX129176 and KC139404 for strain TH1, TH4 and B1, respectively. The biofilm formed by a mixture of these organisms degraded 90, 85, 82 and 67% of phenol, naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, after a 7-day incubation period using an initial concentration of 600 ppm phenol and 200 ppm of each of the other compounds. In addition, this biofilm completely degraded these aromatic compounds, which were from wastewater collected from petroleum tanks in Do Xa, Hanoi after 14 days of incubation based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. To the best of our knowledge, reports on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phenol degradation by biofilm-forming yeasts are limited. The results obtained indicate that the biofilm formed by multiple yeast strains may considerably increase the degradation efficiency of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and may lead to a new approach for eliminating petroleum oil-contaminated water in Vietnam.

  1. Contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Hamburg`s upper soil; Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Hamburger Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, B.; Jaeger, C.; Sievers, S.

    1996-11-01

    In 1993/95, a programme of investigations covering the area of Hamburg was carried out to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the upper soil. This programme of measurements was intended to give an overview of the general loading situation in an inhabited area and to show main points of loading. One also intended to consider how great the effect of the type of use of an area is on the PAH contents and whether information on the sources can be derived from the PAH patterns. Soil mixture samples were taken from depths of 0-10 cm and in worked areas from depths of 0-30 cm at 108 sites distributed over the city area of Hamburg, and these were examined for 19 individual PAH materials (PAH (EPA) plus 1 and 2 methyl naphthalene and Benzopyrene). Differently exposed and used sites were included in this programme. Industrial, traffic, residential areas, small gardens, agriculture, flood meadows, woods/parks, nature protection and other green areas (fallow land, meadows). (orig.) [Deutsch] 1993/95 wurde in Hamburg ein flaechendeckendes Untersuchungsprogramm zur Ermittlung der Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Oberboeden durchgefuehrt. Dieses Messprogramm sollte einen Ueberblick ueber die generelle Belastungssituation in einem Ballungsraum geben und ggfs. Belastungsschwerpunkte aufzeigen. Es sollte ausserdem betrachtet werden, wie gross der Einfluss der jeweiligen Nutzungsart einer Flaeche auf die PAK-Gehalte ist und ob sich aus den PAK-Mustern in Oberboeden Hinweise auf Quellen ableiten lassen. An 108 Standorten verteilt ueber das Hamburger Stadtgebiet wurden aus 0-10 cm und bei bearbeiteten Flaechen aus 0-30 cm Tiefe Bodenmischproben entnommen und auf 19 PAK-Einzelstoffe untersucht (PAK(EPA) zzgl. 1- und 2-Methylnaphthalin sowie Benzo(e)pyren). In das Programm wurden unterschiedlich exponierte und genutzte Standorte einbezogen: Industrie, Verkehr, Wohngebiete, Kleingaerten, Landwirtschaft

  2. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.

  3. Bioconversions of Palm Kernel Cake and Rice Bran Mixtures by Trichoderma viride Toward Nutritional Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Sukaryana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to examine the mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran of fermented by Trichoderma viride. Completely randomized design in factorial pattern 4 x 4 was used in this experiment. factor I is the doses of inoculums; D1 = 0%, D2 =  0,1% , D3 =  0,2%, D4 =  0,3%, and  complement factor II is mixtures of palm kernel cake and rice bran : T1=20:80% ; T2=40:60% ; T3=60:40% ; T4=80:20%. The treatment each of three replicate. Fermentation was conducted at temperature 28 oC as long as 9 days. Determining the best of the mixtures be based on the crude protein increased and the crude fibre decreased. The results showed that the combination of product mix is the best fermentation inoculums doses 0.3% in mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran ; 80%: 20%, which produces dry matter of 88,12%, crude protein 17.34%, ether extract 5,35%, crude fibre 23.67%, and ash 6.43%. When compared with a mixture of palm kernel cake and rice bran; 80%: 20% without of fermentation is crude protein increase 29.58% and crude fibre decreased 22.53%.

  4. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. X. Phase equilibria for binary systems formed by imidazoles and hydrocarbons: Experimental data and modelling using DISQUAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.e [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071, Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) temperatures have been determined using a dynamic method for the systems (1H-imidazole, + benzene, + toluene, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + benzene, or + toluene, 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + benzene, + toluene, or + cyclohexane, and benzimidazole + benzene). In addition (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) temperatures have been obtained using a cloud point method for (1H-imidazole, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + toluene, and 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + cyclohexane). The measured systems show positive deviations from the Raoult's law, due to strong dipolar interactions between amine molecules related to the high dipole moment of imidazoles. On the other hand, DISQUAC interaction parameters for the contacts present in these solutions and for the amine/hydroxyl contacts in (1H-imidazole + 1-alkanol) mixtures have been determined. The model correctly represents the available data for the examined systems. Deviations between experimental and calculated SLE temperatures are similar to those obtained using the Wilson or NRTL equations, or the UNIQUAC association solution model. The quasichemical interaction parameters are the same for mixtures containing 1H-imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, or 2-methyl-1H-imidazole and hydrocarbons. This may be interpreted assuming that they are members of a homologous series. Benzimidazole behaves differently.

  5. Comparative experimental and modeling studies of the viscosity behavior of ethanol+C7 hydrocarbon mixtures versus pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Watson, G.; Baylaucq, A.

    2006-01-01

    measured with a classical capillary viscometer (Ubbelohde) with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. A total of 208 experimental datapoints are reported. The viscosity behavior of this binary system is interpreted as the results of changes in the free volume, and the breaking or weakening of hydrogen bonds...... viscosity models with a physical and theoretical background. The evaluated models are based on the hard-sphere scheme, the concepts of the free-volume and the friction theory, and a model derived from molecular dynamics. In addition to these models, the simple compositional models by Grunberg......-Nissan and Katti-Chaudhri have also been applied. Overall a satisfactory representation of the viscosity of these two binary ethanol + C-7 hydrocarbon systems is found for the different models within the considered T, P range taking into account their simplicity....

  6. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, K., E-mail: tsukada@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T. [The Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Bito, Y. [Central Research Lab., Hitachi. Ltd., 1-280 Higashi-Koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  9. Analysis of binary mixtures of aqueous aromatic hydrocarbons with low-phase-noise shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensors using multielectrode transducer designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Florian; Mohler, Rachel E; Ricco, Antonio J; Josse, Fabien

    2014-11-18

    The present work investigates a compact sensor system that provides rapid, real-time, in situ measurements of the identities and concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons at parts-per-billion concentrations in water through the combined use of kinetic and thermodynamic response parameters. The system uses shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors operating directly in the liquid phase. The 103 MHz SAW sensors are coated with thin sorbent polymer films to provide the appropriate limits of detection as well as partial selectivity for the analytes of interest, the BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), which are common indicators of fuel and oil accidental releases in groundwater. Particular emphasis is placed on benzene, a known carcinogen and the most challenging BTEX analyte with regard to both regulated levels and its solubility properties. To demonstrate the identification and quantification of individual compounds in multicomponent aqueous samples, responses to binary mixtures of benzene with toluene as well as ethylbenzene were characterized at concentrations below 1 ppm (1 mg/L). The use of both thermodynamic and kinetic (i.e., steady-state and transient) responses from a single polymer-coated SH-SAW sensor enabled identification and quantification of the two BTEX compounds in binary mixtures in aqueous solution. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved, resulting in lower limits of detection and improved identification at low concentrations, by designing and implementing a type of multielectrode transducer pattern, not previously reported for chemical sensor applications. The design significantly reduces signal distortion and root-mean-square (RMS) phase noise by minimizing acoustic wave reflections from electrode edges, thus enabling limits of detection for BTEX analytes of 9-83 ppb (calculated from RMS noise); concentrations of benzene in water as low as ~100 ppb were measured directly. Reliable quantification of BTEX

  10. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Wang, L F; Lee, H; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) and benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A). Concentration of DB[a,h]A and B[a]A were 1.9 and 2.2 micrograms/m3 in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 micrograms/m3 in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 micrograms/m3 in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 micrograms/m3, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer.

  11. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  12. Experimental analysis of the combustion of mixtures of C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rota, R.; Fiandaca, R.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata

    1999-03-01

    In this work the authors have experimentally investigated the oxidation of several fuel mixtures involving methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene in a jet-stirred reactor. Several conditions not previously investigated in the literature have been also considered, and various clear behaviors and trends have been deduced to provide a useful test for assessing the reliability of detailed kinetic mechanisms. They compared the main experimental results with the predictions of a recent detailed kinetic model, which has been found to reproduce the main experimental findings.

  13. An assessment of the information content of likelihood ratios derived from complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Clare D; Rudin, Norah; Inman, Keith; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-05-01

    With the increasing sensitivity of DNA typing methodologies, as well as increasing awareness by law enforcement of the perceived capabilities of DNA typing, complex mixtures consisting of DNA from two or more contributors are increasingly being encountered. However, insufficient research has been conducted to characterize the ability to distinguish a true contributor (TC) from a known non-contributor (KNC) in these complex samples, and under what specific conditions. In order to investigate this question, sets of six 15-locus Caucasian genotype profiles were simulated and used to create mixtures containing 2-5 contributors. Likelihood ratios were computed for various situations, including varying numbers of contributors and unknowns in the evidence profile, as well as comparisons of the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This work was intended to illustrate the best-case scenario, in which all alleles from the TC were detected in the simulated evidence samples. Therefore the possibility of drop-out was not modeled in this study. The computer program DNAMIX was then used to compute LRs comparing the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This resulted in 140,000 LRs for each of the two scenarios. These complex mixture simulations show that, even when all alleles are detected (i.e. no drop-out), TCs can generate LRs less than 1 across a 15-locus profile. However, this outcome was rare, 7 of 140,000 replicates (0.005%), and associated only with mixtures comprising 5 contributors in which the numerator hypothesis includes one or more unknown contributors. For KNCs, LRs were found to be greater than 1 in a small number of replicates (75 of 140,000 replicates, or 0.05%). These replicates were limited to 4 and 5 person mixtures with 1 or more unknowns in the numerator. Only 5 of these 75 replicates (0.004%) yielded an LR greater than 1,000. Thus, overall, these results imply that the weight of evidence that can be derived from complex mixtures containing up to 5 contributors

  14. Identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    A methodology for the characterization of groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a combination of normal phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (NPLC/UV-vis) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in standard reference material (SRM) 1597a, complex mixture of PAHs from coal tar. The NPLC/UV-vis isolated the fractions based on the number of aromatic carbons and the GC/MS allowed the identification and quantification of five of the nine C26H14 PAH isomers; naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene using a retention time comparison with authentic reference standards. For the other four benzenoid isomers with no available reference standards the following two approaches were used. First, the annellation theory was used to achieve the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene, and second, the elution distribution in the GC fractions was used to support the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene and to reach the tentative identifications of dibenzo[a,ghi]perylene, naphtho[7,8,1,2,3-pqrst]pentaphene, and anthra[2,1,9,8-opqra]naphthacene. It is the first time that naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene are quantified, and the first time that benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene is potentially identified, in any sample, in any context.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of waste products of the coal-tar industry and the mutagenic effect of soot extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khesina, A.Ia.; Tolcheev, Iu.D.; Chikovani, G.R.; Khitrovo, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The content of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in organized and nonorganized effluents of cake- and by-product processes at the Rustavi integrated iron-and-steel works was quantitatively determined by the method of low-temperature spectrofluorescence. Contents of BP and other PAH in nonorganized effluents is 100 and more times higher than those in the organized one and play a decisive role in pollution of the low atmospheric layer. The effluent is characterized by a specific PAH composition and therefore BP may be both a quantitative and a qualitative indicator of PAH. The mutagenic effect was studied by the Ames method with S. typhimurium TA 100 as a test strain. The extracts from soot of nonorganized cake-batlery effluent were studied. Simultaneously the effects of BP, of all PAH in the total and of carcinogenic PAH in concentrations corresponding to the discharge composition were studied. It is shown that BP may be used as an indicator of PAH composition and mutagenic effect.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing detection of petroleum hydrocarbons in mixtures with mineral substrates: Implications for onshore exploration and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafutto, Rebecca Del'Papa Moreira; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; de Oliveira, Wilson José

    2017-06-01

    Remote detection and mapping of hydrocarbons (PHCs) in situ in continental areas is still an operational challenge due to the small scale of the occurrences and the mix of spectral signatures of PHCs and mineral substrates in imagery pixels. Despite the increasing development of new technologies, the use of hyperspectral remote sensing data as a complementary tool for both oil exploration and environmental monitoring is not standard in the oil industry, despite its potential. The high spectral resolution of hyperspectral images allows the direct identification of PHCs on the surface and provides valuable information regarding the location and spread of oil spills that can assist in containment and cleanup operations. Combining the spectral information with statistical techniques also offers the potential to improve exploration programs focused on the discovery of new exploration fields through the qualitative and quantitative characterization of oil occurrences in onshore areas. In this scenario, the aim of this work was to develop methods that can assist the detection of continental areas affected by natural oil seeps or leaks (crude oils and fuels). A field experiment was designed by impregnating several mineral substrates with crude oils and fuels in varying concentrations. Simultaneous measurements of soil-PHC combinations were taken using both a hand-held spectrometer and an airborne hyperspectral imager. Classification algorithms were used to directly map the PHCs on the surface. Spectral information was submitted to a PLS (partial least square regression) to create a prediction model for the estimation of the concentrations of PHCs in soils. The developed model was able to detect three impregnation levels (low, intermediate, high), predicting values close to the concentrations used in the experiment. Given the quality of the results in controlled experiments, the methods developed in this research show the potential to support the oil industry in the

  17. Influence exothermical mixtures contents Na or B on elongation and hardness AlSi12 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on alloy AlSi12, following a factor design 23 for 3 independent variables. Mixtures composed of NaNO3, Na2B4O7, and Mg were used for alloy treatment. The amount of a reducing agent (Mg necessary to carry out the process was calculated on the basis of chemical reactions. The mass fraction (weight in weight concentration of individual variables is presented in Table 1. Results of study present by graphical forms. Figures 2-8 present until elongation (A5 and Brinell hardness (HB for each variable, at extreme (lower or higher levels of the other two.

  18. Identification and quantification of six-ring C₂₆H₁₆ cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sharma, Arun K; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    We applied a combination of normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the fractionation, identification, and quantification of six ring C26H16 cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in the Standard Reference Material 1597a, Complex Mixture of PAHs from Coal Tar. For the characterization analysis, we calculated the GC retention indices of 17 C26H16 PAH authentic reference standards using the Rxi-PAH and DB-5 GC columns. Then, we used NPLC with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to isolate the fractions containing the C26H16 PAHs, and subsequently, we used GC/MS to establish the identity and quantity of the C26H16 PAHs using authentic reference standards. Following this procedure, 12 C26H16 cata-condensed PAHs benzo[c]pentaphene, dibenzo[f,k]tetraphene, benzo[h]pentaphene, dibenzo[a,l]tetracene, dibenzo[c,k]tetraphene, naphtho[2,3-c]tetraphene, dibenzo[a,c]tetracene, benzo[b]picene, dibenzo[a,j]tetracene, naphtho[2,1-a]tetracene, dibenzo[c,p]chrysene, and dibenzo[a,f]tetraphene were identified and quantified for the first time, and benzo[c]picene was quantified for the first time in an environmental combustion sample.

  19. Identification and quantification of known polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in complex mixtures using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices and parallel factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretto, Nicolas; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Mounier, Stéphane; Redon, Roland; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides are among the most widespread organic contaminants in aquatic environments. Because of their aromatic structure, PAHs and pesticides have intrinsic fluorescence properties in the ultraviolet/blue spectral range. In this study, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were used to characterise and discriminate fluorescence signatures of nine PAHs and three pesticides at the μg L(-1) level in the presence of humic substances (0.1-10 mgCL(-1)). These contaminants displayed a diversity of fluorescence signatures regarding spectral position (λEx: 220-335 nm, λEm: 310-414 nm), Stokes shift (39-169 nm) and number of peaks (1-8), with detection limits ranging from 0.02 to 1.29μgL(-1). The EEM/PARAFAC method applied to mixtures of PAHs with humic substances validated a seven-component model that included one humic-like fluorophore and six PAH-like fluorophores. The EEM/PARAFAC method applied to mixtures of pesticides with humic substances validated a six-component model that included one humic-like fluorophore and three pesticide-like fluorophores. The EEM/PARAFAC method adequately quantified most of the contaminants for humic substance concentrations not exceeding 2.5 mg CL(-1). The application of this method to natural (marine) samples was demonstrated through (1) the match between the Ex and Em spectra of PARAFAC components and the Ex and Em spectra of standard PAHs, and (2) the good linear correlations between the fluorescence intensities of PARAFAC components and the PAH concentrations determined by GC-MS.

  20. Reutilization of waste scrap tyre as the immobilization matrix for the enhanced bioremoval of a monoaromatic hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, and chlorinated ethenes mixture from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2017-04-01

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the major soil and groundwater contaminants frequently co-existing, as a result of their widespread uses. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was immobilized on waste scrap tyre to remove these contaminants mixture from synthetic contaminated water. The microbial activity was enhanced in the immobilized system, shown by the higher colony forming units (CFUs) (40%), while BTEX were used as growth substrates. The adsorption capacity of tyres toward contaminants reached a maximum within one day, with BTEX (76.3%) and TCE (64.3%) showing the highest sorption removal capacities, followed by cis-DCE (30.0%) and MTBE (11.0%). The adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm with a good linear correlation (0.989-0.999) for the initial contaminants concentration range applied (25-125mg/L). The monoaromatic hydrocarbons were almost completely removed in the immobilized system and the favourable removal efficiencies of 78% and 90% were obtained for cis-DCE and TCE, respectively. The hybrid (biological, immobilization/physical, sorption) system was further evaluated with the contaminants spiked intermittently for the stable performance. The addition of mineral salt medium further enhanced the bioremoval of contaminants by stimulating the microbial growth to some extent.

  1. High energy efficiency in syngas and hydrocarbon production from dissociation of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture in a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanzadeh, A M; Norouzi, S; Mohammadi, T [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-10-21

    The efficient production of syngas from a CH{sub 4}+CO{sub 2} mixture in an atmospheric pulsed glow discharge, sustained by corona pre-ionization, has been investigated. The products were mainly syngas (CO, H{sub 2}) and hydrocarbons up to C{sub 4}, with acetylene having the highest selectivity. The energy efficiency was within 15-40% for different experimental conditions, which demonstrates a comprehensive improvement relative to the achievements of other types of non-equilibrium plasma. These values are, however, comparable with the efficiencies obtained by gliding arc plasmas but this plasma operates at near room temperature. Furthermore, it has been shown that the energy efficiency is increased by decreasing the effective residence time. The effects of molar ratio CH{sub 4} : CO{sub 2}, voltage, repetition rate and gas flow rate on conversion, energy efficiencies and the selectivities have also been investigated. The higher efficiency obtained in this kind of plasma is discussed and attributed to the short pulse regime and electric field uniformity.

  2. Effects of defined mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on multiple cellular responses in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, using high content analysis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Frizzell, Caroline; Verhaegen, Steven; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential. Most studies focus on single compound effects, however as humans are exposed to several POPs simultaneously, investigating exposure effects of real life POP mixtures on human health is necessary. A defined mixture of POPs was used, where the compound concentration reflected its contribution to the levels seen in Scandinavian human serum (total mix). Several sub mixtures representing different classes of POPs were also constructed. The perfluorinated (PFC) mixture contained six perfluorinated compounds, brominated (Br) mixture contained seven brominated compounds, chlorinated (Cl) mixture contained polychlorinated biphenyls and also p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, three chlordanes, three hexachlorocyclohexanes and dieldrin. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells were used for 2h and 48h exposures to the seven mixtures and analysis on a CellInsight™ NXT High Content Screening platform. Multiple cytotoxic endpoints were investigated: cell number, nuclear intensity and area, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both the Br and Cl mixtures induced ROS production but did not lead to apoptosis. The PFC mixture induced ROS production and likely induced cell apoptosis accompanied by the dissipation of MMP. Synergistic effects were evident for ROS induction when cells were exposed to the PFC+Br mixture in comparison to the effects of the individual mixtures. No significant effects were detected in the Br+Cl, PFC+Cl or total mixtures, which contain the same concentrations of chlorinated compounds as the Cl mixture plus additional compounds; highlighting the need for further exploration of POP mixtures in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.

  4. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Ilka S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  5. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  6. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  7. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  8. An exact model for predicting tablet and blend content uniformity based on the theory of fluctuations in mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sagar S; Hamed, Ehab; Rieschl, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Content uniformity (CU) of tablets is a critical property that needs to be well controlled in pharmaceutical products. Methods that predict the CU accurately can greatly help in reducing the development efforts. This article presents a statistical mechanical framework for predicting CU based on first principles at the molecular level. The tablet is modeled as an open system that can be treated as a grand canonical ensemble to calculate fluctuations in the number of granules and thus the CU. Exact analytical solutions to hard sphere mixture systems are applied to derive an expression for the CU and elucidate the different factors that impact CU. The model was tested against literature data and a large set of tablet formulations specifically made and analyzed for CU using a model active pharmaceutical ingredient. The formulations covered the effect of granule size, percentage loading, and tablet weight on the CU. The model is able to predict the mean experimental coefficient of variation (CV) with good success and captures all the elements that impact the CU. The predictions of the model serve as a theoretical lower limit for the mean CV (for infinite batches or tablets) that can be expected during manufacturing assuming the best processing conditions.

  9. An exact model for predicting tablet and blend content uniformity based on the theory of fluctuations in mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rane, Sagar S; Rieschl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The content uniformity (CU) of blend and tablet formulations is a critical property that needs to be well controlled in order to produce an acceptable pharmaceutical product. Methods that allow the formulations scientist to predict the CU accurately can greatly help in reducing the development efforts. This article presents a new statistical mechanical framework for predicting CU based on first principles at the molecular level. The tablet is modeled as an open system which can be treated as a grand canonical ensemble to calculate fluctuations in the number of granules and thus the CU. Exact analytical solutions to hard sphere mixture systems available in the literature are applied to derive an expression for the CU and elucidate the different factors that impact CU. It is shown that there is a single ratio, {\\lambda}{\\equiv}/; that completely characterizes "granule quality" with respect to impact on CU. Here w and f denote the weight of granule and the fractional (w/w) assay of API in it. This ratio should b...

  10. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in surface waters at environmentally relevant levels - Effect of inoculum origin on kinetics and sequence of degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Comber, Mike

    2017-01-01

    potentially impacting the observed biodegradation kinetics. In this study we investigated the effect of inoculum origin on the biodegradation kinetics of hydrocarbons for five inocula from surface waters varying in urbanization and thus expected pre-exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. A new biodegradation......Biodegradation is a dominant removal process for many organic pollutants, and biodegradation tests serve as tools for assessing their environmental fate within regulatory risk assessment. In simulation tests, the inoculum is not standardized, varying in microbial quantity and quality, thereby...... in four of the five waters but lower in water from a rural lake. The sequence of degradation between the 9 hydrocarbons showed similar patterns in the five waters indicating the potential for using selected hydrocarbons for benchmarking between biodegradation tests. Degradation half-times were shorter...

  11. Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing

    2015-01-01

    The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical PAHs reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the PAH concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (PAHs-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of PAHs normalized by xylem lipid content (PAHs-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne PAHs recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that PAHs-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne PAHs at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne PAHs.

  12. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  13. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios;

    2013-01-01

    and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...... + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... containing mixture-1 over a range of temperatures and pressures. Similarly the methanol content in the gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy within experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2. +. water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methanol...

  14. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  15. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  16. Control of morphology and corona composition in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers: effects of solvent, water content, and mixture composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Müller, Axel H E; Eisenberg, Adi

    2014-11-11

    The morphologies and corona compositions in aggregates of mixtures of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymers are influenced by controllable assembly parameters such as water content, block copolymer molar ratios, and solvent effects as well as the hydrophilic block lengths and block length ratios. All these factors can affect the morphology of the aggregates as well as their corona composition, the latter especially in vesicles, where two interfaces are involved. The morphologies and corona compositions of the aggregates were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility, respectively. They depend, to a large extent, on the solubility of P4VP and PAA in the given organic solvent (e.g., DMF, THF, or dioxane), which influences the coil dimensions of the hydrophilic chains. The water content affects both the size and the shape of the block copolymer aggregates as well as the corona composition. Water acts as a precipitant for the hydrophobic block in the common solvent and, therefore, its progressive addition to the solution changes the interaction parameter with the hydrophobic block. The block copolymer molar ratio has an effect on both the morphology and the corona composition of the aggregates. With increasing PS-b-P4VP content in the mixture, the morphology transforms gradually from large compound micelles (LCMs), through coexistence of LCMs and small spherical micelles (SSMs), and eventually to vesicles. As expected, the corona composition of the aggregates is also affected by the block copolymer molar ratio, and changes progressively from pure PAA to a mixture of PAA and P4VP and to pure P4VP with increasing PS-b-P4VP content. It is clear that the use of mixtures of the soluble chains offers the opportunity of fine-tuning the corona composition in block copolymer aggregates under assembly conditions.

