WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon layer formation

  1. Further insight into the mechanism of hydrocarbon layer formation below the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M; Rohde, V

    2006-01-01

    The surface loss probability of hydrocarbon radicals was measured below the roof baffle of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor using the cavity technique. Hydrocarbon layers are mainly formed by sticking of hydrocarbon radicals with high surface loss probabilities of about 0.2 and close to unity. In addition to sticking, re-erosion by atomic hydrogen plays an important role in layer formation. The temperature dependence of layer formation was measured with heated and cooled long term samples from 77 to 475 K. The layer growth rate is larger by a factor of about 40 at 77 K compared with room temperature, while it is lower by a factor of about 70 at 475 K than at room temperature due to enhanced re-erosion. Implications of the results for predictions of tritium retention in future fusion devices and hydrocarbon layer formation on mirror surfaces are discussed

  2. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  3. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  4. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  6. Analytical determination of low velocity layer in 4-D hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, Seismic reflection surveys are done in the oil sectors to determine commercially viable hydrocarbon reservoirs but in most cases reflection records are obscured by wave behaviours in weathering layer. Hence, Up-hole refraction surveys are carried out in 3-D and 4-D prospects with a view to delineating the ...

  7. Method for thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-13

    In a thermal recovery procedure for hydrocarbons from an underground formation, an oxygen-containing gas is injected through at least one input well into the formation. A part of the hydrocarbons in the formation is then ignited and an oxidation front is created. This front moves under the influence of the injected gas to at least one production well in the formation. The temperature in the burning front is higher than approximately 200/sup 0/C but lower than approximately 350/sup 0/C. (4 claims)

  8. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  9. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladford, J.

    1996-07-18

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. (author) figs.

  10. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  11. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  12. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Miller, David Scott [Katy, TX

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  13. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of a carbonaceous gas, e.g. methane, dissolved in a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict hydrocarbon potential of the earth formation under the body of water, the formation being a source of carbonaceous gas, comprises at a known geographic location sampling the water at a selected flow rate and at a selected depth; continuously vacuum separating the water into liquid and gas phases; separating a selected carbonaceous gas from interfering gas species in the presence of an air carrier vented to atmosphere at a known flow rate; and quantitatively oxidizing the selected gas and then cryogenically trapping an oxidant thereof in the presence of said air carrier to provide for an accurate isotopic examination. (author)

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  16. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  17. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  18. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Lilia, E.; Cristalli, A.

    1986-01-01

    Gaseous 0-terphenyl, 1-phenylnaphthalene, and 9-phenylanthracene were submitted to gamma rays. The yields of cyclization products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, show that at least one twentieth of the intermediates formed undergo intramolecular reaction. (author)

  20. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a tracer of star formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Spoon, HWW; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 mum are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from ( mainly) far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and are thus a measure of star

  2. Hydrocarbon potential assessment of Ngimbang formation, Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandito, R. H.; Haris, A.; Zainal, R. M.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of Ngimbang formation at Rihen field of Northeast Java Basin has been conducted to identify the hydrocarbon potential by analyzing the response of passive seismic on the proven reservoir zone and proposing a tectonic evolution model. In the case of petroleum exploration in Northeast Java basin, the Ngimbang formation cannot be simply overemphasized. East Java Basin has been well known as one of the mature basins producing hydrocarbons in Indonesia. This basin was stratigraphically composed of several formations from the old to the young i.e., the basement, Ngimbang, Kujung, Tuban, Ngerayong, Wonocolo, Kawengan and Lidah formation. All of these formations have proven to become hydrocarbon producer. The Ngrayong formation, which is geologically dominated by channels, has become a production formation. The Kujung formation that has been known with the reef build up has produced more than 102 million barrel of oil. The Ngimbang formation so far has not been comprehensively assessed in term its role as a source rock and a reservoir. In 2013, one exploratory well has been drilled at Ngimbang formation and shown a gas discovery, which is indicated on Drill Stem Test (DST) reading for more than 22 MMSCFD of gas. This discovery opens new prospect in exploring the Ngimbang formation.

  3. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  4. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  5. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

  7. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  8. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a- C:H Film deposition plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, E de la; Tabares, F L

    1993-07-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H Film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, E. de la; Tabares, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C2 and Cp hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C:H films from admixtures of methane with H2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanisms of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene formation was found to be directly related to the formation of the film on top of the carburized metal. (Author) 12 refs

  10. Zeolite-Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation from Methanol: Density Functional Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fitzgerald

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We report detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations of important mechanisms in the methanol to gasoline (MTG process in a zeolite catalyst. Various reaction paths and energy barriers involving C-O bond cleavage and the first C-C bond formation are investigated in detail using all-electron periodic supercell calculations and recently developed geometry optimization and transition state search algorithms. We have further investigated the formation of ethanol and have identified a different mechanism than previously reported [1], a reaction where water does not play any visible role. Contrary to recent cluster calculations, we were not able to find a stable surface ylide structure. However, a stable ylide structure built into the zeolite framework was found to be possible, albeit a very high reaction barrier.

  11. Formation and properties of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanov, P.; Kamenova, M.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    1993-01-01

    Preparation, properties and application of porous silicon films are investigated. Porous silicon structures were formed by an electrochemical etching process resulting in selective dissolution of the silicon substrate. The silicon wafers used with a resistivity of 5-10Ω.cm were doped with B to concentrations 6x10 18 -1x10 19 Ω.cm -3 in the temperature region 950 o C-1050 o C. The density of each porous films was determined from the weight loss during the anodization and it depends on the surface resistivity of the Si wafer. The density decreases with decreasing of the surface resistivity. The surface of the porous silicon layers was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which indicates the presence of SiF 4 . The kinetic dependence of the anode potential and the porous layer thickness on the time of anodization in a galvanostatic regime for the electrolytes with various HF concentration were studied. In order to compare the properties of the resulting porous layers and to establish the dependence of the porosity on the electrolyte, three types of electrolytes were used: concentrated HF, diluted HF:H 2 O=1:1 and ethanol-hydrofluoric solutions HF:C 2 H 5 OH:H 2 O=2:1:1. High quality uniform and reproducible layers were formed using aqueous-ethanol-hydrofluoric electrolyte. Both Kikuchi's line and ring patterns were observed by TEM. The porous silicon layer was single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. The surface shows a polycrystalline structure only. The porous silicon layers exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature under 480 nm Ar + laser line excitation. The peak of PL was observed at about 730 nm with FWHM about 90 nm. Photodiodes was made with a W-porous silicon junction. The current voltage and capacity voltage characteristics were similar to those of an isotype heterojunction diode. (orig.)

  12. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of amorphous layers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    When an ordered solid is irradiated with heavy energy particles, disorder is produced. When the irradiation dose exceeds a so-called critical dose, the irradiated area of the solid becomes uniformly disordered. Mention is first made of the nature, concentration and distribution of the defects created by a heavy energy particle. The description is then given -solely with respect to semiconductors- of the effect of the various parameters on the critical dose energy and nature of the ion, nature and temperature of the solid, irradiation flux. The physical properties (electronic and thermodynamic types) and the uniformly disordered areas are briefly discussed and these properties are compared with those of amorphous semiconductor layers fabricated by evaporation. It is concluded that the evaporated and irradiated layers are similar in nature. It is suggested that the transformation of an irradiated crystalline area into an amorphous one occurs when the Gibbs energy of the crystal become greater than the Gibbs energy of the amorphous one [fr

  14. Some studies on the formation of excited states of aromatic solutes in hydrocarbons and other solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, G A [Leeds Univ. (UK). Cookridge High Energy Radiation Research Centre

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of the author and his co-workers on the radiation-induced formation of excited states of aromatic compounds in solution. The experimental methods used are surveyed and in particular the method of measuring the yields of triplet and singlet excited states of the solute are described. The problems discussed are: (1) the effect of solvent on the yields of excited states, (2) formation of excited states in cyclohexane and other alicyclic hydrocarbons, (3) the formation of excited states in benzene and (4) the identification of T-T absorption spectra.

  15. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S., E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO{sub 2}). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous

  16. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO_2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  17. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  18. Formation of boride layers on steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stergioudis, G.

    2006-01-01

    Boronizing coatings were prepared by means of pack cementation technique. It was found that using the appropriate substrate and controlling parameters of the boribing process such as boron activity of the mixture, temperature and time of treatment, it is possible to obtain a structure predominantly consisting of the Fe 2 B phase. In the present study low alloy ferritic steels were chosen as substrates. Changing the boron carbide concentration in the mixture and the temperature and time of boronizing process the conditions of the boronizing were altered. As a result the formation of the Fe 2 B phase is enhanced. Characterization of the as-borided steels is discussed based on X-ray diffraction and Curie temperature measurements. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  20. Kinetics of Hydrocarbon formation in a-C:H film deposition plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of C 2 and C 3 hydrocarbons during the PACVD of a-C-H films from admixtures of methane with H 2 and He has been investigated by mass spectrometry under several deposition condition. The time evolution of the observed species indicates that the formation mechanism of ethylene and acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the film. Acetylene are sensitive to the conditions of the wall during the growing of the carburized metal. (Author)

  1. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN TRANSITIONAL AND CONVENTIONAL DISKS: FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    'Transitional' T Tauri disks have optically thin holes with radii ∼>10 AU, yet accrete up to the median T Tauri rate. Multiple planets inside the hole can torque the gas to high radial speeds over large distances, reducing the local surface density while maintaining accretion. Thus multi-planet systems, together with reductions in disk opacity due to grain growth, can explain how holes can be simultaneously transparent and accreting. There remains the problem of how outer disk gas diffuses into the hole. Here it has been proposed that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) erodes disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays. In contrast to previous work, we find that the extent to which surface layers are MRI-active is limited not by ohmic dissipation but by ambipolar diffusion, the latter measured by Am: the number of times a neutral hydrogen molecule collides with ions in a dynamical time. Simulations by Hawley and Stone showed that Am ∼ 100 is necessary for ions to drive MRI turbulence in neutral gas. We calculate that in X-ray-irradiated surface layers, Am typically varies from ∼10 -3 to 1, depending on the abundance of charge-adsorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whose properties we infer from Spitzer observations. We conclude that ionization of H 2 by X-rays and cosmic rays can sustain, at most, only weak MRI turbulence in surface layers 1-10 g cm -2 thick, and that accretion rates in such layers are too small compared to observed accretion rates for the majority of disks.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOOT IN PREMIXED ETHANE FLAMES. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot has been investigated in atmospheric-pressure, laminar, ethane/oxygen/argon premixed flames as a function of mixture equivalence ratio. Mole fraction profiles of major products, trace aromatics, ...

  3. Mesoderm layer formation in Xenopus and Drosophila gastrulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklbauer, Rudolf; Müller, H-Arno J

    2011-01-01

    During gastrulation, the mesoderm spreads out between ectoderm and endoderm to form a mesenchymal cell layer. Surprisingly the underlying principles of mesoderm layer formation are very similar in evolutionarily distant species like the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the frog, Xenopus laevis, in which the molecular and the cellular basis of mesoderm layer formation have been extensively studied. Complementary expression of growth factors in the ectoderm and their receptors in the mesoderm act to orient cellular protrusive activities and direct cell movement, leading to radial cell intercalation and the spreading of the mesoderm layer. This mechanism is contrasted with generic physical mechanisms of tissue spreading that consider the adhesive and physical properties of the cells and tissues. Both mechanisms need to be integrated to orchestrate mesenchymal morphogenesis

  4. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  6. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, V; Virtanen, S

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37°C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  7. Ultrathin Co3O4 Layers Realizing Optimized CO2 Electroreduction to Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Zhongti; Zhang, Wenhua; Sun, Yongfu; Wang, Chengming; Hu, Qitao; Zu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Yang, Shuyang; Liang, Liang; Wu, Ju; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-11

    Electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbons could contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming. However, conventional electrocatalysts usually suffer from low energetic efficiency and poor durability. Herein, atomic layers for transition-metal oxides are proposed to address these problems through offering an ultralarge fraction of active sites, high electronic conductivity, and superior structural stability. As a prototype, 1.72 and 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers were synthesized through a fast-heating strategy. The atomic thickness endowed Co3O4 with abundant active sites, ensuring a large CO2 adsorption amount. The increased and more dispersed charge density near Fermi level allowed for enhanced electronic conductivity. The 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed over 1.5 and 20 times higher electrocatalytic activity than 3.51 nm thick Co3O4 layers and bulk counterpart, respectively. Also, 1.72 nm thick Co3O4 layers showed formate Faradaic efficiency of over 60% in 20 h. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: tao.chen@fysik.su.se, E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 05 (France); Micelotta, E. R. [Université Paris Sud, Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, 91405 Orsay (France); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  9. Production of a New Emulsifier Material for the Formation Heavy Hydrocarbon/Water Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Farahbakhsh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifiers are a unique class of compounds that have proved to have a variety of potential applications in formation of hydrocarbon in water emulsion, in enhancement of oil recovery and in the reduction of heavy oil viscosity. In this paper, a bio emulsifier was synthesized by a strain of Bacillus licheniformis and was separated by an autoclave and centrifugal process; the purification of bio emulsifier and the increase quality of product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (98% to the solution and centrifuging this compound again. This bio emulsifier has the property of emulsification to a wide range of heavy hydrocarbon to form a stable hydrocarbon-water emulsion. This bio emulsifier could reduce Iranian Nuroze high viscosity oil of about 10000 cP down to 250 cP. This means about 97% decreases in the viscosity. The emulsion stable this condition for 48 hr and the viscosity slowly increases to 4000cp until 192 hr. The stability of the oil in water emulsion during 48hr allows the heavy oil to be transported practically over lengthy distances or remain stable for long periods of time prior to utilization.

  10. Formation of microspheres under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on titanium samples in hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuev, D. A.; Khorkov, K. S.; Ivashchenko, A. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the original method of laser synthesis of microspheres which contain titanium carbide. The formation of microspheres is carried out by the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the surface of titanium in the reaction medium - the ultimate hydrocarbon. The resulting microspheres have a high surface smoothness, a narrow particle size distribution, an average size of 1-3 μm. They can be used in applications of additive engineering, powder metallurgy as the main raw material, or as an alloying additive.

  11. Vortex Formation During Unsteady Boundary-Layer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-11-01

    Unsteady laminar boundary-layer separation is invariably accompanied by the formation of vortices. The aim of the present work is to study the vortex formation mechanism(s). An adverse pressure gradient causing a separation can be decomposed into a spatial component ( spatial variation of the velocity external to the boundary layer ) and a temporal component ( temporal variation of the external velocity ). Experiments were conducted in a piston driven 2-D water channel, where the spatial component could be be contolled by geometry and the temporal component by the piston motion. We present results for three divergent channel geometries. The piston motion consists of three phases: constant acceleration from start, contant velocity, and constant deceleration to stop. Depending on the geometry and piston motion we observe different types of unsteady separation and vortex formation.

  12. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock. 

  13. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Apparatus for use in predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In a relatively quick, convenient and highly accurate technique for the determination of a carbonaceous gas, normally methane, contained in water samples collected at depth from a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict the hydrocarbon-containing potential of the earth formation, carbonaceous gaseous constituents liberated from the water are carried via an air stream to flow into and through an isotope trapping network where collection in microlitre amounts occurs. The isotope capture apparatus comprises a box-like structure formed from a series of panel members, front panel member intersecting the bottom panel member near the centre of the latter and carrying interconnected gas trapping and stripping sections, the structure also comprising a detachable lid connectable by means, for protection of sections. (author)

  15. Circuit effects on pierce instabilities, and double-layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-11-01

    The role of the Pierce instability in the formation of double layers is considered and compared with that of the Buneman instability. Pierce instabilities have been identified in a double-layer experiment, where they lead to ion trapping. Here the effects of external circuit elements are considered. In the case of immobile ions the onset criteria are unaffected, but in the unstable range the growth rate is reduced by the external impedance. Required experimental values of the circuit elements are estimated. The possible relevance to computer simulations is noted. (Authors)

  16. Peculiar features in formation of diffusion layer properties during nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, A.P.; Konoval'tsev, V.I.; Nikitin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of the formation of multiphase nitridated layer at samples of commercial iron, 20, 40Kh and 38KhMYu6A steels are studied with the help of high-temperature methods of investigation (X-ray diffraction analysis, hardening and thickness measuring). It is found out that during the saturation the solid solution oversaturated with nitrogen is formed; some increase in hardness in the process is a result of solid solution hardening and the increase of thickness of nitride zone; however the main growth of the layer hardness is achieved during the cooling as a result of α phase precipitating hardening

  17. Formation of undesired by-products in deNO{sub x} catalysis by hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Frank; Koeppel, Rene A; Baiker, Alfons [Department of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-11-20

    The catalytic performance of Cu/ZSM-5 and {gamma}-alumina in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by alkenes in excess oxygen and the formation of potentially harmful by-products such as hydrogen cyanide, cyanic acid, ammonia, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have been studied by means of FT-IR-gas phase analysis. Over Cu/ZSM-5 the reduction activity was strongly influenced by the type of hydrocarbon, while there was no significant difference when starting from NO or NO{sub 2}. In contrast, with {gamma}-alumina NO{sub 2} was reduced more efficiently than NO with both reductants. Water addition strongly suppressed the catalytic activity of {gamma}-alumina. Regarding the formation of undesired by-products, substantial amounts of carbon monoxide were observed in all experiments, independently of the feed composition. The type of catalyst, the use of either NO or NO{sub 2}, the alkene used as a reductant and water strongly influenced the formation of other by-products. With alumina ethene showed a lower tendency to form HCN as compared to propene and water addition further suppressed by-product formation. This contrasts the findings with Cu/ZSM-5, where HCN production was not significantly altered by the presence of water. On this catalyst HNCO was found additionally for dry feeds, whereas ammonia appeared in the presence of water in the same temperature range. Under special feed gas compositions further by-products, formaldehyde and hydrocarbons, were found over Cu/ZSM-5, whereas none of these compounds were observed over {gamma}-alumina

  18. Hydrocarbon Seeps Formations: a Study Using 3-D Seismic Attributes in Combination with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.

    2011-12-01

    Analyzing the magnitude of oil discharges from natural hydrocarbon seeps is important in improving our understanding of carbon contribution as oil migrates from deeper sediments to the water column, and then eventually to the atmosphere. Liquid hydrocarbon seepage in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is associated with deep cutting faults, associated with vertical salt movement, that provide conduits for the upward migration of oil and gas. Seeps transform surface geology and generate prominent geophysical targets that can be identified on 3-D seismic data as seafloor amplitude anomalies maps that correlate with the underlying deep fault systems. Using 3D seismic data, detailed mapping of the northern GOM has identified more than 21,000 geophysical anomalies across the basin. In addition to seismic data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have proven to be a reliable tool for localizing natural seepage of oil. We used a Texture Classifier Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) to process more than 1200 SAR images collected over the GOM. We quantified more than 900 individual seep formations distributed along the continental shelf and in deep water. Comparison of the geophysical anomalies with the SAR oil slick targets shows good general agreement between the distributions of the two indicators. However, there are far fewer active oil slicks than geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably associated with gas seepage. By examining several sites where the location of active venting can be determined by submersibles observations, we found that the active oily vents are often spatially offset from the most intense geophysical targets (i.e. GC600, GC767, GC204, etc). In addition to the displacement of the oil by deep sea currents, we propose that during the 100K years of activity, the location of the vents on the seafloor probably migrate as carbonate cementation reduces the permeability of the upper sediment. Many of the geophysical targets may represent

  19. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.; Arias, P.G.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Park, S.; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho; Lu, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  20. Effects of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Soot Formation in Ethylene-Air Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Prabhu, S.

    2015-03-30

    This study presents updated comprehensive gas-phase kinetic mechanism and aerosol models to predict soot formation characteristics in ethylene-air nonpremixed flames. A main objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the soot formation rate to various chemical pathways for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, the detailed chemical mechanism was reduced from 397 to 99 species using directed relation graph (DRG) and sensitivity analysis. The method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) was employed for the soot aerosol model. Counterflow nonpremixed flames of pure ethylene at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered, for which the sensitivity of soot formation characteristics with respect to hetrogeneous nucleation is investigated. Results show that higher PAH concentrations result in higher soot nucleation rate, and that the average size of the particles are in good agreement with experimental results. It is found that the nucleation processes (i.e., soot inception) from higher PAH precursors, coronene in particular, is critical for accurate prediction of the overall soot formation.

  1. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry

  2. New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.

  3. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  4. Kinetic particularities of strained alicyclic compounds formation in catalytic methanol to hydrocarbon transformation process

    OpenAIRE

    Doluda V.; Brovko R.; Giniatullina N.; Sulman M.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons is a complex chemical process, accompanied by chain parallel chemical transformation reactions. The most valuable products of the methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation reaction are the strained hydrocarbons — cyclopropane derivatives. These compounds can be used as a high-energy fuel, and also as a valuable chemical raw material. However, the yield of strained compounds in methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation ...

  5. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  6. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  7. Formation of calcium phosphate layer on ceramics with different reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C.; Rigo, E.C.S.; Sepulveda, P.; Bressiani, J.C.; Bressiani, A.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Biphasic ceramic samples of different biological reactivity are prepared by using hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in various ratios. Different parameters for sintering in an air atmosphere furnace were defined after dilatometric studies. An increased densification with decreased TCP content was observed. The sintered bodies were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution kinetics and in vitro reactivity were investigated using simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 deg. C for a maximum period of 3 weeks. The surfaces of the ceramics were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM in order to observe the formation of a calcium phosphate layer, which indicates the samples bioactivity. Dissolution in SBF demonstrated that layers with different kinetics on the samples surface were formed during the immersion period. The biphasic ceramics show bioactive behavior, even if the resorbable TCP is incorporated

  8. Experimental Investigation of White Layer formation in Hard Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, D.; Rotella, G.; Crea, F.