  17. Investigation of Deviations from Ideality in the Two Liquid Phase Region of Systems of Medium Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    determined by refractometry using a Bausch and Lomb Refractometer (Abbe 3-L). Refractive index calibrations for the binary mixtures examined are given in...mixture sample was taken and analyzed by refractometry . b. Results The results of the vapor pressure experiments and the Redlich- Kister coefficients

  18. A mechanistic basis for the effect of aluminum content on ethene selectivity in methanol-to-hydrocarbons conversion on HZSM-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khare, Rachit

    2017-03-20

    Increasing crystallize size or aluminum content in MFI-type zeolites independently enhances the propagation of the aromatics-based methylation/dealkylation cycle relative to that of the olefins-based methylation/cracking cycle in methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) conversion and consequentially results in higher ethene selectivity. Ethene selectivity increases monotonically with increasing aluminum content for HZSM-5 samples with nearly identical crystallite size consequent to an increase in the intracrystalline contact time analogous to our recent report detailing the effects of crystallite size (Khare et al., 2015) on MTH selectivity. The confected effects of crystallite size and site density on MTH selectivity can therefore, be correlated using a descriptor that represents the average number of acid sites that an olefin-precursor will interact with before elution.

  19. Wetting and superhydrophobic properties of PECVD grown hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Farzaneh, M. [Canada Research Chair on Atmospheric Icing Engineering of Power Networks (INGIVRE) and Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment (CIGELE), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Paynter, R.W. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Wetting characteristics of micro-nanorough substrates of aluminum and smooth silicon substrates have been studied and compared by depositing hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique using a mixture of Ar, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} gases. The water contact angles on the hydrocarbon and fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings deposited on silicon substrates were found to be 72 deg. and 105 deg., respectively. However, the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates demonstrated superhydrophobic properties upon coatings with fluorinated-hydrocarbon providing a water contact angle of {approx}165 deg. and contact angle hysteresis below 2 deg. with water drops rolling off from those surfaces while the same substrates showed contact angle of 135 deg. with water drops sticking on those surfaces. The superhydrophobic properties is due to the high fluorine content in the fluorinated-hydrocarbon coatings of {approx}36 at.%, as investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by lowering the surface energy of the micro-nanorough aluminum substrates.

  20. Comparison of two association models (Elliott-Suresh-Donohue and simplified PC-SAFT) for complex phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water and amine-containing mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Schmelzer, Jürgen; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2006-01-01

    Two Wertheim-based association models, the simplified PC-SAFT and the Elliott-Suresh-Donohue (ESD) equation of state, are compared in this work for the description of vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in binary systems of aniline, cyclohexylamine (CHA), hydrocarbons...

  1. Field reconnaissance and estimation of petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents of soils affected by the Ebocha-8 oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Onojake, Chukunedum M

    2006-04-01

    Field reconnaissance of the Ebocha-8 oil spill-affected site at Obiobi/Obrikom in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to assess the extent of damage to the terrestrial ecosystem and delimit the epicenter of oil spillage. Following three successive reconnaissance surveys, the area to be sampled was delimited (200 x 200 m2), and soil samples were collected using the grid method from three replicate quadrats at two depths, surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm). A geographically similar area located 50 m adjacent to the oil-polluted area was used as a reference (control) site. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) and heavy metal concentrations were later determined in the laboratory by extraction and spetrophotemetric techniques. Generally, the THC of soils at surface and subsurface depths of the oil-polluted plots was 2.06 x 10(4) +/- 4.97 x 10(3) mg/kg and 1.67 x 10(3) +/- 3.61 x 10(2) mg/kg soil, respectively, (no overlap in standard errors at 95% confidence limit) while concentrations of heavy metals(Pb, Cd, V, Cu and Ni) were enhanced, especially at the surface. The high levels of THC and heavy metals may predispose the site, which hitherto served as arable agricultural land, to impaired fertility and possible conflagration. When concentrations of heavy metals reach the levels obtained in this study, they may become toxic to plants or possibly bio-accumulate, thus leading to toxic reactions along the food chain. While the spilled-oil may have contributed to the enhanced levels of the metals in the affected soils, physico-chemical properties of the soils, mobility of metals, and the intense rainfall and flooding that preceded the period of study may have also contributed in part to their enhanced concentrations. The presence of high hydrocarbon content may cause oxygen deprivation, which may result in the death of soil fauna by asphyxiation. There is, therefore, an urgent need to clear the affected site of these excess hydrocarbon deposits so as to

  2. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality.

  3. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  4. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  5. Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Enis; Altan, Hakan; Esenturk, Okan

    2014-05-01

    Investigation of frequency dependent permittivity of mixture solutions provides information on the role of intermolecular interactions on relaxation processes of solvent and solute molecules. In this study the dielectric properties of ethanol/gasoline mixtures in the terahertz spectral region are investigated. Frequency dependent absorption coefficients, refractive indices, and complex permittivities of pure ethanol and gasoline, and their mixtures at varying ethanol volume percentages (v/v %) are reported. As the mixing ratio changes, meaningful shifts are observed in the frequency dependent refractive index and absorption coefficients associated with the dominant component, ethanol. The relaxation dynamics of the pure gasoline and ethanol are successfully modeled with the Debye model using the ultrafast nature of the terahertz transients, and those of mixture solutions are investigated by an additive model with an assumption of minimum interaction due to the significant differences in their molecular natures; polar and nonpolar. Successful modeling of the mixtures confirms the weak interaction assumption and enables us to accurately determine the ethanol content. Among five ethanol/gasoline blends, except for one mixture, the estimated percent ethanol in gasoline is predicted with an accuracy of ca. 1% with respect to the actual ethanol percentage. In addition, the results show that free OH contribution to the macroscopic polarization is significantly higher at low concentrations (5-20%) and lower at 50% compared to the case of pure ethanol. The measurements and analysis presented here show that time domain terahertz studies can offer invaluable insight into development of new models for polar/nonpolar complex mixture solutions.

  6. 国产均匀剂烃类树脂混合物RH-100在无内胎全钢载重子午线轮胎气密层胶中的应用%Application of Domestic Hydrocarbon Resin Mixture RH-100 in the Inner Liner of Tubeless TBR Tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 姜杰; 黄义钢; 高绪风

    2015-01-01

    The application of domestic hydrocarbon resin mixture RH-100 as a homogenizing agent in the inner liner compound of tubeless TBR tire was investigated. The functional group composition of hydrocarbon resin mixture RH-100 was similar to that of imported hydrocarbon resin mixture. The inner liner compound with hydrocarbon resin mixture RH-100 instead of imported hydrocarbon resin mixture possessed similar density, tensile properties, tear strength, resilience, lfex resistance and air tightness, but lower cost. It is possible that hydrocarbon resin mixture RH-100 is widely used.%研究国产均匀剂烃类树脂混合物RH-100在无内胎全钢载重子午线轮胎气密层胶中的应用。结果表明:国产均匀剂烃类树脂混合物RH-100与进口均匀剂烃类树脂混合物的官能团组成相近;在气密层胶中用国产均匀剂烃类树脂混合物RH-100等量替代进口均匀剂烃类树脂混合物,胶料的密度、拉伸性能、撕裂强度、弹性、耐屈挠龟裂性能和气密性能相当,成本降低,工艺性能满足生产要求。国产均匀剂烃类树脂混合物RH-100可推广应用。

  7. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  8. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Pieters

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM of benzo(apyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 390.7-767.3 and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 1000-1980 in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002 for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04. Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(apyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  9. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD) 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 390.7-767.3) and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 1000-1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  10. Compaction Control of Earth-Rock Mixtures: How to Develop and Use Density Interference Coefficients and Optimum Water Content Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    oversized fraction is substituted for the water content of the oversized fraction Wc . The absorption A is defined as the satu- rated surface- dry water content...approximately within the specified fill place- ment range. In calculating the quantity of water to add, con- sider the air- dry water content of the material

  11. Thermodynamic properties of biofuels: Heat capacities of binary mixtures containing ethanol and hydrocarbons up to 20 MPa and the pure compounds using a new flow calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Maza, David [Research Group TERMOCAL, Thermodynamics and Calibration, Department of Energy, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce 59, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, Jose J., E-mail: josseg@eis.uva.es [Research Group TERMOCAL, Thermodynamics and Calibration, Department of Energy, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce 59, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Carmen Martin, M.; Villamanan, Rosa M.; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Research Group TERMOCAL, Thermodynamics and Calibration, Department of Energy, University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce 59, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Isobaric heat capacities for heptane, ethanol, and the mixtures of ethanol with heptane and toluene are reported. > They have been measured at 5 pressures over the range (0 to 20) MPa. > An automated flow calorimeter has been developed for the measurements. > The experimental data are fitted to Redlich-Kister equations. > Excess isobaric heat capacities are calculated. - Abstract: Heat capacities are of great significance in the design of new processes and the improvement of existing ones in R and D in production plants as well as the adaptation of new products, in this case, biofuels to their use in a variety of engines and technical devices. An automated flow calorimeter has been developed for the accurate measurement of isobaric heat capacities for pure compounds and mixtures over the range (250 to 400) K and (0 to 20) MPa. In this paper, isobaric heat capacities for heptane, ethanol and the binary mixtures of ethanol with heptane and toluene are reported.

  12. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  13. Comparison of the Emission of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Moulding Sands with Furfural Resin with the Low Content of Furfuryl Alcohol and Different Activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymankowska-Kumon S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No-bake process refers to the use of chemical binders to bond the moulding sand. Sand is moved to the mould fill station in preparation for filling of the mould. A mixer is used to blend the sand with the chemical binder and activator. As the sand exits the mixer, the binder begins the chemical process of hardening. This paper presents the results of decomposition of the moulding sands with modified urea-furfuryl resin (with the low content of furfuryl alcohol below 25 % and different activators: organic and inorganic on a quartz matrix, under semi-industrial conditions. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were executed according to the method extended in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology. Article presents the results of the emitted chosen aromatic hydrocarbons and loss on ignition compared with the different activators used to harden this resin. On the bases of the data, it is possible to determine the content of the emitted dangerous substances from the moulding sand according to the content of loss on ignition.

  14. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinos, C.; Gogou, A.; Bouloubassi, I.; Pedrosa-Pàmies, R.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Rousakis, G.; Velaoras, D.; Krokos, G.; Lykousis, V.

    2013-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea) were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g-1, 145 to 4810 ng g-1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g-1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g-1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  15. Powder XRD studies on -C28H58 : -CH2+2 ( = 10, 12, 14, 16, 18) hydrocarbon mixtures: Phase strength analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B V Prasad; P B Shashikanth; P Neelima

    2006-06-01

    Powder XRD investigations were made on mixtures of title compounds and strength of monoclinic, orthorhombic and super-lattice phases were evaluated. Interpretations were made in terms of the influence of tunnel-like defects (TLIDs) and a linear relationship was noticed between the strength of orthorhombic phase and 〈$\\ell$TLID 〉.

  16. Effect of Fe base alloy content in Ti-C-Fe base alloy powder mixtures on the SHS products structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribytkov, Gennadii A.; Krinitcyn, Maxim G.; Korzhova, Victoria V.; Baranovskii, Anton V.; Korosteleva, Elena N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the morphology, phase composition, and internal structure of "TiC-high chromium cast iron binder" and "TiC-high speed steel binder" composite powders. The powders were produced by self-propagating high temperature synthesis of Ti-C-Me powder mixtures in the layer by layer burning mode. X-ray diffractometry, optical and scanning electron microscopy methods were used for the powders characterization.

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions in asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt fractions has been developed. The 14 compounds determined, characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings, are expected to be present in asphalt and are considered carcinogenic and mutagenic. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 346.5 μg/L and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.7 to 1550 μg/L. The method was validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (NIST SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations agreed with the certified values. The method was applied to asphalt samples after its fractionation according to ASTM D4124 and the method of Green. The concentrations of the seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified in the sample ranged from 0.86 mg/kg for benzo[ghi]perylene to 98.32 mg/kg for fluorene.

  18. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT "FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL" HORIBA INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED OCMA-350 CONTENT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The OCMA-350 Oil Content Analyzer(OCMA-350) developed by Horiba Instruments Incorporated (Horiba), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Huen...

  19. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  20. Phase equilibria at low temperature for light hydrocarbons-methanol-water-acid gases mixtures: measurements and modelling; Equilibres de phases a basse temperature de systemes complexes CO{sub 2} - hydrocarbures legers - methanol - eau: mesures et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffine, L.

    2005-10-15

    The need to develop and improve natural gas treatment processes is real. The petroleum industry usually uses separation processes which require phase equilibrium phenomena. Yet, the complexity of the phase equilibria involved results in a lack of data, which in turn limits the development of thermodynamic models. The first part of this work is devoted to experimental investigations for systems containing light hydrocarbons, methanol, water and acid gases. We present a new apparatus that was developed to measure vapor-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria. It allowed us to obtain new phase composition data for the methanol-ethane binary system and different mixtures, and also to determine a part of the three phases equilibrium envelope of the same systems. In the second part of this work, we have developed a thermodynamic model based on the CPA equation of state. This choice may be justified by the presence of associating components like methanol, hydrogen sulfide and water in the systems. Such model is necessary for the design of gas treatment plants. Our model provides good results for phase equilibrium calculations for binaries systems without binary interaction parameter in many cases, and describes correctly the vapour-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for complex mixtures. (author)

  1. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  2. Effects of P content in a P/HZSM-5 catalyst on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangyin Lu; Yancong Liu

    2011-01-01

    A series of P/HZSM-5 catalysts prepared by impregnation method were used for ethanol conversion to lower olefins.The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),NH3-temperature-programmed desorption(NH3-TPD)and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements.It was found that the P/HZSM-5 catalysts showed high activity and selectivity toward light olefins.The selectivities of propylene and butylene can be improved with the introduction of phosphorus(P).When the content of P reached 3.0 wt%,more than 18.9% propylene in the gaseous products was obtained over the P/HZSM-5 catalyst at 450 ℃.The introduction of P modified the strong Br()nsted acid sites of the original HZSM-5 catalysts and P/HZSM-5 catalysts could resist coke formation and showed good stability.

  3. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  4. Evaluating Samgor petroleum kerosene fractions for content of n-paraffin hydrocarbons (for production of surfactants and cleaning substances)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benashvili, Ye.M.; Uchaneyshvili, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper investigates content and formation of n-alkanes (NA) of very high purity in Samgor petroleum for the purpose of surfactant production. Distillates of 185-275/sup 0/C and 190-260/sup 0/C were utilized. Production of NA was carried out with the aid of synthetic zeolite TK-58 type SaA, with dynamic activity in pairs of n-heptane 59 mg/cm/sup 3/. Adsorption temperature was 250-275/sup 0/C; volume flow rate 0.2 hour/sup -1/; ratio of raw materials: adsorbent 1:5. Desorption of NA was carried out with aqueous steam at 350-370/sup 0/C. After removing traces of heterocompounds, NA was subjected to adsorption cleaning using natural clinoptilolite at 20/sup 0/ temp. via percolation. Individual composition of NA was investigated via GLC (gas liquid chromatography). The tested fractions contained 52.3-55.5% alkanes, including NA C/sub 10/-C/sub 15/ 17.6-18.2%. The latter are utilized for production of surfactants and synthetic detergents; the refined petroleum serves as a component for diesel and jet fuels.

  5. Black tattoo inks induce reactive oxygen species production correlating with aggregation of pigment nanoparticles and product brand but not with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, Trine; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel; Serup, Jørgen

    2013-07-01

    Black tattoo inks are composed of carbon nanoparticles, additives and water and may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aimed to clarify whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by black inks in vitro is related to pigment chemistry, physico-chemical properties of the ink particles and the content of chemical additives and contaminants including PAHs. The study included nine brands of tattoo inks of six colours each (black, red, yellow, blue, green and white) and two additional black inks of different brands (n = 56). The ROS formation potential was determined by the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) assay. A semiquantitative method was developed for screening extractable organic compounds in tattoo ink based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two black inks produced high amounts of ROS. Peroxyl radicals accounted for up to 72% of the free radicals generated, whereas hydroxyl radicals and H₂O₂ accounted for brands. Ten of 11 black inks had PAH concentrations exceeding the European Council's recommended level, and all 11 exceeded the recommended level for benzo(a)pyrene. It is a new finding that aggregation of tattoo pigment particles correlates with ROS production and brand, independently of chemical composition including PAHs. ROS is hypothesized to be implicated in minor clinical symptoms.

  6. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  7. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  8. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  9. Different fattening systems of Iberian pigs according to the 1-alkene hydrocarbon content in the subcutaneous fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera-Alcaide, I.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-Alkene content in samples of subcutaneous fat corresponding to 755 castrated male Iberian pigs has been determined by an off-line combination of HPLC and GC method. The samples corresponded to three groups based on the type of feeding during the finish fattening period (“Montanera”, fed on acorns and pasture; “Recebo”, fed on acorns, feed and pasture; and “Cebo”, fed on feed and pasture. By using the n-alkenes as chemical descriptors, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to differentiate between the three fattening diet types for Iberian pigs. The most differentiating variables were n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 and n-C24:1. However, a clear classification of the samples was not achieved. The level of classification was improved when the data corresponding to the animals fed with the “Recebo” fattening diet was removed from the analysis. A relationship between n-C14:1, n-C16:1 and n-C18:1 levels and the slaughter period was found to be very low for the animals fed with the “Cebo” fattening diet when the animals had not been closely managed and pasture had not been included in their fattening diet.El contenido de n-alquenos de la grasa subcutánea de 755 muestras procedentes de cerdos ibéricos machos, se ha determinado mediante combinación off-line de los métodos HPLC y GC. Las muestras correspondían a tres grupos según el tipo de alimentación en el período final de engorde (“Montanera”, alimentados con bellota y pasto; “Recebo”, alimentados con bellota, pasto y pienso; y “Cebo”, alimentados con pienso y pasto. Usando los n-alquenos como descriptores químicos, se aplicaron técnicas de análisis multivariante para diferenciar entre los tres tipos de alimentación de cerdo ibérico. Se encontró que las variables más diferenciadores fueron n-C16:1, n-C18:1, n-C22:1 y n-C24:1. Sin embargo, el total de las muestras no están clasificadas, mejorando el nivel de clasificación cuando se eliminan

  10. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  11. Density and Comparative Refractive Index Study on Mixing Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Eucalyptol with Hydrocarbons at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Density and refractive index have been experimentally determined for binary liquid mixtures of eucalyptol with hydrocarbons (o-xylene,m-xylene and toluene at 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 313.15 K. A comparative study of Lorentz-Lorenz (L-L, Weiner (W, Heller (H, Gladstone-Dale (G-D, Arago-Biot (A-B, Eykman (Eyk, Newton (Nw, Eyring-John (E-J and Oster (Os relations for determining the refractive index of a liquid has been carried out to test their validity for the three binaries over the entire mole fraction range of eucalyptol at 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 313.15 K. Comparison of various mixing rules has been expressed in terms of average deviation. From the experimentally measured values, refractive index deviations at different temperatures have been computed and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to derive the binary coefficients and standard deviations.

  12. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of RAP Content on Performance of Reclaimed Asphalt Mixture%再生沥青混合料RAP掺量对使用性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继森; 吴超凡; 曾梦澜; 朱沅峰

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨再生沥青混合料的使用性能,对25%、55%和85%的3种不同RAP掺量的热拌再生沥青混合料进行了实验室试验.试验结果与分析表明:再生沥青混合料的最佳沥青用量随着RAP掺量的增加略有减少,在4.79%到4.50%之间.再生沥青混合料的高温稳定性、水稳定性、低温性能、渗水性能等技术指标均满足现行规范对新沥青混合料的要求.随着RAP掺量的增加,再生沥青混合料的高温稳定性、水稳定性有不同程度的增强,但低温性能、渗水性能有不同程度的减弱.%In order to explore the performance of recycled asphalt mixture,laboratory tests on 3 mixtures having 25%,55%,85% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials were carried out.The results and analyses show that the optimum asphalt content slightly decreases with increasing RAP.The high temperature stability,moisture stability,low temperature property,and water permeability meet the requirements in current specifications.With the increase in RAP content,the high temperature stability and moisture stability are enhanced,while the low temperature property and water permeability are weakened.

  14. 熟地强筋合剂的定性鉴别和含量测定%Qualitative Identification and Content Determination of Shudi Qiangjin Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素玲; 蔡益锐

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立熟地强筋合剂的定性鉴别和含量测定方法.方法:采用薄层色谱法定性鉴别牡丹皮和甘草;采用高效液相色谱法测定山茱萸中马钱苷的含量.结果:薄层色谱法检出牡丹皮、甘草,阴性无干扰,专属性强;马钱苷在0.0508~0.3048 μg范围内具有良好的线性关系(r=.09998),平均加样回收率98.2%,RSD=1.80% (n =6).结论:本方法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于熟地强筋合剂的质量控制.%Objective;To establish the methods for qualitative identification and content determination of Shudi Qiangjin Mixture. Meth-ods : Moutan cortex and Radix glycyrrhlaze were identified by thin layer chromatography ( TLC) and the content of Loganin in corni fruc-tus was determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Results: Moutan cortex and Radix glycyrrhlaze could be identified by TLC, which presented negativity without interference and had strong specificity. The linear range of loganin was 0.050 8-0. 304 8 μg(r =0.999 8) and had good linear relation. The average recovery rate was 98.2% ,RSD = 1.80% (n=6). Conclusion;This meth-od is simple,accurate and repeatable,which can be used in the quality control of Shudi Qiangjin Mixture.

  15. Thermodynamic study of (anthracene + phenanthrene) solid state mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Sandström, Emma; Ditto, Jenna C.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common components of many materials, such as petroleum and various types of tars. They are generally present in mixtures, occurring both naturally and as byproducts of fuel processing operations. It is important to understand the thermodynamic properties of such mixtures in order to understand better and predict their behavior (i.e., fate and transport) in the environment and in industrial operations. To characterize better the thermodynamic behavior of PAH mixtures, the phase behavior of a binary (anthracene + phenanthrene) system was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and the Knudsen effusion technique. Mixtures of (anthracene + phenanthrene) exhibit non-ideal mixture behavior. They form a lower-melting, phenanthrene-rich phase with an initial melting temperature of 372 K (identical to the melting temperature of pure phenanthrene) and a vapor pressure of roughly lnP/Pa = −2.38. The phenanthrene-rich phase coexists with an anthracene-rich phase when the mole fraction of phenanthrene (xP) in the mixture is less than or equal to 0.80. Mixtures initially at xP = 0.90 consist entirely of the phenanthrene-rich phase and sublime at nearly constant vapor pressure and composition, consistent with azeotrope-like behavior. Quasi-azeotropy was also observed for very high-content anthracene mixtures (2.5 < xP < 5) indicating that anthracene may accommodate very low levels of phenanthrene in its crystal structure. PMID:26973354

  16. Thermodynamic study of (anthracene + phenanthrene) solid state mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W; Fu, Jinxia; Sandström, Emma; Ditto, Jenna C; Suuberg, Eric M

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common components of many materials, such as petroleum and various types of tars. They are generally present in mixtures, occurring both naturally and as byproducts of fuel processing operations. It is important to understand the thermodynamic properties of such mixtures in order to understand better and predict their behavior (i.e., fate and transport) in the environment and in industrial operations. To characterize better the thermodynamic behavior of PAH mixtures, the phase behavior of a binary (anthracene + phenanthrene) system was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and the Knudsen effusion technique. Mixtures of (anthracene + phenanthrene) exhibit non-ideal mixture behavior. They form a lower-melting, phenanthrene-rich phase with an initial melting temperature of 372 K (identical to the melting temperature of pure phenanthrene) and a vapor pressure of roughly lnP/Pa = -2.38. The phenanthrene-rich phase coexists with an anthracene-rich phase when the mole fraction of phenanthrene (xP) in the mixture is less than or equal to 0.80. Mixtures initially at xP = 0.90 consist entirely of the phenanthrene-rich phase and sublime at nearly constant vapor pressure and composition, consistent with azeotrope-like behavior. Quasi-azeotropy was also observed for very high-content anthracene mixtures (2.5 anthracene may accommodate very low levels of phenanthrene in its crystal structure.

  17. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals.

  18. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  19. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  20. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  1. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  2. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the upregulation of CYP1 activity and mRNA levels in precision-cut rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, Daphnee S; Plant, Kathryn E; Plant, Nick J; Ioannides, Costas

    2017-03-01

    The current studies investigate whether synergistic or antagonistic interactions in the upregulation of CYP1 activity occur in binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involving benzo[a]pyrene and five other structurally diverse PAHs of varying carcinogenic activity. Precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with benzo[a]pyrene alone or in combination with a range of concentrations of a second PAH, and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA levels determined. Concurrent incubation of benzo[a]pyrene with either dibenzo[a,h]anthracene or fluoranthene in liver slices led to a synergistic interaction, at least at low concentrations, in that ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was statistically higher than the added effects when the slices were incubated with the individual compounds. In contrast, benzo[b]fluoranthene and, at high doses only, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene gave rise to antagonism, whereas 1-methylphenanthrene had no effect at all concentrations studied. When CYP1A1 mRNA levels were monitored, benzo[b]fluoranthene gave rise to an antagonistic response when incubated with benzo[a]pyrene, whereas all other compounds displayed synergism, with 1-methylphenathrene being the least effective. A similar picture emerged when CYP1B1 mRNA levels were determined, though the effects were less pronounced. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the benzo[a]pyrene-mediated upregulation of CYP1, at the mRNA and activity levels, is synergistically and antagonistically modulated by other PAHs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 764-775, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn.

  4. [Variations in the internal pressure of the pneumatic cuffs of endotracheal tubes according to their contents and the anesthetic mixtures used. Experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, P; Castillo, J; Bogdanovich, A; Nalda, M A

    1989-01-01

    With the purpose of measuring pressure changes in the pneumatic cuffs of endotracheal tubes when the composition of the mixture of gases used for ventilation had to change for the same content, we designed a model of artificial respiration that consisted of a tube with a low pressure pneumatic cuff measuring 8.5 mm in inner diameter introduced in a replica of a human trachea, adjusted to two anesthetic bags. The cuff valve was connected to a pressure transducer by a three-ended stopcock and, after aspiration of its content, it was inflated with air, saline or nitrous oxide and oxygen at 60% up to a basal pressure of 20 mmHg. The tube was connected to a respirator adjusted to inflate 10 l/min at a rate of 15 insufflations/min of: oxygen 100% for 5 minutes, then nitrous oxide and oxygen at 60% for 30 minutes and oxygen 100% again for 15 minutes. When inflating the pneumatic cuff with air and ventilating with nitrous oxide and oxygen at 60%, its pressure reached a maximum mean value of 58 mmHg (190% with respect to base values). When insufflating with saline and ventilating in the same conditions, pressure reached a maximum mean value of 33 mmHg (65% with respect to base values). When the pneumatic cuff was inflated with nitrous oxide and oxygen at 60%, important changes in pressure were observed when the characteristics of the inspired gases were modified. We conclude that some method for monitoring pneumatic cuff pressure should be systematized.

  5. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  6. FATTY ACID CONTENT IN BROILER´S ROSS 308 MEAT MUSCLES AFTER USING BEE POLLEN AND PROBIOTIC AS SUPPLEMENTARY DIET INTO THEIR FEED MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of the bee pollen and probiotic on broiler´s meat fatty acid. A total of 120 one day old chicks, which were divided into 4 groups (n=30. Central, E1 (400 mg.kg-1 bee pollen, E2 (3.3 g probiotic and E3 (400 mg.kg-1 bee pollen + 3.3 g probiotic of complete feed mixture, the probiotic has been added through drinking water. After 42 days broiler has been slaughtered to determine meat fatty acid concentrations. We found that the probiotic was increased about (78.9% of the essential fatty and bee pollen was increased about (68.4% of essential fatty acid in the experimental groups and there were found significant differences (P≤0.05 in monounsaturated acid (MUFA, heptadecanoic acid and omega-6 between control and E1groups. The mixed between bee pollen and probiotic were reduce the content of the essential fatty acid. However, bee pollen and probiotic were decreased nonessential fatty acid in broiler meat muscles and they were found significant difference (P≤0.05 in saturated fatty acid (SFA between control and E1, also between control and myristic acid. It was concluded that the bee pollen and probiotic have increased the fatty acid and decrease the non essential fatty acid in broiler meat muscles.

  7. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  8. Corrélations entre la composition des mélanges d'hydrocarbures et leurs propriétés physiques Correlations Betweenthe Composition of Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Their Physical Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouel P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'optimisation de l'exploitation des gisements d'hydrocarbures est devenue aujourd'hui,avec la grave crise énergétique que nous traversons, le problème numéro un du mondepétrolier. Afin d'améliorer la production on est obligé de mettre en ceuvre des techniques derécupération assistée qui coûtent très cher et dont le choix est basé sur les propriétés physiques du pétrole, de la roche réservoir et l'état d'exploitation même du gisement.Nous avons donc étudié le comportement volumétrique et viscosimétrique de la fraction lourde d'hydrocarbures ainsi que la mise au point d'une technique d'analyse de cette fraction. Nos mesures ont porté essentiellement sur les corps purs suivants : nCe, nC, nC, nC9, nClo, nC12, nC14, nCls, cyclo Ce, cyclo C" cyclo Cs, méthyl cyclo Cg, benzène, toluène, xylène et triméthylbenzène dans un domaine de température et de pression s'étendant de 20 à 120 °C et de la pression atmosphérique à 400 bars.A partir de ces données expérimentales nous avons développé deux modèles prévisionnels : l'un pour la masse volumique des mélanges basé sur l'équation d'état de Redlich-Kwong et l'introduction de coefficients d'interaction binaire, l'autre sur les viscosités des mélanges à partir d'une équation d'Andrade modi-fiée et de la loi de mélange d'Arrhénius. The principal problem facing the petroleum industry during the present severe energy crisis is ta optimise production from hydrocarbon fields. In order to improve production, enhanced recovery techniques must be used. These are extremely expensive and are chosen on the basis of physical properties of the ail, the réservoir rocks and working conditions of the field. The volumetric and viscometric behovior of the heavy hydrocarbon fraction was therefore studied. A technique for analyzing this fraction was also developed. M~asurements essentially concerned the following pure substances : nC, nC, nC, nC, nC1e,nC,,, nC14,nC18, cyclo C

  9. Occurrence, sources and transport pathways of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parinos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediments collected from deep basins (1018–4087 m depth of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, southern Aegean Sea and northwestern Levantine Sea were analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as tracers of natural and anthropogenic inputs. Concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and the unresolved complex mixture (UCM of aliphatic hydrocarbons varied significantly, ranging from 1.34 to 49.2 μg g−1, 145 to 4810 ng g−1 and 0.73 to 36.7 μg g−1, respectively, while concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ranged between 11.6 and 223 ng g−1. Molecular profiles of determined hydrocarbons reflect a mixed contribution from both natural and anthropogenic sources in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, i.e., terrestrial plant waxes, degraded petroleum products, unburned fossil fuels and combustion of grass, wood and coal. Hydrocarbon mixtures display significant variability amongst sub-regions, reflecting differences in the relative importance of inputs from various sources and phase associations/transport pathways of individual hydrocarbons that impact on their overall distribution and fate. Hydrocarbon concentrations correlated significantly with the organic carbon content of sediments, indicating that the latter exerts an important control on their transport and ultimate accumulation in deep basins. Additionally, water masses' circulation characteristics also seem to influence the regional features and distribution patterns of hydrocarbons. Our findings highlight the role of deep basins/canyons as repositories of both natural and anthropogenic chemical species.

  10. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  11. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  12. Investigation of the ionization mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using an ethanol/bromobenzene/chlorobenzene/anisole mixture as a dopant in liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Amad, Maan H.

    2012-09-23

    RATIONALE An ethanol-based multicomponent dopant consisting of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v/v/v) has been used as a dopant for atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study the mechanism of ionization of PAHs assisted by the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant is investigated. METHODS The reactant background cluster ions of the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant observed in the positive ion APPI were studied. These studies were performed to investigate the mechanism behind the generation of a molecular radical cation (M +•) for PAHs by APPI assisted by the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant. Full scan and MS/MS analyses were conducted using an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The effect of acidification of the mobile phase on the dopant cluster ion formation was also investigated. RESULTS With the ethanol-based multicomponent dopant, a single type of molecular radical cation M +• was observed for the studied PAHs. The characteristic ion signal of the multicomponent dopant mixture consisted of mainly anisole photoions at m/z 108.05697 and its adduct ions at m/z 124.05188 and 164.07061. The anisole ion response at m/z 108.05697 was stable in the presence of acetonitrile, methanol, water and 0.1% formic acid mobile phase composition. CONCLUSIONS The abundance formation of anisole photoions shows the universality of this multicomponent dopant in ionizing compounds with ionization energy ranging from 7.1-8.2 eV. Since the ionization energy of anisole is 8.2 eV and is lower than those of chlorobenzene (9.07 eV) and bromobenzene (9.0 eV), the mechanism of formation of anisole photoions even with its very minute amounts was not only governed by its photoionization by the krypton lamp photon energy (10.0 eV and 10.6 eV), but also by charge transfer from bromobenzene and chlorobenzene radical cations. PAH molecules were mainly ionized by charge transfer reaction from

  13. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  14. Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  15. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  16. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  17. Regional variation of selected polyaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons over the South Island of New Zealand, as indicated by their content in Pinus radiata needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, R; Baumgartner, I

    1987-01-01

    We analysed needles of Pinus radiata along three transects through the South Island of New Zealand for chlorinated hydrocarbons ( alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB and PCB) and PAH (fluoranthene, 3,4-benzopyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene and indenopyrene). At rural sites we also collected samples of moss (Wijkia extenuata) and lichens (Usnea sp.) in order to compare the pollutant concentrations within these plants. A principal component analysis confirmed findings from moss and snow studies in Europe that the PAH concentrations vary regionally in the same way. The pattern of the principal component loadings of the chlorinated hydrocarbons reflects their heterogeneous immission and their different chemodynamics. The regional pattern indicates an increase of gamma-HCH from remote areas to those used intensively for agriculture and gardening, followed by a decrease towards the inner city of Christchurch. In contrast, PCB and PAH show their highest levels of contamination in the city. The regional distribution of PAH in Christchurch correlates well with traffic density, and particularly with the pattern of smoke from domestic fires. Our study demonstrates that needles of P. radiata can be better monitors of atmospheric pollution in New Zealand than mosses or lichens.

  18. The properties of the mixture of beef tallow and rapeseed oil with a high content of tallow after chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruczynska, Eliza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of beef tallow with rapeseed oil (3:1 wt/wt was interesterified using sodium metoxide or immobilized lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 as catalysts. Chemical interesterifications were carried out at 60 and 90 ºC for 0.5 and 1.5 h using 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 wt-% CH3ONa. Depending on the catalyst used enzymatic interesterifications were carried out at 60 ºC for 8 h (Lipozyme IM or at 80 ºC for 4 h (Novozym 435. The catalysts doses were kept constant (8 % but the water content in catalysts varied from 2 to 10 %. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into a pure triacylglycerol fraction and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols. It was found that the concentrations of free fatty acids and partial acylglycerols increased after interesterification. The slip melting points and solid fat contents of the triacylglycerol fractions isolated from interesterified fats were lower when compared with nonesterified blends. The sn-2 and sn-1,3 distributions of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol fractions before and after interesterification were determined.These distributions were random after chemical interesterification and near random when Novozym 435 was used. When Lipozyme IM was used, the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position remained practically unchanged compared with the starting blend. The interesterified fats and isolated triacylglycerols had reduced oxidative stability, as assessed by Rancimat induction times. The addition of 0.02 % of BHA or BHT to the interesterified fats improved their stabilitie.Una mezcla de sebo con aceite de colza (3:1 p/p fue interesterificada usando metóxido de sodio y lipasas inmovilizadas de Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM and Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 como catalizadores. La interesterificación química se llevó a cabo a 60 ºC y 90

  19. The use of gaseous fuels mixtures for SI engines propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flekiewicz, M.; Kubica, G.

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents results of SI engine tests, carried on for different gaseous fuels. Carried out analysis made it possible to define correlation between fuel composition and engine operating parameters. Tests covered various gaseous mixtures: of methane and hydrogen and LPG with DME featuring different shares. The first group, considered as low carbon content fuels can be characterized by low CO2 emissions. Flammability of hydrogen added in those mixtures realizes the function of combustion process activator. That is why hydrogen addition improves the energy conversion by about 3%. The second group of fuels is constituted by LPG and DME mixtures. DME mixes perfectly with LPG, and differently than in case of other hydrocarbon fuels consists also of oxygen makes the stoichiometric mixture less oxygen demanding. In case of this fuel an improvement in engine volumetric and overall engine efficiency has been noticed, when compared to LPG. For the 11% DME share in the mixture an improvement of 2% in the efficiency has been noticed. During the tests standard CNG/LPG feeding systems have been used, what underlines utility value of the research. The stand tests results have been followed by combustion process simulation including exhaust forming and charge exchange.

  20. Study of Formation and Propagation of Streamers in SF6 and Its Gas Mixtures with Low Content of SF6 Using a One-Dimensional Fluid Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付亮; 汪沨; 王国利; W. PFEIFFER; 何荣涛

    2012-01-01

    Using a hybrid Monte Carlo Collision/Fluid model, the formation and propagation of streamers in SF6 and its gas mixtures are simulated. The simulation is based on an accurate numerical solution of Poisson's equation in conjunction with the continuity fluid equation for electrons, negative ions, and positive ions. The factors that influence the formation and propagation of streamers are investigated. The electron density, positive and negative ion density, and electric field in the discharge channel are also presented, which are very important in understanding the phenomena of streamers and in assessing the insulation strength of the gas mixture.

  1. Anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons in soils and vegetation from the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Ana; Tejedo, Pablo; Dachs, Jordi; Benayas, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Two Antarctic expeditions (in 2009 and 2011) were carried out to assess the local and remote anthropogenic sources of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as potential biogenic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, biomarkers such as phytane (Ph) and pristane (Pr), and the aliphatic unresolved complex mixture (UCM), were analysed in soil and vegetation samples collected at Deception, Livingston, Barrientos and Penguin Islands (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Overall, the patterns of n-alkanes in lichens, mosses and grass were dominated by odd-over-even carbon number alkanes. Mosses and vascular plants showed high abundances of n-C21 to n-C35, while lichens also showed high abundances of n-C17 and n-C19. The lipid content was an important factor controlling the concentrations of n-alkanes in Antarctic vegetation (r(2)=0.28-0.53, p-level<0.05). n-C12 to n-C35 n-alkanes were analysed in soils with a predominance of odd C number n-alkanes (n-C25, n-C27, n-C29, and n-C31), especially in the background soils not influenced by anthropogenic sources. The large values for the carbon predominance index (CPI) and the correlations between odd alkanes and some PAHs suggest the potential biogenic sources of these hydrocarbons in Antarctica. Unresolved complex mixture and CPI values ~1 detected at soils collected at intertidal areas and within the perimeter of Juan Carlos research station, further supported the evidence that even a small settlement (20 persons during the austral summer) can affect the loading of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in nearby soils. Nevertheless, the assessment of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18 ratios showed that hydrocarbon degradation is occurring in these soils.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON CONTENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOIL POLLUTED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME OF CRUDE OIL DURING PLANT- MICROBE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plants in interaction with indigenous organisms in environmental clean –up was evaluated. The agricultural soil used for the study was polluted with 100ml, 200ml, 400ml and 800ml of Bonny light crude oil [100%]. Pre and post Microbial examination of the polluted soil identified the indigenous flora present in the soil to be Penicillum sp Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Acinetobacter baumanni, Bacillus mycoides, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli though the absence of S aureus and E. coli was evident during the latter. Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata, Mucuna pruriens, Zea mays and Telfairia occidentalis were the test plant used. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of polluted soil on comparison with the value of 10,380 kg/ mg for control sample, to be low. The high TPH obtained from samples polluted with higher concentration depicts that the numbers of plants to be cultivated for remediation could be a determining factor for a faster clean-up. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA model of SPSS software however, showed there was no significant difference in the degradation of crude oil in samples that are in the green house or field.

  3. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  4. Variations of the petrophysical properties of rocks with increasing hydrocarbons content and their implications at larger scale: insights from the Majella reservoir (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Fabio; Ruggieri, Roberta; Lipparini, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Crustal processes such as deformations or faulting are strictly related to the petrophysical properties of involved rocks. These properties depend on mineral composition, fabric, pores and any secondary features such as cracks or infilling material that may have been introduced during the whole diagenetic and tectonic history of the rock. In this work we investigate the role of hydrocarbons (HC) in changing the petrophysical properties of rock by merging laboratory experiments, well data and static models focusing on the carbonate-bearing Majella reservoir. This reservoir represent an interesting analogue for the several oil fields discovered in the subsurface in the region, allowing a comparison of a wide range of geological and geophysical data at different scale. The investigated lithology is made of high porosity ramp calcarenites, structurally slightly affected by a superimposed fracture system and displaced by few major normal faults, with some minor strike-slip movements. Sets of rock specimens were selected in the field and in particular two groups were investigated: 1. clean rocks (without oil) and 2. HC bearing rocks (with different saturations). For both groups, density, porosity, P and S wave velocity, permeability and elastic moduli measurements at increasing confining pressure were conducted on cylindrical specimens at the HP-HT Laboratory of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in Rome, Italy. For clean samples at ambient pressure, laboratory porosity varies from 10 % up to 26 % and P wave velocity (Vp) spans from 4,1 km/s to 4,9 km/s and a very good correlation between Vp, Vs and porosity is observed. The P wave velocity at 100 MPa of confining pressure, ranges between 4,5 km/s and 5,2 km/s with a pressure independent Vp/Vs ratio of about 1,9. The presence of HC within the samples affects both Vp and Vs. In particular velocities increase with the presence of hydrocarbons proportionally respect to the amount of the filled

  5. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  6. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  7. Preparation of standard mixtures of gas hydrocarbons in air by the diffusion dilution method; Preparacion de mezclas patrones de hidrocarburos gaseosos en aire por el metodo de dilucion por difusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M. R.; Perez, M. M.

    1979-07-01

    An original diffusion system able to produce continuously gaseous samples is described. This system can generate samples with concentrations of benzene in air from 0.1 to 1 ppm a reproducible way. The diffusion dilution method used Is also studied. The use of this diffusion system has been extended to the preparation of binary mixtures (benzene-toluene). Whit a secondary dilution device is possible preparing these mixtures over a wide range of concentrations (0.11 to 0.04 ppm for benzene and 0.06 to 0.02 for toluene). (Author) 7 refs.

  8. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  9. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  10. Formation of Mixture of A and C Centres in Diamond Synthesized with Fe90Ni10-C-High-Content Additive NaN3 by HPHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhong-Zhu; JIA xiao-Peng; LIANG Jing-Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Very rich nitrogen concentration with the dominant C centres and some A centres are found in diamonds grown from a Fe90Ni10-C-high-content NaN3 additive system.The concentrations of C centres rapidly increase with increasing content of NaN3 additive,while the concentrations of A centres increase slowly.The total nitrogen concentration tends to increa.rapidly with increasing content of NaN3 additive when the content of NaNa is below 0.7wt%.However,the total concentration of nitrogen in the diamonds increases slowly when the content of NaN3 is further increased up to 1.0wt%,and the total nitrogen average concentration are calculated to be around 2230ppm for most of the analysed synthetic diamonds.Furthermore,the nitrogen impurities in different crystal sectors of the diamonds are inhomogeneously distributed.The nitrogen impurities in the diamonds in [111] zones are incorporated more easily than that in[100].

  11. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7,...

  12. Biodegradation of diesel/biodiesel blends by a consortium of hydrocarbon degraders: effect of the type of blend and the addition of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja; Staniewski, Jacek; Olszanowski, Andrzej; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2009-02-01

    Biodegradation experiments for diesel/biodiesel blends in liquid cultures by-petroleum degrading microbial consortium showed that for low amendments of biodiesel (10%) the overall biodegradation efficiency of the mixture after seven days was lower than for petroleum diesel fuel. Preferential usage of methyl esters in the broad biodiesel concentration range and diminished biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons for 10% biodiesel blend was confirmed. Rhamnolipids improved biodegradation efficiency only for blends with low content of biodiesel. Emulsion formation experiments showed that biodiesel amendments significantly affected dispersion of fuel mixtures in water. The presence of rhamnolipids biosurfactant affected stability of such emulsions and altered cell surface properties of tested consortium.

  13. A method for removing aromatic hydrocarbons from liquid n-paraffins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle, A.A.; Pavlyuk, N.F.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Semenov, L.V.; Zakhrov, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    In the known method for removing aromatic hydrocarbons from liquid n-paraffins through liquid extraction by a selective solvent, in order to increase the output of the paraffins methoxyacetonitrile (I) is used as the selective solvent. The advantages of the extraction process using I are high output and quality of the purified paraffins and the possibility of using series produced extractors of medium effectiveness. The high selectivity of I relative to aromatic hydrocarbons, unlike low selective acetone in the known method and its high density (1.032) as compared with acetone (0.790) provide for effective mass exchange in industrial performance of the process. The regeneration of I from the extraction phase may be accomplished through rectification. In an example of single stage isolation of mixtures of n-tetradecane with 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene and 1-methylnaphthaline (a temperature of 30 degrees, a ratio of solvent to raw material of 3, an aromatic hydrocarbon content in the mixture of 1.0 percent) showed the following.

  14. Hydrocarbons from ethanol using [Fe,Al]ZSM-5 zeolites obtained by direct synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Machado, Nadia Regina Camargo; Calsavara, Valmir [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, Parana (Brazil); Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli; Neto, Antonio Medina; Baesso, Mauro Luciano [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, Parana (Brazil)

    2006-09-01

    The search for new energy sources has impulsed hydrocarbon production from methanol and ethanol over ZSM-5 zeolites. Iron incorporation by different methods has led to a variety of chemical applications. Thus, hydrocarbon production from ethanol was evaluated using a [Fe,Al]ZSM-5 zeolite which was synthesized without nitrogenated templates, using ethanol and crystallization seeds and partially substituting iron for aluminium in the reaction mixture. Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD), nitrogen adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoacoustic spectroscopies. Iron content in the synthesized samples varied from 0.02 to 1.82%. The obtained samples were used for the ethanol transformation, producing hydrocarbons from ethene to aromatics. Maximum production of liquid hydrocarbons was achieved with the zeolite with 0.5% iron. The procedure for obtaining the acid form of the zeolites, involving ammonium exchange and calcinations, has changed the iron species, probably with extraction from the structure, migration and agglomeration. (author)

  15. Etude de l'état des asphaltènes dans les mélanges d'hydrocarbures : taille des amas moléculaires Research on the State of Asphaltenes in Hydrocarbon Mixtures: Size of Molecular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On expose dans cet article les mesures, par différentes méthodes expérimentales (tonométrie, viscosimétrie, ultrafiltration, des poids et des tailles moléculaires des asphaltènes dans divers mélanges de diluants. Les variations des poids et des tailles moléculaires en fonction de la concentration en soluté et de la composition du mélange de diluants sont expliquées en relation avec le modèle de Yen et ses différentes structures et sous-structures. This article describes the different experimental methods (tonometry, viscosimetry, ultrafiltration used to measure the molecular weights and sizes of asphaltenes in different diluent mixtures. Variations in molecular weights and sizes as a function of the solute concentration and the composition of the diluent mixture are explained in relation to Yen's model and its different structures and substructures.

  16. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  17. Biomonitoring of Epilobium hirsutum L. Health Status to Assess Water Ecotoxicity in Constructed Wetlands Treating Mixtures of Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Guittonny-Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants and metals in constructed wetlands (CWs, phytoindicators may help in guiding management practices for plants and optimizing phytoremediation processes. Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum L. is a fast growing species commonly found in European CWs that could constitute a suitable phytoindicator of metal toxicity. E. hirsutum was exposed for 113 days in microcosm CWs, to a metal and metalloid mixture (MPM, containing Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, an organic pollutant mixture (OPM, containing hydrocarbonsC10-C40, phenanthrene, pyrene, anionic detergent LAS and an organic pollutant and metal and metalloid mixture (OMPM, separately and at concentration levels mimicking levels of industrial effluents. Analyses of metal and As concentrations in biomass, and different biometric and physiological measurements were performed. Results showed that metal uptake patterns were affected by the type of pollutant mixture, resulting in variation of toxicity symptoms in E. hirsutum plants. Some of them appeared to be similar under MPM and OMPM conditions (leaf chlorosis and tip-burning, decrease of green leaf proportion, while others were characteristic of each pollutant mixture (MPM: Decrease of water content, increase of phenol content; OMPM: reduction of limb length, inhibition of vegetative reproduction, increase of chlorophyll content and Nitrogen balance index. Results emphasize the potential of E. hirsutum as a bioindicator species to be used in European CWs treating water with metal, metalloid and organic pollutants.