    2011-05-01

    Hard turning with super hard cutting tools, like PCBN or Ceramics inserts, represents an interesting advance in the manufacturing industry, regarding the finishing of hardened steels. This innovative machining technique is considered an attractive alternative to traditional finish grinding operations because of the high flexibility, the ability to achieve higher metal removal rates, the possibility to operate without the use of coolants, and the capability to achieve comparable workpiece quality. However, the surface integrity effects of hard machining need to be taken into account due to their influence on the life of machined components. In particular, the formation of a usually undesirable white layer at the surface needs further investigation. Three different mechanisms have been proposed as main responsible of the white layer genesis: (i) microstructural phase transformation due to a rapid heating and quenching, (ii) severe plastic deformation resulting in a homogenous structure and/or a very fine grain size microstructure; (iii) surface reaction with the environment. In this research, an experimental campaign was carried out and several experimental techniques were used in order to analyzed the machined surface and to understand which of the above mentioned theories is the main cause of the white layer formation when AISI 52100 hardened steel is machined by PCBN inserts. In particular, the topography characterization has obtained by means of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while microstructural phase composition and chemical characterization have been respectively detected using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results prove that the white layer is the result of microstructural alteration, i.e. the generation of a martensitic structure.

  9. Reversibility of temperature driven discrete layer-by-layer formation of dioctyl-benzothieno-benzothiophene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohr, M; Ehmann, H M A; Jones, A O F; Salzmann, I; Shen, Q; Teichert, C; Ruzié, C; Schweicher, G; Geerts, Y H; Resel, R; Sferrazza, M; Werzer, O

    2017-03-22

    Film forming properties of semiconducting organic molecules comprising alkyl-chains combined with an aromatic unit have a decisive impact on possible applications in organic electronics. In particular, knowledge on the film formation process in terms of wetting or dewetting, and the precise control of these processes, is of high importance. In the present work, the subtle effect of temperature on the morphology and structure of dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films deposited on silica surfaces by spin coating is investigated in situ via X-ray diffraction techniques and atomic force microscopy. Depending on temperature, bulk C8-BTBT exhibits a crystalline, a smectic A and an isotropic phase. Heating of thin C8-BTBT layers at temperatures below the smectic phase transition temperature leads to a strong dewetting of the films. Upon approaching the smectic phase transition, the molecules start to rewet the surface in the form of discrete monolayers with a defined number of monolayers being present at a given temperature. The wetting process and layer formation is well defined and thermally stable at a given temperature. On cooling the reverse effect is observed and dewetting occurs. This demonstrates the full reversibility of the film formation behavior and reveals that the layering process is defined by an equilibrium thermodynamic state, rather than by kinetic effects.

  10. On the Formation of Nanobubbles in Vycor Porous Glass during the Desorption of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, A. C.; Stefanopoulos, K. L.; Favvas, E. P.; Vansant, E.; Hankins, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Vycor porous glass has long served as a model mesoporous material. During the physical adsorption of halogenated hydrocarbon vapours, such as dibromomethane, the adsorption isotherm exhibits an hysteresis loop; a gradual ascent is observed at higher pressures during adsorption, and a sharp drop is observed at lower pressures during desorption. For fully wetting fluids, an early hypothesis attributed the hysteresis to mechanistic differences between capillary condensation (adsorption) and evaporation (desorption) processes occurring in the wide bodies and narrow necks, respectively, of ‘ink-bottle’ pores. This was later recognized as oversimplified when the role of network percolation was included. For the first time, we present in-situ small angle x-ray scattering measurements on the hysteresis effect which indicate nanobubble formation during desorption, and support an extended picture of network percolation. The desorption pattern can indeed result from network percolation; but this can sometimes be initiated by a local cavitation process without pore blocking, which is preceded by the temporary, heterogeneous formation of nanobubbles involving a change in wetting states. The capacity of the system to sustain such metastable states is governed by the steepness of the desorption boundary.

  11. Domain Wall Formation in Ferromagnetic Layers: An Ab Initio Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herper, Heike C.

    Domain walls are an inherent feature of ferromagnetic (FM) films consisting of layers with different magnetic orientations. Since FM films are used in electrical devices the question of the influence of domain walls on, e.g., the magnetoresistance has attracted much interest. Besides discussing the resistance contribution of domain walls, it is appropriate to study different types of domain walls and their energy of formation. The behaviour of domain walls is usually discussed within model calculations. In the present paper it is done within an ab initio Green's function technique for layered systems, i.e., the fully relativistic, spin-polarized screened Korringa-Kohn Rostoker method. Results are presented for fcc Co layers covered by two semi-infinite fcc Pt(001) bulk systems or by bulk fcc Co(001), respectively. The resistance, which is caused by the different types of domain walls is discussed within a Kubo-Greenwood approach considering Co(001)/Co24/Co(001) as an example.

  12. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography method for quantification of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from Cissus quadrangularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC is an analytical technique, which can be used for the determination of constituents or marker components in various parts of the plants. Earlier studies have estimated phytoconstituents from the stem and other aerial plant parts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Estimation of hydrocarbons can also be successfully done using HPTLC technique using suitable derivatization. Aims: To develop and validate a simple and rapid method for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons from the leaves of C. quadrangularis using HPTLC technique. Methods: Precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates were used as stationary phase. The mobile phase used was hexane (100 %. The detection of spots was carried out using berberine sulphate as detecting reagent. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. Linearity range was found to be 2-10 µg/mL, limit of detection 0.127 µg/mL, and limit of quantification 0.384 µg/mL. Conclusions: A novel, simple, accurate, precise and sensitive HPTLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained from the leaves of C. quadrangularis Linn.

  13. Lowering of the critical concentration for micelle formation in aqueous soap solutions by action of truly dissolved hydrocarbon at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markina, Z.N.; Kostova, N.Z.; Rebinder, P.A.

    1970-03-01

    The effect of dissolved hydrocarbons (octane, benzene, and ethylbenzene) on critical micelle concentration of aqueous solutions of sodium salts of fatty acids from caproate to sodium myristate at various temperatures was studied. Experimental results showed that formation of micelles is promoted by presence of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase. Such solutions have below normal critical micelle concentration. The change in critical micelle concentration decreases with increase in length of hydrocarbon chain in the soap molecule and with decrease of hydrocarbon solubility in pure water. The nature of the hydrocarbon also affects the forms and dimension of the micelle. Aromatic hydrocarbons increase micelle volume and greatly decrease C.M.C., while aliphatic hydrocarbons decrease C.M.C. slightly. (12 refs.)

  14. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs. The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6. The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%–2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (−1.5% to −2% in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  15. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, S.-T.; Ikemoto, K.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Izumi, T.; Taka, H.; Kita, H.; Sato, S.; Isobe, H.; Mizukami, S.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs). The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6). The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%-2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (-1.5% to -2%) in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  19. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-08-15

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  20. Interface formation between hydrocarbon ring molecules and III-V semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passmann, Regina

    2008-01-01

    In this work a systematical study to investigate the adsorption structures of small hydrocarbon ring shaped molecules on III-V semiconductor surfaces with Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (PES), Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) was performed. To investigate the influence of the surface structure in detail the surface dimer configuration to the adsorption process of organic molecules GaAs(001) surfaces, the c(4 x 4), the (2 x 4) and the (4 x 2) have been investigated as well as the adsorption of cyclopentene on the InP(001)(2 x 4) reconstructed surface. In the direct comparison it is shown that cyclopentene bonds to the InP(001)(2 x 4) surface via a cycloaddition like reaction. During this adsorption the double bond splits which is in contrast to the adsorption of cyclopentene on the GaAs(001) surfaces. Therefrom it is concluded that the surface geometry has an influence on the resulting adsorption structure. In order to investigate the influence of the intra-molecular double bonds, cyclopentene (one double bond), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (two double bonds) and benzene (three double bonds) were used for the characterization of the interface formation. With the investigations on the GaAs(001) reconstructed surfaces it was shown that a dependency of the bonding configuration on the intra-molecular double bonds exists. During the adsorption of cyclopentene no evidence was found that the double bond has to be involved in the interface formation while during the adsorption of 1,4-cyclohexadiene and benzene the double bonds are involved. Furthermore it was found that a bonding to As atoms of the surface is more likely than a bonding to Ga atoms. (orig.)

  1. Optimizing and Quantifying CO2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO2 storage efficiency. CO2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO2 storage in these types of systems. CO2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  2. Methane clumped isotopes in the Songliao Basin (China): New insights into abiotic vs. biotic hydrocarbon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Etiope, Giuseppe; Zhang, Shuichang; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Huang, Ling; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Abiotic hydrocarbon gas, typically generated in serpentinized ultramafic rocks and crystalline shields, has important implications for the deep biosphere, petroleum systems, the carbon cycle and astrobiology. Distinguishing abiotic gas (produced by chemical reactions like Sabatier synthesis) from biotic gas (produced from degradation of organic matter or microbial activity) is sometimes challenging because their isotopic and molecular composition may overlap. Abiotic gas has been recognized in numerous locations on the Earth, although there are no confirmed instances where it is the dominant source of commercially valuable quantities in reservoir rocks. The deep hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Xujiaweizi Depression in the Songliao Basin (China) have been considered to host significant amounts of abiotic methane. Here we report methane clumped-isotope values (Δ18) and the isotopic composition of C1-C3 alkanes, CO2 and helium of five gas samples collected from those Xujiaweizi deep reservoirs. Some geochemical features of these samples resemble previously suggested identifiers of abiotic gas (13C-enriched CH4; decrease in 13C/12C ratio with increasing carbon number for the C1-C4 alkanes; abundant, apparently non-biogenic CO2; and mantle-derived helium). However, combining these constraints with new measurements of the clumped-isotope composition of methane and careful consideration of the geological context, suggests that the Xujiaweizi depression gas is dominantly, if not exclusively, thermogenic and derived from over-mature source rocks, i.e., from catagenesis of buried organic matter at high temperatures. Methane formation temperatures suggested by clumped-isotopes (167-213 °C) are lower than magmatic gas generation processes and consistent with the maturity of local source rocks. Also, there are no geological conditions (e.g., serpentinized ultramafic rocks) that may lead to high production of H2 and thus abiotic production of CH4 via CO2 reduction. We propose

  3. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    potential; bulk materials; total energy calculations; entropy; strained- layer superlattice (SLS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0217 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi-Gang Yu...2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 5 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED- LAYER SUPERLATTICES

  4. Progress Toward Analytic Predictions of Supersonic Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion: Computation of Ignition Times and Supersonic Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Scott Michael

    Combustion in scramjet engines is faced with the limitation of brief residence time in the combustion chamber, requiring fuel and preheated air streams to mix and ignite in a matter of milliseconds. Accurate predictions of autoignition times are needed to design reliable supersonic combustion chambers. Most efforts in estimating non-premixed autoignition times have been devoted to hydrogen-air mixtures. The present work addresses hydrocarbon-air combustion, which is of interest for future scramjet engines. Computation of ignition in supersonic flows requires adequate characterization of ignition chemistry and description of the flow, both of which are derived in this work. In particular, we have shown that activation energy asymptotics combined with a previously derived reduced chemical kinetic mechanism provides analytic predictions of autoignition times in homogeneous systems. Results are compared with data from shock tube experiments, and previous expressions which employ a fuel depletion criterion. Ignition in scramjet engines has a strong dependence on temperature, which is found by perturbing the chemically frozen mixing layer solution. The frozen solution is obtained here, accounting for effects of viscous dissipation between the fuel and air streams. We investigate variations of thermodynamic and transport properties, and compare these to simplified mixing layers which neglect these variations. Numerically integrating the mixing layer problem reveals a nonmonotonic temperature profile, with a peak occurring inside the shear layer for sufficiently high Mach numbers. These results will be essential in computation of ignition distances in supersonic combustion chambers.

  5. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  6. On the role of resonantly stabilized radicals in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation: pyrene and fluoranthene formation from benzyl-indenyl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Rahman, Ramees K; Raj, Abhijeet

    2017-07-26

    Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol -1 . The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H 2 -loss was studied to determine the possible products. The rate-of-production analysis was conducted to determine the most favourable reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation. The premixed laminar flames of toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were simulated using a well-validated hydrocarbon fuel mechanism with detailed PAH chemistry after adding the proposed reactions to it. The computed and experimentally observed species profiles were compared to determine the effect of the new reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation on their concentration profiles. The role of benzyl and indenyl combination in PAH formation and growth is highlighted.

  7. Photochemically consumed hydrocarbons and their relationship with ozone formation in two megacities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Wang, J.; Liu, S.; Shao, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Shiu, C.; Lai, C.

    2010-12-01

    Two on-site continuous measurements of ozone and its precursors in two megacities of China were carried out in an urban site of Beijing and a suburban site near Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to estimate precursor consumption and to assess its relationship with oxidant (O3+NO2) formation level. An observation-based method (OBM) with the precursor consumption concept was adopted to assess the relationship between oxidant production and amounts of photochemically consumed non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this approach, the ratio of ethylbenzene to m,p-xylenes was used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing, as well as the amounts of photochemically consumed NMHCs by reacting with OH. By trying to correlate the observed oxidant with the observed NMHC concentration, the two areas both revealed nearly no to low correlation between them. However, it existed fair to good correlations (R2=0.68 for Beijing, 0.53 for PRD) between the observed oxidant level and the degree of photochemical processing (ethylbenzene/m,p-xylenes). Furthermore, after taking the approach of consumption to estimate the consumed amounts of NMHCs, an interesting finding reveals that the definite correlation existed between the observed oxidant level and the total consumed NMHCs. The good correlations (R2=0.83 for Beijing, 0.81 for PRD) implies that the ambient oxidant level correlated to the amount of consumed NMHCs. The results of the two megacities in China by using the OBM with the precursor consumption concept can provide another pathway to explore the relationship between photochemically produced oxidant and consumed precursors, and will be helpful to validate model results and to reduce uncertainty of model predictions. However, the method has some room for uncertainty, as injection of fresh precursor emissions and additional boundary ozone involved, etc. could affect the estimation of consumed NMHCs and observed oxidant levels. Assistance of approaches in assessing the

  8. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  9. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    directed Paleo-current system prevailed during deposition of Lumshiwal Formation. Diagenetic and tectonically induced fractures make the formation exceedingly porous and permeable as suitable reservoir horizon for the accumulation of hydrocarbon in the Trans-Indus ranges. The same formation has already been proven as potential reservoir horizon for hydrocarbon in the Kohat Plateau of northwest Pakistan. Secondly, the formation is dominantly comprised of silica/quartz sandstone (quartzarenite which can be used as silica sand, one of the essential raw materials for glass industries. The formation is also comprised of local coal seams which can be mined for production of coal in the region.

  10. LOW TEMPERATURE FORMATION OF NITROGEN-SUBSTITUTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PANHs)—BARRIERLESS ROUTES TO DIHYDRO(iso)QUINOLINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Dorian S. N.; Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Meteorites contain bio-relevant molecules such as vitamins and nucleobases, which consist of aromatic structures with embedded nitrogen atoms. Questions remain over the chemical mechanisms responsible for the formation of nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) in extraterrestrial environments. By exploiting single collision conditions, we show that a radical mediated bimolecular collision between pyridyl radicals and 1,3-butadiene in the gas phase forms nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) 1,4-dihydroquinoline and to a minor amount 1,4-dihydroisoquinoline. The reaction proceeds through the formation of a van der Waals complex, which circumnavigates the entrance barrier implying it can operate at very low kinetic energy and therefore at low temperatures of 10 K as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1. The discovery of facile de facto barrierless exoergic reaction mechanisms leading to PANH formation could play an important role in providing a population of aromatic structures upon which further photo-processing of ice condensates could occur to form nucleobases.

  11. Formation of radical cations in a model for the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, Andreas F.; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W.

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that electrophilic radical cations are the major ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic forms of benz[a]anthracene (BA), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), we have focused on a chemical model of metabolism which parallels and duplicates known or potential metabolites of some polycyclic hydrocarbons formed in cells. Studies of this model system show that radical cations are hardly formed, if at all, in the case of BA or DBA but are definitely formed in the cases of the carcinogen BP as well as the non-carcinogenic hydrocarbons, pyrene and perylene. We conclude that the carcinogenicities of BA, DBA, BP, pyrene, and perylene are independent of one-electron oxidation to radical cation intermediates

  12. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafouresse, M.C., E-mail: mlafouresse@gmail.co [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Fukunaka, Y. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ISS Science Project Office, JAXA, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Schwarzacher, W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. {yields} The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. {yields} Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. {yields} Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. {yields} No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  13. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafouresse, M.C.; Fukunaka, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  14. Effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics in large hydrocarbon pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This work aims to estimate the effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics. A series of large scale experiments (in pools ranging from 1.5 to 6 m in diameter) were performed using gasoline and diesel as fuel. As expected, only diesel showed evidence of this phenomenon. This article presents a summary of the results obtained for flame height, tilt and pulsation. Flame height increases during water ebullition, though the increase is no longer detectable when wind speed exceeds certain values. Correlations previously presented in the literature to predict flame length and tilt were modified in order to fit the results obtained during thin-layer boilover. However, the influence on flame tilt is not as great and the equations for the stationary period seem suitable for the entire fire. Results of flame pulsation during the stationary period fill the gap in the literature for fires between 1.5 and 6 m and fit previous correlations. On the other hand, during ebullition, the flame pulsates faster, as air entrainment is greater and, as one would expect, this effect decreases with pool size. A new equation for estimating pulsation frequency during boilover is proposed. (author)

  15. Carbon structures formation in low current high voltage electrical discharge in hydrocarbon vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, A T; Jaworek, A

    2011-01-01

    The properties of carbon fibers and other carbon structures produced from hydrocarbon vapours decomposed in electrically generated plasma at atmospheric pressure are studied in this paper. The electrical discharge was generated between a stainless steel needle and a plate made of nickel alloy. The carbon fiber has grown at the tip of the needle electrode, while other microflower-like deposits were built at the plate. The physical properties of carbon fibers were investigated by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and EDS methods.

  16. THE FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUSTAINABLE LAYERED FILMS INCORPORATING MICROFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE (MFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Rodionova,; Solenne Roudot; , Øyvind Eriksen,; Ferdinand Männle,; Øyvind Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), TEMPO-pretreated MFC, and hybrid polymer/MFC mix were used for the production of layered films with interesting properties for application in food packaging. The series of samples were prepared from MFC (base layers) using a dispersion-casting method. The same procedure as well as a bar coating technique was applied to form top layers of different basis weights. The barrier properties and formation of the layered films were investigated in relationship to the...

  17. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  18. Visualization and characterization of interfacial polymerization layer formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yali; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a microfluidic platform to visualize the formation of free-standing films by interfacial polymerization. A microfluidic device is fabricated, with an array of micropillars to stabilize an aqueous–organic interface that allows a direct observation of the films formation process via optical

  19. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  20. Reservoir attributes of a hydrocarbon-prone sandstone complex: case of the Pab Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Southwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Umar, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kelling, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Links between the architectural elements of major sand bodies and reservoir attributes have been explored in a field study of the hydrocarbon-yielding Late Cretaceous Pab Formation of southwest Pakistan. The lithofacies and facies associations represented in the Pab Formation are the main...... determinants of its reservoir properties. Thus, thick, vertically connected and laterally continuous sand packets have moderate-to-high mean porosities (10–13 %) in fluviodeltaic, shoreface, shelf delta, submarine channel, and fan-lobe facies associations while deeper shelf and basin floor sand bodies yield...... significantly lower porosities (4–6 %). Overall, in the Pab arenites, porosity values increase with increasing grain size and better sorting. The varying sand-shale ratios encountered in different sectors of the Pab outcrop are also petrophysically important: Sequences displaying high ratios yield higher bulk...

  1. Electrophoretic formation of semiconductor layers with adjustable band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindrov, Alexander; Yuvchenko, Sergey; Vikulova, Maria; Tretyachenko, Elena; Zimnyakov, Dmitry; Gorokhovsky, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ceramic layers of the potassium polytitanates modified by transition metal salts were electrophoretically deposited onto the surface of glassy substrate coated with indium-tin oxide. The deposition allows obtaining a dense ceramic layer formed by composite agglomerates consisting of nanoscale particles with average size of 130-190 nm. The optical absorption spectra of the coatings modified in the mixtures of aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts were investigated. It was recognized that a bandgap value of these composites can be adjusted in a range from 1.4 to 2.3 eV depending the chemical composition of layered double hydroxide obtained during modification. This might be very promising for optoelectronic applications of such coatings due to an explicit control of optical properties.

  2. Application of thin layer activation technique for monitoring corrosion of carbon steel in hydrocarbon processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R C; Biswal, Jayashree; Pant, H J; Samantray, J S; Sharma, S C; Gupta, A K; Ray, S S

    2018-05-01

    Acidic crude oil transportation and processing in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations cause corrosion in the pipelines and associated components. Corrosion monitoring is invariably required to test and prove operational reliability. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is a nuclear technique used for measurement of corrosion and erosion of materials. The technique involves irradiation of material with high energy ion beam from an accelerator and measurement of loss of radioactivity after the material is subjected to corrosive environment. In the present study, TLA technique has been used to monitor corrosion of carbon steel (CS) in crude oil environment at high temperature. Different CS coupons were irradiated with a 13 MeV proton beam to produce Cobalt-56 radioisotope on the surface of the coupons. The corrosion studies were carried out by subjecting the irradiated coupons to a corrosive environment, i.e, uninhibited straight run gas oil (SRGO) containing known amount of naphthenic acid (NA) at high temperature. The effects of different parameters, such as, concentration of NA, temperature and fluid velocity (rpm) on corrosion behaviour of CS were studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  4. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E

    1997-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. Paraselectivity and Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons over ZSM-5 Type Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneberg, E.