  18. Determination of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff in sediments of São Gonçalo Channel (Pelotas - RS, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches Filho, Pedro J; Böhm, Emerson M; Böhm, Giani M B; Montenegro, Gissele O; Silveira, Lucas A; Betemps, Glauco R

    2017-01-30

    A high concentration of hydrocarbons in the environment is indicative of pollution. To evaluate the effect of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff, the present study analyzed total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and n-alkanes of the sediments of the canal that cross the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The carbon preference index (CPI), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and pristane/phytane ratio were determined. The TPH content ranged from 177,043.7μg·kg(-1)±13.4% to 5,892,667.0μg·kg(-1)±5.9%. The total aliphatic content ranged from 116,268.8μg·kg(-1)±11.1% to 2,393,592.6μg·kg(-1)±7.7%, indicating chronic contamination of n-alkanes petrogenic and biogenic sources. The levels of hydrocarbons (TPH, AHs, and n-alkanes) were considered relatively high, confirming the effect of urban runoff on the drainage system of cities and their consequent effect on the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon and other water resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region. II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrick, R.C.; Hedges, J.I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C/sub 19/ and C/sub 20/ diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite, sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C/sub 27/, C/sub 28/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes and four C/sub 29/, C/sub 30/ and C/sub 31/ 17..cap alpha..(H), 21..beta..(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes, along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C/sub 30/ polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C/sub 25/ diene and to C/sub 20/ and C/sub 25/ acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper (Barrick et al., 1980).

  20. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  1. Kelvin Equation for a Non-Ideal Multicomponent Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    The Kelvin equation is generalized by application to a case of a multicomponent non-ideal mixture. Such a generalization is necessary in order to describe the two-phase equilibrium in a capillary medium with respect to both normal and retrograde condensation. The equation obtained is applied...... to the equilibrium state of a hydrocarbon mixture ina gas-condensate reservoir....

  2. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Patrick; Hutzler, Christoph; Grabiger, Stefan; Schön, Karsten; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs) which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  3. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tarnow

    Full Text Available The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  4. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  5. Optimal Parameters Multicomponent Mixtures Extruding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil F. Sagitov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of multicomponent mixtures extruding from production wastes are carried out, unit for production of composites from different types of waste is presented. Having analyzed dependence of multicomponent mixtures extruding energy requirements on die length and components content at three values of angular rate of screw rotation, we received the values of energy requirements at optimal length of the die, angular speed and percent of binding additives.

  6. Fuels by Waste Plastics Using Activated Carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and Their Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskolczi Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material was pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor at 530-540°C using different catalysts, such as activated carbon, MCM-41, HZSM-5 and their mixtures. Products were investigated by gas-chromatography, EDXRFS and standardized methods. Catalysts significantly affected the yields of volatiles; e.g. HZSM-5 catalyst increased especially the yield of gaseous hydrocarbons, while MCM-41 catalyst was responsible for increasing the pyrolysis oil yield. Synergistic effects were found using mixtures of different catalysts. Furthermore the catalysts modified the main carbon frame of the products. Pyrolysis oil obtained over HZSM-5 catalyst contained large amounts of aromatics, while MCM-41 catalyst mainly isomerized the carbon frame. Regarding contaminants it was concluded, that the sulphur content could be significantly decreased by activated carbon, however it had only a slight effect to the other properties of the products.

  7. A study to investigate the fluid properties of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures of an automotive fuel system during refuelling. Determination of air-content, density and dynamic viscosity of the vapour-mixture in the venting of automotive fuel tanks during refuelling; Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Fluideigenschaften von Kraftstoffdampf-Luft-Gemischen von Kraftfahrzeuganlagen waehrend der Betankung. Bestimmung des Luftanteils, der Dichte und der dynamischen Viskositaet des Gasgemisches in der Entlueftung eines Kraftfahrzeugtanks waehrend der Betankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurtz, Heinz-Juergen [Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    This study investigates the methods of calculating the fluid-dynamic properties of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. It aims to determine models for the calculation of the dynamic viscosity and density of these fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. For this purpose, fuels were analyzed. The data received were collected in a database which was complemented with the temperature-dependent vapour-pressures and dynamic viscosity-properties. Experiments were conducted in order to determine the air-content in the vapour venting from a fuel system during refueling. Based on these data conclusions can be drawn on the composition of the liquid fuel, which allows the assessment of the fuel-vapour and its properties. The results received were subsequently used to develop parametric models for the calculation of the average molecular weight, density and dynamic viscosity of fuel-vapour/air-mixtures. (orig.)

  8. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Mehrasbi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (20 g/kg dw soil was investigated in 3 media, differing in the kind of petroleum fractions. In the laboratory experiments, during 5 months, the activities of petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and dehydrogenase activity of soil was determined. Gas chromatographic analysis showed the biological decontaminations for gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture (gas oil, kerosene and furnace oil are 60 %, 36 % and 55 %, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity which was assessed by TTC technique, correlated significantly positive with the numbers of microorganisms. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients(r in contaminated soils with gas oil, kerosene and synthetic mixture were 0.79, 0.80 and 0.69, respectively.

  9. Solidification of sediment contaminated with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, E.J. [Anchor QEA LLC, Portland, OR (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A series of bench-scale treatability tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of various solidification reagents in treating sediments contaminated with high concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of Portland cement, cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust, fly ash, and a combination of silica and lime were was assessed relative to their ability to reduce the leaching of contaminants, increase the strength of the contaminated sediment, and reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the sediments. The aim of the study was to develop a design for treating sediments in a stagnant water body located on the grounds of an industrial facility. The sediments were predominantly fine-grained and high in organic content. Preliminary tests identified Portland cement and the silica and lime mixture as achieving the desired strength and resistance to leaching. The solidification reagents were used to solidify more than 11,000 cubic yards of sediment with a mixture of 2 fly ashes. The full-scale solidification project surpassed the required standards for strength and permeability. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Biofiltration of gasoline and diesel aliphatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halecky, Martin; Rousova, Jana; Paca, Jan; Kozliak, Evguenii; Seames, Wayne; Jones, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The ability of a biofilm to switch between the mixtures of mostly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated to assess biofiltration efficiency and potential substrate interactions. A switch from gasoline, which consisted of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, to a mixture of volatile diesel n-alkanes resulted in a significant increase in biofiltration efficiency, despite the lack of readily biodegradable aromatic hydrocarbons in the diesel mixture. This improved biofilter performance was shown to be the result of the presence of larger size (C₉-C(12)) linear alkanes in diesel, which turned out to be more degradable than their shorter-chain (C₆-C₈) homologues in gasoline. The evidence obtained from both biofiltration-based and independent microbiological tests indicated that the rate was limited by biochemical reactions, with the inhibition of shorter chain alkane biodegradation by their larger size homologues as corroborated by a significant substrate specialization along the biofilter bed. These observations were explained by the lack of specific enzymes designed for the oxidation of short-chain alkanes as opposed to their longer carbon chain homologues.

  11. 井中岩屑碳酸盐含量与酸解烃关系新认识%A new viewpoint about the relationship between carbonate content and acidolysis hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 沈忠民; 王国建; 程同锦; 卢丽

    2015-01-01

    Using unary linear regression, the relationship between carbonate content and acidolysis hydrocarbon in a well was investigated, which was different in wells with long production history, dry wells or wells with short production history. The gradient in the mudstone and related coefficient were greater than that in the sandstone in the wells with long production history, but the reverse was true in the dry wells or the wells with short production history. Then the reasons for the characteristics were analyzed from the carbonate mineral formation and the dif⁃ferent lithology’ s adsorption property. According to the characteristics, a new method was developed for hydro⁃carbon prediction in exploration wells and the re⁃examination of old wells. This method was fast and with low cost, and could effectively improve the success rate of new and old wells re⁃examination.%用一元回归的方法探寻井中岩屑碳酸盐含量与酸解烃含量的关系,发现二者斜率和相关系数在长期稳产油(气)井、干井或产期短油(气)井中特征迥异。长期稳产油(气)井中泥岩的碳酸盐含量与酸解烃含量的斜率和相关系数大于砂岩,而干井或产期短油(气)井中恰好相反,并从碳酸盐矿物形成和不同岩性吸附性能的角度分析了这种特征的形成机理。据此特征提出一种新探井含油气性预测和老井复查的方法,具有快速、低成本的特点,可有效提高探井和老井复查成功率。

  12. 高效液相色谱法测定油脂中β-谷甾醇的含量%Determination of β-sitosterol content of oil mixture by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丰艳; 丁力; 曹红云

    2014-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱法准确、高效测定油脂混合体系中β-谷甾醇含量的方法,并对油脂混合物中β-谷甾醇的提取工艺进行了优化。采用C18反相色谱柱对β-谷甾醇含量进行测定,流动相为甲醇-水(体积比98.5:1.5),检测波长210 nm。结果表明:β-谷甾醇在25~500μg/mL范围内,质量浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(R2=0.9998),仪器检出限为7.5μg/mL,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.85%;油脂混合物中β-谷甾醇的最佳提取工艺条件为提取次数4次,离心转速2000 r/min,皂化温度80℃,皂化时间210 min;在最佳提取工艺条件下β-谷甾醇的回收率为93.44%~96.48%,RSD为1.70%。%The accurate and efficient method for determing β-sitosterol content of oil mixture by HPLC was established,and the extraction process of β-sitosterol from oil mixture was optimized. C18 reverse-phase chromatography column was used for the determination ofβ-sitosterol content under the conditions of mobile phase methanol - water (volume ratio 98. 5:1. 5 ) and detection wavelength 210 nm. The re-sults showed that the mass concentration of β-sitosterol had a good linear relationship with peak area in the range of 25-500μg/mL. The correlation coefficient, the instrumental limit of detection and the rela-tive standard deviation (RSD) were 0. 999 8, 7. 5 μg/mL and 0. 85% respectively. The optimal extrac-tion conditions of β-sitosterol from oil mixture were obtained as follows:extraction times four, centrifugal speed 2 000 r/min, saponification temperature 80℃ and saponification time 210 min. Under these conditions,the recovery rate and RSD of β-sitosterol were 93. 44% -96. 48% and 1. 70%, respectively.

  13. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture; Driftgeschwindigkeitsstudien an einer Zeit-Projektions-Kammer (TPC) bei unterschiedlichen Wassergehalten des Kammergases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-15

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC.

  14. Conversion of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons to valuable synthetic feed for steamcrackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesana, A.; Dalloro, L.; Rivetti, F.; Buzzoni, R.; Bignazzi, R. [ENI S.p.A., Novara (Italy). Refining and Marketing Div.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of the present study was upgrading a set of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures whose commercial value ranks close to fuel oil and should become even lower in the next future because of the introduction of more stringent regulations on fuels, through hydro-conversion to a synthetic feed for steam-cracking. The resulting process provides an opportunity to improve the economic return of a steamcracking plant, offering the chance of converting low-value mixtures produced by the plant itself, such as fuel oil of cracking (FOK), saving an equivalent amount of naphtha. The method can also be used for converting pyrolysis gasoline (pygas). Although pygas has at present a fair commercial value, it could suffer a significant penalization in the future due to further limitations on total aromatic content in gasoline. Pygas hydro-conversion to a synthetic steam-cracking feedstock has been recently reported. Fractions from refinery, such as heavy distillates (e.g. Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil, VGO), deasphalted resides (DAO), or some FCC streams (e.g. LCO) resulted suitable and very attractive mixtures to be treated as well. No more than deasphalting was required as pretreatment of the feed mixture and only when the asphalts were >2%. Hetero-elements are often present in such kind of feeds at quite high concentrations, but no problems were observed due to the presence of sulphur and nitrogen, respectively, up to 15000 and 5500 ppm. (orig.)

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE KINETICS OF SOLVOLYSIS OF P-NITROPHENYLSULFONYLMETHYL PERCHLORATE IN BINARY ALCOHOLIC MIXTURES IN TERMS OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE SOLVENT MIXTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNEN, JW; ENGBERTS, JBFN; BLANDAMER, MJ

    1993-01-01

    Rate constants are reported for the solvolysis of p-nitrophenylsulfonylmethyl perchlorate in binary ethanolic and methanolic mixtures at 298.2 K. Co-solvents include hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and 1,4-dioxane. The kinetic data are examined in terms of the effect of decreasing mole fracti

  16. Occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a coke plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Grażyna; Łusiak, Agnieszka

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the external exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of coke-oven workers and by-product workers at a coke plant in Poland. The content of benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene in a gaseous phase and the content of dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benz[ghi]perylene, chrysene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in a particulate phase of coke plant workers were measured in the workers mentioned above. A toxic equivalency factor BaP(eq) was used to estimate human health risk associated with respiratory exposure to PAHs. Time-weighted values of the exposure to AHs in the coke plant were as follows: benzene (range 0.01-2.71 mg m(-3)), toluene (0.01-1.73 mg m(-3)), xylene (0.01-0.78 mg m(-3)), naphthalene (6.0-6079 μg m(-3)), and the concentrations of hydrocarbons did not exceed the exposure limits. The results for particle-bound PAHs were equal to 1.96 μg m(-3) for B(a)P, 0.73 μg m(-3) for DBA, 3.23 μg m(-3) for BaA, 4.35 μg m(-3) for BbF, 3.02 μg m(-3) for BkF, 4.54 μg m(-3) for IND, 4.32 μg m(-3) for CHR, and 0.73 μg m(-3) for Ant. The results of personal air measurements (median values of the sum of nine carcinogenic PAHs) were 2.115 μg m(-3) (coke-oven workers, n = 207), 0.326 μg m(-3) (coke by-product workers, n = 33), and 0.653 μg m(-3) (total area workers, n = 38). The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaP(eq)) of 10 PAHs were 1.33, 0.183, and 0.284 μg m(-3), respectively. We found out that coke plant workers are simultaneously exposed to a mixture of aromatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons present in the breathing zone air. Exposure levels are significantly influenced by job categories. Coke by-product workers are significantly more exposed to benzene, toluene, and xylene and less to PAHs. Coke-oven workers are mainly exposed to PAHs. Coke-oven workplaces (top side, coke side, and

  17. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  18. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  19. Frozen Hydrocarbon Particles of Cometary Halos as Carriers of Unidentified Emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Irakli Simonia

    2005-12-01

    The possible nature of unidentified cometary emissions is under discussion. We propose a new model of the ice particles in cometary halos as a mixture of frozen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acyclic hydrocarbons.We describe principal properties of frozen hydrocarbon particles (FHPs) and suggest interpreting some of the unidentified cometary emission lines as the photoluminescence of FHPs. The results of comparative analysis are present.

  20. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  2. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  3. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  4. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  5. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  6. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  7. Mixtures of biofuels can serve as an ecological substitute for photovoltaics during nighttime hours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejovsky, Vladimir [QMS Consulting, Prague (Czech Republic); Hromadko, Jan; Hoenig, Vladimir [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-06-01

    Diesel fuels consisting of mixtures of ethanol (alternatively butanol), FAME and vegetable oils in variable proportions can meet different requirements of OEMs for viscosity and heating values and constitute a form of renewable and storable energy from the sun which can be easily transformed into electricity. The ratio of component can vary according to the immediate availability and prices of components, oxygen content and the absence of aromatic hydrocarbons enabling the combustion of these mixtures in engines with very low emissions, especially of particulates. From these reasons these mixtures constitute an ecological source of energy suitable to supplement photovoltaic power plants during the night, when insufficient electric power supply and even blackouts can occur. It was verified that Diesel engines working with a mixture consisting of 50% ethanol, 30% FAME, 20% rapeseed oil and a small dosage of cetane improver, exuded much less smoke compared with B7 and B30 fuels and only little more when compared with the E95 fuel for which smoke emission ions was almost zero. Similar results were obtained when ethanol was replaced by biobutanol. (orig.)

  8. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  10. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  11. Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of heavy metals, total hydrocarbon and organic carbon contents of sediments from Ikpoba (Edo) and Ethiope (Delta) Rivers of Nigeria. ... THC contents were 6.50mg/kg (Ikpoba river) and 42.10mg/kg (Ethiope river). The organic contents ...

  12. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  13. NO{sub x} emissions from combustion of hydrogen mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roertveit, Geir Johan

    2002-07-01

    This work includes five different parts each of which has resulted in a paper that is accepted and submitted for publication. Additionally, a short introductory background section precedes these papers. A significant amount of experimental data is presented for the combustion of hydrogen which focus on emission of NO{sub x}. Different dilutes were added to the hydrogen to reduce the flame temperature and subsequently the NO{sub x} emissions. These experiments were performed in a counterflow burner where a flat steady flame layer facilitated accurate measurements. The experiments were compared with numerical calculations to assist the interpretation and discussion of the results. It was found that the experimental results compared well with numerical calculations of NO{sub x} at temperatures of up to 1900 K, while for higher temperatures an increasing discrepancy was found due to the influence of the sampling equipment. Nitrogen diluted methane was enriched by hydrogen from 0to 100 % to study the effect of NO{sub x} with the use of different fuel mixtures in the same counterflow burner. For a similar temperature of the NO{sub x} emitted from a H{sub 2} flame is only 25 % of that of a methane flame. Experiments compared to the pure methane flame showed that there is only a reduction of NO{sub x} when there is very high hydrogen content in the fuel mixture and for most mixtures an actual increase in NO{sub x} is observed. This is found partly due to a triggering of the NO{sub x} from the prompt mechanism. Natural gas and methane have both been substituted by up to 30 % H{sub 2} at constant load in various burners to reveal the effect of H{sub 2} enrichment on emissions. The burners include a swirl burner, a fibre burner, a porous burner and a catalytically supported porous burner. The thermal loads were varied from 2.6 to 21 kW, while excess air ratios were varied form 1 to 1.8. In general little effect of H{sub 2} is found by enriching the fuel. At temperatures of up

  14. Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using mixed-ligand MOF material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Mulfort, Karen L.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2011-01-04

    A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxiode and hydrocarbon gas using a mixed-ligand, metal-organic framework (MOF) material having metal ions coordinated to carboxylate ligands and pyridyl ligands.

  15. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  16. Modeling Hydrodynamic State of Oil and Gas Condensate Mixture in a Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Based on the developed model a calculation method was obtained which is used to analyze hydrodynamic state and composition of hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change.

  17. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  18. Geochemical characteristics and origin of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The light hydrocarbon geochemical characteristics of biogenic gases from Sebei 1 gas field in the Qaidam Basin, Baoshan gas field in the Baoshan Basin and Alaxin gas field, Puqian gas pool, Aonan gas pool in the Songliao Basin are studied and the origin is discussed based on the composition and isotope data of gases. The isoalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in natural gas show a negative relationship with δ13C1 values. The isoalkane contents of the gases with δ13C1 values of less than ?60‰ are also high with more than 40% among light hydrocarbons in Sebei 1 gas field and Puqian gas pool. Moreover, the 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2-methylpentane, mainly sourced from bacteria, have predominance among isoalkanes, which suggests that light hydrocarbons in biogenic gases from these gas fields or pools were probably generated by microbial action. However, the cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas are related to δ13C1 values positively. In Alaxin gas field and Aonan gas pool, where δ13C1 values of biogenic gases are less than ?60‰, the average contents of cycloalkane are higher than 44%. Light hydrocarbons among biogenic gases from these gas fields were probably generated by catalysis. The isoalkane and cycloalkane contents among light hydrocarbons from biogenic gases in the Baoshan gas field are both high, which might be generated by these two actions. The results show that the data of light hydrocarbons in biogenic gas can provide important information for understanding the generation mechanisms of light hydrocarbons during geological evolution and identifying biogenic gas and low mature gas.

  19. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  20. Initial microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are very hazardous environmental pollutants because of their mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic effects on living systems. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the ability and efficiency of selected bacterial isolates obtained from oil-contaminated areas to biodegrade PAHs. The potential of the bacteria to biodegrade various aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol assay. Further biodegradation of PAHs was monitored by gravimetric and gas-chromatographic analysis. Among the eight bacterial isolates, identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, two isolates, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, had the ability to grow on and utilize almost all examined hydrocarbons. Those isolates were further examined for biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene, as single substrates, and as a mixture, in vitro for ten days. After three days, both isolates degraded a significant amount phenanthrene, which has a simpler chemical structure than pyrene. Planomicrobium sp.RNP01 commenced biodegradation of pyrene in the PAH mixture only after it had almost completly degraded phenanthrene. The isolated and characterized bacteria, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, have shown high bioremediation potential and are likely candidates to be used for degradation of highly toxic PAHs in contaminated areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43004

  1. An apparatus for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    1983-03-23

    The installation for vapor conversion of hydrocarbons (Uv) with the formation of a mixture of H2 and C02 is a catalyst chamber (KK) filled with longitudinally disposed thin pipes (with thin walls) or with pipe units made of dolomite, MgO or potassium aluminate. These pipes have a multilayered coating (Pk) on their internal and external surfaces (Pv), which contain catalytically active components. Such pipes or pipe units form a honeycombed structure with through longitudinal channels. The catalyst chamber itself is made of a ceramic material and has a heating winding outside for heating the catalyst. To save fuel and to increase the efficiency (KPD) of the heating device, the catalyst chamber is in turn enclosed by two additional shells filled with heat conducting packings which are easily penetrated by the gases being processed. The hydrocarbon vapors or gaseous fuel from the natural gas or methane and the steam are fed through the above cited heat exchange layers with packings into the facial part of the catalytic chamber, in which the conversion of the hydrocarbons occurs with the production of H2 and C02. From the catalyzer layer the mixture of gases and steam goes through a refrigerator into a trap for the steam excess and when it is necessary, into a C02 absorber and then, pure H2 is discharged from the latter. Such a catalytic installation is convenient to use for producing pure H2 from natural gas, methane, propane or kerosene.

  2. Composition and Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    model for viscosity of liquids , we feel that this is a very good correlation between molecular structure and viscosity, and it appears then that the...B. Thole, "The Viscosity of Liquids ," Longmans, Green and Co., London (1914). 15. W. R. Gambill, Chem. Eng, 66, 151 (1959) 16. P. K. Katti and M. M

  3. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  4. Bio-remediation of a sludge containing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayotamuno, M.J. [Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Okparanma, R.N. [Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Nweneka, E.K. [Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, P. M. B. 5080, Rivers State (Nigeria); Ogaji, S.O.T. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.ogaji@cranfield.ac.uk; Probert, S.D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Bio-augmentation has been used as a bio-remediation option for hydrocarbon-contaminated, oily-sludge restoration. This sludge was obtained from the Bonny-Terminal Improvement Project (BTIP) for Bonny Island, near Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Its total hydrocarbon-content (THC) was 69,372 mg/kg of sludge. Three treatment reactors (X, Y and Z) and one control reactor (A) were charged with 1500 g of oily sludge and 250 g of agricultural soil (i.e. an oily sludge to soil ratio of 6:1), the mixture homogenized and allowed to settle for seven days before various CFUs were added to reactors X, Y and Z. Reactor A did not receive any bio-preparation. The agricultural soil served both as a nutrient and a microbe carrier. With regularly scheduled mixing and watering, the THC reduction in the oily sludge varied between 40.7% and 53.2% within two weeks as well as between 63.7% and 84.5% within six weeks of applying the bio-remediation. The CFU counts of the added bio-preparation varied between 1.2 x 12{sup 12} and 3.0 x 10{sup 12} CFU/g of sludge and decreased to 7.0 x 10{sup 11} CFU/g of sludge by the end of the sixth week. The pH of the degrading sludge fluctuated between 6.5 and 7.8 during the same period. When compared with the performance of the indigenous microbes in the control sample, the added bio-preparation evidently increased the THC reduction rate in the oily sludge.

  5. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  6. Bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables grown in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipopoulou, A M; Manoli, E; Samara, C

    1999-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content was determined in the inner tissue of various vegetable species and their growing environment (soil and atmosphere) in the greater industrial area of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The lower molecular weight compounds dominated in both vegetable leaves and roots. Statistical analysis of variance showed that species and season are the factors that significantly affect PAH concentrations in inner vegetable tissue and soil, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated that the mixture of PAHs in inner vegetable tissue was very similar to that in air vapour thus suggesting gaseous deposition as the principal pathway for the accumulation of PAHs. Soil-to-vegetation and air-to-vegetation bioconcentration factors were calculated and their relationships with PAHs' physicochemical properties were investigated. Solubility and the octanol-water partition coefficient, as well as vapour pressure and the octanol-air partition coefficient were proved to be good predictors for the accumulation of PAHs in inner root and leaf tissue, respectively.