    1996-12-31

    The zeolite ZSM-5, patented by Mobil Oil Corporation in 1972, is able to convert methanol to gasoline (MTG) and water. Due to the size of the channels, undesired hydrocarbons larger than C{sub 11} are not present in the mixture, and a high octane gasoline is obtained. This has aroused a great deal of interest in the ZSM-5. Rather than being concerned with energy considerations, this doctoral thesis describes syntheses of ZSM-5 and discusses the ZSM-5 as such and studies the possible paraselectivities in various reactions over the catalyst ZSM-5. 774 refs., 113 figs., 54 tabs.

  6. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    2016-01-01

    Temperature programmed desorption has been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature of 1000K. Large fluences of hydrogen leave...... large abundances, alongside H2[2]. To investigate the the abstraction and adsoption patterns of hydrogen/deuterium on coronene, C24H12 (a PAH), we used temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000 K H or D atoms...

  7. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  8. Nanoparticle layer deposition for highly controlled multilayer formation based on high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yue; Williams, Mackenzie G.; Miller, Timothy J.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a strategy for chemical deposition of functionalized nanoparticles onto solid substrates in a layer-by-layer process based on self-limiting surface chemical reactions leading to complete monolayer formation within the multilayer system without any additional intermediate layers — nanoparticle layer deposition (NPLD). This approach is fundamentally different from previously established traditional layer-by-layer deposition techniques and is conceptually more similar to well-known atomic and molecular layer deposition processes. The NPLD approach uses efficient chemical functionalization of the solid substrate material and complementary functionalization of nanoparticles to produce a nearly 100% coverage of these nanoparticles with the use of “click chemistry”. Following this initial deposition, a second complete monolayer of nanoparticles is deposited using a copper-catalyzed “click reaction” with the azide-terminated silica nanoparticles of a different size. This layer-by-layer growth is demonstrated to produce stable covalently-bound multilayers of nearly perfect structure over macroscopic solid substrates. The formation of stable covalent bonds is confirmed spectroscopically and the stability of the multilayers produced is tested by sonication in a variety of common solvents. The 1-, 2- and 3-layer structures are interrogated by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the thickness of the multilayers formed is fully consistent with that expected for highly efficient monolayer formation with each cycle of growth. This approach can be extended to include a variety of materials deposited in a predesigned sequence on different substrates with a highly conformal filling. - Highlights: • We investigate the formation of high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles. • We use “click chemistry” to form these monolayers. • We form multiple layers based on the same strategy. • We confirm the formation of covalent bonds

  9. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Sogo, Yu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Ebihara, Yuko [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Onoguchi, Masahiro [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanotechnology Research Institute, Central 4, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Ichinose, Noboru [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 {sup 0}C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 {mu}g mm{sup -2}, which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute.

  10. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Ebihara, Yuko; Onoguchi, Masahiro; Oyane, Ayako; Ichinose, Noboru

    2007-01-01

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 0 C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 μg mm -2 , which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute

  11. On the mechanism of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulanov, Yu.V.; Mukhin, L.M.; Nenarokov, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of investigations into the aerosol component of Venusian atmosphere using a photoelectric counter in the 63-47 km range of heights at the Vega-1 and Vega-2 interplanetary stations are presented. The experiment was carried out in June, 11, 15, 1985 on the night-time side of the planet. Both devices were switched in at the height of 63 km, and data on the quantity of detected particles >=0.5 μm in diameter were transmitted every 0.43 s (that corresponds to 8-20 m spatial resolution). Study of particle concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days (one period of rotation of Venusian atmosphere) permits to make the following conclusions on the structure of Venusian atmosphere cloud layer on the night side: 1) the cloud layer includes two distinct cloud strata: the upper- 56-60 km height range and the lower- 49.5-46.5 km height range separated by the zone of low particle concentrations ( -3 ); 2) the mentioned structure of the cloud layer is rather stable; concentration profiles obtained at the interval of 4 days well agree with each other; 3) concentration profiles, particularly, in the lower cloud-stratum are subjected to heavy fluctuations, that indicates essential spatial field heterogeneity of particle concentrations

  12. Formation mechanism of the protective layer in a blast furnace hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xu, Meng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A variety of techniques, such as chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were applied to characterize the adhesion protective layer formed below the blast furnace taphole level when a certain amount of titanium- bearing burden was used. Samples of the protective layer were extracted to identify the chemical composition, phase assemblage, and distribution. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the protective layer was determined after clarifying the source of each component. Finally, a technical strategy was proposed for achieving a stable protective layer in the hearth. The results show that the protective layer mainly exists in a bilayer form in the sidewall, namely, a titanium-bearing layer and a graphite layer. Both the layers contain the slag phase whose major crystalline phase is magnesium melilite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and the main source of the slag phase is coke ash. It is clearly determined that solid particles such as graphite, Ti(C,N) and MgAl2O4 play an important role in the formation of the protective layer, and the key factor for promoting the formation of a stable protective layer is reasonable control of the evolution behavior of coke.

  13. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal : a possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooten, G.K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study addressed the issue of sources of hydrocarbons for benthic sediments in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) with particular reference to the application of forensic geology to identify end members and to explain the geologic setting and processes affecting the system. Native coals and natural seep oils have been questioned in the past decade as possible sources of background hydrocarbons because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Native coal has also been dismissed as a pollution source because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low to be consistent with GOA sediments. The authors present evidence that perhaps native coal has been prematurely dismissed as a pollution source because BRCF coals do not represent adequately the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation which have much higher PAH:TOC ratios. The patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals indicate a genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analysis of the coal suggests it is a significant source of PAH, and it was cautioned that source models that do not include this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the background hydrocarbon signature in the Gulf of Alaska. 32 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Molecular mechanisms in the pyrolysis of unsaturated chlorinated hydrocarbons: formation of benzene rings. 1. Quantum chemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2013-05-23

    Analogues of important aromatic growth mechanisms in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion systems are extended to chlorinated systems. We consider the addition of C2Cl2 to both C4Cl3 and C4Cl5 radicals at the M06-2X/6-311+G(3df,3p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, and we demonstrate that these reaction systems have much in common with those of nonchlorinated species. In particular, we find that these radicals appear to lead preferentially to fulvenes, and not to the observed aromatic products, as is found in nonchlorinated systems. We have therefore also considered nonradical C4/C2 channels by way of Diels-Alder cyclization of C4Cl4/C2Cl2 and C4H2Cl2/C2HCl pairs to describe aromatic formation. While the latter pair readily leads to the formation of partially chlorinated benzenes, the fully chlorinated congeners are sterically prohibited from ring closing directly; this leads to a series of novel rearrangement processes which predict the formation of hexachloro-1,5-diene-3-yne, in addition to hexachlorobenzene, in good agreement with experiment. This suggests, for the first time, that facile nonradical routes to aromatic formation are operative in partially and fully chlorinated pyrolysis and combustion systems.

  15. Formation of combustible hydrocarbons and H2 during photocatalytic decomposition of various organic compounds under aerated and deaerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Kułagowska, Aleksandra; Morawski, Antoni W

    2014-11-26

    A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air) was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of "green energy" production.

  16. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  17. MHD flow layer formation at boundaries of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaqi Dong; Yongxing Long; Zongze Mou; Jinhua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear development of double tearing modes induced by electron viscosity is numerically simulated. MHD flow layers are demonstrated to merge in the development of the modes. The sheared flows are shown to lie just at the boundaries of the magnetic islands, and to have sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. Possible correlation between the layer formation and triggering of experimentally observed ITBs, preferentially formed in proximities of rational flux surfaces of low safety factors, is discussed. (author)

  18. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.

    2011-01-01

    the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation event days shows a highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated the suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing the most important characteristics of particle dynamics...... within the boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles...

  19. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on HOPG and their catalytic abilities of H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and temperature programmed desorption techniques have been used to investigate adsorption and abstraction of hydrogen atoms on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene. The coronene molecules were exposed to different hydrogen fluences at a dosing temperature......). Both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques have been used. Coronene monolayers were prepared on graphite and exposed to different fluences of 1000K H or D atoms. STM images show brigth spots on the coronene monolayers after hydrogenation indicating...... calcutions have also been made on desorption of H from a fully hydrogenated coronene molecule. The desorption DFT calculation reveals a favourable desorption route and stable configurations consistent with our TPD measurements[5]. References [1] Tielens, A., Reviews of Modern Physics, 85 (2013) 1021-1081 [2...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on a sandbank plant formation: ecology and potential for hydrocarbon oil mycorrhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocimar Ferreira de Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of contamination related to the exploration, production, storage, transport, distribution and disposal of petroleum, and its products, carry risks that threaten fragile coastal environments, little studied and, thus, in need of attention from the scientific community. On the other hand, symbiont mechanisms essential for the very existence of many plant species, and their relation to contaminated soils, remain unknown. Despite the identification of several species of AMF halophytes soil communities in sandbanks, one can infer their bioremediation potential from studies in other types of soil, which, however, report the same genera of fungi as participants in mycorrhizoremediation processes of polluted soil. This study focuses on the application of biotechnology using Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF in soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons.

  1. Studies of phase formation in CoSi2 buried layers fabricated using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaev, A.A.; Parkhomenko, Yu.N.; Podgornyi, D.A.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The processes of the formation of cobalt disilicide buried layers in silicon are studied under different conditions of implantation with Co. In particular, the effects of the implantation dose and the postimplantation annealing temperature on the state of the Co-implanted layer are considered. Two types of heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures are obtained with the conducting layers of thicknesses 70 and 90 nm buried at the depths 80 and 10 nm, respectively

  2. Formation of Degenerate Band Gaps in Layered Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Vinogradov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms of formation and properties of these band gaps are analyzed. Peculiarities of spectra of photonic crystals that arise due to the linkage between band gaps are discussed. Particularly, it is shown that formation of a frozen mode is caused by linkage between Brillouin and degenerate band gaps. Also, existence of the optical Borrmann effect at the boundaries of degenerate band gaps and optical Tamm states at the frequencies of degenerate band gaps are analyzed.

  3. Formation of carbon containing layers on tungsten test limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.; Philipps, V.; Huber, A.; Tanabe, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten test limiters of mushroom shape and a plasma facing area of approximately 100 cm 2 were exposed at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak to a number of deuterium fuelled discharges performed under various operation conditions. Two types of limiters were tested: a sole tungsten limiter and a twin limiter consisting of two halves, one made of tungsten and another of graphite. The exposed surfaces were examined with ion beam analysis methods and laser profilometry. The formation of some deposition zones was observed near the edges of the limiters. The deuterium-to-carbon concentration ratio was in the range from 0.04 to 0.11 and around 0.2 for the sole tungsten and the twin limiter, respectively. Significant amounts of the co-deposited tungsten and silicon atoms were found on the graphite part of the twin limiter indicating the formation of mixed W-C-Si compounds. (orig.)

  4. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the formation of sewage sludge toxicity to Heterocypris incongruens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what degree polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determines sewage sludge toxicity in relation to Heterocypris incongruens. Six differing sewage sludges with increasing contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were selected for the present study. As well as total PAH content, the content of the potentially bioavailable fraction was also determined in the sewage sludges using a method of mild-solvent extraction (with n-butanol). The PAH content was also calculated in the sewage sludge pore water by the equilibrium partitioning method. The total PAH content in the sewage sludges studied were in the range 3.60 to 27.95 mg kg -1 . The contribution of the n-butanol extracted fraction was in the range 38.7 to 75.4%. In the group of individual PAHs, 4- and 5-ring compounds had the highest content in the potentially bioavailable group. H. incongruens mortality in the range 6.7 to 100%, depending both on the sewage sludge and the dose applied. An increase of the sewage sludge dose usually resulted in an increase in toxicity. At the highest dose, a 100% mortality of H. incongruens was found in half of the sludges. The lowest dose, irrespective of the sludge type, caused over 40% growth inhibition. However, the results obtained did not allow for the establishing of an unambiguous relationship between various sludge toxicity levels and the content of potentially bio-available PAHs. In some cases only, the extraction using n-butanol explained the high difference in toxicity despite a slight differentiation in the PAH content

  6. On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chubarenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cascades down the coastal slopes and intra-layer convection are considered as the two additional mechanisms contributing to the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer (CIL formation along with conventional seasonal vertical mixing. Field measurements are presented, reporting for the first time the possibility of denser water formation and cascading from the Baltic Sea underwater slopes, which take place under fall and winter cooling conditions and deliver waters into intermediate layer of salinity stratified deep-sea area. The presence in spring within the CIL of water with temperature below that of maximum density (Tmd and that at the local surface in winter time allows tracing its formation: it is argued that the source of the coldest waters of the Baltic CIL is early spring (March–April cascading, arising due to heating of water before reaching the Tmd. Fast increase of the open water heat content during further spring heating indicates that horizontal exchange rather than direct solar heating is responsible for that. When the surface is covered with water, heated above the Tmd, the conditions within the CIL become favorable for intralayer convection due to the presence of waters of Tmd in intermediate layer, which can explain its well-known features – the observed increase of its salinity and deepening with time.

  7. Investigating Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as catalysts for Interstellar H2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Frederik Doktor Skødt

    , are observed. Because of relatively high H2 destruction rates in these regions, the presently accepted formation routes on dust grains cannot exclusively account for the observed abundances [1]. Therefore, new formation routes are needed and lately attention has been drawn towards molecules called polycyclic...

  8. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  9. Formation of Nitriles in the Interstellar Medium via Reactions of Cyano Radicals, CN(X2Σ+), with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, N.; Asvany, O.; Huang, L. C. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.; Osamura, Y.; Bettinger, H. F.

    2000-12-01

    Crossed molecular beam experiments of cyano radicals, CN(X2Σ+, ν=0), in their electronic and vibrational ground state reacting with unsaturated hydrocarbons acetylene, C2H2(X1Σ+g), ethylene, C2H4(X1Ag), methylacetylene, CH3CCH(X1A1), allene, H2CCCH2(X1A1), dimethylacetylene, CH3CCCH3(X1A1'), and benzene, C6H6 (X1A1g), were performed at relative collision energies between 13.3 and 36.4 kJ mol-1 to unravel the formation of unsaturated nitriles in the outflows of late-type AGB carbon stars and molecular clouds. In all reactions, the CN radical was found to attack the π electron density of the hydrocarbon molecule with the radical center located at the carbon atom; the formation of an initial addition complex is a prevalent pathway on all the involved potential energy surfaces. A subsequent carbon-hydrogen bond rupture yields the nitriles cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'), 1-methylcyanoacetylene, CH3CCCN (X1A1), cyanoallene, H2CCCH(CN) (X1A'), 3-methylcyanoacetylene, HCCCH2CN(X1A'), 1,1-cyanomethylallene, H2CCC(CN)(CH3) (X1A'), and cyanobenzene, C6H5CN (X1A1). In case of acetylene and ethylene, a second reaction channel involves a [1, 2]-H atom shift in the initial HCCHCN and H2CCH2CN collision complexes prior to a hydrogen atom release to form cyanoacetylene, HCCCN (X1Σ+), and vinylcyanide, C2H3CN (X1A'). Since all these radical-neutral reactions show no entrance barriers, have exit barriers well below the energy of the reactant molecules, and are exothermic, the explicit identification of this CN versus H atom exchange pathway under single collision conditions makes this reaction class a compelling candidate to synthesize unsaturated nitriles in interstellar environments holding temperatures as low as 10 K. This general concept makes it even feasible to predict the formation of nitriles once the corresponding unsaturated hydrocarbons are identified in the interstellar medium. Here HCCCN, C2H3CN, and CH3CCCN have been already observed

  10. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  11. Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

    2002-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens.

  12. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  13. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  14. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  15. Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviero, E.; David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 °C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 °C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {311} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

  16. Modeling the influence of interaction layer formation on thermal conductivity of U–Mo dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Huber, Tanja K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hsu equation provides best thermal conductivity estimate of U–Mo dispersion fuel. • Simple model considering interaction layer formation was coupled with Hsu equation. • Interaction layer thermal conductivity is not the most important attribute. • Effective thermal conductivity is mostly influenced by interaction layer formation. • Fuel particle distribution also influences the effective thermal conductivity. - Abstract: The Global Threat Reduction Initiative Program continues to develop existing and new test reactor fuels to achieve the maximum attainable uranium loadings to support the conversion of a number of the world’s remaining high-enriched uranium fueled reactors to low-enriched uranium fuel. Currently, the program is focused on assisting with the development and qualification of a fuel design that consists of a uranium–molybdenum (U–Mo) alloy dispersed in an aluminum matrix. Thermal conductivity is an important consideration in determining the operational temperature of the fuel and can be influenced by interaction layer formation between the dispersed phase and matrix, porosity that forms during fabrication of the fuel plates or rods, and upon the concentration of the dispersed phase within the matrix. This paper develops and validates a simple model to study the influence of interaction layer formation, dispersed particle size, and volume fraction of dispersed phase in the matrix on the effective conductivity of the composite. The model shows excellent agreement with results previously presented in the literature. In particular, the thermal conductivity of the interaction layer does not appear to be as important in determining the effective conductivity of the composite, while formation of the interaction layer and subsequent consumption of the matrix reveals a rather significant effect. The effective thermal conductivity of the composite can be influenced by the dispersed particle distribution by minimizing interaction

  17. New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: first results from the SATURN experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stratmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations. Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

  18. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  19. Modeling unburned hydrocarbon formation due to absorption/desorption processes into the wall oil film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.K.; Assanis, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as a result of continuing air pollution problems, very stringent regulations are being enforced to control emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) from premixed-charge, spark-ignition engines. A number of attempts have been reported on modeling sources of HC emissions using various analytical tools. Over the past decade, the development of multi-dimensional reacting flow codes has advanced considerably. Perhaps the most widely used multi-dimensional engine simulation code is KIVA-II, which was developed at Lost Alamos National Laboratory. The ability to deal with moving boundary conditions caused by the piston movement is built in this code. This code also includes models for turbulent fluid flow, turbulent interaction between spray drops and gas, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and fuel spray. A standard k-ε turbulence model is used for gas flow. The fuel spray model is based on the stochastic particle technique, and includes sub-models for droplet injection, breakup, collision and coalescence, and evaporation

  20. Paleoweathering features in the Sergi Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous), northeastern Brazil, and implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Cristina; Mizusaki, Ana M.; Pimentel, Nuno; Faccini, Ubiratan F.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Paleoweathering in the Sergi Formation has been classified and analyzed to ascertain its origin and relationship with stratigraphic evolution. The Sergi Formation belongs to the pre-rift sequence of the Recôncavo Basin (northeastern Brazil) and comprises a complex association of eolian and fluvial sandstones and lacustrine mudstones. This formation can be subdivided into three depositional sequences bounded by regional unconformities. Four paleoweathering types, each one related to a distinct origin, have been described in the Sergi Formation: (1) textural mottling, which is distinguished by alternating rock colors as a result of the iron oxide mobilization within mineral phases that evolved under alternating oxidation (yellowish, brownish and reddish shades) and reduction (grayish or greenish hues) conditions; (2) non-textural mottling, which displays a discoloration pattern that is independent of the original rock texture; (3) carbonate concentrations, usually related to carbonate nodule formation, which display a massive internal structure that reveals their origin through continuous growth or crystallization; and (4) banded carbonates (silicified), associated with the beginning of regular surface formation due to the chemical precipitation of carbonates within lacustrine environments. Both mottling color motifs and carbonate accumulation usually represent groundwater oscillation rather than pedogenesis. Only carbonate intraclasts and banded carbonate (silicified) have their origin ascribed to pedogenesis sensu stricto, although the carbonate intraclasts do not represent soil deposits in situ, but calcretes eroded from areas close to channels, and the banded carbonates (silicified) have strong diagenetic modifications. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that fluvial and meteoric water have controlled paleoweathering evolution as well as deposition, yet both aspects are ruled by the same mechanisms (relief, sedimentation rate and, above all, climate).

  1. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  4. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  5. Discrete element simulation of charging and mixed layer formation in the ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Saxén, Henrik

    2016-11-01

    The burden distribution in the ironmaking blast furnace plays an important role for the operation as it affects the gas flow distribution, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions in the shaft. This work studies certain aspects of burden distribution by small-scale experiments and numerical simulation by the discrete element method (DEM). Particular attention is focused on the complex layer-formation process and the problems associated with estimating the burden layer distribution by burden profile measurements. The formation of mixed layers is studied, and a computational method for estimating the extent of the mixed layer, as well as its voidage, is proposed and applied on the results of the DEM simulations. In studying a charging program and its resulting burden distribution, the mixed layers of coke and pellets were found to show lower voidage than the individual burden layers. The dynamic evolution of the mixed layer during the charging process is also analyzed. The results of the study can be used to gain deeper insight into the complex charging process of the blast furnace, which is useful in the design of new charging programs and for mathematical models that do not consider the full behavior of the particles in the burden layers.

  6. Measuring Star-Formation Rates of AGNs and QSOs using a new calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, Casey

    Understanding the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion is one of the key questions in galaxy formation theory. This relation is important for understanding why at present the mass in galaxy bulges (on scales of kpc) correlates so tightly with the mass of galaxy central supermassive blackholes (on scales of AU). Feedback from supermassive black hole accretion may also be responsible for heating or expelling cold gas from galaxies, shutting off the fuel for star-formation and additional black hole growth. Did bulges proceed the formation of black holes, or vice versa, or are they contemporaneous? Therefore, understanding the exact rates of star-formation and supermassive black hole growth, and how they evolve with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. It has previously been nearly impossible to study simultaneously both star-formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies because the emission from black hole accretion contaminates nearly all diagnostics of star-formation. The "standard" diagnostics for the star-formation rate (the emission from hydrogen, UV emission, midIR emission, far-IR emission, etc) are not suitable for measuring star-formation rates in galaxies with actively accreting supermassive blackholes. In this proposal, the researchers request NASA/ADP funding for an archival study using spectroscopy with the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure simultaneously the star-formation rate (SFR) and bolometric emission from accreting supermassive blackholes to understand the complex relation between both processes. The key to this study is that they will develop a new calibrator for SFRs in galaxies with active supermassive black holes based on the molecular emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which emit strongly in the mid-IR (3 - 20 micron) and are very strong in spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The PAH molecules exist near photo-dissociation regions, and

  7. Permian-Triassic maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons in the Assistência Formation (Irati Subgroup, Paraná Basin, Brazil: implications for the exploration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mateus

    Full Text Available New lines of geological evidence strongly suggest that the main period of hydrocarbon maturation within Assistência Formation should be Permian-Triassic, stimulated by a high geothermal gradient that also sustained various manifestations of hydrothermal activity. Three main stages of fluid/hydrocarbon migration can also be inferred on the basis of multiscale observations: confined flow in late Permian to Triassic times, depending on the local build-up of fluid pressures; heterogeneous flow in Lower Cretaceous, triggered by a rejuvenated temperature gradient assisted by the early developed permeability conditions; and a late flow possibly driven by local pressure gradients, after complete cooling of dolerite dykes/sills. The early maturation and multistage migration of hydrocarbons have significant consequences in the design of exploration models to be applied in Paraná Basin.

  8. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  9. Formation of anodic layers on InAs (111)III. Study of the chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valisheva, N. A., E-mail: valisheva@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Tereshchenko, O. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, I. P.; Kalinkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Goljashov, V. A. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Levtzova, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    The chemical composition of {approx}20-nm-thick anodic layers grown on InAs (111)III in alkaline and acid electrolytes containing or not containing NH{sub 4}F is studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is shown that the composition of fluorinated layers is controlled by the relation between the concentrations of fluorine and hydroxide ions in the electrolyte and by diffusion processes in the growing layer. Fluorine accumulates at the (anodic layer)/InAs interface. Oxidation of InAs in an acid electrolyte with a low oxygen content and a high NH{sub 4}F content brings about the formation of anodic layers with a high content of fluorine and elemental arsenic and the formation of an oxygen-free InF{sub x}/InAs interface. Fluorinated layers grown in an alkaline electrolyte with a high content of O{sup 2-} and/or OH{sup -} groups contain approximately three times less fluorine and consist of indium and arsenic oxyfluorides. No distinction between the compositions of the layers grown in both types of fluorine-free electrolytes is established.

  10. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  11. Stochastic layers of magnetic field lines and formation of ITB in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.D.; Bererzhnyi, V.L.; Bondarenko, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of local measurements of RF discharge plasma parameters in the process of ITB formation in the vicinity of rational magnetic surfaces in the Uragan-3M torsatron are presented. The next phenomena were observed in the process of ITB formation: the widening of the radial density distribution, the formation of pedestals on radial density and electron temperature distributions, the formation of regions with high shear of poloidal plasma rotation velocity and radial electric field in the vicinity of stochastic layers of magnetic field lines, the decrease of density fluctuations and their radial correlation length, the decorrelation of density fluctuations, the increase of the bootstrap current. After the ITB formation, the transition to the improved plasma confinement regime takes place. The transition moves to the beginning of the discharge with the increase of heating power. The possible mechanism of ITB formation near rational surfaces is discussed. (orig.)

  12. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  15. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  17. Mechanism for the formation of sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, M.N.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.

    1980-09-01

    A model of the collective interaction of precipitating electrons and the ionospheric plasma is used to explain the formation of short-duration sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere. The changes produced in electron density by this collective interaction mechanism are considered.

  18. Does electrical double layer formation lead to salt exclusion or to uptake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    When electric double layers are formed, cases have been reported where this formation nvolves expulsion of electrolyte into the solution and cases in which electrolyte is absorbed from the solution. Both situations are experimentally and theoretically documented, but they cannot be simultaneously

  19. Evidence of the layer structure formation of chitosan microtubes by the Liesegang ring mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, T. S.; Gegel, N. O.; Shipovskaya, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    In the work, an experiment was performed to simulate the process of chitosan microtube formation through the interphase polysalt -> polybase chemical reaction, on the one hand, and the formation of spatially separated structures under the conditions of reactive diffusion of one of the components, on the other hand. The formation of alternating dark and light bands or concentric rings of the chitosan polybase as a result of the polymer-analogous transformation is visualized by optical microscopy. The results obtained confirm our assumption that the layered structure of our chitosan microtubes is formed according to the Liesegang reaction mechanism.

  20. Formation of organic solid phases in hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.I.; Lindeloff, N.; Stenby, E.H.

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of solid phases during oil recovery is a potential problem. The present work has mainly been concerned with wax formation due to cooling of oils with a large paraffin content. 8 oils have been included in this project, although only a few of these have till now been subject to all the experimental techniques applied. The oils and wax fractions from these have been characterized using techniques such as GC-MS and Ftir. The goal has in part been to get a detailed description of the oil composition for use in model evaluation and development and in part to get a fundamental understanding of waxy oil properties and behaviour. A high pressure (200 bar) equipment has been developed for automatic detection of wax appearance using a filtration technique and laser light turbidimetry. The latter was found to be far superior to the filtration. The filtration was used to sample the incipient solid phase for characterization. However entrapment of liquid in the filters currently used have hampered this part. A number of model systems and one gas condensate have been investigated. The GC-MS procedure was found only to been able to detect molecules up to n-C45 and the group type analysis was not accurate enough for modelling purposes. Using Ftir it was obvious that incipient phases may contain very complex molecules (asphaltenes) which are not captured by GC-MS especially when fractionation is done using the acetone precipitation at elevated temperature. The latter fractionation procedure has been investigated thoroughly as a tool for understanding wax distribution etc. Within thermodynamic modelling a delta lattice parameter model has been developed which incorporates the non-ideality of the solid phases into the calculation of SLE. The non-ideality is estimated from pure component properties. A new algorithm for phase equilibria involving gas-liquid-solid has been developed. Currently both the model work and the experimental works are continued. (au)

  1. Hydrogen blister formation on cold-worked tungsten with layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Dai; Sugimoto, Takanori; Takamura, Shuichi; Ye, Minyou; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2005-01-01

    Low-energy ( 10 21 m -2 s -1 ) hydrogen plasma exposures were performed on cold-worked powder metallurgy tungsten (PM-W), recrystallized cold-worked PM-W and hot-worked PM-W. Large blisters with a diameter of approximately 100-200 μm were observed only on the surface of cold-worked PM-W. The blister formation mechanism has not been clarified thus far. PM-W has a consisting of 1-μm-thick layers, which is formed by press-roll processing. A detailed observation of the cross section of those blisters shows for the first time that the blisters are formed by cleaving the upper layer along the stratified layer. These experimental results indicate that the manufacturing process of tungsten material is one of the key factors for blister formation on the tungsten surface. (author)

  2. Hydrocarbon test in lower-layer atmosphere to predict deep-sea petroleum or hydrate in the Okinawa Trough: an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jianming; Chen Jianwen; Li Gang; Zhang Xunhua; Li Jipeng; Huang Fulin

    2003-01-01

    Light hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, propane, butane and CO2) test and C isotopic analysis of CO2 are conducted for over 100 lower-layer atmospheric samples from the East China Sea slope and the Okinawa Trough. The results show that the lower-layer atmosphere mainly consists of CO2 and then of CH4, and the CO2 concentrations are calculated to have a high average value of 0.87 ω/10-2 ,about three times that of the regional background (0.3 ω/10-2). The result also shows that the average value of C isotope - 20.8 × 10 -3 is given to the CO2, inferring that it is inorganic gas.Thus, for the future ' s work in the Okinawa Trough, special attention should be paid to CO2 hydrate,which is very possibly an important hydrate type.

  3. Radiation damage and redeposited-layer formation on plasma facing materials in the TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Yoshida, Naoaki; Itoh, Satoshi

    1997-01-01

    As an aim to obtain some informations of material damage at long time discharge and redeposited-layer formed by scrape off layer (SOL), two collector probe experiments were conducted by using Tokamak of Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (TRIAM-IM). As a result, radiation damage due to charge exchange neutral particles of more than 2 MeV high energy component flying from plasma was observed. And in either experiment, redeposited-layer formation due to deposite of impurity atoms in the plasma could be observed. In the first experiment, a redeposited-layer with fine crystalline particles was observed, which was formed to contain multi-component system of Fe, Cr and Ni and light elements O and C. And, in the second experiment, a redeposited-layer grain-grown in which main component was Mo was observed. Surface modification of plasma facing material such as above-mentioned damage induction, redeposited-layer formation, and so on, was thought to much affect deterioration of materials and recycling of hydrogen. (G.K.)

  4. Direct formation of gasoline hydrocarbons from cellulose by hydrothermal conversion with in situ hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Mehrotra, Anil Kumar; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    A new process based on aqueous-phase dehydration/hydrogenation (APD/H) has been developed to directly produce liquid alkanes (C 7–9 ), which are the main components of fossil gasoline, from cellulose in one single batch reactor without the consumption of external hydrogen (H 2 ). In this new process, part of the cellulose is first converted to in situ H 2 by steam reforming (SR) in the steam gas phase mainly; and, in the liquid water phase, cellulose is converted to an alkane precursor, such as 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). In the final reaction step, in situ H 2 reacts with HMF to form liquid alkanes through APD/H. Accordingly, this new process has been named SR(H 2 )-APD/H. Experimental results show that the volumetric ratio of the reactor headspace to the reactor (H/R) and an initial weakly alkaline condition are the two key parameters for SR(H 2 )-APD/H. With proper H/R ratios (e.g., 0.84) and initial weakly alkaline conditions (e.g., pH = 7.5), liquid alkanes are directly formed from the SR(H 2 )-APD/H of cellulose using in situ H 2 instead of external H 2 . In this study, compared with pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose at the same temperatures with same retetion time, SR(H 2 )-APD/H greatly increased the liquid alkane yields, by approximately 700 times and 35 times, respectively. Based on this process, direct formation of fossil gasoline from renewable biomass resources without using external H 2 becomes possible. -- Highlights: ► A process of producing gasoline alkanes from cellulose was proposed and studied. ► Alkane precursors and in situ H 2 were formed simultaneously in a single reactor. ► Alkanes subsequently formed by reactions between in situ H 2 and alkane precursors. ► The yields were 700 and 35 times higher than pyrolysis and hydrothermal conversion.

  5. Simulation of the Dynamics of Isothermal Growth of Single-Layer Graphene on a Copper Catalyst in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    A new kinetic model of isothermal growth of single-layer graphene on a copper catalyst as a result of the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on it at a low pressure has been developed on the basis of in situ measurements of the growth of graphene in the process of its synthesis. This model defines the synthesis of graphene with regard for the chemisorption and catalytic decomposition of ethylene on the surface of a copper catalyst, the diffusion of carbon atoms in the radial direction to the nucleation centers within the thin melted near-surface copper layer, and the nucleation and autocatalytic growth of graphene domains. It is shown that the time dependence of the rate of growth of a graphene domain has a characteristic asymmetrical bell-like shape. The dependences of the surface area and size of a graphene domain and the rate of its growth on the time at different synthesis temperatures and ethylene concentrations have been obtained. Time characteristics of the growth of graphene domains depending on the parameters of their synthesis were calculated. The results obtained can be used for determining optimum regimes of synthesis of graphene in the process of chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on different catalysts with a low solubility of carbon.

  6. The formation of multiple layers of ice particles in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional theoretical model to study the formation process of multiple layers of small ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere as measured by rockets and associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. The proposed mechanism primarily takes into account the transport processes induced by gravity waves through collision coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ice particles. Numerical solutions of the model indicate that the dynamic influence of wind variation induced by gravity waves can make a significant contribution to the vertical and horizontal transport of ice particles and ultimately transform them into thin multiple layers. Additionally, the pattern of the multiple layers at least partially depends on the vertical wavelength of the gravity wave, the ice particle size and the wind velocity. The results presented in this paper will be helpful to better understand the occurrence of multiple layers of PMSE as well as its variation process.

  7. Formation and Characterization of Stacked Nanoscale Layers of Polymers and Silanes on Silicon Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosie; Davis, Brian; Conley, Hiram; Hurd, Katie; Linford, Matthew R.; Davis, Robert C.

    2008-10-01

    Chemical surface patterning at the nanoscale is a critical component of chemically directed assembly of nanoscale devices or sensitive biological molecules onto surfaces. Complete and consistent formation of nanoscale layers of silanes and polymers is a necessary first step for chemical patterning. We explored methods of silanizing silicon substrates for the purpose of functionalizing the surfaces. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was characterized by use of ellipsometry, water contact angle, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). We found that forming the highest quality functionalized surfaces was accomplished through use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Specifically, surfaces were plasma cleaned and hydrolyzed before the silane was applied. A polymer layer less then 2 nm in thickness was electrostatically bound to the silane layer. The chemical functionalization, stability, flatness, and repeatability of the process was also characterized for the polymer layer using ellipsometry, water contact angle, and AFM.

  8. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  9. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  10. Toward an understanding of surface layer formation, growth, and transformation at the glass-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, J.; Eskelsen, J. R.; Chiu, M.; Ievlev, A. V.; Ovchinnikova, O. S.; Leonard, D.; Pierce, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Silicate glass is a metastable and durable solid that has application to a number of energy and environmental challenges (e.g., microelectronics, fiber optics, and nuclear waste storage). If allowed to react with water over time silicate glass develops an altered layer at the solid-fluid interface. In this study, we used borosilicate glass (LAWB45) as a model material to develop a robust understanding of altered layer formation (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products). Experiments were conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratio (∼200,000 m-1) and 90 °C in the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus for 1.5-years to facilitate the formation of thick altered layers and allow for the effluent solution chemistry to be monitored continuously. A variety of microscopy techniques were used to characterize reacted grains and suggest the average altered layer thickness is 13.2 ± 8.3 μm with the hydrated and clay layer representing 74.8% and 25.2% of the total altered layer, respectively. The estimate of hydrated layer thickness is within the experimental error of the value estimated from the B release rate data (∼10 ± 1 μm/yr) over the 1.5-year duration. PeakForce® quantitative nanomechanical mapping results suggest the hydrated layer has a modulus that ranges between ∼20 and 40 GPa, which is in the range of porous silica that contains from ∼20 to ∼50% porosity, yet significantly lower than dense silica (∼70-80 GPa). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirm the presence of pores and an analysis of a higher resolution image provides a qualitative estimate of ≥22% porosity in the hydrated layer with variations in void volume with increasing distance from the unaltered glass. Chemical composition analyses, based on a combination of time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and STEM-EDS, clearly show

  11. Electron spectroscopy of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In4Se3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiy, P.V.; Musyanovych, A.V.; Nenchuk, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the interface carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the layered semiconductor In 4 Se 3 crystals are presented. The carbon coating formation occurs as the result of interaction of the air and residual gases atmosphere in ultra high vacuum (UHV) Auger spectrometer chamber with atomic clean interlayer cleavage surfaces of the crystals. The kinetics and peculiarities of interfacial carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of the crystals, elemental and phase composition of the interface have been studied by quantitative XPS, AES and mass-spectroscopy

  12. Formation of Lamellar Structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Layers in Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Yang, Jae-Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoon-Soo [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) zirconium was proposed to increase the strength of the Zr-based alloy up to high temperatures. According to our previous investigations, the tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 was increased by up to 20% with the formation of a thin dispersed oxide layer with a thickness less than 10% of that of the Zircaloy-4 substrate. However, the tensile elongation of the samples decreased drastically. The brittle fracture was a major concern in development of the ODS Zircaloy-4. In this study, a lamellar structure of ODS layer was formed to increase ductility of the ODS Zircaloy-4. The mechanical properties were varied depending on the structure of ODS layer. For example, the partial formation of ODS layer with the thickness of 10% to the substrate thickness induced the increase in tensile strength up to about 20% than fresh Zircaloy-4.

  13. Influence of in situ steam formation by radio frequency heating on thermodesorption of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Ulf; Bergmann, Sabine; Holzer, Frank; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    Thermal desorption of a wide spectrum of organic contaminants, initiated by radio frequency (RF) heating, was studied at laboratory and pilot-plant scales for an artificially contaminated soil and for an originally contaminated soil from an industrial site. Up to 100 °C, moderate desorption rates were observed for light aromatics such as toluene, chlorobenzene, and ethylbenzene. Desorption of the less volatile contaminants was greatly enhanced above 100 °C, when fast evaporation of soil-water produced steam for hydrocarbon stripping (steam-distillation, desorption rates increased by more than 1 order of magnitude). For hydrocarbons with low water solubility (e.g., aliphatic hydrocarbons), the temperature increase above 100 °C after desiccation of soil again led to a significant increase of the removal rates, thus showing the impact of hydrocarbon partial pressure. RF heating was shown to be an appropriate option for thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, leading to efficient cleaning of contaminated soils.

  14. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Callusing and root induction in air layering was evaluated aiming at evolution of procedure for mass clonal propagation of mature ortets of five tropical broadleaf species differing in their potential for adventitious root formation in shoot cuttings as: Anogiessus latifolia < Boswellia serrata < Dalbergia latifolia < Gmelina arborea < Dalbergia sissoo. Two experiments were conducted in rainy season during consecutive years; without application of growth regulators in the first year and with growth regulators (T1 - water, T2- 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid, T3-100 ppm thiamine-HCl and T4 -combination of T2 + T3 in the next year. Air layered branches were detached from the trees to record percentage of alive airlayers, callusing and rooting (% as well as root number and root length. Response to air layering was found to be highly variable in five tree species but appeared to be feasible procedure for clonal propagation of mature ortets of B. serrata and D. sissoo with 100% (in auxin + thiamine treatment and 83.3% (in auxin treatment success, respectively. Maximum callusing (% was found in D. latifolia while no callusing was observed in D. sissoo, which is most easy-to-root among all five species. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers as significant negative correlation of callusing (% and adventitious root formation was recorded in air layers of five tropical broadleaved tree species. Application of exogenous auxin alone or in combination with thiamine circumvents callusing to ensure direct development of roots for successful air layering.

  15. Experimental formation of a fractional vortex in a superconducting bi-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Yamamori, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2018-05-01

    We report the experimental formation of a fractional vortex generated by using a thin superconducting bi-layer in the form of a niobium bi-layer, observed as a magnetic flux distribution image taken by a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope. Thus, we demonstrated that multi-component superconductivity can be realized by an s-wave conventional superconductor, because, in these superconductors, the magnetic flux is no longer quantized as it is destroyed by the existence of an inter-component phase soliton (i-soliton).

  16. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  17. Influence of carbon on the formation of the surface layer in the process of electroerosion alloying of steel with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, E. V.; Bochkov, V. E.; Mikheev, É. A.; Lyakishev, V. A.; Afanas'eva, T. N.

    1983-10-01

    With an increase in carbon content in the steel being treated, the thickness of the alloyed layer increases and its microhardness also increases. The carbon exerts a deoxidizing action on the layer being formed and promotes a reduction in the threshold of deerosion and also additional strengthening of the layer as the result of the formation of binary η-carbides.

  18. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Marsh, S.J.; Mahaffey, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x10 16 . Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm 2 . Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  19. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  20. Formation of periodic and localized patterns in an oscillating granular layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Bar Ilan Univ.; Univ. of California at San Diego

    1998-02-01

    A simple phenomenological model for pattern formation in a vertically vibrated layer of granular particles is proposed. This model exhibits a variety of stable cellular patterns including standing rolls and squares as well as localized excitations (oscillons and worms), similar to recent experimental observations (Umbanhowar et al., 1996). The model is an order parameter equation for the parametrically excited waves coupled to the mass conservation law. The structure and dynamics of the solutions resemble closely the properties of patterns observed in the experiments.