  7. Improved ZIF-8 membrane: Effect of activation procedure and determination of diffusivities of light hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2015-06-23

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 has shown great potential for effective separation of hydrocarbon mixtures based on its intrinsic ultramicroporous feature. In order to explore the permeation and diffusion properties of hydrocarbons through ZIF-8 membrane, high-quality ZIF-8 membranes with a separation factor of ~90 for propylene/propane are successfully prepared via optimizing the activation processes. Single-component permeation data for hydrocarbons (C1–C4) through the improved ZIF-8 membrane are measured and analyzed by Maxwell-Stefan (MS) model to get the transport diffusivities of these hydrocarbons. The diffusivity values of hydrocarbon compare well with those obtained by other experimental techniques. Binary mixture permeation also can be well predicted through single-component adsorption parameters.

  8. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions.

  9. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a seminatur

  10. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a

  11. Study of volumetric properties (PVT) of mixtures made of light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide - Experimental measurements through a vibrating tube densimeter and modelling; Etude des proprietes volumetriques (PVT) d'hydrocarbures legers (C1-C4), du dioxyde de carbone et de l'hydrogene sulfure. Mesures par densimetrie a tube vibrant et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivollet, F.

    2005-12-15

    Various pollutant contents (i.e. carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide or other sulphur products) are found in produced oils. These latter must undergo a number of transformations and purifications. The design and dimensioning of the corresponding units can well be optimized only if one has reliable and accurate data about phase equilibria and volumetric properties and of course reliable and accurate modeling. This work was devoted partly to measurements of volumetric properties on three binary mixtures (ethane - hydrogen sulphide, ethane - propane and carbon dioxide - hydrogen sulphide). These measurements were carried out using equipment, comprising a vibrating tube densimeter (Paar, model DMA 512 P), which was especially designed and built for this work. The binary mixtures were studied in the 253 to 363 K temperature range from at pressures up to either 20 or 40 MPa. Two calibration methods of the vibrating tube were used: the FPMC method (Forced Path Mechanical Calibration) described in the literature and an original method containing neural network, developed herein. The study undertaken about the modeling of volumetric properties made it possible to highlight the inadequacy of the traditional use of cubic equations of state to represent simultaneously volumetric properties and phase equilibria. Among the equations of state investigated, a close attention however was paid to cubic equations of state because of their very great use in the oil field. A new tool was found to adapt cubic equations of state to the simultaneous and satisfactory representation of volumetric properties and phase equilibria. It concerns the coupling of the cubic Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state with volume correction through a neural network. This new model was tested successfully, it makes it possible to benefit from the existing work of representation of phase equilibria (mixing rules and interaction coefficients) while improving calculation of the volumetric data.

  12. Metabolic engineering for the production of hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hye Mi; Cheon, Seungwoo

    2015-06-01

    Biofuels have been attracting increasing attention to provide a solution to the problems of climate change and our dependence on limited fossil oil. During the last decade, metabolic engineering has been performed to develop superior microorganisms for the production of so called advanced biofuels. Among the advanced biofuels, hydrocarbons possess high-energy content and superior fuel properties to other biofuels, and thus have recently been attracting much research interest. Here we review the recent advances in the microbial production of hydrocarbon fuels together with the metabolic engineering strategies employed to develop their production strains. Strategies employed for the production of long-chain and short-chain hydrocarbons derived from fatty acid metabolism along with the isoprenoid-derived hydrocarbons are reviewed. Also, the current limitations and future prospects in hydrocarbon-based biofuel production are discussed.

  13. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; García Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  14. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  15. Deep catalytic oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; Oxydation catalytique totale des hydrocarbures lourds sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, F.

    1998-12-09

    Deep oxidation by air on Pt supported on alumina of a large number of heavy hydrocarbons representative of those found in a real Diesel car exhaust has been studied. Light-off temperatures between 140 and 320 deg. C on 1%Pt/alumina (80% metal dispersion) have been found. Results show that not only the physical state around the conversion area but also the chemical nature of the hydrocarbon plays an important role. Heavy hydrocarbons deep oxidation behaviour has been classified as a function of their chemical category (alkane, alkene, aromatics etc..). Oxidation of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons has shown strong inhibition effects on n-alkane or CO oxidation by polycyclic compounds like 1-methyl-naphthalene. In some cases, by-product compounds in the gas effluent (other than CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) have been identified by mass-spectrometry leading to oxidation mechanism proposals for different hydrocarbons. Catalyst nature (metal dispersion, content) influence has also been studied. It is shown that turn-over activity is favoured by the increase of the metal bulk size. Acidity influence of the carrier has shown only very little influence on n-alkane or di-aromatic compound oxidation. (author)

  16. Light Hydrocarbons in Fluid Inclusions and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis:A Case Study of the Songxi Ag(Sb) Deposit,Eastern Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoming; David I.NORMAN; SUN Kai; WANG Min; CHEN Binghui; CHEN Jingde; YU Shoujun

    2003-01-01

    The Songxi deposit is a newly discovered large Ag (Sb) deposit. By using a suite of high-vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometer systems, the authors have recognized many kinds of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions of minerals. These hydrocarbons are mainly composed of C1-C4 saturated alkanes, while the contents of C2-C4 unsaturated alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are quite low, suggesting that the metallogenic processes have not been affected by magmatic activities. Chemical equilibrium studies show that these hydrocarbons may be a mixture of organic gases generated by microorganism activity and those by thermal cracking of type-II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, and the former may constitute more than two-thirds, implying that microorganism might have played an important role in the metallogenesis. The equilibrium temperature of the latter is about 300(C, which is much higher than the geothermal temperature at the estimated depth of metallogenesis. Thus, the light hydrocarbons generated by thermal cracking of kerogens probably originated in the deep part of the sedimentary basins and then migrated through a long distance to shallower horizons of the basin. Based on the composition of light hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Songxi deposit was formed in a continental rift. The analytical data presented in this paper support from one aspect the genetic model that the Songxi deposit may be a sedimentary hot brine transformed deposit instead of a submarine basic volcanic exhalation and low-medium temperature volcanic hydrothermal fluid filling deposit proposed by most previous researchers.

  17. Combustion kinetics of light hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rota, R.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata

    1998-11-01

    An experimental analysis of the interactions between different hydrocarbons and NO is reported. All the experiments have been carried out in a perfectly stirred reactor, operated isothermally in the temperature range 1,050--1,250 K, with stoichiometric ratios ranging between 1.0 and 1.3. It has been found that, close to the higher temperature values investigated, the NO conversion as a function of the stoichiometric ratio shows a maximum around 1.15--1.20, both in the case of pure methane and methane-ethane mixtures in the feed. Moreover, the addition of NO significantly enhances the system reactivity at the lower temperatures investigated. The ethane content in the feed plays a different role depending upon the temperature value considered. At the lowest temperatures investigated the larger the amount of ethane, the higher the NO abatement, while at the higher temperatures the methane-ethane mixtures always show a larger NO conversion than that of pure methane. However, when increasing the ethane content in the feed, the NO conversion decreases. Finally, various detailed kinetic models (with particular reference to that developed by Miller and Bowman) have been discussed and used to interpret the experimental results.

  18. Plasma Assisted Combustion Mechanism for Small Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    O2 C2H6 C2H4 CH3OH iso‐propane CO2 C3H8 C3H6 C2H5OH neo‐pentane H2O C4H10 CH3OCH3  DME O3 C5H12 Ar H2 N2O PAC  Kinetic  Mechanism  O(-)+N(+)=N+O... Kinetic  Model:  Previous Versions D.V.Zatsepin, S.M.Starikovskaia, A.Yu.Starikovskii Hydrogen oxidation in a  stoichiometric hydrogen‐air mixtures in the... Kinetics  of ignition of saturated hydrocarbons by nonequilibrium plasma: C2H6‐ to C5H12‐containing mixtures. Combustion and Flame 156  (2009) 221–233

  19. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  20. Selective treatment to reduce contamination of propolis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) still preserving its active polyphenol component and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Fabio; Crimaldi, Laura; Maccari, Francesca; Zaccaria, Vincenzo; Fachini, Alfredo; Volpi, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects on health and environment caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critical problems. EFSA has defined 16 priority PAHs that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic, and identified eight (PAH8) priority PAHs as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence in food. Food supplements containing propolis were also found to contain relatively high quantities of PAHs. We report about an extractive procedure which is able to purify propolis from a high content of PAHs using a balanced mixture of ethanol and water solvents. Extracts were characterised for total content of polyphenols, for in vitro antioxidant activity, and single classes of polyphenols evaluated by HPLC-ESI-MS. Obtained propolis extracts were found to have PAH8 and specific benzo[a]pyrene content below limits recommended by EFSA. The reported extractive procedure is easily applicable for possible industrial productions and may also be adopted to the purification of polyphenols from other plant extracts and natural sources.

  1. Hydrocarbon composition products of the catalytic recycling plastics waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the IR spectroscopy results of the hydrocarbon composition of products, which is obtained from catalytic processing of plastic wastes. The optimal conditions for the hydrogenation with to producny liquid of products are identified.  These liquid products are enriched with aromatics, paraffinic- naphthenic and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main characteristics of the distillates received by hydrogenation of plastics (as density, refractive index, iodine number, pour point, cloud point, filtering, sulfur content,  fractional and composition of the hydrocarbon group.

  2. Reduction of the thickness of the boundary film at rectification of hydrocarbonic mixes with application of dry distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirjan Salimov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a negative impact of water vapor from the distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures. It is substantiated a promising method of primary distillation process for oil and raw materials.

  3. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  4. Anaerobic Microbial Transformation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Mixtures of Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Halogenated Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-25

    0.005 Pantothenic acid 0.005 p-Aminobenzoic ac id 0.005 (PABA) Cyanocobalamin (B1 2 ) 0.005 Thioctic (lipoic) acid 0.005 Coenzyme M (Mercapto...vitamin B12 ( cyanocobalamin ), and others -- had been reported to reductively dechlorinate CT in the presence of reducing 42 agents (Castro and Cray

  5. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part II: Binary mixtures with CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2011-01-01

    In Part I of this series of articles, the study of H2S mixtures has been presented with CPA. In this study the phase behavior of CO2 containing mixtures is modeled. Binary mixtures with water, alcohols, glycols and hydrocarbons are investigated. Both phase equilibria (vapor–liquid and liquid......, alcohols and glycols) are considered, the importance of cross-association is investigated. The cross-association is accounted for either via combining rules or using a cross-solvation energy obtained from experimental spectroscopic or calorimetric data or from ab initio calculations. In both cases two...

  6. Low temperature asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Modrijan, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the problem of manufacturing and building in the asphalt mixtures produced by the classical hot procedure and the possibility of manufacturing low temperature asphalt mixtures.We will see the main advantages of low temperature asphalt mixtures prepared with bitumen with organic addition Sasobit and compare it to the classical asphalt mixtures. The advantages and disadvantages of that are valued in the practical example in the conclusion.

  7. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  8. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  9. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities.

  10. Impact of the Prestige oil spill on marsh soils: Relationship between heavy metal, sulfide and total petroleum hydrocarbon contents at the Villarrube and Lires marshes (Galicia, Spain); Impacto de la marea negra del Prestige en suelos de marisma: relacion entre los contenidos de metales pesados, sulfuros e hidrocarburos en las marismas de Villarrube y Lires (Galicia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, L.; Marcet, P.; Covelo, E.F.; Vega, F.A. [Department of Vegetable Biology and Soil Science, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez-Feal, L.; Fernandez-Feal, C. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Ferrol (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the Prestige oil spill on the total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metal contents of soils in two marshes (Lires and Villarrube, Galicia, Spain) and the relationship between their oxidation-reduction potential and the solubility of heavy metals with sulfide and sulfate contents. Soil samples were taken from polluted and unpolluted areas and their petroleum hydrocarbon contents, heavy metal contents and other chemical characteristics were measured. The soils affected by the oil spill show remarkable contents of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V. The Lires marsh soils are more affected by fuel oil than Villarrube marsh. The effects of the contaminating agents on the soils reach distances of up to 500 m from the coastline. In the first 400 m, there are important spatial variations because the fuel oil penetrated into the soils through tidal action and not directly. The Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V contents of polluted soils were between 50 and 200 times higher than those of their unpolluted counterparts and the background concentrations in Galician coastal sediments. In the case of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V, their origin through the fuel oil was corroborated by the high correlation (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of these metals and the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the polluted soils, which shows the combined addition of these metals through the fuel oil. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar el efecto de la marea negra del buque tanque Prestige en el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados en suelos de dos marismas (Lires y Villarrube, Galicia, Espana) y la relacion entre el potencial de oxidacion-reduccion y la solubilidad de los metales pesados con los contenidos de sulfuros y de sulfatos. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de las zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas y se determinaron diversas caracteristicas quimicas, el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados. Los

  11. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  12. Effect of hydrocarbons on plasma treatment of NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Lean burn gasoline engine exhausts contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons in the form of propene. Diesel engine exhausts contain little gaseous hydrocarbon; however, they contain a significant amount of liquid-phase hydrocarbons (known as the volatile organic fraction) in the particulates. The objective of this paper is to examine the fate of NO{sub x} when an exhaust gas mixture that contains hydrocarbons is subjected to a plasma. The authors will show that the hydrocarbons promote the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}, but not the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} is strongly coupled with the hydrocarbon oxidation chemistry. This result suggests that gas-phase reactions in the plasma alone cannot lead to the chemical reduction of NO{sub x}. Any reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} can only be accomplished through heterogeneous reactions of NO{sub 2} with surfaces or particulates.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in surface sediments of Beiluohe Basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Helin; Zhang, Li; Yue, Leping; Zheng, Guozhang

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-two surface sediment samples were collected from Beiluohe River, China, in 2005. Saturated hydrocarbons analysis was carried out on different river sediments in order to detect possible contaminations by petroleum development. Total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the sediments ranged from 6.4-147.3 microg g(-1) (dry wt) with an average of 76.8 microg g(-1), revealing relatively low to medium contamination in studied areas in spite of oil development for many years. The THC levels in the mainstream of Beiluohe River were relatively low. Sediment samples with higher total hydrocarbon concentrations were from the sites related to the petroleum activities or urban discharges. Gas chromatographic distribution patterns of n-alkanes are characteristic of petroleum in most samples. They show a strong unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a small predominance of odd on even numbered n-alkanes. On the other hand, pentacyclic triterpanes and steranes occurred in all analyzed sediments and displayed similar signatures that are characteristic of mature organic matter contribution from oil contaminations. Hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin were also detected in the samples. However, contribution from plantwax hydrocarbons is overshadowed in samples by hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is obvious by the presence of the high relative abundance of UCM, and the identification of mature hopane and sterane in samples.

  14. Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xue, Yong; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2008-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake. Microbial degradation represents the major mechanism responsible for the ecological recovery of PAH-contaminated sites. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of microbial PAH catabolism. In the past decade, the genetic regulation of the pathway involved in naphthalene degradation by different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was studied in great detail. Based on both genomic and proteomic data, a deeper understanding of some high-molecular-weight PAH degradation pathways in bacteria was provided. The ability of nonligninolytic and ligninolytic fungi to transform or metabolize PAH pollutants has received considerable attention, and the biochemical principles underlying the degradation of PAHs were examined. In addition, this review summarizes the information known about the biochemical processes that determine the fate of the individual components of PAH mixtures in polluted ecosystems. A deeper understanding of the microorganism-mediated mechanisms of catalysis of PAHs will facilitate the development of new methods to enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  15. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  17. Plasma nitriding of CA-6NM steel: effect of H2 + N2 gas mixtures in nitride layer formation for low N2 contents at 500 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nardelli Allenstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to characterize the phases, thickness, hardness and hardness profiles of the nitride layers formed on the CA-6NM martensitic stainless steel which was plasma nitrided in gas mixtures containing different nitrogen amounts. Nitriding was performed at 500 ºC temperature, and 532 Pa (4 Torr pressure, for gas mixtures of 5% N2 + 95% H2, 10% N2 + 90% H2, and 20% N2 + 80% H2, and 2 hours nitriding time. A 6 hours nitriding time condition for gas mixture of 5% N2 + 95% H2 was also studied. Nitrided samples results were compared with non-nitrided condition. Thickness and microstructure of the nitrided layers were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, using Villela and Nital etchants, and the phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Hardness profiles and hardness measured on surface steel were determined using Vickers hardness and nanoindentation tester, respectively. It was verified that nitrided layer produced in CA-6NM martensitc stainless steel is constituted of compound layer, being that formation of the diffusion zone was not observed for the studied conditions. The higher the nitrogen amounts in gas mixture the higher is the thickness of the nitrided layer and the probability to form different nitride phases, in the case γ'-Fe4N, ε-Fe2-3N and CrN phases. Intrinsic hardness of the nitrided layers produced in the CA-6NM stainless steel is about 12-14 GPa (~1200-1400 HV.

  18. Process for separating CO sub 2 from a gaseous mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapper, R.; Kick, H.

    1990-06-12

    A process is disclosed for the separation of carbon dioxide from gases containing light hydrocarbons and a relatively high proportion of CO{sub 2}. Such gases include natural gases, notably those found in tertiary petroleum extraction processes wherein CO{sub 2} is injected under high pressure into deposits. The process has the objective of improving known separation process and reducing the energy requirements needed for carrying out the process. According to the invention, a 2-stage fractionating procedure is provided. In a first fractionating stage, the entire amount of C1 and C2 hydrocarbons in the gaseous mixture to be treated is separated from the mixture. The overhead portion of the product coming from this stage contains essentially all of the C1 and C2 hydrocarbons as well as a portion of the CO{sub 2}. The bottoms fraction from this stage contains essentially all of the C3+ hydrocarbons and the largest portion of the CO{sub 2}. In a second fractionating stage, the bottoms fraction is pumped to a higher pressure and further distilled into a C3+ hydrocarbon fraction and a CO{sub 2} fraction. At least part of the bottoms heating of the first fractionating stage is effected by liquid withdrawn from the bottoms. This liquid is heated while cooling the head of the second fractionating stage and is then recycled into the bottoms of the first fractionating stage. 1 fig.

  19. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  1. Effects of nanometer particles and water decoction of the Chinese medicine mixture of pinellia ternate and scorpion on P53 protein contents and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxiang Wang; Lei Liu; Yuming Kang; Shuqiu Wang; Dixiang Sun; Xiaoru Ma; Yanfeng Liang; Fangfang Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Water decoction of the Chinese traditional mcdicine mixture of pinellia ternate and scorpion is an effective treatment for epilepsy.OBJECTIVE:To compare nanometer particles and effects of water decoction of Chinese traditional medicine mixture on P53 protein levels and apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of epileptic rats.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:This randomized,controlled molecular biology study was performed at the Key Laboratory of Child Neural Rehabilitation of Jiamusi University from October to December 2007.MATERIALS:Forty healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study.Convulsion rat models were established by intraperitoneal infusion of 35 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol,once a day,for 28 successive days.The Chinese traditional medicine mixture,comprising pinellia ternate,scorpion,centipede,bupleurum,peach pit and glycyrrhiza,was purchased from Beijing Tongrentang,China.The mixture was made into nanometer particles and water decoction.The apoptosis determination kit and P53 immunohistochemistry kit were bought from Boster,China.METHODS:Forty Wistar rats were randomlv divided into four groups of ten rats per group,control,nanometer particle,water decoction and epileptic model groups.Rats in the nanometer particle and water decoction groups were respectively treated with 300 mg/kg Chinese herb nanometer particle suspension and water decoction by gavage,once a day,for 28 days.Rats in the epileptic model group were fed an equal volume of saline by gavage.Rats in the control group were only administered with the same volume of saline by gavage.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)and immunohistochemistry were used to respectively detect neuronal apoptosis and P53 protein expression in the rat brain cortex and hippocampus at 28 davs following administration.RESULTS:The number of apoptotic neurons was lower in the nanometer particle and water decoction groups compared with the epileptic

  2. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1978-08-08

    Objective is to determine the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, for assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits and guiding research, development, and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. One well was sampled during this reporting period. Another well from Monongalia County, WV (M-1) was cored in April. 31 samples were obtained for Battelle with additional 55 samples canned for other DOE contractors. Characterization tasks on shale samples from R-146 (Mason County, WV.) and M-1 wells (Monongalia) have been completed. In the preliminary analysis correlations were observed between the hydrocarbon gas contents and can pressure, propane content, well location, oxygen content CO/sub 2/ content, bulk density and carbon contents. Higher pressures are attributed to higher hydrocarbon gas contents. For high gas pressures, propane content is an important indication of hydrocarbon gas content. At low gas pressure, butane contents more accurately predict the hydrocarbon gas contents. High CO/sub 2/ and carbon contents indicate high hydrocarbon gas values, whereas oxygen contents are inversely related to hydrocarbon gas contents. Analysis of the limited wire-line log data shows that correlations between the laboratory and well log data can be utilized to predict potential hydrocarbon gas contents of the wells. 15 tables, 27 figures.

  3. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  4. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  6. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  7. Formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures in lacustrine biodegraded oil from Nanxiang Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui; Chai, Derong; Yin, Shiyan; Dai, Wei; Zhang, Wanfeng

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574) have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised "baseline hump" named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  8. Formation and Identification of Unresolved Complex Mixtures in Lacustrine Biodegraded Oil from Nanxiang Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS method has been developed for the formation and identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs in lacustrine biodegraded oils that with the same source rock, similar maturity, and increasing degradation rank from Nanxiang Basin, China. Normal alkanes, light hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, steranes, and terpanes are degraded gradually from oil B330 to oil G574. The compounds in biodegraded oil (oil G574 have fewer types, the polarity difference of compounds in different types is minor, and the relative content of individual compounds is similar. All the features make the compounds in biodegraded oil coelute in GC analysis and form the raised “baseline hump” named UCMs. By injecting standard materials and analyzing mass spectrums of target compounds, it is shown that cyclic alkanes with one to five rings are the major components of UCMs. Furthermore, UCMs were divided into six classes. Classes I and II, composed of alkyl-cyclohexanes, alkyl-naphthanes, and their isomers, are originated from the enrichment of hydrocarbons resistant to degradation in normal oils. Classes III ~ VI, composed of sesquiterpenoids, tricyclic terpanes, low molecular steranes, diasteranes, norhopanes, and their isomers, are probably from some newly formed compounds during the microbial transformation of oil.

  9. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  10. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  11. Carbon dioxide dilution effect on flammability limits for hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chan-Cheng; Liaw, Horng-Jang; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Chin-Yu

    2009-04-30

    Theoretical models to predict the upper/lower flammability limits of a mixture composed of hydrocarbon and inert carbon dioxide are proposed in this study. It is found theoretically that there are linear relations between the reciprocal of the upper/lower flammability limits and the reciprocal of the molar fraction of hydrocarbon in the hydrocarbon/inert gas mixture. These theoretical linear relations are examined by existing experimental results reported in the literature, which include the cases of methane, propane, ethylene, and propylene. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of the regression lines are found to be larger than 0.959 for all aforementioned cases. Thus, the proposed models are highly supported by existing experimental results. A preliminary study also shows the conclusions in present work have the possibility to extend to non-hydrocarbon flammable materials or to inert gas other than carbon dioxide. It is coincident that the theoretical model for the lower flammability limit (LFL) in present work is the same as the empirical model conjectured by Kondo et al.

  12. Metabolism of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene Hydrocarbons in Soil†

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, C.-W.; Song, H. -G.; Bartha, R

    1998-01-01

    Enrichment cultures obtained from soil exposed to benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) mineralized benzene and toluene but cometabolized only xylene isomers, forming polymeric residues. This observation prompted us to investigate the metabolism of 14C-labeled BTX hydrocarbons in soil, either individually or as mixtures. BTX-supplemented soil was incubated aerobically for up to 4 weeks in a sealed system that automatically replenished any O2 consumed. The decrease in solvent vapors and the produ...

  13. Bioremediation of severely weathered hydrocarbons: is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. R.; Villa, R.; Sierra, C.; Sotres, A.; Pelaez, A. I.; Sanchez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Weathering processes of spilled hydrocarbons promote a reduced biodegradability of petroleum compounds mixtures, and consequently bioremediation techniques are often ruled out within the selection of suitable remediation approaches. This is truly relevant wherever old spills at abandoned industrial sites have to be remediated. However it is well known most of the remaining fractions and individual compounds of weathered oil are still biodegradable, although at slow rates than alkanes or no and two-ring aromatics. (Author)

  14. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Dissertation

    OpenAIRE

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refi...