  1. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO42 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF. Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Monitoring the Formation of Hydroxyapatite Porous Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sola, Daniel; Paulés, Daniel; Grima, Lorena; Anzano, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO3-0.2Ca3(PO4)2 biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Abedin, Ahmad; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-03-01

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness

  4. Effect of ablation geometry on the formation of stagnation layer in laterally colliding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Alamgir; Singh, Rajesh K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between two parallel propagating plasma plumes have been investigated in two different ablation schemes e.g. laser-blow-off (LBO) of thin film and conventional laser ablation (LPP). Fast imagine technique is used to study the dynamical and geometrical aspect of seed plasmas and induced stagnation layer in between the two expanding seed plasmas. Interaction between the energetic particles, coming from the seed plasmas are responsible for formation of stagnation layer. It has been found that geometrical shape, size, kinetic energy and divergence of plasma plumes are highly dependent on the ablation geometry. These variations in seed plasmas initiate the significant differences in the stagnation layer formed by LBO and LPP geometry. In this presentation, characteristic feature of stagnation layer which includes density, initiation time, emissive life time and geometry in both LBO and LPP geometry are briefly discussed. A comparative study of present results suggests that the plume composition and directionality of seed plasma play crucial role in mechanistic aspect of stagnation layer. (author)

  5. An experimental study of low Re cavity vortex formation embedded in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Laminar boundary layer flow across a grooved surface leads to the formation of vortices inside rectangular cavities. The nature and stability of the vortex inside any single cavity is determined by the Re and cavity geometry. According to the hypothesis, under low Re and stable vortex conditions a single cavity vortex leads to a roller-bearing effect which results in a decrease in drag as quantified by velocity profiles measured within the boundary layer. At higher Re once the vortex becomes unstable, drag should increase due to the mixing of low-momentum fluid within the cavity and the outer boundary layer flow. The primary objective of this experiment is to document the phenomenon using DPIV in a tow tank facility. This study focuses on the transition of the cavity flow from a steady to an unsteady state as the Re is increased above a critical value. The change in boundary layer momentum and cavity vortex characteristics are documented as a function of Re and boundary layer thickness. Funding from NSF CBET fluid dynamics Grant 1335848 is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Rain-on-snow and ice layer formation detection using passive microwave radiometry: An arctic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Johnson, C. A.; Brucker, L.; Dolant, C.; Richards, A.; Roy, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the current changes observed in the Arctic, an increase in occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events has been reported in the Arctic (land) over the past few decades. Several studies have established that strong linkages between surface temperatures and passive microwaves do exist, but the contribution of snow properties under winter extreme events such as rain-on-snow events (ROS) and associated ice layer formation need to be better understood that both have a significant impact on ecosystem processes. In particular, ice layer formation is known to affect the survival of ungulates by blocking their access to food. Given the current pronounced warming in northern regions, more frequent ROS can be expected. However, one of the main challenges in the study of ROS in northern regions is the lack of meteorological information and in-situ measurements. The retrieval of ROS occurrence in the Arctic using satellite remote sensing tools thus represents the most viable approach. Here, we present here results from 1) ROS occurrence formation in the Peary caribou habitat using an empirically developed ROS algorithm by our group based on the gradient ratio, 2) ice layer formation across the same area using a semi-empirical detection approach based on the polarization ratio spanning between 1978 and 2013. A detection threshold was adjusted given the platform used (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E), and initial results suggest high-occurrence years as: 1981-1982, 1992-1993; 1994-1995; 1999-2000; 2001-2002; 2002-2003; 2003-2004; 2006-2007; 2007-2008. A trend in occurrence for Banks Island and NW Victoria Island and linkages to caribou population is presented.

  7. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  8. Aging promotes todorokite formation from layered manganese oxide at near-surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Haojie [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Key Lab. of Urban Environment and Health; Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Tan, Wenfeng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Wang, Ming Kuang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Todorokite is one common manganese oxide in soils and sediments and is commonly formed from layered Na-buserite. Aging processes can alter the physicochemical properties of freshly formed Na-buserite in natural environments. However, it is not clear whether and how aging affects the formation of todorokites. In the present paper, Na-buserite with aging treatment was employed to prepare todorokite at atmospheric pressure to investigate the effects of aging treatment of Na-buserite on the formation of todorokite. Four aged Na-buserite samples, which are produced through oxidation of Mn{sup 2+} in concentrated NaOH medium by O{sub 2} with aging for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were employed to investigate the effects of aging processes on the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite by Mg{sup 2+}-templating reaction at atmospheric pressure. The manganese oxides were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, determinations of the average manganese oxidation number, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD, IR, and elemental analyses indicate that aging treatment can alter the substructure of the freshly synthesized Na-buserite. During the aging process, some of the Mn(III) may migrate into the interlayer region or disproportionate to form Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} from the layer of Na-buserite and the concomitant formation of layer vacancies. The interlayer Mn{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} occupied above or below the layer vacancy sites and become corner-sharing octahedral. XRD analyses and TEM clearly show that the transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments. The alterations of substructure of aged Na-buserites can promote the rearrangement of manganese to construct a tunnel structure during the transformation from layered manganese oxides to tunnel-structure todorokite at atmospheric pressure. The transformation from Na-buserite to todorokite was promoted by aging treatments at

  9. Comparison of Polythionates as Precursors for the Formation of Thallium Sulfide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalijus JANICKIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of obtaining layers of thallium, sulfides, TlxSy, by the sorption-diffusion method on polyamide 6 using solutions of lower polythionates - sodium trithionate and tetrathionate, Na2S3O6, Na2S4O6, potassium pentathionate, K2S5O6, and of dodecathionic acid, H2S12O6, as precursors of sulfur are compared. The concentration of sorbed sulfur increases with increasing the duration of treatment, the concentration and temperature of precursor solution. It rather significantly also depends on the nature - sulfurity of polythionate, i. e. on the number of sulfur atoms in the polythionate anion: effectiveness of sulfurization using solutions of dodecathionic acid is significantly higher than that of lower polythionates. Thallium sulfide layers are formed on the surface of polyamide after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Tl(I salt solution. The concentration of thallium in the layer increases with the increase of initial sulfurization duration and in case of H2S12O6 solution used - on the temperature of this process. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of thallium sulfide layers in the surface of polyamide 6. The phase composition of layer changes depending on the conditions of initial treatment in a H2S12O6 solution. Five thallium sulfide phases, two forms of TlS, Tl2S2, Tl4S3 and Tl2S5 were identified in the composition of the layers treated for different time with a solution of dodecathionic acid at the temperature of 20 °C and 30 °C and then with Tl(I salt solution by X-ray diffraction but the maxima of TlS and Tl2S5 phases predominate in the diffractograms.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.774

  10. Experimental Analysis of Hydraulic Fracture Growth and Acoustic Emission Response in a Layered Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Shicheng, Zhang; Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shan, Wu; Yinuo, Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Microseismic/acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is an essential technology for understanding hydraulic fracture (HF) geometry and stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) during hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs. To investigate HF growth mechanisms and features of induced microseismic/AE events in a layered formation, laboratory fracturing experiments were performed on shale specimens (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) with multiple bedding planes (BPs) under triaxial stresses. AE monitoring was used to reveal the spatial distribution and hypocenter mechanisms of AE events induced by rock failure. Computerized tomography scanning was used to observe the internal fracture geometry. Experimental results showed that the various HF geometries could be obviously distinguished based on injection pressure curves and AE responses. Fracture complexity was notably increased when vertically growing HFs connected with and opened more BPs. The formation of a complex fracture network was generally indicated by frequent fluctuations in injection pressure curves, intense AE activity, and three-dimensionally distributed AE events. Investigations of the hypocenter mechanisms revealed that shear failure/event dominated in shale specimens. Shear and tensile events were induced in hydraulically connected regions, and shear events also occurred around BPs that were not hydraulically connected. This led to an overestimation of HF height and SRV in layered formations based on the AE location results. The results also showed that variable injection rate and using plugging agent were conducive in promoting HF to penetrate through the weak and high-permeability BPs, thereby increasing the fracture height.

  11. Formation of high aspect ratio polyamide-6 nanofibers via electrically induced double layer during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yu-Shik; Navamathavan, R.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6 was investigated as a function of applied voltage ranging from 15 to 25 kV using electrospinning technique. All other experimental parameters were kept constant. The electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). FE-SEM images of polyamide-6 nanofibers showed that the diameter of the electrospun fiber was decreased with increasing applied voltage. At the critical applied voltage, the polymer solution was completely ionized to form the dense high aspect ratio nanofibers in between the main nanofibers. The diameter of the polyamide-6 nanofibers was observed to be in the range of 75-110 nm, whereas the high aspect ratio structures consisted of regularly distributed very fine nanofibers with diameters of about 9-28 nm. Trends in fiber diameter and diameter distribution were discussed for the high aspect ratio nanofibers. TEM results revealed that the formation of double layers in polyamide-6 nanofibers and then split-up into ultrafine fibers. The electrically induced double layer in combination with the polyelectrolytic nature of solution is proposed as the suitable mechanisms for the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6.

  12. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, Peter W. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Nelson, Andrew R.J. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia); Williams, David E. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand); McGillivray, Duncan J., E-mail: d.mcgillivray@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  13. Formation of mixed organic layers by stepwise electrochemical reduction of diazonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean Christophe

    2012-03-28

    This work describes the formation of a mixed organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode. The strategy adopted is based on two successive electrochemical reductions of diazonium salts. First, bithiophene phenyl (BTB) diazonium salt is reduced using host/guest complexation in a water/cyclodextrin (β-CD) solution. The resulting layer consists of grafted BTB oligomers and cyclodextrin that can be removed from the surface. The electrochemical response of several outer-sphere redox probes on such BTB/CD electrodes is close to that of a diode, thanks to the easily p-dopable oligo(BTB) moieties. When CD is removed from the surface, pinholes are created and this diode like behavior is lost. Following this, nitrophenyl (NP) diazonium is reduced to graft a second component. Electrochemical study shows that upon grafting NP insulating moieties, the diode-like behavior of the layer is restored which demonstrates that NP is grafted predominately in the empty spaces generated by β-CD desorption. As a result, a mixed BTB/NP organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode is obtained using a stepwise electrochemical reduction of two diazonium compounds.

  14. Selenopentathionic and Telluropentathionic Acids as Precursors for Formation of Semiconducting Layers on the Surface of Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirma Zalenkiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of copper chalcogenides, which were formed on the surface of semihydrophilic polymer—polyamide 6 (PA using monoselenopentathionic H2SeS4O6 and monotelluropentathionic H2TeS4O6 acids as precursors of chalcogens, were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV spectroscopy were used to monitor the effect of chalcogens on the changes in structure of PA corresponding to the concentration of the precursor's solution and an exposure time. The IR spectra of modified PA were completely different from that of the initial PA. Further interaction of chalcogenized PA with copper (II/I salt solution leads to the formation of CuxS, CuxSe, CuxTe, and mixed –CuxS–CuySe and CuxS–CuyTe layers which have different electric transport properties. The surface properties of PA after treatment are studied using AFM and XRD. The electrical resistances of layers with various composition formed over a wide concentration range 0.01–0.5 mol⋅dm−3 of precursor's solution were measured. Variation in the conductivity of layers of Cu–Se–S and Cu–Te–S on the surface of PA shows an evident increase with the increasing of the mass fraction of selenium or tellurium.

  15. Formation of a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer by ion bombardment of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr Michałowski, Paweł; Pasternak, Iwona; Ciepielewski, Paweł; Guinea, Francisco; Strupiński, Włodek

    2018-07-01

    Ion bombardment of graphene leads to the formation of defects which may be used to tune properties of the graphene based devices. In this work, however, we present that the presence of the graphene layer on a surface of a sample has a significant impact on the ion bombardment process: broken sp2 bonds react with the incoming ions and trap them close to the surface of the sample, preventing a standard ion implantation. For an ion bombardment with a low impact energy and significant dose (in the range of 1014 atoms cm‑2) an amorphization of the graphene layer is observed but at the same time, most of the incoming ions do not penetrate the sample but stop at the surface, thus forming a highly doped ultra-thin amorphous carbon layer. The effect may be used to create thin layers containing desired atoms if no other technique is available. This approach is particularly useful for secondary ion mass spectrometry where a high concentration of Cs at the surface of a sample significantly enhances the negative ionization probability, allowing it to reach better detection limits.

  16. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Balagansky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Under explosion collapse of two-layer tubes with an outer layer of high-modulus ceramics and an inner layer of copper, formation of a fast and dense copper jet is plausible. We have performed a numerical simulation of the explosion collapse of a two-layer alumina/copper tube using ANSYS AUTODYN software. The simulation was performed in a 2D-axis symmetry posting on an Eulerian mesh of 3900x1200 cells. The simulation results indicate two separate stages of the tube collapse process: the nonstationary and the stationary stage. At the initial stage, a non-stationary fragmented jet is moving with the velocity of leading elements up to 30 km/s. The collapse velocity of the tube to the symmetry axis is about 2 km/s, and the pressure in the contact zone exceeds 700 GPa. During the stationary stage, a dense jet is forming with the velocity of 20 km/s. Temperature of the dense jet is about 2000 K, jet failure occurs when the value of effective plastic deformation reaches 30.

  17. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, Peter W.; Nelson, Andrew R.J.; Williams, David E.; McGillivray, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  18. Structure of formations on the NaCl monocrystal surface following simultaneous irradiation of it by hydrocarbon molecule flow and Ne/sup +/ ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevyanchenko, A S; Palatnik, L S; Martynov, I S; Seryugin, A L; Gritsyna, V V; Koval' , A G; Kiyan, T S; Fogel' , Ya M [Khar' kovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-07-01

    The structure of a film growing on the surface of NaCl crystal with a simultaneous irradiation of the film with molecules of hydrocarbons and Ne ions has been investigated. At the first stage of formation the film has a net structure of graphite with an abnormally large internet distance. At the subsequent stage of growing hollow spherulites are formed in the film, their walls having the structure of the third phase of carbon - carbine and dendrites - crystals with the structure of NaCl forming inside of the growing film.

  19. Irreversible fouling of membrane bioreactors due to formation of a non-biofilm gel layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; Larsen, Poul; Zheng, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), known to contribute to fouling in membrane bio-reactors (MBRs), are generally divided into bound and free EPS. The free EPS are able to form a gel layer on the membrane active surface. The mechanisms involved in formation of such layer and its effects...... on performance of the MBR membranes were studied. The free EPS, extracted by centrifugation and microfiltration, contained a significant amount of humic-like substances. Under static contact to the membrane, adsorption of humic-like substances to the membrane occurred and could be explained by conventional...... adsorption kinetics. Due to static adsorption, surface roughness of the membrane declined significantly, indicating that adsorbed matters to the membranefilled the cavities of the membrane surface. Filtration of the free EPS caused 50% waterflux decline. The fouling resistance linearly increased...

  20. Surface crack formation on rails at grinding induced martensite white etching layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Jørn; Fæster, Søren; Dhar, Somrita

    2017-01-01

    The connection between profile grinding of rails, martensite surface layers and crack initiation has been investigated using visual inspection, optical microscopy and 3D X-ray computerized tomography. Newly grinded rails were extracted and found to be covered by a continuous surface layer...... of martensite with varying thickness formed by the grinding process. Worn R350HT and R200 rails were extracted from the Danish rail network as they had transverse bands resembling grinding marks on the running surface. The transverse bands were shown to consist of martensite which had extensive crack formation...... at the martensite/pearlite interface. The cracks in R350HT propagated down into the rail while those in the soft R200 returned to the surface causing only very small shallow spallation. The transverse bands had the same shape, size, orientation, location and periodicity which would be expected from grinding marks...

  1. BOREAS Forest Cover Data Layers of the NSA in Raster Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David; Tuinhoff, Manning

    2000-01-01

    This data set was processed by BORIS staff from the original vector data of species, crown closure, cutting class, and site classification/subtype into raster files. The original polygon data were received from Linnet Graphics, the distributor of data for MNR. In the case of the species layer, the percentages of species composition were removed. This reduced the amount of information contained in the species layer of the gridded product, but it was necessary in order to make the gridded product easier to use. The original maps were produced from 1:15,840-scale aerial photography collected in 1988 over an area of the BOREAS NSA MSA. The data are stored in binary, image format files and they are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2015-02-11

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores with nitrogen donor moieties offers potential to evaluate/elucidate the structure–adsorption property relationship. Two MOF platforms, eea-MOF and rtl-MOF, based on pillaring of kgm-a or sql-a layers with heterofunctional 3-connected organic building blocks were targeted and constructed to purposely introduce and expose the desired amide or amine functionalities. Interestingly, gas adsorption properties of eea-MOF-4 (1) and eea-MOF-5 (2) showed that by simply altering the nitrogen donor position within the ligand, it is possible to relatively reduce the pore size of the related eea-MOF material and subsequently increase the associated CO2 uptake. The slightly confined pore space in 2, relative to 1, has enabled an enhancement of the pore local charge density and thus the observed relative increase in the CO2 and H2 isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst). In addition, light hydrocarbon adsorption studies revealed that 2 is more selective toward C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 than 1, as exemplified for C2H6 : CH4 (5 : 95) or C3H8 : CH4 (5 : 95) binary gas mixtures.

  3. Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation compared to layered deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowe, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Walter, S.

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation are morphologically similar to the mounds of Juventae Chasma at the equatorial region on Mars (Fig. 1). By analyzing these deposits, we hope to gain information about the environmental conditions that prevailed during sediment deposition and erosion, hence conditions that might be applicable to the Martian layered and hydrated deposits. Mariner 9 data of the Martian mid-latitudes have already shown evidence of the wind-sculptured landforms that display the powerful prevailing eolian regime [1]. In addition, [2] reported on similarities between Martian erosional landforms and those of the rainless coastal desert of central Peru from the Paracas peninsula to the Rio Ica. As indicated by similar erosional patterns, hyper-arid conditions and unidirectional winds must have dominated at least after deposition of the sediments, which are intermixed volcaniclastic materials and evaporate minerals at both locations. Likewise, variations in composition are displayed by alternating layers of different competence. The Pisco formation bears yardangs on siltstones, sandstones and clays with volcaniclastic admixtures [3] whereas the presence of sulphate minerals and the omnipresent mafic mineralogy has been reported for the layered mounds of Juventae Chasma equally [4]. Likewise, a volcanic airfall deposition and lacustrine formation have been proposed for the sulphate-rich deposits of Juventae Chasma [5,6]. In order to find out about potential spectral similarities, we performed a detailed spectral analysis of the surface by using LANDSAT and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR/ SWIR data (visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared region).

  4. Kinetics of the electric double layer formation modelled by the finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the elctric double layer formation in 100 mM NaCl solution for sudden potentail steps of 10 and 20 mV was simulated using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory and VLUGR2 solver for partial differential equations. The used approach was verified by comparing the obtained steady-state solution with the available exact solution. The simulations allowed for detailed analysis of the relaxation processes of the individual ions and the electric potential. Some computational aspects of the problem were discussed.

  5. Enhanced formation of Ge nanocrystals in Ge : SiO2 layers by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)

  6. On formation of silicon nanocrystals under annealing SiO2 layers implanted with Si ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G.A.; Yanovskaya, S.G.; Volodin, V.A.; Kesler, V.G.; Lejer, A.F.; Ruault, M.-O.

    2002-01-01

    Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the formation of silicon nanocrystals in SiO 2 implanted with Si ions. Si clusters have been formed at once in the postimplanted layers, providing the excessive Si concentration more ∼ 3 at. %. Si segregation with Si-Si 4 bonds formation is enhanced as following annealing temperature increase, however, the Raman scattering by Si clusters diminishes. The effect is explained by a transformation of the chain-like Si clusters into compact phase nondimensional structures. Segregation of Si nanoprecipitates had ended about 1000 deg C, but the strong photoluminescence typical for Si nanocrystals manifested itself only after 1100 deg C [ru

  7. Sheared flow layer formation in tokamak plasmas with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Long, Y.X.; Mou, Z.Z.; Zhang, J.H.; Li, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Sheared flow layer (SFL) formation due to magnetic energy release through tearing-reconnections in tokamak plasmas is investigated. The characteristics of the SFLs created in the development of double tearing mode, mediated by electron viscosity in configurations with non-monotonic safety factor q profiles and, therefore, two rational flux surfaces of same q value, are analyzed in detail as an example. Quasi-linear simulations demonstrate that the sheared flows induced by the mode have desirable characteristics (lying at the boundaries of the magnetic islands), and sufficient levels required for internal transport barrier (ITB) formation. A possible correlation of the SFLs with experimental observations, that double transport barrier structures are preferentially formed in proximity of the two rational surfaces, is also proffered. (author)

  8. Formation of the outer layer of the Dictyostelium spore coat depends on the inner-layer protein SP85/PsB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Talibah; Kelley, Karen; Erdos, Gregory W; Kaplan, Lee; West, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    The Dictyostelium spore is surrounded by a 220 microm thick trilaminar coat that consists of inner and outer electron-dense layers surrounding a central region of cellulose microfibrils. In previous studies, a mutant strain (TL56) lacking three proteins associated with the outer layer exhibited increased permeability to macromolecular tracers, suggesting that this layer contributes to the coat permeability barrier. Electron microscopy now shows that the outer layer is incomplete in the coats of this mutant and consists of a residual regular array of punctate electron densities. The outer layer is also incomplete in a mutant lacking a cellulose-binding protein associated with the inner layer, and these coats are deficient in an outer-layer protein and another coat protein. To examine the mechanism by which this inner-layer protein, SP85, contributes to outer-layer formation, various domain fragments were overexpressed in forming spores. Most of these exert dominant negative effects similar to the deletion of outer-layer proteins, but one construct, consisting of a fusion of the N-terminal and Cys-rich C1 domain, induces a dense mat of novel filaments at the surface of the outer layer. Biochemical studies show that the C1 domain binds cellulose, and a combination of site-directed mutations that inhibits its cellulose-binding activity suppresses outer-layer filament induction. The results suggest that, in addition to a previously described early role in regulating cellulose synthesis, SP85 subsequently contributes a cross-bridging function between cellulose and other coat proteins to organize previously unrecognized structural elements in the outer layer of the coat.