  15. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  16. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  17. Primary Analysis of Two Kinds of Heavy Metals and Petroleum Hydrocarbons Content in Benthos in Yacheng Oil Field%崖城气田底栖动物中2种重金属及石油烃残毒量初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖华; 张浩

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation data in 2009-2010 about the residual poison in the organism, the contents of contamination in benthos in Yacheng oil field were analyzed and assessed. The results showed that the change of contamination content in benthos was not obvious from 2009 to 2010 and the benthos were not severely polluted by heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbons. The quality of the various species of benthos in this area was good and the impact of oil field on nearby waters was little.%根据2009年和2010年的调查资料,对崖城气田附近海域底栖动物污染物含量现状进行分析与评价.结果表明,2009年到2010年该气田附近生物体内污染物含量变化不明显,底柄动物未严重受到重金属和石油烃污染,该区域底柄动物各类群的生物质量状况良好,气田的开发活动对附近海区影响相对较小.

  18. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of the Mediterranean: assessment and source recognition of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Khaled, Azza; Draz, Suzanne O

    2013-06-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast in April 2010. All sediment samples were analyzed for aliphatic (C7 to C34) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged from 1621.82 to 9069.99 ng/g (dry weight), while aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs) varied between 208.69 and 1020.02 ng/g with an average of 530.68 ± 225.86 ng/g dwt. Good correlations observed between certain PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average TOC percent was varied from 0.13 to 1.46 %. Principal component analysis was used to determine the sources of hydrocarbon pollutants in sediments of Mediterranean. Additionally, special PAHs compound ratios suggest the petrogenic origins.

  19. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-10-02

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ∼20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation.

  20. Developing Mathematical Provisions for Assessment of Liquid Hydrocarbon Emissions in Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shantarin, V. D.

    2016-10-01

    The paper reviews the development of methodology for calculation of hydrocarbon emissions during seepage and evaporation to monitor the reliability and safety of hydrocarbon storage and transportation. The authors have analyzed existing methods, models and techniques for assessing the amount of evaporated oil. Models used for predicting the material balance of multicomponent two-phase systems have been discussed. The results of modeling the open-air hydrocarbon evaporation from an oil spill are provided and exemplified by an emergency pit. Dependences and systems of differential equations have been obtained to assess parameters of mass transfer from the open surface of a liquid multicomponent mixture.

  1. Thermal pre-treatment of wet microalgae harvest for efficient hydrocarbon recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, K.; Okada, S.; Sekino, H.; Imou, K.; Yokoyama, S. [Laboratory of Biological and Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Amano, T. [Technology Research Institute, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Botryococcus braunii, a green colonial microalga, is an unusually rich renewable source of hydrocarbons. In this study, wet microalgae harvest was thermally pretreated to enhance hydrocarbon recovery using a solvent extraction process. Samples containing a mixture of B. braunii and water were kept below 100 C for 10 min. The observed hydrocarbon recovery was 97.8% at 90 C. The extraction results suggest that the energy-intensive concentration and drying processes of the harvest could be eliminated. The proposed thermal pretreatment would revolutionize the conventional downstream processes. (author)

  2. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  3. High atmosphere-ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Méjanelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piña, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 102-103 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr-1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake.

  4. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data....

  5. Independent components in spectroscopic analysis of complex mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kraskov, Alexander; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; 10.1016/j.chemolab.2010.05.023

    2010-01-01

    We applied two methods of "blind" spectral decomposition (MILCA and SNICA) to quantitative and qualitative analysis of UV absorption spectra of several non-trivial mixture types. Both methods use the concept of statistical independence and aim at the reconstruction of minimally dependent components from a linear mixture. We examined mixtures of major ecotoxicants (aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), amino acids and complex mixtures of vitamins in a veterinary drug. Both MICLA and SNICA were able to recover concentrations and individual spectra with minimal errors comparable with instrumental noise. In most cases their performance was similar to or better than that of other chemometric methods such as MCR-ALS, SIMPLISMA, RADICAL, JADE and FastICA. These results suggest that the ICA methods used in this study are suitable for real life applications.

  6. Isomorphic Viscosity Equation of State for Binary Fluid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnejad, Hassan; Cheshmpak, Hashem; Jamali, Asma

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the simple binary mixtures in the vicinity of critical line has a universal character and can be mapped from pure components using the isomorphism hypothesis. Consequently, based upon the principle of isomorphism, critical phenomena and similarity between P-ρ-T and T-η-(viscosity)-P relationships, the viscosity model has been developed adopting two cubic, Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) and Peng-Robinson (PR), equations of state (EsoS) for predicting the viscosity of the binary mixtures. This procedure has been applied to the methane-butane mixture and predicted its viscosity data. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data has been observed. In conclusion, we have shown that the isomorphism principle in conjunction with the mapped viscosity EoS suggests a reliable model for calculating the viscosity of mixture of hydrocarbons over a wide pressure range up to 35 MPa within the stated experimental errors.

  7. Organic geochemistry of the Vindhyan sediments: Implications for hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, A. M.; Mani, Devleena; Madhavi, T.; Kavitha, S.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Sharma, Mukund

    2014-09-01

    The organic geochemical methods of hydrocarbon prospecting involve the characterization of sedimentary organic matter in terms of its abundance, source and thermal maturity, which are essential prerequisites for a hydrocarbon source rock. In the present study, evaluation of organic matter in the outcrop shale samples from the Semri and Kaimur Groups of Vindhyan basin was carried out using Rock Eval pyrolysis. Also, the adsorbed low molecular weight hydrocarbons, methane, ethane, propane and butane, were investigated in the near surface soils to infer the generation of hydrocarbons in the Vindhyan basin. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in shales ranges between 0.04% and 1.43%. The S1 (thermally liberated free hydrocarbons) values range between 0.01-0.09 mgHC/gRock (milligram hydrocarbon per gram of rock sample), whereas the S2 (hydrocarbons from cracking of kerogen) show the values between 0.01 and 0.14 mgHC/gRock. Based on the Tmax (temperature at highest yield of S2) and the hydrogen index (HI) correlations, the organic matter is characterized by Type III kerogen. The adsorbed soil gas, CH4 (C1), C2H6 (C2), C3H8 (C3) and nC4H10, (nC4), concentrations measured in the soil samples from the eastern part of Vindhyan basin (Son Valley) vary from 0 to 186 ppb, 0 to 4 ppb, 0 to 5 ppb, and 0 to 1 ppb, respectively. The stable carbon isotope values for the desorbed methane (δ13C1) and ethane (δ13C2) range between -45.7‰ to -25.2‰ and -35.3‰ to -20.19‰ (VPDB), respectively suggesting a thermogenic source for these hydrocarbons. High concentrations of thermogenic hydrocarbons are characteristic of areas around Sagar, Narsinghpur, Katni and Satna in the Son Valley. The light hydrocarbon concentrations (C1-C4) in near surface soils of the western Vindhyan basin around Chambal Valley have been reported to vary between 1-2547 ppb, 1-558 ppb, 1-181 ppb, 1-37 ppb and 1-32 ppb, respectively with high concentrations around Baran-Jhalawar-Bhanpur-Garot regions (Kumar

  8. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  9. A sealing mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrullin, S.R.; Firsov, I.A.; Ongoyev, V.M.; Shekhtman, E.N.; Taskarin, B.T.

    1983-01-01

    A plugging mixture is proposed which contains triethanolamine, caustic soda, water and an additive. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the cost of the mixture while preserving its operational qualities, it additionally contains clay powder and as the additive, ground limestone with the following component ratio in percent by mass: ground limestone, 50 to 60; triethanolamine, 0.1 to 0.15; caustic soda, 2 to 3; clay powder, 8 to 10 and water the remainder. The mixture is distinguished by the fact that the ground limestone has a specific surface of 2,000 to 3,000 square centimeters per gram.

  10. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbons in intertidal ecosystem along the Bombay Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Mayadeo, M.S.; Dhadke, P.M.

    Petroleum hydrocarbon content in intertidal sediment and water samples collected at Madh, Worli and Colaba were in the ranges of 5.1-7, 5.8-7.4, 2.9-10.3 mu g.g sup(-1), wet wt and N.D.-18.5, N.D.-5.8 mu g.l sup(-1) respectively. The concentrations...

  12. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  13. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    -alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... of the model of relevance to the petroleum and chemical industries: high pressure vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium in alcohol-containing mixtures, mixtures with gas hydrate inhibitors and mixtures with polar and hydrogen bonding chemicals including organic acids. Some comparisons with conventional...

  14. Content of PAHs, activities of γ-radionuclides and ecotoxicological assessment in biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondek Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of thermal conversion temperature and plant material addition to sewage sludge on the PAHs content and the activity of selected γ-radionuclides in biochars, and to conduct an ecotoxicological assessment. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials at 300°C and such temperature caused an increase in the contents of 2- and 3-ring hydrocarbons. During the pyrolysis of organic materials at 600°C, the amount of the following compounds was reduced in biochars: benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. Among γ-radioisotopes of the elements, natural radiogenic isotopes were dominant. 137Cs was the only artificial radioactive isotope. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of municipal sewage sludge and plant materials revealed that isotope 40K had the highest radioactive activity. In the case of other analysed nuclides, activities of 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs were determined after the sample pyrolysis. The extracts from the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials were non-toxic to Vibrio fischeri.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-Alkanes in beaked sea snake Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803) from the Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mote, S.; RanjeetKumar; Naik, B.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    on marine organisms. A more extensive characterization and a separation of the complex hydrocarbon mixture into individual components is necessary for distinguishing between hydrocarbons of recent biogenic origin and hydrocarbons from fossil fuels. Among... JM (1993) The Biomarker Guide: Interpreting molecular fossils inpetroleum and ancient sediments, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 363 Readman JW, Fillmann G, Tolosa I, Bartocci J, Villeneuve JP, Catinni C, Mee LD (2002) Petroleum...

  16. Removal of Mercury in Liquid Hydrocarbons using Zeolites Modified with Chitosan and Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Susanto, B. H.; Nasution, D. A.; Jonathan, R.; Khairul, W. M.

    2017-07-01

    Clinoptilolite zeolites were chemically modified with chitosan (Chit) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) were synthesized for removal of mercury from liquid condensate hydrocarbon. The mercury content was in liquid hydrocarbon which was measured by Lumex mercury analyzer. The performance of sorbents based on zeolites modified chitosan and magnetic nanoparticles were examined on the real liquid condensate hydrocarbon. Removal of mercury using a prestine clinoptilolite zeolites, and zeolites modified chitosan (zeolites-Chit) were ∼4.5, and ∼35%, respectively. The effects of magnetic nanoparticles in zeolites-Chit sorbents were significant to reduce the mercury content in liquid condensate hydrocarbon which were from ∼63 to ∼66%. Increasing the mass ratio of Fe3O4 that influenced to the BET surface area of natural zeolites. Zeolites-Chit-Fe3O4NPs as an efficient sorbents are potential ideal to remove mercury in hydrocarbon for practical applications.

  17. Interaction of DNA with aromatic hydrocarbons fraction in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Voluminously epidemiological studies show that the relationships exist between the air pollution and human health and cancer. Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in air form a large class of organic pollutants, which are widely in environment and many of them are known to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic and contribute to ambient air pollution. In the past decades, bioassays mainly have been used to evaluate the toxicity of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates or aqueous environment. However, it is well known that the covalent complexes formed by carcinogens with DNA may be exert negative results in bioassay. So the main aim of this paper is to develop an evaluation method of toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates from chemical standpoint. In this study, the in virto interaction of the AHs with DNA was investigated by absorption, fluorescence and resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the AHs in the atmospheric particulates could combine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) without being activated or metabolized by organism, respectively. Intercalation may be present in the mechanism of interaction. The binding constants of the AHs with ctDNA and hsDNA were 2.5×102 and 2.0×103, respectively, which indicated that the interaction of the AHs with hsDNA is stronger than that with ctDNA. In addition, the relationships of dose-effect between the total mole concentration of chemical components and the ability of binding ct DNA and hsDNA were confirmed. This research made it possible to study the toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates by chemical method. It is believed that the composition and contents of unknown AHs and the interaction of DNA with AHs in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou City, China are first reported in the past twenty years.

  18. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum fractions using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and mass fragmentrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, V.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometry in combination with gas chrom. used to analyze hydrocarbon mixtures results in qualit. and semi-quant. data regarding composition of the analyzed mixture. Use of mass fragmentrography during chromatographic separation will allow simultaneous recording of changes in intensity of characteristic ions and thus determine the retention index, for this substance. Combining mass spectre and retention index, it is possible to identify the given subst. or limit the number of possible combinations.

  19. Calculation of Binary Adsorption Equilibria: Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide on Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Lis; Krøll, A.

    1999-01-01

    Binary adsorption equilibria are calculated by means of a mathematical model for multicomponent mixtures combined with the SPD (Spreading Pressure Dependent) model for calculation of activity coefficients in the adsorbed phase. The model has been applied successfully for the adsorption of binary ...... mixtures of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide on activated carbons. The model parameters have been determined, and the model has proven to be suited for prediction of adsorption equilibria in the investigated systems....

  20. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  1. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  2. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2010-09-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x(1) = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x(1) < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x(1) of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x(1) = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x(2) = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

  3. The Influence of Admixtures on the Technological Properties of Fresh Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas KLOVAS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research superplasticizing (SP, air voids removing (AVR, viscosity modifying (VM and air entraining admixtures (AE were used. The dosage of admixtures was chosen from minimum to maximum values recommended by the manufacturers. To sum up, 7 concrete mixture compositions with SP, 6 with AVR and 6 with VM and the last 6 with AE admixture were prepared. Water and cement ratio for all the compositions was kept at the same value. According to the results obtained, the usage of SP admixture resulted in significant increase of mixture`s slump and flow however it reduced mixture`s air content and increased its density. Concrete mixture`s properties: slump and flow were almost not affected by the increase of AVR and VM admixtures, however the air content slightly decreased and the density of concrete mixture slightly increased. With the incline of air entraining admixture, mixture`s slump, flow and air content increased, but the density declined. The authors of this study wanted to express the importance of the close link between concrete mixture`s technological and rheological properties. According to the yield stress of concrete mixture it is possible to prognosticate the future problems or various outcomes during or after the concrete mixture`s casting process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.5170

  4. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part IV. Applications to mixtures of CO2 with alkanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of pure gaseous, liquid or supercritical CO2 and CO2 mixtures with hydrocarbons and other compounds such as water, alcohols, and glycols are very important in many processes in the oil and gas industry. Design of such processes requires use of accurate thermodynamic...

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Components and Mixtures under Engine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Curran, H J

    2010-01-11

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, an improved version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multicomponent gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines (3-50 atm, 650-1200K, stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures). Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  6. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  7. Sustainable Separations of C4 -Hydrocarbons by Using Microporous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Mascha; Guo, Zhiyong; Rothenberg, Gadi; Tanase, Stefania

    2017-06-15

    Petrochemical refineries must separate hydrocarbon mixtures on a large scale for the production of fuels and chemicals. Typically, these hydrocarbons are separated by distillation, which is extremely energy intensive. This high energy cost can be mitigated by developing materials that can enable efficient adsorptive separation. In this critical review, the principles of adsorptive separation are outlined, and then the case for C4 separations by using zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is examined. By analyzing both experimental and theoretical studies, the challenges and opportunities in C4 separation are outlined, with a focus on the separation mechanisms and structure-selectivity correlations. Zeolites are commonly used as adsorbents and, in some cases, can separate C4 mixtures well. The pore sizes of eight-membered-ring zeolites, for example, are in the order of the kinetic diameters of C4 isomers. Although zeolites have the advantage of a rigid and highly stable structure, this is often difficult to functionalize. MOFs are attractive candidates for hydrocarbon separation because their pores can be tailored to optimize the adsorbate-adsorbent interactions. MOF-5 and ZIF-7 show promising results in separating all C4 isomers, but breakthrough experiments under industrial conditions are needed to confirm these results. Moreover, the flexibility of the MOF structures could hamper their application under industrial conditions. Adsorptive separation is a promising viable alternative and it is likely to play an increasingly important role in tomorrow's refineries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hydrocarbons emissions from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Imaz, Mireya

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important environmental issues related to the use of geothermal fluids to generate electricity is the emission of non-condensable gases to the atmosphere. Mexico has one of the largest geothermal plants in the world. The facility is located at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, roughly 30 km south of Mexicali and the international boundary between Mexico and United States. The Cerro Prieto power plant has 13 units grouped on four individual powerhouses. Gas samples from 9 units of the four powerhouses were collected during 4 campaigns conducted in May-July, 2010, February, 2012, December, 2012, and May, 2013. Gas samples from the stacks were collected in 1000 ml Pyrex round flasks with Teflon stopcocks, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon, with a concentration that ranged from less than 1% up to 3.5% of the total gas mixture. Normal alkanes represented the second most abundant species, and displayed a decreasing abundance with increasing carbon number in the homologous series. Isoalkanes were also present as isobutane and isopentane. Cycloalkanes occurring as cyclopentane and cyclohexane, were detected only at trace level. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) were not detected. Benzene was detected at levels ranging from less than 1% up to 3.4% of the total gas mixture. Other aromatic hydrocarbons detected were toluene, and xylenes, and were present at lower concentrations (

  9. Empirical modeling of soot formation in shock-tube pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Clary, D. W.; Matula, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for empirical modeling of soot formation during shock-tube pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons is developed. The method is demonstrated using data obtained in pyrolysis of argon-diluted mixtures of toluene behind reflected shock waves. The developed model is in good agreement with experiment.

  10. 测定水中硅的新还原剂——赤霉素-葡萄糖-二氯化锡混合液%A New Reducing Agent for Determination of Silicon Content in Water — — Mixture of Gibberellin, Glucose and Tin Dichloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卫民

    2001-01-01

    A suitable reducing agent of the mixture of gibberellin, glucose and tin dichloride was used as a new color reagent for the determination of silicon content in water by silicomolybdic blue method. In the medium of HNO3 of 0.2 mol/L, the mixture of gibberellin, glucose and tin dichloride reacts with hete-ropoly acid of silicon to form heteropoly blue with λ max=801 nm . Apparent molar absorptivity is 1.28× 104 L· mol-1· cm-1 . Lambert-Beer law is obeyed in the range of 0.1~ 4 mg/L for silicon. The rate of this reaction is fast, and the reaction product is stable. This method has been used to determine silicon content in mineral water with satisfactory results.%采用赤霉素-葡萄糖-二氯化锡混合液作为钼蓝法中的新还原剂。在 0.2 mol/L HNO3介质中 , 赤霉素-葡萄糖-二氯化锡混合物与硅杂多酸反应生成杂多蓝。λ max=801 nm, 表观摩尔吸光系数为 1.28× 104 L· mol- 1· cm- 1, 硅含量在 0.1~ 4 mg/L范围内符合朗伯-比尔定律。以赤霉素-葡萄糖-二氯化锡混合液作还原剂,还原速度快,产物稳定性好,操作简便,结果令人满意。

  11. Atomistic simulations of bicelle mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hao; Kindt, James T

    2010-06-16

    Mixtures of long- and short-tail phosphatidylcholine lipids are known to self-assemble into a variety of aggregates combining flat bilayerlike and curved micellelike features, commonly called bicelles. Atomistic simulations of bilayer ribbons and perforated bilayers containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC, di-C(14) tails) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC, di-C(6) tails) have been carried out to investigate the partitioning of these components between flat and curved microenvironments and the stabilization of the bilayer edge by DHPC. To approach equilibrium partitioning of lipids on an achievable simulation timescale, configuration-bias Monte Carlo mutation moves were used to allow individual lipids to change tail length within a semigrand-canonical ensemble. Since acceptance probabilities for direct transitions between DMPC and DHPC were negligible, a third component with intermediate tail length (didecanoylphosphatidylcholine, di-C(10) tails) was included at a low concentration to serve as an intermediate for transitions between DMPC and DHPC. Strong enrichment of DHPC is seen at ribbon and pore edges, with an excess linear density of approximately 3 nm(-1). The simulation model yields estimates for the onset of edge stability with increasing bilayer DHPC content between 5% and 15% DHPC at 300 K and between 7% and 17% DHPC at 323 K, higher than experimental estimates. Local structure and composition at points of close contact between pores suggest a possible mechanism for effective attractions between pores, providing a rationalization for the tendency of bicelle mixtures to aggregate into perforated vesicles and perforated sheets.

  12. Operation of static and flowing Cs DPAL with different buffer gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, R. J.; Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. T.; Shaffer, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    Cs DPAL operation using Ethane, Methane and mixtures of these hydrocarbons with noble gases He and Ar as a buffer gases for spin-orbit relaxation was studied in this work. The best Cs DPAL performance in continuous wave operation with flowing gain medium was achieved using pure Methane, pure Ethane or a mixture of Ethane (minimum of 200 Torr) and He with a total buffer gas pressure of 300 torr.

  13. Preliminary design of axial flow hydrocarbon turbine/generator set for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B.; Samurin, N.A.; Shields, J.R.

    1979-05-01

    This report outlines the design of a 65 MW (e) gross turbine generator set in which a hydrocarbon gas mixture is used as the motive fluid. The turbine generator set is part of a geothermal binary cycle electric power plant proposed for the Heber site in the Imperial Valley, California. Aerodynamic design considerations and estimated unit performance for three hydrocarbon gas mixtures are presented. Real gas properties and equations of state are reviewed as they affect the turbine design and the thermodynamic cycle. The mechanical designs for the casing, rotor dynamics, shaft sealing and unit construction are detailed. Support systems such as the lube and seal supply system, turbine controls, etc., are reviewed. An extensive hydrocarbon turbine general specification is also included.

  14. Afrikaner spirituality: A complex mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Olivier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the perception that Afrikaner spirituality is and has always been founded mainly or only upon the Calvinistic tradition is a misconception. Nineteenth century Afrikaner spiritualism consisted of a mixture of theology, philosophy and a way of adapting to extreme living conditions. These factors, although with different contents, are also the determinant issues that made 21st century Afrikaner spirituality such a complex phenomenon. The article postulates that the Afrikaner nation’s current identity crisis can be resolved by closely looking at the different influences on the spirituality of the nation and by carefully guiding the people through the complex set of multiple choices to a fresh relation with Christ in a new found Christian identity to confirm our Christian foundation.

  15. Geochemistry of hydrocarbons of the Terek-Caspian trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Terek-Caspian oil and gas bearing basin of the Eastern Ciscaucasia, oil deposits occur in a wide stratigraphic range of rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section, from the Jurassic, at depths from 5800 to 200 m. In the sedimentary section, carbonate and terrigenous Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Miocene oil-mother rocks are distinguished. Organic matter from them have different geochemical characteristics and different maturity to realize the generation potential. The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of potential petroleum-bearing rocks and hydrocarbon fluids from the Terek-Sunzha folded zone of the Terek-Caspian Trough, including lithological, chemical-bituminological, pyrolytic, chromatographic and chromatographic-mass spectrometry investigations. A detailed description of hydrocarbon fluids at the molecular level and genetic correlations of oil-oil and oil-organic matter are given. Specific features of the oil deposits of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section are noted. Among the studied bitumens, the chromatographic characteristics of the extractable organic matter from the Khadum carbonate-clayey deposits and oils from the Cretaceous and Neogene reservoirs are most similar. The composition of a complex natural mixture of hydrocarbons from various sources, with different maturation during the geological history of the region, does not allow making unambiguous conclusions about the source or sources of hydrocarbons for the deposits of the Terek-Caspian Trough.

  16. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  17. Influência do Fósforo, Micorriza e Nitrogênio no Conteúdo de Minerais de Brachiaria brizantha e Arachis pintoi Consorciados Effect of Phosphorus, Mycorrhizal and Nitrogen on Mineral Content of Brachiaria brizantha - Arachis pintoi Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívina Paula Almeida dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do fósforo (P, fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA's e nitrogênio (N no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea de braquiária MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo consorciados, em solo de baixa fertilidade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 5x2x2, sendo cinco doses de P (25, 50, 75, 100 e 200 mg de P/kg de solo, dois tratamentos de inoculação do solo (inoculado e não com o FMA Glomus etunicatum e dois tratamentos de N (com e sem N em cobertura, com quatro repetições. Foi realizado o corte da parte aérea das plantas aos 60 dias após a germinação para a determinação das quantidades acumuladas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na MS da parte aérea. As adubações fosfatada e, principalmente, a nitrogenada provocaram aumento no conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na braquiária MG-4, não se verificando tal aumento com a micorrização. No amendoim forrageiro, observou-se redução destes minerais com a aplicação de N, ao passo que a micorrização resultou em aumento dos mesmos. Por outro lado, a adubação fosfatada provocou pequeno aumento no acúmulo de minerais na MS da parte aérea do amendoim forrageiro.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse condition to study the effect of phosphorus, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen on mineral accumulation in braquiaria MG-4 (Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4 above ground forage DM and peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo mixture, in soil of low fertility. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a 5x2x2 factorial arrangement, with five P rates (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg of soil, two inoculations (inoculated and no inoculated and two levels of N (with and without N, with four replicates. The harvest of the above ground parts of plants was at 60 days after seed germination to determine

  18. Optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon compositions for reducing exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yitao; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon compositions on raw exhaust emissions and combustion processes were studied on an engine test bench. The optimization of gasoline hydrocarbon composition was discussed. As olefins content increased from 10.0% to 25.0% in volume, the combustion duration was shortened by about 2 degree crank angle (degrees CA), and the engine-out THC emission was reduced by about 15%. On the other hand, as aromatics content changed from 35.0% to 45.0%, the engine-out NOx emissions increased by 4%. An increment in olefins content resulted in a slight increase in engine-out CO emission, while the aromatics content had little effect on engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO emissions. Over the new European driving cycle (NEDC), the THC, NOx and CO emissions of fuel with 25.0% olefins and 35.0% aromatics were about 45%, 21% and 19% lower than those of fuel with 10.0% olefins and 40.0% aromatics, respectively. The optimized gasoline compositions for new engines and new vehicles have low aromatics and high olefins contents.

  19. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight.

  20. Autoignition behavior of lean mixtures: Chemical and thermodynamics effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronney, P.D.; Shoda, M.; Waida, S.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-01-15

    Knock characteristics of natural gas (NG), 89 octane unleaded gasoline, 2,2-dimethyl butane (22DMB), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in stoichiometric and lean fuel-air mixtures were studied in a production 4-cylinder automotive engine. The Intake Temperature at the Knock Limit (ITKL) was different for each fuel but always higher in lean mixtures. Gasoline and 22DMB exhibited much greater increases in ITKL than MTBE and NG at lean conditions. Surprisingly, for lean mixtures 22DMB exhibited higher ITKL than MTBE and was almost as high as NG. Comparison with detailed numerical modelling was very favorable. Computations show that both differences in chemistry and end-gas temperature and pressure histories are responsible for these trends. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon oxidation. The implication of these results for the specification of optimal fuels for lean-burn engine is discussed.

  1. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  2. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  3. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    oxidation of contaminants and by integrating the process to biological treatment, in which the formed degradation products can be biodegraded. Phytoremediation was used to remove fresh and aged petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, and modified FentonAEs reaction combined with biodegradation was used to remove aged creosote oil from soil. The effects of hydrocarbon aging, different plant species and soil amendments on the removal efficiency were studied in phytoremediation experiments. Lab-scale experiments were made with fresh diesel fuel, and a field study was made with aged hydrocarbons deriving from diesel fuel and lubricants. The used plant species were pine, poplar, a grass mixture and a legume mixture. The experiments with modified Fenton's treatment were carried out in soil columns, to which concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added simulating in situ injection. Iron was not added since the soil was rich in iron. After FentonAEs treatment, the soil was incubated in serum bottles to determine the effects on bioavailability of PAHs by modified FentonAEs oxidation and to simulate the potential of intrinsic remediation. In addition to hydrocarbon analyses, the effects of both methods on soil microbial activities and toxicity were determined. In the presence of white clover and green pea, pine or poplar, 89 to 98 % of diesel fuel was removed, whereas the presence of grasses did not increase diesel fuel removal compared to treatment without plants, where up to 86 % of diesel fuel was removed. When diesel was applied to the trees for a second time, reduction in one month was 9 to 25 % higher than what was achieved after first month of first application. During the four growing season study with soil contaminated with aged hydrocarbon contaminants, the presence of vegetation did not increase hydrocarbon removal in unfertilised soil. Vegetation cover was denser in amended soil than in unfertilised soil. The addition of compost or NPK fertiliser enhanced hydrocarbon removal

  4. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  5. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  6. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  7. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  8. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail: jchiar@seti.org, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  9. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  10. Separating mixtures by exploiting molecular packing effects in microporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-01-07

    We examine mixture separations with microporous adsorbents such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), operating under conditions close to pore saturation. Pore saturation is realized, for example, when separating bulk liquid phase mixtures of polar compounds such as water, alcohols and ketones. For the operating conditions used in industrial practice, pore saturation is also attained in separations of hydrocarbon mixtures such as xylene isomers and hexane isomers. Separations under pore saturation conditions are strongly influenced by differences in the saturation capacities of the constituent species; the adsorption is often in favor of the component with the higher saturation capacity. Effective separations are achieved by exploiting differences in the efficiency with which molecules pack within the ordered crystalline porous materials. For mixtures of chain alcohols, the shorter alcohol can be preferentially adsorbed because of its higher saturation capacity. With hydrophilic adsorbents, water can be selectively adsorbed from water-alcohol mixtures. For separations of o-xylene-m-xylene-p-xylene mixtures, the pore dimensions of MOFs can be tailored in such a manner as to allow optimal packing of the isomer that needs to be adsorbed preferentially. Subtle configurational differences between linear and branched alkane isomers result in significantly different packing efficiencies within the pore topology of MFI, AFI, ATS, and CFI zeolites. A common characteristic feature of most separations that are reliant on molecular packing effects is that adsorption and intra-crystalline diffusion are synergistic; this enhances the separation efficiencies in fixed bed adsorbers.

  11. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  12. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  13. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  14. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  15. ASPECTS OF THERMODYNAMICS OF POLYMER MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Zhikuan

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review article some aspects of the thermodynamics of polymer mixtures are discussed,mainly based on the author's research. The studies of poly (methyl methacrylate)/chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), poly (butyl acrylate)/CPE and CPE/CPE (different chlorine content) mixture verify the "dissimilarity" and "similarity" principles for predicting miscibility of polymer mixtures. The sign of heat of mixing of oligomeric analogues is not sufficient in predicting the miscibility. The Flory equation of state theory has been applied to simulate the phase boundaries of polymer mixtures. The empirical entropy parameter Q12 plays an important role in the calculation, this reduces the usefulness of the theory. With energy parameter X12 ≠ 0 and Q12 ≠ 0 the spinodals so calculated are reasonable compared to experiments.A hole model was suggested for the statistics of polymer mixtures. The new hole theory combines the features of both the Flory equation of state theory and the Sanchez lattice fluid theory and can be reduced to them under some conditions.

  16. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  17. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture.

  18. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  19. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  20. Insect Adhesion Secretions: Similarities and Dissimilarities in Hydrocarbon Profiles of Tarsi and Corresponding Tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Heike; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Spatially controlled in vivo sampling by contact solid phase microextraction with a non-coated silica fiber combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for hydrocarbon profiling in tarsal adhesion secretions of four insect species (Nicrophorus vespilloides, Nicrophorus nepalensis, Sagra femorata, and Gromphadorhina portentosa) by using distinct adhesion systems, viz. hairy or smooth tarsi. For comparison, corresponding samples from tibiae, representing the general cuticular hydrocarbon profile, were analyzed to enable the statistical inference of active molecular adhesion principles in tarsal secretions possibly contributed by specific hydrocarbons. n-Alkanes, monomethyl and dimethyl alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, and one aldehyde were detected. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analyses) gave insights into distinctive molecular features among the various insect species and between tarsus and tibia samples. In general, corresponding hydrocarbon profiles in tarsus and tibia samples largely resembled each other, both qualitatively and in relative abundances as well. However, several specific hydrocarbons showed significantly different relative abundances between corresponding tarsus and tibia samples, thus indicating that such differences of specific hydrocarbons in the complex mixtures might constitute a delicate mechanism for fine-tuning the reversible attachment performances in tarsal adhesive fluids that are composed of substances originating from the same pool as cuticular hydrocarbons. Caused by melting point depression, the multicomponent tarsal adhesion secretion, made up of straight chain alkanes, methyl alkanes, and alkenes will have a semi-solid, grease-like consistency, which might provide the basis for a good reversible attachment performance.

  1. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene ...

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF A PAH MIXTURE BY NATIVE SUBSURFACE MICROBIOTA. (R828770C004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory microcosm studies were conducted to estimate biodegradation rates for a mixture of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). Static microcosms were assembled using soil samples from two locations collected at a No. 2 fuel oil-contaminated site in the At...

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF A PAH MIXTURE BY NATIVE SUBSURFACE MICROBIOTA. (R828770)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory microcosm studies were conducted to estimate biodegradation rates for a mixture of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). Static microcosms were assembled using soil samples from two locations collected at a No. 2 fuel oil-contaminated site in the At...

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for characterizing mineral oils in foods and distinguishing them from synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2015-01-02

    Many foods are contaminated by hydrocarbons of mineral oil or synthetic origin. High performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) is a powerful tool for the quantitative determination, but it would often be desirable to obtain more information about the type of hydrocarbons in order to identify the source of the contamination and specify pertinent legislation. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is shown to produce plots distinguishing mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) from polymer oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) and characterizing the degree of raffination of a mineral oil. The first dimension separation occurred on a phenyl methyl polysiloxane, the second on a dimethyl polysiloxane. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used for identification, FID for quantitative determination. This shows the substantial advances in chromatography to characterize complex hydrocarbon mixtures even as contaminants in food.

  5. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments: consequences on the speciation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Gabellini, Massimo; Rocchetti, Laura; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the effects of biostimulation and bioagumentation strategies applied to harbor sediments displaying reducing conditions and high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We compared the microbial efficiency of hydrocarbon removal from sediments maintained for 60 days in anoxic conditions and inoculated with acetate, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains and acetate and sulfate-reducing bacteria. All treatments determined a significant increase in the microbial growth and significant decreases of hydrocarbon contents and of redox potential values. The addition of sulfate-reducing bacterial strains to the sediment was the most efficient treatment for the hydrocarbon removal. In all experiments, significant changes of the heavy metals' phase repartition were observed. The results reported here suggest that the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments may be enhanced by stimulating microbial anaerobic metabolism, but care should be applied to monitor the potential changes in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals induced by bio-treatments.

  6. An equation of state for property prediction of alcohol-hydrocarbon and water-hydrocarbon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Adolfo P. [Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering and Exploration, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense-UENF, RJ Macae (Brazil); Mohamed, Rahoma S. [Process Engineering Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Caixa Postal 6066, 13083-970 SP Campinas (Brazil); Ali Mansoori, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 810 S. Clinton Street, 60607-7000 Chicago, IL (United States)

    2001-12-29

    Equations of state have been widely used in the petroleum and chemical industries for thermodynamic property calculation. In the presence of polar substances that self-associate through hydrogen bonding (such as water or alcohol), equations of state are of very limited use. One way to account for the association is to consider the equation of state to be formed of two contributions: physical and chemical. In this work, we develop an equation of state consisting of two terms as proposed by Andreko [Fluid Phase Equilib. 65 (1991) 89], a chemical and a physical term, for correlation of thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing an associating species. This equation of state is used to correlate vapor pressure data for a number of associating molecules, such as alcohol and water, as well as bubble point pressure data for binary water-hydrocarbon and alcohol-hydrocarbon systems. The results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data and requiring the use of only one adjustable parameter for each binary system.

  7. Combustion characteristics of thermally stressed hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Colin William

    Liquid propelled propulsion systems, which range from rocket systems to hypersonic scramjet and ramjet engines, require active cooling in order to prevent additional payload requirements. In these systems, the liquid fuel is used as a coolant and is delivered through micro-channels that surround the combustion chambers, nozzles, as well as the exterior surfaces in order to extract heat from these affected areas. During this process, heat exchange occurs through phase change, sensible heat extraction, and endothermic reactions experienced by the liquid fuel. Previous research has demonstrated the significant modifications in fuel composition and changes to the fuel's physical properties that can result from these endothermic reactions. As a next step, we are experimentally investigating the effect that endothermic reactions have on fundamental flame behavior for real hydrocarbon fuels that are used as rocket and jet propellants. To achieve this goal, we have developed a counter-flow flame burner to measure extinction limits of the thermally stressed fuels. The counter-flow flame system is to be coupled with a high pressure reactor, capable of subjecting the fuel to 170 atm and 873 K, effectively simulating the extreme environment that cause the liquid fuel to experience endothermic reactions. The fundamental flame properties of the reacted fuels will be compared to those of unreacted fuels, allowing us to determine the role of endothermic reactions on the combustion behavior of current hydrocarbon jet and rocket propellants. To quantify the change in transport properties and chemical kinetics of the reacting mixture, simultaneous numerical simulations of the reactor portion of the experiment coupled with a counterflow flame simulation are performed using n-heptane and n-dodecane.

  8. Effects of unsaturated hydrocarbons on crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.C.; Heck, W.W.

    1960-01-01

    Damage to cotton and other crops in the vicinity of a Gulf Coast polyethylene plant has led to studies on the causative agent or agents responsible for crop losses. Responses exhibited by both native and cultivated plants of the area led to an initial diagnosis that the symptoms were caused by ethylene present in relatively high amounts in the atmosphere. Analysis of the stack gas showed 1.5% ethylene, 0.3% ethane, 8.7% carbon dioxide, 0.3% ethylene oxide and minute amounts of methane. Field analyses have shown concentrations of ethylene aging from 0.04 to 3 ppm depending upon atmospheric conditions (wind direction and velocity) as well as distance from the polyethylene plant. Various mixtures of hydrocarbon gases have been tested using cotton, coleus, tomato and other plant species. Ethylene has been found to be the most biologically active of the hydrocarbon gases studied. Controlled experiments have confirmed field observations that monocotyledonous plants such as sorghum and corn are relatively insensitive to ethylene, whereas dicotyledonous plants such as cotton, coleus, corn pea and tomato are extremely sensitive. Flower petal abscission in periwinkle and flower bud abscission in cotton have been found to be excellent indicators of extremely low levels of ethylene air pollution in both the field and in controlled experiments. Typical responses of cotton to low levels of ethylene include: lost of apical dominance with the resulting prostrate growth habit, flattening of upper stem and growing point, forcing of lateral buds, weakening of main stem, compacting of internodes, earlier and more profuse flowering with the abscission of squares, total loss of yield. 2 references.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  10. Pointer Sentinel Mixture Models

    OpenAIRE

    Merity, Stephen; Xiong, Caiming; Bradbury, James; Socher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Recent neural network sequence models with softmax classifiers have achieved their best language modeling performance only with very large hidden states and large vocabularies. Even then they struggle to predict rare or unseen words even if the context makes the prediction unambiguous. We introduce the pointer sentinel mixture architecture for neural sequence models which has the ability to either reproduce a word from the recent context or produce a word from a standard softmax classifier. O...

  11. Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures Thermodynamic, Algebraic, and Neuro-Computing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Seshasai

    2013-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in Multicomponent Mixtures presents the computational approaches that are employed in the study of thermodiffusion in various types of mixtures, namely, hydrocarbons, polymers, water-alcohol, molten metals, and so forth. We present a detailed formalism of these methods that are based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics or algebraic correlations or principles of the artificial neural network. The book will serve as single complete reference to understand the theoretical derivations of thermodiffusion models and its application to different types of multi-component mixtures. An exhaustive discussion of these is used to give a complete perspective of the principles and the key factors that govern the thermodiffusion process.

  12. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  13. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Simplified Modeling of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    A method of simplified computational modeling of oxidation of hydrocarbons is undergoing development. This is one of several developments needed to enable accurate computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. At present, accurate computational simulation of such flows is difficult or impossible in most cases because (1) the numbers of grid points needed for adequate spatial resolution of turbulent flows in realistically complex geometries are beyond the capabilities of typical supercomputers now in use and (2) the combustion of typical hydrocarbons proceeds through decomposition into hundreds of molecular species interacting through thousands of reactions. Hence, the combination of detailed reaction- rate models with the fundamental flow equations yields flow models that are computationally prohibitive. Hence, further, a reduction of at least an order of magnitude in the dimension of reaction kinetics is one of the prerequisites for feasibility of computational simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows. In the present method of simplified modeling, all molecular species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons are classified as either light or heavy; heavy molecules are those having 3 or more carbon atoms. The light molecules are not subject to meaningful decomposition, and the heavy molecules are considered to decompose into only 13 specified constituent radicals, a few of which are listed in the table. One constructs a reduced-order model, suitable for use in estimating the release of heat and the evolution of temperature in combustion, from a base comprising the 13 constituent radicals plus a total of 26 other species that include the light molecules and related light free radicals. Then rather than following all possible species through their reaction coordinates, one follows only the reduced set of reaction coordinates of the base. The behavior of the base was examined in test computational simulations of the combustion of

  15. Separation of C/sub 3+/ hydrocarbons by absorption and rectification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapper, R.

    1989-02-21

    A process for separation of C/sub 3+/ hydrocarbons from natural gas and the like comprises subjecting the gas under pressure to partial condensation under cooling, separating the uncondensed gaseous phase and engine expanding same while the condensed liquid fraction is subjected to rectification. Additional C/sub 3+/ hydrocarbons are separated from the engine expanded gaseous fraction by a scrubbing step. The loaded scrubbing agent is preferably fed to the rectification column, while the unabsorbed gaseous fraction coming from the scrubbing step is preferably heated and delivered as a product stream containing C/sub 2-/ hydrocarbons. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, scrubbing is conducted at a higher pressure than rectification, for example, about 10 to 20 bar higher than the rectification pressure. This proves to be especially advantageous if the C/sub 2-/ fraction is to be delivered under energy-intensive recompression is required. The scrubbing step is preferably performed with a liquid hydrocarbon mixture derived from the process itself, although other scrubbing agents, particularly other liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, are suitable. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the scrubbing is conducted with a scrubbing agent obtained by partial condensation of the residual gas from the rectification column. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the partial condensation of the residual gas is conducted by heat exchange with the evaporating bottoms product from the scrubbing step. 1 fig.

  16. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  17. Composition and method for cleaning hydrocarbon oil from hard surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blezard, M.; Mcallister, W.H.

    1983-09-28

    Hydrocarbon oils are cleaned from hard, inorganic surfaces by the application of an aqueous solution, such as seawater, containing a mixture of alkoxylated alcohol, carboxylic acid, alkyl phenol, or nonionic phosphate ester, with an alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide or an ethoxylated or polyethoxylated alkyl mono- or di-ethanolamide. The method is of particular value for cleaning drilling oil from rock cuttings in offshore drilling operations, such as cold North Sea installations. Specific examples are a C10 primary alcohol, which is ethoxylated with 5 moles of ethylene oxide, mixed with a coconut diethanolamide. Typically, the mixture is supplied as a concentrate which is dissolved in, or diluted with, water to provide the cleansing solution at the site of the rig. 21 claims.

  18. Characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks of No.3 buried-hill region in Nanpu Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guanghua; Zhang Hongchen; Qian Fengyan; Chen Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data of 44 samples of hydrocarbon source rocks in Nanpu No.3 buried-hill region,the kerogen type is judged through the pyrolysis and microscopic identification. At the same time,organic matter maturity and hydrocarbon generation threshold are studied by using vitrinite reflectance,pyrolysis yield and hy-drocarbon abundance. Meanwhile the hydrocarbon expulsion threshold is calculated. And the characteristics of organic hydrocarbon generation and expulsion are preliminarily revealed and evaluated. The result shows that the No.3 buried-hill region has abundant hydrocarbon source rocks with high content of organic carbon. And the primary types of kerogen areⅡ1 andⅡ2. The hydrocarbon source rocks which passed biochemistry,thermolysis and thermal cracking have developed into the mature-postmature phase of different extents. And plenty of oil and gas were expelled out. It is believed the depth of oil-generating window is 3 600 m and the depth of hydro-carbon-expulsion threshold is 4 100 m. The comprehensive analysis indicates that Nanpu No.3 burried-hill re-gion has a certain condition to generate hydrocarbon which is very promising in oil exploration and thus can be-come an important exploration and development target next.

  19. The Role of Saturated Hydrocarbon in Enrichment of Cu, Pb, Znin Kupferschiefer, Southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the role of organic matter in the enrichment of base metal, 10 samples of the PermianKupferschiefer from southwestern Poland were analyzed by using microscopic and geochemical methods. The re-suts indicate that the solvent extracts have been depleted in the samples with high Cu, Pb, Zn contents. This de-pletion occurred preferably in saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons served as hydrogen donor for ther-mochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The GC traces of saturated hydrocarbon show that the depletion occurredmainly in long-chain n-alkanes.

  20. Small angle neutron scattering study on short and long chain phosphatidylcholine mixture in trehalose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Trehalose protects cells and proteins against various stresses due to low temperatures or dryness. In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of cryoprotective function of trehalose, we have studied the interaction between trehalose and phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is a main lipid component of cell membranes. In this study, the structural change of a binary PC mixture by the presence of trehalose was investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering. The PC binary mixture studied contains dihexanoyl-PC (diC{sub 6}PC) and dihexadecy-PC (DHPC). The former has short hydrocarbon chains and the latter has long hydrocarbon chains. The scattering profiles from the DHPC/diC{sub 6}PC mixture were changed, depending on trehalose concentrations. This change can be interpreted as suggesting that the presence of trehalose reduces the interfacial area between water and PCs. (author)

  1. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the

  2. Essays on Finite Mixture Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFinite mixture distributions are a weighted average of a ¯nite number of distributions. The latter are usually called the mixture components. The weights are usually described by a multinomial distribution and are sometimes called mixing proportions. The mixture components may be the sam

  3. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...

  4. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  5. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  6. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  7. Sources, vertical fluxes and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Mandovi Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Vethamony, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.

    vegetation along the banks of the estuary) sources. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt + clay) and PHCs unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of petroleum hydrocarbons. Cluster analysis was used...

  8. Culture of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Showa with LED irradiation eliminating violet light enhances hydrocarbon production and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Sueko; Saga, Kiyotaka; Maeyama, Haruko; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii), race B, was cultured under light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with and without violet light. This study examined the effect of violet light on hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. C34 botryococcene hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted by thermal pretreatments at lower temperatures when the alga was cultured without violet light. The hydrocarbon content was also higher (approximately 3%) in samples cultured without violet light. To elucidate the mechanism of effective hydrocarbon recovery and production, we examined structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The amounts of extracellular carotenoids and water-soluble polymers extracted by thermal pretreatment from the ECM were decreased when the alga was cultured without violet light. These results indicate that LED irradiation without violet light is more effective for hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. Furthermore, structural ECM components are closely involved in hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii.

  9. A polyphasic approach for assessing the suitability of bioremediation for the treatment of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Smith, Renee J; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-04-15

    Bioremediation strategies, though widely used for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, suffer from lack of biodegradation endpoint accountability. To address this limitation, molecular approaches of alkB gene analysis and pyrosequencing were combined with chemical approaches of bioaccessibility and nutrient assays to assess contaminant degrading capacity and develop a strategy for endpoint biodegradation predictions. In long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil containing 10.3 g C10-C36 hydrocarbons kg(-1), 454 pyrosequencing detected the overrepresentation of potential hydrocarbon degrading genera such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Mycobacterium and Gordonia whilst amplicons for PCR-DGGE were detected only with alkB primers targeting Pseudomonas. This indicated the presence of potential microbial hydrocarbon degradation capacity in the soil. Using non-exhaustive extraction methods of 1-propanol and HP-β-CD for hydrocarbon bioaccessibility assessment combined with biodegradation endpoint predictions with linear regression models, we estimated 33.7% and 46.7% hydrocarbon removal respectively. These predictions were validated in pilot scale studies using an enhanced natural attenuation strategy which resulted in a 46.4% reduction in soil hydrocarbon content after 320 days. When predicted biodegradation endpoints were compared to measured values, there was no significant difference (P=0.80) when hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed with HP-β-CD. These results indicate that a combination of molecular and chemical techniques that inform microbial diversity, functionality and chemical bioaccessibility can be valuable tools for assessing the suitability of bioremediation strategies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  10. Effect of Water Washing on Hydrocarbon Compositions of Petropleum Sandstone Reservoir Rocks in Tarim Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张俊

    2000-01-01

    Gross compositions and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in Carboniferous sandstone reservoire rocks in oil and water zones for Tzhong-10 well of the Zhongyang Uplift in the Tarim Basin were studied in dteail by means of Rock-Eval Pyrolysis,thin-chromatograph-flame ionization detection(TLC-FID),gas chromatography,gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results suggest that the gross composition of reservoir hydrocarbons between the oil zone and the water zone show significant differences,Water wahing has a dramatic effect on saturated hydrocarbon blomarkers,especially drimane series compounds,Drimane series compounds in the water zone have been depleted completely.However,the contents of tricyclic iterpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes tend to decrease slightly,but the water-zone reservoir hydrocarbons contian a large amount of gammacerane.This suggests that gammacerane be more resistant to water washing than diterpanes and homohopanes.The contents of pregnane,homopregrane,diasteranes relastively decrease as a result of water washing.Water washing has a noticeable effect on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds,especially aromatic sulfur compounds,and the contents of dibenzothiophene series compounds and benzonaplyiothipophene decrease significantly as a result of water washing.However,the conterts of bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrase slightly and those of tetracyclic and pentacyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,especially benzofluoranthene and benzopyrenes,increase markedly owing to adecrease in light aromatie hydrocarbons as a result of water washing.