  9. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  11. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  12. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  13. Localization of excitons by molecular layer formation in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spin coated films of atactic polystyrene of two different molecular weights have been studied with uv spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity, the film thickness (d) varying from ∼2R g to ∼12R g where R g is the unperturbed radius of gyration of the polymer. uv extinction due to the pure electronic singlet 1 A 1g → 1 E 1u is seen to increase with d -1 for 4R g ≤d≤12R g (region 1). This suggests excitonic interaction along d. The variation of total exciton energy (E) of the A 1g →E 1u singlet with d in region 1 can be well explained by formation of linear J-aggregates of polystyrene molecules, in a lattice with spacing 'a' (in A) R g g , along d. Atomic force microscopic images of the films show the presence of 'spheres' distributed randomly on film surfaces with in-plane dimensions matching a. From the variation of E with d -2 the effective mass (m eff ) of the exciton is also determined. For R g g (region 2) the extinction and E become essentially independent of d, indicating exciton localization along d, and the value of m eff becomes very large. This enhancement in the effective mass maybe used to quantify localization. The variations of electron density (ρ) with d, i.e., the electron density profiles (EDPs) of the films extracted from x-ray reflectivity studies, indicate formation of layers with period 'b' (in A), R g g parallel to substrate surface in region 2 and a constant ρ film in region 1. On raising the temperature of a typical film to 60 deg. C, the layering was seen to almost vanish, as obtained from both the EDP and the Patterson function of the reflectivity profile. The close correspondence between 'a' and 'b' indicates that the molecules forming the J-aggregates form the layers, too. The average difference in ρ between successive extrema in the EDPs in region 2, denoted by δ, can be used as the order parameter for the layering transition. For PS-5, δ>0 at d≅4R g , where the exciton is still delocalized. Layering reduces the Hamaker

  14. Oxygen-implanted induced formation of oxide layer enhances blood compatibility on titanium for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Wei-Chiang [School of Oral Hygiene, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chang, Fang-Mo [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tzu-Sen [Master Program in Graduate Institute of Nanomedicine and Medical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University-Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei 235, Taiwan (China); Lin, Che-Tong [School of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) layers were prepared on a Ti substrate by using oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (oxygen PIII). The surface chemical states, structure, and morphology of the layers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties, such as the Young's modulus and hardness, of the layers were investigated using nanoindentation testing. The Ti{sup 4+} chemical state was determined to be present on oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces, which consisted of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a rutile structure. Compared with Ti substrates, the oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces exhibited decreased Young's moduli and hardness. Parameters indicating the blood compatibility of the oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces, including the clotting time and platelet adhesion and activation, were studied in vitro. Clotting time assays indicated that the clotting time of oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces was longer than that of the Ti substrate, which was associated with decreased fibrinogen adsorption. In conclusion, the surface characteristics and the blood compatibility of Ti implants can be modified and improved using oxygen PIII. - Highlights: • The Ti{sup 4+} chemical state was determined to be present on oxygen-PIII-treated surfaces. • The nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} with a rutile structure was formed on titanium surfaces. • A nanoporous TiO{sub 2} layer in the rutile phase prepared using oxygen PIII treatment can be used to prolong blood clot formation.

  15. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  16. New positive feedback mechanism between boundary layer meteorology and secondary aerosol formation during severe haze events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jia, Xingcan; Quan, Jiannong; Li, Jiayun; Li, Xia; Wu, Yongxue; Chen, Dan; Wang, Zifa; Liu, Yangang

    2018-04-17

    Severe haze events during which particulate matter (PM) increases quickly from tens to hundreds of microgram per cubic meter in 1-2 days frequently occur in China. Although it has been known that PM is influenced by complex interplays among emissions, meteorology, and physical and chemical processes, specific mechanisms remain elusive. Here, a new positive feedback mechanism between planetary boundary layer (PBL), relative humidity (RH), and secondary PM (SPM) formation is proposed based on a comprehensive field experiment and model simulation. The decreased PBL associated with increased PM increases RH by weakening the vertical transport of water vapor; the increased RH in turn enhances the SPM formation through heterogeneous aqueous reactions, which further enhances PM, weakens solar radiation, and decreases PBL height. This positive feedback, together with the PM-Radiation-PBL feedback, constitutes a key mechanism that links PM, radiation, PBL properties (e.g. PBL height and RH), and SPM formation, This mechanism is self-amplifying, leading to faster PM production, accumulation, and more severe haze pollution.

  17. Tool Wear and Formation Mechanism of White Layer When Hard Milling H13 Steel under Different Cooling/Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at revealing the formation mechanism of white layer and understanding the effects of tool wear and cooling/lubrication condition on white layer when hard milling H13 steel with coated cutting tools. Hard milling experiments were carried out, and tool wear and its effect on formation of white layer were investigated. Compared to dry cutting condition, CMQL (cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication technique can obviously reduce tool wear and prolong tool life owing to its good cooling and lubrication properties. The optical images of the subsurface materials indicate that the formation of white layer is related to tool wear; moreover, the thickness of white layer increases with the increase of tool wear. SEM (scanning electron microscope images and XRD (X-ray diffraction analysis confirm that the formation of white layer is mainly due to the mechanical effect rather than the thermal effect. It also proves that white layer is partly decreased or can be totally eliminated by optimizing process parameters under CMQL cutting condition. CMQL technique has the potential to be used for achieving prolonged tool life and enhanced surface integrity.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 within boundary layer: Cloud/fog and regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minmin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Li, Tao; Nie, Xiaoling; Cao, Fangfang; Yang, Fengchun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Qie, Guanghao; Jin, Tong; Du, Lili; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-15

    A study of PM 2.5 -associated PAHs analysis at Mount Lushan (1165m) was conducted to investigate the distributions of PAHs in PM 2.5 and influences of cloud/fog. The main purpose was to quantify the main emission sources of PAHs and estimate regional transport effects within the boundary layer. Mount Lushan is located between the boundary layer and troposphere, which is an ideal site for atmosphere transport investigation. The concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were analyzed with GC-MS. The results showed that the volume concentration was 6.98ng/m 3 with a range from 1.47 to 25.17ng/m 3 and PAHs mass were 160.24μg/g (from 63.86 to 427.97μg/g) during the sampling time at Mount Lushan. The dominant compounds are BbF, Pyr and BP. In terms of aromatic-ring PAHs distributions, 4-6-ring PAHs are predominant, indicating that the high-ring PAHs tend to contribute more than low-ring PAHs in particulates. Due to frequent cloud/fog days at Mount Lushan, PAHs concentrations in the PM 2.5 were determined before and after cloud/fog weather. The results demonstrated that the cloud/fog and rain conditions cause lower PAHs levels. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationship of PAHs distributions with meteorological conditions like temperature, humidity and wind. The results showed that the temperature and wind speed were inversely related with PAHs concentration but humidity had no significant relationship. Furthermore, backward trajectories and PCA combined with DR (diagnostic ratio analysis) were employed to identify the influences of regional transport and main emission sources. The results revealed that PAHs in PM 2.5 were mainly affected by regional transport with the main emissions by mobile vehicle and steel industry, which contributed about 56.0% to the total PAHs in the area of Mount Lushan. In addition, backward trajectories revealed that the dominant air masses were from the northwest accounting for about one third of total PAHs. Copyright © 2018

  19. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process—Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Panzer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the successful fabrication of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM. The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  20. Formation of double layers: shocklike solutions of an mKdV-equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Chanteur, G.

    1985-10-01

    Small amplitude double layers (DLs) in a plasma with a suitable electron distribution may be identified with shocklike solutions of a modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equation. A thought experiment for the formation of such DLs is specified to clarify the physical constraints and to demonstrate the emergence of a DL from an initial disturbance. A scattering formulation of the mKdV initial value problem may be diagonalised to give a pair of Schroedinger equations with a scattering potential satisfying the ordinary KdV equation. The initial value problem can then be treated using Khruslov's generalisation of the inverse scattering method which allows a difference in the asymptotic values of the potential. A necessary and sufficient condition for the emergence of a shocklike soliton (wave) train and of a finite number of isolated solitons may also be determined from the scattering properties of the initial potential. With 26 refs and 5 figures. (Author)

  1. Formation of porous surface layers in reaction bonded silicon nitride during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, N. J.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Microstructural examination of reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has shown that there is often a region adjacent to the as-nitrided surfaces that is even more porous than the interior of this already quite porous material. Because this layer of large porosity is considered detrimental to both the strength and oxidation resistance of RBSN, a study was undertaken to determine if its formation could be prevented during processing. All test bars studied were made from a single batch of Si powder which was milled for 4 hours in heptane in a vibratory mill using high density alumina cylinders as the grinding media. After air drying the powder, bars were compacted in a single acting die and hydropressed.

  2. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an in-situ diagnostic for the measurement of the hydrogen content of amorphous hydrocarbon layers in fusion devices; Entwicklung einer In-situ-Messmethode zur Bestimmung des Wasserstoffgehalts amorpher Kohlenwasserstoffschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrek, F.

    2008-07-15

    A diagnostic method, the laser-induced thermal desorption spectroscopy (LDS), is developed to measure in situ the hydrogen inventory in the surface of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments. Its capabilities will be demonstrated in TEXTOR. In LDS, during the plasma discharge a laser beam is used to heat a spot on a surface close to the plasma to a temperature of 1400 to 2100 K to a depth of 100 {mu}m. Trapped hydrogen will be released into the plasma where it emits line radiation. The emitted H{sub a}-light is quantitatively measured. The amount of released hydrogen is calculated from the intensity of this emission using conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff}. The laser light (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm) is conducted via light fibres. At TEXTOR, a 5 mm{sup 2} sized homogeneous laser spot is created with a pulse duration of 1.5 ms, and an Energy of 5 J, typically. Below the laser spot a volume of at most 1 mm{sup 3} is desorbed. The generated temperature is calculated numerically and indirectly deduced from surface changings. Depending on the conditions during the layer formation the hydrogen content of the hydrocarbon layer will vary and different fractions of the released molecules (H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are created during the laser heating. The release of atomic hydrogen by laser desorption was not found. The emitted light is measured by means of narrow-band interference filters and a CCD-camera. The fraction of the light emission which lies outside the observation volume is estimated using simulations of the emission by the neutral gas transport Monte Carlo code EIRENE for each molecular fraction. Conversion factors (S/XB){sub eff} were measured in various reference plasmas (T{sub e}=22-30 eV, n{sub e}=1-11 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} and T{sub e}=50-74 eV, n{sub e}=1-5 x 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) by desorbing prepared graphite samples which release a known amount of hydrogen with a known molecular distribution. LDS measurements were carried out in TEXTOR at

  4. Phase transitions during formation of Ag nanoparticles on In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: yang.liu@helmholtz-berlin.de; Fu, Yanpeng; Dittrich, Thomas; Sáez-Araoz, Rodrigo; Schmid, Martina; Hinrichs, Volker; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Fischer, Christian-Herbert

    2015-09-01

    Phase transitions have been investigated for silver deposition onto In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layers by spray chemical vapor deposition from a trimethylphosphine (hexafluoroacetylacetonato) silver (Ag(hfacac)(PMe{sub 3})) solution. The formation of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on top of the semiconductor layer set on concomitant with the formation of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8}. The increase of the diameter of Ag NPs was accompanied by the evolution of orthorhombic AgInS{sub 2}. The formation of Ag{sub 2}S at the interface between Ag NPs and the semiconductor layer was observed. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy indicated charge separation and electronic transitions in the ranges of corresponding band gaps. The phase transition approach is aimed to be applied for the formation of plasmonic nanostructures on top of extremely thin semiconducting layers. - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were deposited onto In{sub 2}S{sub 3} precursor layer by spray pyrolysis. • The silver nanoparticle size and density could be controlled by deposition time. • Phase transitions during deposition and material properties were investigated. • The layers still show semiconducting properties after phase transitions. • Plasmonic absorption enhancement has been demonstrated.

  5. Study on the formation of heterogeneous structures in leached layers during the corrosion process of glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien Anaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Le verre, corrodé dans des conditions naturelles, montre souvent des hétérogénéités dans la couche lixiviée, comme une structure lamellaire ou des inclusions de MnO2 ou Ca3(PO42. La formation de ces hétérogénéités n’est pas encore bien comprise. Des structures de ce type ont été produites artificiellement en laboratoire en immergeant des échantillons de verre dans des solutions riches en métaux. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été comparés avec des théories décrivant la corrosion du verre.Glass that corrodes under natural conditions often shows heterogeneities in the leached layer, such as a lamellar structure or inclusions of MnO2 or Ca3(PO42. The formation of these heterogeneities is still not well understood. By means of experiments under laboratory conditions, our aim was to artificially generate specific structures. Therefore, glass samples were immersed in metal-rich solutions. The experimental results were compared with theories describing glass corrosion from a molecular point of view.

  6. The formation of sporadic E layers by a vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal wind shear flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Didebulidze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es layers by an atmospheric vortical perturbation excited in a horizontal shear flow (horizontal wind with a horizontal linear shear is investigated. A three-dimensional atmospheric vortical perturbation (atmospheric shear waves, whose velocity vector is in the horizontal plane and has a vertical wavenumber kz≠0, can provide a vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The shear waves influence the vertical transport of heavy metallic ions and their convergence into thin and dense horizontal layers. The proposed mechanism takes into account the dynamical influence of the shear wave velocity in the horizontal wind on the vertical drift velocity of the ions. It also can explain the multi-layer structure of Es layers. The pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the value of the shear-wave vertical wavelength, the ion-neutral collision frequency and the direction of the background horizontal wind. The modelling of formation of sporadic E layers with a single and a double peak is presented. Also, the importance of shear wave coupling with short-period atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs on the variations of sporadic E layer ion density is examined and discussed.

  7. The deep chlorophyll layer in Lake Ontario: Extent, mechanisms of formation, and abiotic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Anne E.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2017-01-01

    Epilimnetic production has declined in Lake Ontario, but increased production in metalimnetic deep chlorophyll layers (DCLs) may compensate for these losses. We investigated the spatial and temporal extent of DCLs, the mechanisms driving DCL formation, and the use of physical variables for predicting the depth and concentration of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) during April–September 2013. A DCL with DCM concentrations 2 to 3 times greater than those in the epilimnion was present when the euphotic depth extended below the epilimnion, which occurred primarily from late June through mid-August. In situ growth was important for DCL formation in June and July, but settling and photoadaptation likely also contributed to the later-season DCL. Supporting evidence includes: phytoplankton biovolume was 2.4 × greater in the DCL than in the epilimnion during July, the DCL phytoplankton community of July was different from that of May and the July epilimnion (p = 0.004), and there were concurrences of DCM with maxima in fine particle concentration and dissolved oxygen saturation. Higher nutrient levels in the metalimnion may also be a necessary condition for DCL formation because July metalimnetic concentrations were 1.5 × (nitrate) and 3.5 × (silica) greater than in the epilimnion. Thermal structure variables including epilimnion depth, thermocline depth, and thermocline steepness were useful for predicting DCM depth; the inclusion of euphotic depth only marginally improved these predictions. However, euphotic depth was critical for predicting DCM concentrations. The DCL is a productive and predictable feature of the Lake Ontario ecosystem during the stratified period.

  8. Boundary layer new particle formation over East Antarctic sea ice – possible Hg-driven nucleation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on the only day to exhibit extended periods of global irradiance in excess of 600 W m−2. Within the single air mass influencing the measurements, number concentrations of particles larger than 3 nm (CN3 reached almost 7700 cm−3 within a few hours of clouds clearing, and grew at rates of 5.6 nm h−1. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were in the range of those measured at other Antarctic locations at 0.2–1.1 ± 0.1 cm−3 s−1. Our investigations into the nucleation chemistry found that there were insufficient precursor concentrations for known halogen or organic chemistry to explain the nucleation event. Modelling studies utilising known sulfuric acid nucleation schemes could not simultaneously reproduce both particle formation or growth rates. Surprising correlations with total gaseous mercury (TGM were found that, together with other data, suggest a mercury-driven photochemical nucleation mechanism may be responsible for aerosol nucleation. Given the very low vapour pressures of the mercury species involved, this nucleation chemistry is likely only possible where pre-existing aerosol concentrations are low and both TGM concentrations and solar radiation levels are relatively high (∼ 1.5 ng m−3 and ≥ 600 W m−2, respectively, such as those observed in the Antarctic sea ice boundary layer in this study or in the global free troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Effect of layer number and layer stacking registry on the formation and quantification of defects in graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Costa, Sara; Ek Weis, Johan; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, MAR 2016 (2016), s. 592-598 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13022 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multi-layered graphene * Applied research * Plasma applications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  10. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, M; Adamska, K; Szybowicz, M; Jesionowski, T; Buchwald, T; Voelkel, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37°C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. © 2013.

  11. Formation of an Anti-Core–Shell Structure in Layered Oxide Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanlei [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast; Omenya, Fredrick [NorthEast; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NorthEast; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental; Zhou, Guangwen [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast

    2017-10-20

    The layered → rock-salt phase transformation in the layered dioxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries is believed to result in a “core-shell” structure of the primary particles, in which the core region maintains as the layered phase while the surface region undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt phase. Using transmission electron microscopy, here we demonstrate the formation of an “anti-core-shell” structure in cycled primary particles with a formula of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, in which the surface and subsurface regions remain as the layered structure while the rock-salt phase forms as domains in the bulk with a thin layer of the spinel phase between the rock-salt core and the skin of the layered phase. Formation of this anti-core-shell structure is attributed to the oxygen loss at the surface that drives the migration of oxygen from the bulk to the surface, thereby resulting in localized areas of significantly reduced oxygen levels in the bulk of the particle, which subsequently undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt domains. The formation of the anti-core-shell rock-salt domains is responsible for the reduced capacity, discharge voltage and ionic conductivity in cycled cathode.

  12. Magnetized graphene layers synthesized on the carbon nanofibers as novel adsorbent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani-Eivari, Mostafa; Amiri, Amirhassan; Baghayeri, Mehdi; Ghaemi, Ferial

    2016-09-23

    The application of magnetized graphene (G) layers synthesized on the carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (m-G/CNF) was investigated as novel adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Six important parameters, affecting the extraction efficiency of PAHs, including: amount of adsorbent, adsorption and desorption times, type and volume of the eluent solvent and salt content of the sample were evaluated. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained as: 5min for extraction time, 20mg for sorbent amount, dichloromethane as desorption solvent, 1mL for desorption solvent volume, 5min for desorption time and 15% (w/v) for NaCl concentration. Good performance data were obtained at the optimized conditions. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.012 to 100ngmL(-1) with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9950 and 0.9967 for all the analytes. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the proposed method for the studied PAHs were 0.004-0.03ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for five replicates at two concentration levels (0.1 and 50ngmL(-1)) of PAHs were ranged from 3.4 to 5.7%. Appropriate relative recovery values, in the range of 95.5-99.9%, were also obtained for the real water sample analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of accessory mineral bed layers during erosion of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, Timothy; Kanerva, Noora

    2012-01-01

    (kaolin, quartz sand, chromatographic silica). The resulting mixtures were compacted into dense sample tablets with effective montmorillonite dry densities between 1.4 to 1.6 g/cm 3 . The fracture erosion tests were performed using a Grimsel groundwater simulant (relative to Na + and Ca 2+ concentration only) contact solution at an average flow rate of 0.09 ml/min through the system. In colloid filtration theories, the filter bed is modelled as an assemblage of single or unit collectors having a known geometry. According to Richards [2010], the particle size distribution of the accessory minerals in MX-80 bentonite consists of particles with sizes less than 30 μm. Of the additive materials used in this study, the kaolin material consists of particles with sizes less than 20 μm showing a peak size of 6 μm, the chromatographic silica consists of particles with sizes narrowly distributed between 10 to 14 μm, and the sand consists of particles with sizes between 160 to 550 μm at a peak size of 280 μm. The tests were designed to lead to the development of erosive conditions (i.e., sodium montmorillonite against a dilute solution) and, in every case, the formation of an accessory mineral bed layer near the extrusion/erosion interface was observed. Moreover, these layers grew progressively in thickness over the course of the tests. These results provide evidence that, following erosive loss of colloidal montmorillonite through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface, accessory phases (within bentonite) remain behind and form bed layers

  14. Few-layer bismuth selenides exfoliated by hemin inhibit amyloid-β1–42 fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yunjing; Lin, Zhiqin; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is the primary therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Several small molecules and nanomaterials have been used to inhibit Aβ fibril formation. However, insufficient inhibition efficiency or poor metabolization limits their further applications. Here, we used hemin to exfoliate few-layer Bi2Se3 in aqueous solution. Then we separated few-layer Bi2Se3 with different sizes and thicknesses by fractional centrifugation, and used them to attempt to inhibit Aβ1-42 aggregation. The results show that smaller and thinner few-layer Bi2Se3 had the highest inhibition efficiency. We further investigated the interaction between few-layer Bi2Se3 and Aβ1-42 monomers. The results indicate that the inhibition effect may be due to the high adsorption capacity of few-layer Bi2Se3 for Aβ1−42 monomers. Few-layer Bi2Se3 also decreased Aβ-mediated peroxidase-like activity and cytotoxicity according to in vitro neurotoxicity studies under physiological conditions. Therefore, our work shows the potential for applications of few-layer Bi2Se3 in the biomedical field. PMID:26018135

  15. Formation and properties of the buried isolating silicon-dioxide layer in double-layer “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Ponomareva, I. V.; Kan, V. E., E-mail: kan@obisp.oscsbras.ru; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The oxidation of mesoporous silicon in a double-layer “macroporous silicon–mesoporous silicon” structure is studied. The morphology and dielectric properties of the buried insulating layer are investigated using electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements. Specific defects (so-called spikes) are revealed between the oxidized macropore walls in macroporous silicon and the oxidation crossing fronts in mesoporous silicon. It is found that, at an initial porosity of mesoporous silicon of 60%, three-stage thermal oxidation leads to the formation of buried silicon-dioxide layers with an electric-field breakdown strength of E{sub br} ~ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} V/cm. Multilayered “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures are shown to be promising for integrated chemical micro- and nanosensors.

  16. Formation of Pentacene wetting layer on the SiO2 surface and charge trap in the wetting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chaeho; Jeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the early-stage growth of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on a native SiO 2 surface using atomic force microscopy and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Pentacene deposition prompted an immediate change in the ellipsometry spectra, but atomic force microscopy images of the early stage films did not show a pentacene-related morphology other than the decrease in the surface roughness. This suggested that a thin pentacene wetting layer was formed by pentacene molecules lying on the surface before the crystalline islands nucleated. Growth simulation based on the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra supported this conclusion. Scanning capacitance microscopy measurement indicated the existence of trapped charges in the SiO 2 and pentacene wetting layer

  17. Effective self-purification of polynary metal electroplating wastewaters through formation of layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji Zhi; Wu, Yue Ying; Liu, Chong; Orpe, Ajay; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi Ping; Qian, Guang Ren; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+)) can be effectively removed from real polynary metal ions-bearing electroplating wastewaters by a carbonation process, with ∼99% of metal ions removed in most cases. The synchronous formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates containing these metal ions was responsible for the self-purification of wastewaters. The constituents of formed polynary metals-LDHs mainly depended on the Ni(2+):Zn(2+):Cr(3+) molar ratio in wastewaters. LDH was formed at pH of 6.0-8.0 when the Ni(2+)/Zn(2+) molar ratio ≥ 1 where molar fraction of trivalent metal in the wastewaters was 0.2-0.4, otherwise ZnO, hydrozincite, or amorphous precipitate was observed. In the case of LDH formation, the residual concentration of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+) in the treated wastewaters was very low, about 2-3, ∼2, and ∼1 mg/L, respectively, at 20-80 °C and pH of 6.0-8.0, indicating the effective incorporation of heavy metal ions into the LDH matrix. Furthermore, the obtained LDH materials were used to adsorb azoic dye GR, with the maximum adsorption amount of 129-134 mg/g. We also found that the obtained LDHs catalyzed more than 65% toluene to decompose at 350 °C under ambient pressure. Thus the current research has not only shown effective recovery of heavy metal ions from the electroplating wastewaters in an environmentally friendly process but also demonstrated the potential utilization of recovered materials.

  18. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szubert, M., E-mail: mm.szubert@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Adamska, K. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Jesionowski, T. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Buchwald, T. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland); Voelkel, A. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan (Poland)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation.

  19. The increase of apatite layer formation by the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubert, M.; Adamska, K.; Szybowicz, M.; Jesionowski, T.; Buchwald, T.; Voelkel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the surface modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) grafting and characterization of modificates. The bioactivity examination was carried out by the determination to grow an apatite layer on modified materials during incubation in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The additional issue taken up in this paper was to investigate the influence of fluid replacement. The process of the surface modification of biomaterials was evaluated by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of the apatite layer was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by energy dispersive, Raman and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. During exposure in simulated body fluid, the variation of the zeta potential, pH measurement and relative weight was monitored. Examination of scanning electron microscopy micrographs suggests that modification of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate by poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) significantly increases apatite layer formation. Raman spectroscopy evaluation revealed that the formation of the apatite layer was more significant in the case of hydroxyapatite modificate, when compared to the β-tricalcium phosphate modificate. Both modificates were characterized by stable pH, close to the natural pH of human body fluids. Furthermore, we have shown that a weekly changed, simulated body fluid solution increases apatite layer formation. - Highlights: • Surface modification of HA and β-TCP was performed by PHB grafting. • The growth of apatite layer on materials was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF). • The bioactivity of obtained materials was proved. • The replacement of SBF solution plays an important role in the process of apatite formation

  20. The influence of tidal winds in the formation of blanketing sporadic e-layer over equatorial Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Laysa Cristina Araujo; Batista, Inez Staciarini; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Batista, Paulo Prado; Carrasco, Alexander José; Andrioli, Vânia Fátima; Moro, Juliano

    2018-06-01

    This work analysis the blanketing sporadic layers (Esb) behavior over São Luís, Brazil (2° 31‧ S, 44° 16‧ W, dip: -4.80) which is classified as a transition region between equatorial and low-latitude. Hence, some peculiarities can appear as Esb occurrence instead of the common Esq, which is a non-blanketing irregularity layer. The analysis presented here was obtained using a modified version of a theoretical model for the E region (MIRE), which computes the densities of the metallic ions (Fe+ and Mg+) and the densities of the main molecular ions (NO+, O2+, N2+) by solving the continuity and momentum equations for each one of them. In that model, the Es layer physics driven by both diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are taken into account and it was extended in height coverage by adding a novel neutral wind model derived from the all-sky meteor radar measurements. Thus, we provide more trustworthy results related to the Es layer formation in the equatorial region. We verified the contribution of each tidal wind component to the Esb layer formation in this equatorial region. Additionally, we compared the Es layer electron density computed by MIRE with the data obtained by using the blanketing frequency parameter (fbEs) deduced from ionograms. The results show that the diurnal component of the tidal wind is more important in the Esb layer formation whereas the semidiurnal component has a little contribution in our simulations. Finally, it was verified that the modified MIRE presented here can be used to study the Esb layers occurrence over the equatorial region in the Brazilian sector.

  1. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jie; Xu, Chenhao; Xiao, Jiaqi

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)

  2. SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM THE OXIDATION OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF DRY SUBMICRON AMMONIUM SULFATE AEROSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine formation of secondary organic aerosols. A smog chamber system was developed for studying gas-aerosol interactions in a dynamic flow reactor. These experiments were conducted to investigate the fate of gas and aerosol phase compounds ...

  3. Modeling the formation, decay, and partitioning of semivolatile nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitronaphthalenes) in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Kamens, R.M.; Strommen, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A nitronaphthalene kinetics mechanism has been implemented and added to the photochemical smog mechanism, Carbon Bond-4. This mechanism was used to simulate the formation, decay, and partitioning of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and compare it to outdoor smog chamber data. The results suggest that th...

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  5. Analysis of heat transfer and frost layer formation on a cryogenic tank wall exposed to the humid atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Kim, Kyoungjin; Kim, Yong-Wook; Cho, Kie-Joo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper heat transfer characteristics and frost layer formation are investigated numerically on the surface of a cryogenic oxidizer tank for a liquid propulsion rocket, where a frost layer could be a significant factor in maintaining oxidizer temperature within a required range. Frost formation is modeled by considering mass diffusion of water vapor in the air into the frost layer and various heat transfer modes such as natural and forced convection, latent heat, solar radiation of short wavelength, and ambient radiation of long wavelength. Computational results are first compared with the available measurements and show favorable agreement on thickness and effective thermal conductivity of the frost layer. In the case of the cryogenic tank, a series of parametric studies is presented in order to examine the effects of important parameters such as temperature and wind speed of ambient air, air humidity, and tank wall temperature on the frost layer formation and the amount of heat transfer into the tank. It is found that the heat transfer by solar radiation is significant and also that heat transfer strongly depends on air humidity, ambient air temperature, and wind speed but not tank wall temperature.

  6. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of minocycline-loaded chitosan/alginate multilayer on titanium substrates to inhibit biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongbin; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Xiaoping; Cen, Lian; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are primary causes of implant associated infection. The biofilm makes the bacteria highly resistant to the host defense and antimicrobial treatment. Antibacterial coatings on the surface of titanium implant can prevent biofilm formation effectively, but it is still a challenge to accomplish relatively long lasting antibacterial effects before wound healing or formation of biological seal. The purpose of our work was to construct antibacterial multilayer coatings loaded with minocycline on surface of Ti substrates using chitosan and alginate based on layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. In this study, the surfaces of Ti substrates were first hydroxylated and then treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) to obtain amino-functionalized Ti substrates. Next, the precursor layer of chitosan was covalently conjugated to amino-functionalized Ti substrates. The following alternately coating alginate loaded with minocycline and chitosan onto the precursor layer of chitosan was carried out via LbL self-assembly technique to construct the multilayer coatings on Ti substrates. The multilayer coatings loaded more minocycline and improved sustainability of minocycline release to kill planktonic and adherent bacteria. Moreover, surface charge and hydrophilicity of the coatings and antibacterial ability of chitosan itself also played roles in the antibacterial performance, which can keep the antibacterial ability of the multilayer coatings after minocycline release ceases. In conclusion, LbL self-assembly method provides a promising strategy to fabricate long-term antibacterial surfaces, which is especially effective in preventing implant associated infections in the early stage. Loading minocycline on the surface of implants based on LbL self-assembly strategy can endow implants with sustained antibacterial property. This can inhabit the immediate colonization of bacteria onto the surface of implants in the

  7. Dual active layer a-IGZO TFT via homogeneous conductive layer formation by photochemical H-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Ki; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Seo, Hyungtak; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual active layer (DAL) structure are fabricated by inserting a homogeneous embedded conductive layer (HECL) in an amorphous IGZO (a-IGZO) channel with the aim of enhancing the electrical characteristics of conventional bottom-gate-structure TFTs. A highly conductive HECL (carrier concentration at 1.6 × 10(13) cm(-2), resistivity at 4.6 × 10(-3) Ω∙cm, and Hall mobility at 14.6 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature) is fabricated using photochemical H-doping by irradiating UV light on an a-IGZO film. The electrical properties of the fabricated DAL TFTs are evaluated by varying the HECL length. The results reveal that carrier mobility increased proportionally with the HECL length. Further, a DAL TFT with a 60-μm-long HECL embedded in an 80-μm-long channel exhibits comprehensive and outstanding improvements in its electrical properties: a saturation mobility of 60.2 cm(2)/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.7 V, and subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/decade against the initial values of 19.9 cm(2)/Vs, 4.7 V, and 0.45 V/decade, respectively, for a TFT without HECL. This result confirms that the photochemically H-doped HECL significantly improves the electrical properties of DAL IGZO TFTs.

  8. Effect of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides on ozone formation in smog chambers exposed to solar irradiance of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval F, J; Marroquin de la R, O; Jaimes L, J. L; Zuniga L, V. A; Gonzalez O, E; Guzman Lopez-Figueroa, F [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-01-01

    Outdoor smog chambers experiments were performed on air to determine the answer of maximum ozone levels, to changes in the initial hydrocarbons, HC, and nitrogen oxide NO{sub x}. These captive-air experiments under natural irradiation were carried out. Typically, eight chambers were filled with Mexico city air in the morning. In some of those chambers, the initial HC and/or Nox concentrations were varied by {+-}25% to {+-}50% by adding various combinations of a mixture of HC, clean air, or NO{sub x} (perturbed chambers). The O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentration in each chamber was monitored throughout the day to determine O{sub 3} (max). The initial HC and NO{sub x} concentration effects were determined by comparing the maximum ozone concentrations measured in the perturbed and unperturbed chambers. Ozone isopleths were constructed from the empirical model obtained of measurements of the eight chambers and plotted in a graph whose axe were the initial HC and NO{sub x} values. For the average initial conditions that were measured in Mexico City, it was found that the most efficient strategy to reduce the maximum concentration of O{sub 3} is the one that reduces NO{sub x}. [Spanish] Se realizaron experimentos de camaras de esmog con el aire de la ciudad de Mexico para determinar las respuestas de los niveles maximos de ozono a los cambios en las concentraciones iniciales de hidrocarburos, HC y oxido de nitrogeno, NO{sub x}. Por lo general, se llenaron 8 bolsas con aire matutino de la Ciudad de Mexico. En algunas camaras, las concentraciones iniciales fueron cambiadas de 25% a 50%, anadiendo varias concentraciones de una mezcla de HC, aire limpio y/o NO{sub x}. La concentracion de O{sub 3} y NO{sub x}, en cada camara, fueron monitoreadas a lo largo del dia para determinar el maximo de O{sub 3}. El efecto de los HC y el NO{sub x} fue determinado por comparacion del maximo de ozono formado en las camaras, que fueron perturbadas por adicion o reduccion de HC y/o Nox

  9. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF HIGHLY SUPERHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS THROUGH H ATOM ADDITION AND THEIR CATALYTIC ROLE IN H2 FORMATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrower, John; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Friis, Emil Enderup

    2012-01-01

    , in agreement with recent IR measurements. Complementary density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of the observed superhydrogenated species toward spontaneous H and H2 loss indicating that abstraction reactions may be the dominant route to H2 formation involving neutral polycyclic aromatic...

  10. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-25

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  11. Melt front propagation in dielectrics upon femtosecond laser irradiation: Formation dynamics of a heat-affected layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in dielectrics have reported the presence of a thin heat-affected layer underneath the ablation crater produced by femtosecond laser irradiation. In this work, we present a time-resolved microscopy technique that is capable of monitoring the formation dynamics of this layer and apply it to the study of a phosphate glass exposed to single pulses below the ablation threshold. A few nanoseconds after laser excitation, a melt front interface can be detected, which propagates into the bulk, gradually slowing down its speed. By means of image analysis combined with optical modeling, we are able to determine the temporal evolution of the layer thickness and its refractive index. Initially, a strong transient decrease in the refractive index is observed, which partially recovers afterwards. The layer resolidifies after approximately 1 μs after excitation, featuring a maximum thickness of several hundreds of nanometers.

  12. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  13. Corrosion inhibition performance of imidazolium ionic liquids and their influence on surface ferrous carbonate layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongrui

    Corrosion inhibitors as effective anti-corrosion applications were widely studied and drawn much attention in both academe and industrial area. In this work, a systematic work, including inhibitors selection, anti-corrosion property and characterization, influence on scale formation, testing system design and so on, were reported. The corrosion inhibition performance of four imidazolium ionic liquids in carbon dioxide saturated NaCl solution was investigated by using electrochemical and surface analysis technologies. The four compounds are 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (a), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (b), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (c), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (d). Under the testing conditions, compound d showed the highest inhibition efficiency and selected as the main object of further study. As a selected representative formula, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was studied in detail about its corrosion inhibition performance on mild steel in carbon dioxide saturated NaCl brine at pH 3.8 and 6.8. Electrochemical and surface analysis techniques were used to characterize the specimen corrosion process during the immersion in the blank and inhibiting solutions. The precorrosion of specimen surface showed significant and different influences on the anti-corrosion property of DMICL at pH 3.8 and 6.8. The corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) was calculated based on parameters obtained from electrochemical techniques; the achieved IE was higher than 98% at the 25th hour for the steel with a well-polished surface at pH 3.8. The fitting parameters obtained from electrochemical data helped to account for the interfacial changes. As proved in previous research, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride could be used as good corrosion inhibitors under certain conditions. However, under other conditions, such chemicals, as well as other species in oil transporting system, could be a factor influencing the evolution of protective surface

  14. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamaya, Tadafumi

    2005-01-01

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width

  15. Selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP by anodic etching combined with scratching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Masahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: seo@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamaya, Tadafumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Jo, Nishi-8 Chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-11-10

    The selective formation of porous layer on n-type InP (001) surface was investigated by using scratching with a diamond scriber followed by anodic etching in deaerated 0.5M HCl. Since the InP specimen was highly doped, the anodic etching proceeded in the dark. The potentiodynamic polarization showed the anodic current shoulder in the potential region between 0.8 and 1.3V (SHE) for the scratched area in addition to the anodic current peak at 1.7V (SHE) for the intact area. The selective formation of porous layer on the scratched are was brought by the anodic etching at a constant potential between 1.0 and 1.2V (SHE) for a certain time. The nucleation and growth of etch pits on intact area, however, took place when the time passed the critical value. The cross section of porous layer on the scratched area perpendicular to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a V-shape, while the cross section of porous layer on the scratched area parallel to the [1-bar 10] or [110] scratching direction had a band structure with stripes oriented to the [1-bar 11] or [11-bar 1] direction. Moreover, nano-scratching at a constant normal force in the micro-Newton range followed by anodic etching showed the possibility for selective formation of porous wire with a nano-meter width.

  16. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Electrical resistivity and induced polarization tomography in identifying the plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formation: a case study in Rho (Milan - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2009-09-01

    Resistivity and induced polarization surveying were originally developed for mineral exploration but are now finding new applications in the field of environmental and engineering geophysics. The present article reports the results of a geophysical survey performed with the aim of identifying a plume of chlorinated hydrocarbons in sedimentary formations of the Pandania plain. The tested site is characterized by three sand and gravel aquifers containing a quantity of clay particles which influence the overall bulk resistivity and chargeability. According to data obtained using shallow boreholes, mainly dense non-aqueous phase liquids were found as contaminants in the first and second aquifer. The aforementioned geo-electrical methods were applied in both two- and three-dimensional approaches. Steel and copper electrodes were used in the process of field data acquisition and the results of the survey were compared. The geophysical survey revealed some anomalies that could be explained by the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in the soil medium. The concept of normalized chargeability facilitates the interpretation of detected induced polarization anomalies. The shape of the plume was inferred from maps of resistivity and chargeability to a depth of 25 m below the surface of the ground.

  18. Effect of negative ions on the formation of weak ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, M.K.; Bujarbarua, S.

    1985-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, small amplitude double layers associated with ion acoustic waves in a plasma containing negative species of ions were investigated. Analytic solution for the double layer potential was carried out. The limiting values of the negative ion density for the existence of this type of DL were calculated and the application of this result to space plasmas is discussed. (author)

  19. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  20. Spontaneous nano-gap formation in Ag film using NaCl sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungchan; Jeon, Wook Jin; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yu, Hak Ki

    2018-03-01

    We report the method of fabrication of nano-gaps (known as hot spots) in Ag thin film using a sodium chloride (NaCl) sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement. The Ag thin film (20-50 nm) on the NaCl sacrificial layer undergoes an interfacial reaction due to the AgCl formed at the interface during water molecule intercalation. The intercalated water molecules can dissolve the NaCl molecules at interfaces and form the ionic state of Na+ and Cl-, promoting the AgCl formation. The Ag atoms can migrate by the driving force of this interfacial reaction, resulting in the formation of nano-size gaps in the film. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of Ag films with nano-size gaps has been investigated using Raman reporter molecules, Rhodamine 6G (R6G).

  1. Thermally oxidized formation of new Ge dots over as-grown Ge dots in the Si capping layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Tianxiao; Lin Jinhui; Shao Yuanmin; Wu Yueqin; Yang Xinju; Fan Yongliang; Jiang Zuimin; Chen Zhigang; Zou Jin

    2011-01-01

    A Si-capped Ge quantum dot sample was self-assembly grown via Stranski-Krastanov mode in a molecular beam epitaxy system with the Si capping layer deposited at 300 deg. C. After annealing the sample in an oxygen atmosphere at 1000 deg. C, a structure, namely two layers of quantum dots, was formed with the newly formed Ge-rich quantum dots embedded in the oxidized matrix with the position accurately located upon the as-grown quantum dots. It has been found that the formation of such nanostructures strongly depends upon the growth temperature and oxygen atmosphere. A growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructure based on the Ge diffusion from the as-grown quantum dots, Ge segregation from the growing oxide, and subsequent migration/agglomeration.

  2. Formation and effect of orientation domains in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Karalee A.; Wang, Chih-Chieh; Knight, James C.; Rabenberg, Lew; Manthiram, Arumugam; Ferreira, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    We show that in layered oxides that are employed as cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, the cation layers can order on different {111} NaCl planes within a single particle, which makes the lithium layer discontinuous across a particle. The findings challenge previous assertions that lithium undergoes 2-D diffusion in layered oxides and the data provide new insights into the decrease in rate capabilities for some layered oxides. Therefore, it is critically important to understand how these discontinuities form and how the loss of 2-D diffusion impacts the overall performance of the layered oxide cathode materials. Employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we find that as the material transitions from a disordered to an ordered state, it forms four orientation variants corresponding to the four {111} NaCl planes. This transition is not intrinsic to all layered oxides and appears to be more strongly affected by nickel. Furthermore, with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), we show that there is an increase in the nickel concentration at the interface between each orientation variant. This reduces the rate of lithium diffusion, negatively affects the rate capability, and could be contributing to the overall capacity fade.

  3. A unified description of adsorption on real surfaces from the Henry Range to the formation of the liquid layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerofolini, G F

    1977-01-01

    A unified description of adsorption on real surfaces from the Henry Range to the formation of the liquid layer was developed on the basis of the BET theory and the assumption that sites on real surfaces are not energetically homogeneous. The model describes the successive Henry, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Freundlich, and multilayer BET behavior of the adsorbed phase as the pressure increases. An analysis of isotherms over the whole coverage range showed that the heterogeneous surface character decreases with increasing number of adsorbed layers; that adsorption into the first and higher layers may be competitive, which produces a new isotherm resembling a mixed type II and III isotherm as proposed by Cerofolini and coworkers.

  4. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    KAUST Repository

    Calbet, Albert; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Kaartvedt, Stein; Mø hl, Malene; Mø ller, Eva Friis; Enghoff-Poulsen, Sø ren; Paulsen, Maria Lund; Solberg, Ingrid; Tang, Kam W.; Tonnesson, Kajsa; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2015-01-01

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation.

  5. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Albert; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform...... upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment...... of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation...