  11. Oil-shale gasification for obtaining of gas for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation); Avakyan, T.; Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of qualified usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. Gasification with further processing of gaseous products is a one of possible ways of their use. Production of synthesis gas with H{sub 2}/CO ratio equal 2 is possible by gasification of oil-shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalyst at temperature from 160 to 210 C at atmospheric pressure. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. (orig.)

  12. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta; Roberto Núñez Moreira; Yoelvis Castro Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In tu...

  13. Phase equilibria study of {N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide + aromatic hydrocarbons or an alcohol} binary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej; Tshibangu, M Marc; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Letcher, Trevor M

    2011-04-14

    Isoquinolinium ionic liquid (IL) has been synthesized from N-hexylisoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound is included, which includes NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, melting and solid-solid transition temperatures, as well as the enthalpy of fusion, or solid-solid transition have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique. The density and viscosity as a function of temperature have been measured for the pure IL at temperatures higher than the melting temperature and were extrapolated to T = 298.15 K. The temperature-composition phase diagrams of 8 binary mixtures composed of the IL N-hexylisoquinolinium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, ([HiQuin][NTf(2)]) and an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene) or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol) have been determined from ambient temperature to the boiling-point temperature of the solvent at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from 270 to 330 K. For the binary systems, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). In the case of the mixture {IL + benzene, or alkylbenzene} the eutectic systems with mutual immiscibility in the liquid phase with very high UCSTs were observed. These points were not detectable with our method and were observed at low IL mole fraction. For mixtures with alcohols, it was observed that with an increasing chain length of an alcohol, the solubility decreases and the UCST increases. The coexistence curves corresponding to liquid-liquid phase equilibrium boundaries and the solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been correlated using the well-known nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model.

  14. Study of two-phase systems of petroleum industry interest: low volatile hydrocarbons - water-methanol and water-methanol-sodium chloride mixtures; Etude de systemes biphasiques d'interet petrolier: hydrocarbures peu volatils - melanges eau-methanol et eau-methanol-chlorure de sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getachew Sawaya, Terufat

    1998-07-01

    The characteristic of this study is the high precision requested for the measurements of vapor pressures. Therefore, a careful calibration of pressure sensors has been performed first and verified by the study of naphthalene. The vapor pressures of 3 condensed poly-aromatics, of 2 aromatic compounds and of 2 compounds coming from the degradation of biological substances at the origin of petroleum have been measured. Most of these results are new, taking into consideration the wide range of pressures considered. They have been correlated using Antoine's equation. Most of the production of North Sea oil and gas fields is transported by submarine pipelines inside which gas, petroleum and water circulate together. The most serious drawback of this kind of polyphasic transport is the risk of hydrocarbon hydrates formation which can lead to the plugging of the pipeline. Massive quantities of methanol are currently injected by operators to avoid the formation of hydrates. In order to optimize this injection, the study of water-methanol and water-methanol-sodium chloride systems is necessary. Two types of works have been carried out: 1 - the study of the liquid-vapor equilibria with the on-line analysis of the vapor phase. For this study, an original device comprising the static apparatus coupled to a chromatograph has been developed; and 2 - the study of the densities at 25 deg. C and 1 atm. These two types of data (liquid-vapor equilibria and densities) are essential for the setting of the parameters of the state equations used to model and forecast the behaviour of the gas-oil-brine system. (J.S.)

  15. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  16. A simple strategy for investigating the diversity and hydrocarbon degradation abilities of cultivable bacteria from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučková, Maria; Puškarová, Andrea; Chovanová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Ferianc, Peter; Pangallo, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial strains is a valuable bioremediation strategy for cleaning the environment from hydrocarbon pollutants. The isolation and selection of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria is therefore crucial for obtaining the most promising strains for site decontamination. Two different media, a minimal medium supplemented with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a MS medium supplemented with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, were used for the isolation of bacterial strains from two hydrocarbon contaminated soils and from their enrichment phases. The hydrocarbon degradation abilities of these bacterial isolates were easily and rapidly assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay. The diversity of the bacterial communities isolated from these two soil samples and from their enrichment phases was evaluated by the combination of a bacterial clustering method, fluorescence ITS-PCR, and bacterial identification by 16S rRNA sequencing. Different PCR-based assays were performed in order to detect the genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation. The best hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, including Arthrobacter sp., Enterobacter sp., Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, were isolated directly from the soil samples on minimal medium. The nahAc gene was detected only in 13 Gram-negative isolates and the sequences of nahAc-like genes were obtained from Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas brenneri, Pseudomonas entomophila and P. koreensis strains. The combination of isolation on minimal medium with the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol assay was effective in selecting different hydrocarbon-degrading strains from 353 isolates.

  17. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  18. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  19. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Co-acclimation of bacterial communities under stresses of hydrocarbons with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Dong, Wenwen; Hu, Xiaoke

    2016-10-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with different structures; its components vary in bioavailability and toxicity. It is important to understand how bacterial communities response to different hydrocarbons and their co-acclimation in the process of degradation. In this study, microcosms with the addition of structurally different hydrocarbons were setup to investigate the successions of bacterial communities and the interactions between different bacterial taxa. Hydrocarbons were effectively degraded in all microcosms after 40 days. High-throughput sequencing offered a great quantity of data for analyzing successions of bacterial communities. The results indicated that the bacterial communities responded dramatically different to various hydrocarbons. KEGG database and PICRUSt were applied to predict functions of individual bacterial taxa and networks were constructed to analyze co-acclimations between functional bacterial groups. Almost all functional genes catalyzing degradation of different hydrocarbons were predicted in bacterial communities. Most of bacterial taxa were believed to conduct biodegradation processes via interactions with each other. This study addressed a few investigated area of bacterial community responses to structurally different organic pollutants and their co-acclimation and interactions in the process of biodegradation. The study could provide useful information to guide the bioremediation of crude oil pollution.

  1. Sources and distribution of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Neuquen River, Argentine Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Liliana B; Loewy, Ruth M; Savini, Mónica C; Pechen de d'Angelo, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution and probable sources of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (AHs, PAHs) were investigated in surface sediments collected along the bank of the Neuquen River, Argentina. Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons ranged between 0.41 and 125 μg/g dw. Six stations presented low values of resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and the n-alkane distribution indexes applied suggested a clear biogenic source. These values can be considered the baseline levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons for the river sediments. This constitutes important information for the assessment of future impacts since a strong impulse in the exploitation of shale gas and shale oil in these zones is nowadays undergoing. For the other 11 stations, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons of petrogenic and biogenic origin was observed. The spatial distribution reflects local inputs of these pollutants with a significant increase in concentrations in the lower course, where two major cities are located. The highest values of total aliphatic hydrocarbons were found in this sector which, in turn, was the only one where individual PAHs were detected.

  2. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Research and Design of Thermophysical Gas-Liquid Mixture Parameters in Product Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Maier, A. V.; Shabarov, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    Operational problems are hard to overcome because of the temperature and pressure conditions of the hydrocarbon flow in the pipe, as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon system and the geometry of the pipeline. It is known that energy costs to pump a unit mass of RH in the form of gas 2-3 times exceed energy costs to pump a unit mass of RH in the form of liquid. As far as energy conservation during RH transportation is concerned, an important task is development and application of a method to calculate the gas-liquid hydrocarbons flow, and heat and mass transfer in process and trunk pipelines during their design and operation. The authors have developed a calculation method which is used to analyze the hydrodynamic state and composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in each ith section of the pipeline when temperature-pressure and hydraulic conditions change. The developed technique was tested on the hydrocarbon mixture of de-ethanized condensate and oil transported from northern oil and gas condensate fields via the main gas condensate line to the refinery.

  4. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  5. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  6. Microbial communities in pyrene amended soil-compost mixture and fertilized soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Iris K U; Duarte, Márcia; Pathmanathan, Jananan; Miltner, Anja; Brüls, Thomas; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed ubiquitously in the environment and form metabolites toxic to most organisms. Organic amendment of PAH contaminated soil with compost and farmyard manure has proven to be efficient for PAH bioremediation mediated by native microorganisms, even though information on the identity of PAH degraders in organic-amended soil is still scarce. Here we provide molecular insight into the bacterial communities in soil amended with compost or farmyard manure for which the degradation mass balances of (13)C-labeled pyrene have been recently published and assess the relevant bacterial genera capable of degrading pyrene as a model PAH. We performed statistical analyses of bacterial genera abundance data based on total DNA and RNA (for comparison) extracted from the soil samples. The results revealed complex pyrene degrading communities with low abundance of individual degraders instead of a limited number of abundant key players. The bacterial degrader communities of the soil-compost mixture and soil fertilized with farmyard manure differed considerably in composition albeit showing similar degradation kinetics. Additional analyses were carried out on enrichment cultures and enabled the reconstruction of several nearly complete genomes, thus allowing to link microcosm and enrichment experiments. However, pyrene mineralizing bacteria enriched from the compost or unfertilized soil-compost samples did not dominate pyrene degradation in the soils. Based on the present findings, evaluations of PAH degrading microorganisms in complex soil mixtures with high organic matter content should not target abundant key degrading species, since the specific degraders may be highly diverse, of low abundance, and masked by high bacterial background.

  7. Investigation of Underground Hydrocarbon Leakage using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona; Agustine, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in several petroleum plants to investigate hydrocarbon contamination beneath the surface. The hydrocarbon spills are generally recognized as Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) if the plume of leakage is distributed in the capillary fringe above the water table and as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) if it is below the water table. GPR antennas of 200 MHz and 400 MHz were deployed to obtain clear radargrams until 4 m deep. In general, the interpreted radargram sections indicate the presence of surface concrete layer, the compacted silty soill followed by sand layer and the original clayey soil as well as the water table. The presence of hydrocarbon plumes are identified as shadow zones (radar velocity and intensity contrasts) in the radargram that blur the layering pattern with different intensity of reflected signal. Based on our results, the characteristic of the shadow zones in the radargram is controlled by several factors: types of hydrocarbon (fresh or bio-degraded), water moisture in the soil, and clay content which contribute variation in electrical conductivity and dielectric constants of the soil.

  8. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  9. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  11. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  12. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  13. Comprehensive geochemical identification of highly evolved marine hydrocarbon source rocks: Organic matter, paleoenvironment and development of effective hydrocarbon source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENGER; LIU Wenhui; XU Yongchang; CHEN Jianfa; HU Kai; GAO Changlin

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the developing environments of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Ordos Basin and evaluated carbonate rocks as hydrocarbon source rocks and their distributions on account of the fact that China's marine carbonate rocks as hydrocarbon source rocks are characterized by the intensive thermal evolution and relatively low abundance of organic matter, by taking the Lower Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin for example and in light of the calculated enrichment coefficients of trace elements, the profile analysis of trace element contents, ratios of relevant elements, and stable isotopic compositions and their three-dimensional diagrammatization in combination with the necessary organic parameters. As for the Ordos Basin, TOC=0.2% is an important boundary value. Studies have shown that in the strata TOC>0.2%, V/(V+Ni)>0.50, Zr/Rb<2, Rb/K(×104)>30, Z>122, Th/U>0.80, Zn and Mo are enriched with a positive δ13Ccarb excursion. All these indicated a stagnant and stratified sedimentary environment that has low energy, anoxia and high salinity in bottom water. In these strata the geological conditions are good for the preservation of organic matter, hence favoring the development of hydrocarbon source rocks. These strata have δ13Corg<-28‰ (Ⅰ-Ⅱtype) and high hydrocarbon-generated potential. The Klimory and Wulalik formations show certain regularities in those aspects, therefore, they can be regarded as the potential effective hydrocarbon source rocks. In the strata TOC≤0.2%, Zr/Rb>1, V/(V+Ni)<0.50, Rb/K<30, Th/U<0.80, Cu, Zn, etc are depleted, and δ13Corg values range from -24‰ to -28‰. All these facts showed that most of the carbonate rocks or mudstones were formed in high-energy oxidizing environments, thus unfavorable to the development of hydrocarbon source rocks. It is feasible to make use of the geochemical method to comprehensively assess the highly evolved marine carbonates rocks as potential hydrocarbon source rocks and

  14. Concomitant variables in finite mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M

    The standard mixture model, the concomitant variable mixture model, the mixture regression model and the concomitant variable mixture regression model all enable simultaneous identification and description of groups of observations. This study reviews the different ways in which dependencies among

  15. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  16. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  18. New caffeine bonded phase for separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum asphaltenes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, G.; Bertrand, C.; Gastel, F. van

    1985-03-01

    The preparation of a new caffeine phase for HPLC is described. The capacity ratios (k') of about ten polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been determined. It has been shown that the aromatics were eluted according the number of rings, only slightly influenced by the substituents. The performance of the stationary phase is demonstrated with separations of petroleum asphalts and residues and aromatic mixtures.

  19. Microbial Degradation of Phenols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Creosote-contaminated Groundwater Under Nitrate-reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture...

  20. Process for simultaneously processing of used metal and/or metal scrap and scrap containing halogenated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapper, G.; Kirchner, W.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-03-02

    A process is presened for reducing environmental pollution resulting from disposal of waste containing halogenated hydrocarbons by simultaneous treatment with used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures. The halogenated hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed and the resulting hydrogen halide containing gas is brought into contact with the used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures so as to form metal halogenides that are volatile under the conditions applied. The volatile metal halogenides are largely separated from the gaseous mixture formed, and at least part of the remaining gaseous mixture and/or hydrocarbon residue is used as fuel to maintain the required temperature. The waste feed compositions and process conditions can be chosen to effect separation between various metals by selective halogenation and condensation, and substantially all of the hydrogen halide can be tied up and recovered as metal halogenides.

  1. Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2008-12-01

    It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends.

  2. Application of UV-rays in removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of PAHs by UV-rays from treated wastewater. Samples of wastewater originating from a municipal treatment plant were taken twofold (series I and series II). The initial concentration of PAHs ranged: 0.8 μg/L (in series I) and 1.2 μg/L (in series II), respectively. A standard mixture of 16 compounds was added to the wastewater samples. The amount of individual hydrocarbons in the added mixture was equal to 40 μg/L, (in series I) and 50 μg/L, (in series II), respectively. The samples of wastewater without the added standard mixture were treated as a control samples. All samples of wastewater were exposed to UV-rays during 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, respectively. Afterwards, the PAHs concentration in both the wastewater samples containing the standard mixture and in the control samples was determined. Determinations of PAHs concentration in wastewater samples in each series were made in triplicates. A quantitative analysis of PAHs was provided by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that exposition to ultraviolet rays resulted in the decrease in the concentration of PAHs in the wastewater samples without added standard mixture up to 65%. The efficiency of the removal of hydrocarbons grouped according to a number of rings was in the range of 0 (for 5- ring and 6-ring of PAHs) to 71% (for naphthalene). It was also found that exposure of wastewater samples to UV-rays resulted in a decrease of PAHs concentration in wastewater samples with the added standard mixture up to 84%. The efficiency of the removal of hydrocarbons grouped according to a number of rings differed significantly (to 94% for naphthalene).

  3. Protein mixtures: interactions and gelation

    OpenAIRE

    Ersch, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gelation is a ubiquitous process in the preparation of foods. As most foods are multi constituent mixtures, understanding gelation in mixtures is an important goal in food science. Here we presented a systematic investigation on the influence of molecular interactions on the gelation in protein mixtures. Gelatin gels with added globular protein and globular protein gels with added gelatin were analyzed for their gel microstructure and rheological properties. Mixed gels with altered microstruc...

  4. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  5. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doskey, P.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Division; Andren, A.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program

    1991-10-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

  6. Formation of positive ions in hydrocarbon containing dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ilarion; Pohoata, Valentin; Jijie, Roxana; Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Rusu, Ioana Alexandra; Topala, Ionut

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices are suitable experimental solutions to generate transitory molecular environments with various applications. In this study we present experimental results regarding the plasma chemistry of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in helium - hydrogen (0.1%) - hydrocarbons (1.2%) mixtures. Four types of hydrocarbon gases were studied: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Discharge diagnosis and monitoring was assured by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Molecular beam mass spectrometry is engaged to sample positive ions populations from two different plasma sources. Dissociation and generation of higher-chain and cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons were discussed as a function of feed gas and discharge geometry. We found a strong influence of these parameters on both molecular mass distribution and recombination processes in the plasma volume.

  7. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  8. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS TO ASSESS THE APPORTIONMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINANTION IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  9. Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buekens, A.G.; Huang, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry - CHIS 2, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in plastics cracking, a process developed to recycle plastic wastes into useful petrochemical materials. Under thermal cracking conditions, plastic wastes can be decomposed into three fractions: gas, liquid and solid residue. The liquid products are usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. By adopting customary fluid cracking catalysts and reforming catalysts, more aromatics and naphthenes in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} range can be produced, which are valuable gasoline-range hydrocarbons. More tests are, however, needed to verify the pyrolysis process in a pilot scale particularly for treatment of mixtures of bulk plastics. Plastics cracking is only an elementary conversion technology; its application has to be combined with other technologies such as municipal solid waste collection, classification and pretreatment at the front end, as well as hydrocarbon distillation and purification at the back end. Social, environmental and economic factors are also important in industrial implementation of the technology

  10. Evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds, including gasoline and diesel fuel, on heated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardad, D.; Ladommatos, N. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was carried out on the evaporation of various hydrocarbon liquids on heated surfaces. Single and multicomponent hydrocarbon compounds were used, including hexane, heptane, octane, a hexane-octane mixture, gasoline and diesel fuel. The heated surface included aluminium, mild steel, cast iron and copper. Tests were also carried out with different surface textures and surface coatings. The motivation for this work was a desire to improve understanding of the evaporation processes taking place in the inlet port and, to a lesser extent, within the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. The hydrocarbon compounds were released on the heated surfaces as individual small droplets, and the subsequent evaporation was recorded using a CCD (charge coupled device) camera. These observations were then used to ascertain the effects of material, surface temperature, surface textures, surface coating and liquid composition on the heat flux and other aspects of droplet behaviour. (Author)

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  12. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar).

  13. Neurotoxicity of Metal Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, V M; Aschner, M; Marreilha Dos Santos, A P

    2017-01-01

    Metals are the oldest toxins known to humans. Metals differ from other toxic substances in that they are neither created nor destroyed by humans (Casarett and Doull's, Toxicology: the basic science of poisons, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill, London, 2013). Metals are of great importance in our daily life and their frequent use makes their omnipresence and a constant source of human exposure. Metals such as arsenic [As], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], aluminum [Al] and cadmium [Cd] do not have any specific role in an organism and can be toxic even at low levels. The Substance Priority List of Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ranked substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. In this list, As, Pb, Hg, and Cd occupy the first, second, third, and seventh positions, respectively (ATSDR, Priority list of hazardous substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, 2016). Besides existing individually, these metals are also (or mainly) found as mixtures in various parts of the ecosystem (Cobbina SJ, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Wub X, Feng W, Wang W, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Wua X, Yang L, Chemosphere 132:79-86, 2015). Interactions among components of a mixture may change toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (Spurgeon DJ, Jones OAH, Dorne J-L, Svendsen C, Swain S, Stürzenbaum SR, Sci Total Environ 408:3725-3734, 2010) and may result in greater (synergistic) toxicity (Lister LJ, Svendsen C, Wright J, Hooper HL, Spurgeon DJ, Environ Int 37:663-670, 2011). This is particularly worrisome when the components of the mixture individually attack the same organs. On the other hand, metals such as manganese [Mn], iron [Fe], copper [Cu], and zinc [Zn] are essential metals, and their presence in the body below or above homeostatic levels can also lead to disease states (Annangi B, Bonassi S, Marcos R, Hernández A, Mutat Res 770(Pt A):140-161, 2016). Pb, As, Cd, and Hg can induce Fe, Cu, and Zn

  14. Interfacial tensions of binary mixtures of ethanol with octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, Andres, E-mail: amejia@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Cartes, Marcela [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Segura, Hugo, E-mail: hsegura@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Concepcion, P.O. Box 160-C, Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Experimental interfacial tensions in binary mixtures with aneotropic behavior. > Experimental interfacial tensions for ethanol + hydrocarbon mixtures. > Aneotropic displacement in ethanol mixtures. - Abstract: This contribution is devoted to the experimental characterization of interfacial tensions of a representative group of binary mixtures pertaining to the (ethanol + linear hydrocarbon) series (i.e. octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane). Experimental measurements were isothermically performed using a maximum differential bubble pressure technique, which was applied over the whole mole fraction range and over the temperature range 298.15 K < T/K < 318.15 K. Experimental results show that the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + octane or decane) negatively deviate from the linear behavior and that sharp minimum points on concentration, or aneotropes, are observed for each isotherm. The interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, are characterized by combined deviations from the linear behavior, and inflecting behavior observed on concentration for each isotherm. The experimental evidence also shows that these latter mixtures are close to exhibit aneotropy. For the case of (ethanol + octane or decane) mixtures, aneotropy was clearly induced by the similarity of the interfacial tension values of the constituents. The inflecting behavior of the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, was observed in the vicinity of the coordinates of the critical point of these mixtures, thus pointing to the fact that the quasi-aneotropic singularity that affects these mixtures was provoked by the proximity of an immiscibility gap of the liquid phase. Finally, the experimental data of interfacial tensions were smoothed with the Scott-Myers expansion, from which it is possible to conclude that the observed aneotropic concentrations weakly depend on temperature for all the analyzed mixtures.

  15. Modelling fate and effects of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon fractions following hypothetical oil spills in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Amand, A.; Mazzocco, P.; Stephenson, M. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Numerical oil spill models have generally focused on the transport and fate of oil following a spill through processes such as advection, evaporation, spreading dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, biodegradation and sedimentation. These models provide information regarding the trajectory, location and size of the oil slick, as well as the location where the slick will touch shorelines. The models normally treat the spilled hydrocarbon as a single product or group of representative compounds which is not very useful in evaluating toxicological risks to aquatic biota. For that reason, Stantec developed a model that simultaneously evaluates the likely fate and co-toxicity of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in water following an oil spill in a marine environment. Compounds currently considered in the model include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, BTEX compounds, (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and the Canada-Wide Standard hydrocarbon fractions. The fate of these hydrocarbons in the marine environment was simulated using a mass-balance compartment approach in which specific states of the oil and relevant environmental media were considered. At each time step following the hydrocarbon release, the model updated physical properties such as the density and viscosity of the spilled mixtures. When predicting the fate of the mixture, environmental conditions such as wind speed and wave height were taken into account to determine whether droplets of the spilled product remained entrained in the water column or if they resurfaced and possibly emulsified. Two hypothetical spill scenarios were investigated based on assumed spill volumes, assumed product compositions representing a distilled product and crude oil, and assumed environmental and meteorological conditions. The key outputs of the model were the dissolved concentrations of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in the water

  16. Molecular weight scaling in critical polymer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehlsen, M.D.; Rosedale, J.R.; Bates, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    , DELTA-X(D), and molecular weight by small-angle neutron scattering. The critical point for demixing was determined to scale as chi(eff,c) is similar to N(-delta) with delta = 1.01 +/- 0.05, where N is the degree of polymerization. This result confirms the mean-field prediction of Flory and Huggins.......Symmetric binary mixtures of partially deuterated polymers were prepared at the critical composition. The segment-segment interaction energy parameter chi(eff) was varied by adjusting the difference in deuterium content DELTA-X(D) between species. Chi(eff) was measured as a function of temperature...

  17. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  18. Influence of particle packing density on the rheology of low cement content concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis-Huijben, S.A.A.M.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing concrete mixtures with regard to cement content is one of the most important solutions in sustainable concrete design. Workability o f these low cement content or ecological mixtures is very important. Eleven mortar mixtures are presented, which show how a higher packing density can be us

  19. Influence of particle packing density on the rheology of low cement content concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis-Huijben, S.A.A.M.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing concrete mixtures with regard to cement content is one of the most important solutions in sustainable concrete design. Workability o f these low cement content or ecological mixtures is very important. Eleven mortar mixtures are presented, which show how a higher packing density can be us

  20. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.