  6. Heterogeneous distribution of plankton within the mixed layer and its implications for bloom formation in tropical seas

    KAUST Repository

    Calbet, Albert

    2015-06-11

    Intensive sampling at the coastal waters of the central Red Sea during a period of thermal stratification, prior to the main seasonal bloom during winter, showed that vertical patches of prokaryotes and microplankton developed and persisted for several days within the apparently density uniform upper layer. These vertical structures were most likely the result of in situ growth and mortality (e.g., grazing) rather than physical or behavioural aggregation. Simulating a mixing event by adding nutrient-rich deep water abruptly triggered dense phytoplankton blooms in the nutrient-poor environment of the upper layer. These findings suggest that vertical structures within the mixed layer provide critical seeding stocks that can rapidly exploit nutrient influx during mixing, leading to winter bloom formation.

  7. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...... to be induced by advection of strong turbulence during accelerating currents. Fluid mud layers in dune troughs were entrained at an earlier point in time after slack water, compared to adjacent layers formed on a comparatively flat bed, where dune crests did not protrude from the lutocline....

  8. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  9. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  10. Effects of soot formation on shape of a nonpremixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H Y; Merino, J L Florenciano; Dagaut, P

    2011-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to give a quantitative description of a heavily sooting, nonpremixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity. Controlling mechanisms of three dimensional flow, combustion, soot and radiation are coupled. Soot volume fraction were predicted by using three approaches, referred respectively to as the fuel, acetylene and PAH inception models. It is found that the PAH inception model, which is based on the formation of two and three-ringed aromatic species, reproduces correctly the experimental data from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The PAH inception model serves later to better understand flame quenching, flame stand-off distance and soot formation as a function of the dimensionless volume coefficient, defined as C q = V F /V ox where V F is the fuel injection velocity, and V ox air stream velocity. The present experiments showed that a blue unstable flame, negligible radiative feedback, may change to a yellow stable flame, significant radiative loss with an increase of C q ; this experimental trend was numerically reproduced. The flame quenching occurs at the trailing edge due to radiative heat loss which is significantly amplified by increasing V F or decreasing V ox , favouring soot formation. Along a semi-infinite fuel zone, the ratio, d f /d b , where d f is the flame standoff distance, and d b the boundary layer thickness, converges towards a constant value of 1.2, while soot resides always within the boundary layer far away from the flame sheet.

  11. Tephrostratigraphy and potassium-argon age determinations of seven volcanic ash layers in the Muddy Creek formation of southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Seven silicic tephra layers occur in alluvial deposits of the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations at three localities in southern Nevada. Chemical and petrographic characterization indicate the tephra were derived from seven different volcanic eruptions and do not represent any previously known tephra layers. K-Ar age determinations on minerals or glass from each layer yielded 6 to 12 m.y. ages. Discordant ages were obtained on multiple mineral phases due to incorporation of detrital contaminants. The tephra are sufficiently distinctive to constitute stratigraphic marker horizons in the Muddy Creek and equivalent formations. Derivation from the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, active 16 to 6 m.y., is highly likely for some of the tephra. The K-Ar results suggest substantial parts of the Muddy Creek Formation and equivalent basin-fill are 6 to 12 m.y., indicating basin-range faulting began prior to 12 m.y. Little tectonic deformation or physiographic change has occurrred in the past 6 m.y

  12. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  13. Passivation layer breakdown during laser-fired contact formation for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, A.; DebRoy, T.; Palmer, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Low resistance laser-fired ohmic contacts (LFCs) can be formed on the backside of Si-based solar cells using microsecond pulses. However, the impact of these longer pulse durations on the dielectric passivation layer is not clear. Retention of the passivation layer during processing is critical to ensure low recombination rates of electron-hole pairs at the rear surface of the device. In this work, advanced characterization tools are used to demonstrate that although the SiO 2 passivation layer melts directly below the laser, it is well preserved outside the immediate LFC region over a wide range of processing parameters. As a result, low recombination rates at the passivation layer/wafer interface can be expected despite higher energy densities associated with these pulse durations.

  14. The formation and evolution of layered structures in porous media: effects of porosity and mechanical dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoofs, Stan; Trompert, Ron A.; Hansen, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Horizontally layered structures can develop in porous or partially molten environments, such as hydrothermal systems, magmatic intrusions and the early Earth's mantle. The porosity f of these natural environments is typically small. Since dissolved chemical elements unlike heat cannot diffuse

  15. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  16. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors in urogenital sinus mesenchyme mediate the inhibition of prostatic epithelial bud formation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kinarm; Moore, Robert W.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    In utero exposure of male C57BL/6 mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prevents prostatic epithelial buds from forming in the ventral region of the urogenital sinus (UGS) and reduces the number of buds that form in the dorsolateral region. This inhibition of budding is aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) dependent and appears to be the primary cause of lobe-specific prostate abnormalities in TCDD-exposed mice. TCDD can inhibit prostatic epithelial bud formation by acting directly on the UGS in vitro, but whether it does so via AHR in UGS mesenchyme, epithelium, or both was unknown. To address this issue, UGS mesenchyme and epithelium from gestation day (GD) 15 wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were isolated, recombined, and cultured in vitro for 5 days with 10 -8 M 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and either 10 -9 M TCDD or vehicle. Prostatic epithelial buds were viewed by light microscopy after removal of mesenchyme. Effects depended greatly on which portions of the mesenchyme were used: TCDD had little if any effect when whole UGS epithelium (UGE) was recombined with ventral plus dorsolateral mesenchyme, tended to reduce bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and dorsolateral mesenchyme, and severely reduced bud numbers in recombinants made with UGE and ventral mesenchyme (VM). [VM + UGE] recombinants prepared from wild-type and AHR knockout (Ahr -/- ) mice were then cultured with DHT to determine the site of action of TCDD. AHR null mutation alone had no effect on budding. TCDD severely inhibited prostatic epithelial bud formation in recombinants that contained mesenchymal AHR, whereas bud formation was not inhibited by TCDD in recombinants lacking mesenchymal AHR, regardless of epithelial AHR status. These results demonstrate that UGS mesenchyme and not UGS epithelium is the site of action of TCDD. Therefore, the initial events responsible for abnormal UGS (and ultimately prostate) development occur within the UGS mesenchyme, and changes in gene expression

  18. Smooth Interfacial Scavenging for Resistive Switching Oxide via the Formation of Highly Uniform Layers of Amorphous TaOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Ryosuke; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2018-02-14

    We demonstrate that the inclusion of a Ta interfacial layer is a remarkably effective strategy for forming interfacial oxygen defects at metal/oxide junctions. The insertion of an interfacial layer of a reactive metal, that is, a "scavenging" layer, has been recently proposed as a way to create a high concentration of oxygen defects at an interface in redox-based resistive switching devices, and growing interest has been given to the underlying mechanism. Through structural and chemical analyses of Pt/metal/SrTiO 3 /Pt structures, we reveal that the rate and amount of oxygen scavenging are not directly determined by the formation free energies in the oxidation reactions of the scavenging metal and unveil the important roles of oxygen diffusibility. Active oxygen scavenging and highly uniform oxidation via scavenging are revealed for a Ta interfacial layer with high oxygen diffusibility. In addition, the Ta scavenging layer is shown to exhibit a highly uniform structure and to form a very flat interface with SrTiO 3 , which are advantageous for the fabrication of a steep metal/oxide contact.

  19. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  20. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  2. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport potential.

  3. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  4. Rule of formation of aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhimin; Feng, Qiuyuan; Shen, Changbin; Gao, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum electroplating layer on Q235 steel in AlCl3-NaCl-KCl molten salt was obtained, and the rule of its nucleation and growth were investigated. The results showed that aluminum electroplating layer formed through nucleating and growing of aluminum particles, and thickened by delaminating growth pattern. At low current density, the morphology of aluminum particles took on flake-like, while at high current density they changed to spherical. The thickness of plating layer increases with increasing current density and electroplating time. The relationship between the plating thickness (δ) and electroplating time (t) or current density (i) can be expressed as δ = 0.28f(137), and δ = 1.1i(1-39). Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein Adsorption and Layer Formation at the Stainless Steel-Solution Interface Mediates Shear-Induced Particle Formation for an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Cavan K; Heinrich, Frank; Curtis, Joseph E; Raman, Sid; Miller, Maria A; Hudson, Steven D

    2018-03-05

    Passage of specific protein solutions through certain pumps, tubing, and/or filling nozzles can result in the production of unwanted subvisible protein particles (SVPs). In this work, surface-mediated SVP formation was investigated. Specifically, the effects of different solid interface materials, interfacial shear rates, and protein concentrations on SVP formation were measured for the National Institute of Standards and Technology monoclonal antibody (NISTmAb), a reference IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A stainless steel rotary piston pump was used to identify formulation and process parameters that affect aggregation, and a flow cell (alumina or stainless steel interface) was used to further investigate the effect of different interface materials and/or interfacial shear rates. SVP particles produced were monitored using flow microscopy or flow cytometry. Neutron reflectometry and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were used to characterize adsorption and properties of NISTmAb at the stainless steel interface. Pump/shear cell experiments showed that the NISTmAb concentration and interface material had a significant effect on SVP formation, while the effects of interfacial shear rate and passage number were less important. At the higher NISTmAb concentrations, the adsorbed protein became structurally altered at the stainless steel interface. The primary adsorbed layer remained largely undisturbed during flow, suggesting that SVP formation at high NISTmAb concentration was caused by the disruption of patches and/or secondary interactions.

  6. Formation of protein/surfactant adsorption layer at the air/water interface as studied by dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovskaya, A A; Noskov, B A; Lin, S-Y; Loglio, G; Miller, R

    2011-08-25

    The dynamic dilatational surface elasticity of mixed solutions of globular proteins (β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) with cationic (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)) and anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) surfactants was measured as a function of the surfactant concentration and surface age. If the cationic surfactant concentration exceeds a certain critical value, the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity of BLG/DTAB and BSA/DTAB solutions become nonmonotonous and resemble those of mixed solutions of proteins with guanidine hydrochloride. This result indicates not only the destruction of the protein tertiary structure in the surface layer of mixed solution but also a strong perturbation of the secondary structure. The corresponding kinetic dependencies for protein solutions with added anionic surfactants are always monotonous, thereby revealing a different mechanism of the adsorption layer formation. One can assume that the secondary structure is destroyed to a lesser extent in the latter case and hinders the formation of loops and tails at the interface. The increase of the solution's ionic strength by the addition of sodium chloride results in stronger changes of the protein conformations in the surface layer and the appearance of a local maximum in the kinetic dependencies of the dynamic surface elasticity in a relatively narrow range of SDS concentration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  8. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  9. Influence of layering on the formation and growth of solution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine ePetrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In karst systems, hydraulic conduits called solution pipes (or wormholes are formed as a result of the dissolution of limestone rocks by the water surcharged with CO2. The solution pipes are the end result of a positive feedback between spatial variations in porosity in the rock matrix and the local dissolution rate. Here, we investigate numerically the effect of rock stratification on the solution pipe growth, using a simple model system with a number of horizontal layers, which are less porous than the rest of the matrix. Stratification is shown to affect the resulting piping patterns in a variety of ways. First of all, it enhances the competition between the pipes, impeding the growth of the shorter ones and enhancing the flow in the longer ones, which therefore grow longer. This is reflected in the change of the pipe length distribution, which becomes steeper as the porosity contrast between the layers is increased. Additionally, stratification affects the shapes of individual solution pipes, with characteristic widening of the profiles in between the layers and narrowing within the layers. These results are in qualitative agreement with the piping morphologies observed in nature.

  10. Formation of Layered Double Hydroxides on Alumina Surface in Aqueous Solutions Containing Divalent Metal Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Mašátová, P.; Novotná, P.; Jirátová, Květa

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition * layered double hydroxides * supported mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2009

  11. A mechanical model for surface layer formation on self-lubricating ceramic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jiupeng; Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    To predict the thickness of a self-lubricating layer on the contact surface of ceramic composite material containing a soft phase during dry sliding test, a mechanical model was built to calculate the material transfer of the soft second phase in the composite to the surface. The tribological test,

  12. Formation of a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Korsgaard, Martin; Kirkegaard, Lise Frank

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we report a simple approach for creating a nanocrystalline layer on the surface of stone wool fibers (SWFs) with a basalt-like composition. The approach is based on a preoxidation process of the SWFs in atmospheric air at a temperature around the glass transition temperature...

  13. Formation of layered microstructure in the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.; Kammlott, G.W.; Tiefel, T.H.; Chen, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The layered grain microstructure is essential for overcoming the weak link problem and ensuring high transport critical currents in the cuprate superconductors. In this paper we discuss the processing and the mechanisms for layer information in Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. In melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O, sympathetic nucleation on previously nucleated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ plates during solidification appears to be dominant mechanism for the formation of parallel plate-shaped grains. In the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ribbons, the interface reaction between the superconductor layer and the silvers substrate seems to be the main mechanism for the c-axis texturing of the layered grains. The drastically different critical current behavior in the c-axis textured Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ribbons is discussed in terms of possible differences in the nature of the twist and tilt grain boundaries. (orig.)

  14. Argon-ion-induced formation of nanoporous GaSb layer: Microstructure, infrared luminescence, and vibrational properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, D. P.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751 005 (India); Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, T. D. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2014-07-21

    Room temperature implantation of 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ions in GaSb to the fluences of 7 × 10{sup 16} to 3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2} is carried out at two incidence angles, viz 0° and 60°, leading to formation of a nanoporous layer. As the ion fluence increases, patches grow on the porous layer under normal ion implantation, whereas the porous layer gradually becomes embedded under a rough top surface for oblique incidence of ions. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the existence of nanocrystallites embedded in the ion-beam amorphized GaSb matrix up to the highest fluence used in our experiment. Oxidation of the nanoporous layers becomes obvious from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman mapping. The correlation of ion-beam induced structural modification with photoluminescence signals in the infrared region has further been studied, showing defect induced emission of additional peaks near the band edge of GaSb.

  15. Irreversible fouling of membrane bioreactors due to formation of a non-biofilm gel-like layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorasgari, Eskandar; Larsen, Poul; Zheng, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), known to contribute to fouling in membrane bio-reactors (MBR)s, are generally divided into bound and free EPS. The free EPS are able to form a gel-like layer on the membrane active surface. The mechanisms involved in formation of such layer and its effects...... on performance of the MBR membranes were studied. The free EPS, extracted by centrifugation and microfiltration, contained a significant amount of humic-like substances. Under static contact to the membrane, adsorption of humic-like substances to the membrane occurred and could be explained by conventional...... adsorption kinetics. Due to static adsorption, surface roughness of the membrane declined significantly indicating that adsorbed matters to the membrane filled the cavities of the membrane surface. Filtration of the free EPS caused 50% water flux decline. The fouling resistance linearly increased...

  16. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Kırmusaoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study was designed to observe the possible antibacterial effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. Material and Methods: The influence of varying concentrations of sumach on the formation of biofilms by 13 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested by a microelisa assay. Results: The significant differences between varying concentrations of sumach (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml were observed in four methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and nine methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (p<0.05. In bacteria, a dose-related decrease in the formation of slime, which is a major virulence factor of staphylococcal infections, was observed. Conclusion: In our study, using 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 µl/ml of sumach, thirteen strains lost, 17%, 22%, 28% and 48% respectively of their capacity to produce biofilms. Sumach, which is a herbal product, can decrease the formation of biofilm, which is a major virulence factor in staphylococcal infections.

  17. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  18. INVESTIGATING THE fFORMATION OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS AND THE VARIATION OF BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN Al-Cu LAYERS AFTER ANNEALING IN PRESENCE OF NICKEL BETWEEN LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of post-rolling annealing heat treatment on the formation of intermetallic compounds between Al-Cu strips, in the presence of nickel coating on the Cu strips, was investigated. In addition, the effect of post-rolling annealing and intermetallic compounds on the bond strength of Al-Cu strips was evaluated. In order to prepare samples, Cu strips were coated with nickel by electroplating process. After surface preparing, Cu strips were placed between two Al strips and roll bonded. This method is used for producing Al-Ni-Cu composites. Then the samples were annealed at 773K for 2 h. The formation of intermetallic compounds was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Also, in order to investigate bond strength of Al-Cu after post-rolling annealing heat treatment, samples were produced using nickel powder and nickel coating. Then bond strength of strips was investigated using peeling test. The results revealed that by post-rolling annealing of layers, the bond strength between Al-Cu strips decreases dramatically.

  19. Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in a thick sediment layer from the central South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Yanguang; Ge, Shulan

    2018-04-01

    Sediments from continental shelves are sensitive to changes in both oceanic and terrestrial conditions, and, therefore, magnetic minerals in such sediments are affected strongly by depositional and diagenetic processes. Here, we investigated systematically an N-S transect of three sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS) muddy area. Magnetic data indicate the presence of a horizontally distributed thick greigite-bearing layer. From an age model based on published magnetostratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating ages, sedimentary characteristics and foraminiferal analysis, this layer was deposited within marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-13, following an enhanced sulphidic period over MIS 21-19 when the YS Warm Current and the associated YS Cold Water Mass were strong and where underlying sediments have higher total organic carbon, total sulphur and trace element molybdenum contents. Trace element cadmium enrichment in the greigite-bearing layers is documented for the first time, which indicates that weakly sulphidic (i.e. with trace levels of free H2S) conditions existed before greigite formed in a sulphidic environment during early diagenesis. It also indicates that subsequent conditions free of oxygen and H2S after greigite formation are more favourable for its preservation. We propose that organic matter supply was controlled over an extended period by moderate primary productivity. The combined effects of palaeoclimate and local tectonic subsidence were crucial for the formation and preservation of the identified greigite. In brief, our study improves understanding of the formation and preservation mechanisms of greigite in continental shelf sediments and reveals mid-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the SYS.

  20. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  1. Colonization and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus on endothelial cell layers under flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnemose, Rasmus Birkholm; Antoinette Asferg, Cecilie; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and known for causing vascular infections such as sepsis and infective endocarditis. It has previously been proposed that S. aureus succeed in colonization of the endothelial wall by specific surface attachment likely followed by biofilm formation....... Furthermore, S. aureus is known to invade human cells, which has been proposed to promote persistence through immune and antibiotic evasion. In the current study, we sought to investigate endothelial colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation by S. aureus using a newly developed in vitro flow chamber model....... We show that under physiological shear rates, S. aureus utilizes cellular invasion to enable the following surface colonization and biofilm formation. These observations might help explain the success of S. aureus as a bloodstream pathogen and guide further studies in S. aureus pathogenesis...

  2. Formation of presheath and current-free double layer in a two-electron-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1992-02-01

    Development of the steady-state potential in a two-temperature-electron plasma in contact with the wall is investigated analytically. It is shown that if the hot- to cold electron temperature ratio is greater than ten, the potential drop in the presheath, which is allowed to have either a small value characterized by the cold electrons or a large value by the hot electrons, discontinuously changes at a critical value for the hot- to total electron density ratio. It is also found that the monotonically decreasing potential structure which consists of the first presheath, a current-free double layer, the second presheath, and the sheath can be steadily formed in a lower range of the hot- to total electron density ratio around the critical value. The current-free double layer is set up due to existence of the two electron species and cold ions generated by ionization so as to connect two presheath potentials at different levels. (author)

  3. Syllabic discrimination in premature human infants prior to complete formation of cortical layers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Fournier, Marc; Kongolo, Guy; Goudjil, Sabrina; Dubois, Jessica; Grebe, Reinhard; Wallois, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of linguistic functions in the human brain remains elusive. Although some auditory capacities are described before term, whether and how such immature cortical circuits might process speech are unknown. Here we used functional optical imaging to evaluate the cerebral responses to syllables at the earliest age at which cortical responses to external stimuli can be recorded in humans (28- to 32-wk gestational age). At this age, the cortical organization in layers is not completed. ...

  4. Transition layers formation on the boundaries carbon fiber-copper dependence on the active additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlosinski, W.; Pietrzak, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic problem connected with fabrication of carbon fiber-copper composites is to overcome the problem of low wettability of carbon fiber by copper. One of the possible solutions of that problem is to use the copper doped with active metals. The investigation results of transition layer forming on the phase boundary in the system have been discussed in respect of the kind and content of active elements added to the copper. 5 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Formation of convective cells in the scrape-off layer of the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Brotankova, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Duran, I.; Panek, R.; Stejskal, P.; Zacek, F.; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hansen, T.; Gorler, T.; Svoboda, V.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments with a biased electrode inserted into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the CASTOR tokamak. The resulting radial and poloidal electric field and plasma density modification are measured by means of Langmuir probe arrays with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Poloidally and radially localized stationary structures of the electric field (convective cells) are identified and a related significant modification of the particle transport in the SOL is observed. (authors)

  6. Direct insight into grains formation in Si layers grown on 3C-SiC by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Portail, Marc; Vennéguès, Philippe; Alquier, Daniel; Michaud, Jean François

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated the influence of the 3C-SiC layer on the subsequent growth of Si epilayers. We were able to give a direct evidence that the rotation in the Si epilayer of 90° around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of an antiphase boundary in the 3C-SiC layer as shown in the figure above. Thus, increasing the layer thickness of the 3C-SiC leads to a direct improvement of the crystalline quality of the subsequent Si epilayer. (a) Cross-section bright-field TEM image of the Si/3C-SiC layer stack along two 3C-SiC zone axes [1 −1 0] and [1 1 0] (equivalent to [1 −1 1] and [1 1 2] in Si, respectively), (b) dark field image selecting a (2 0 −2) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset, (c) dark field image selecting a (−1 1 −1) electron diffraction spot indicated by the black circle in the SAED shown as inset. The dotted white line in the images show the position of the defect in the 3C-SiC layer. - Abstract: This work presents a structural study of silicon (Si) thin films grown on cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) by chemical vapor deposition. The presence of grains rotated by 90° around the growth direction in the Si layer is directly related to the presence of antiphase domains on the 3C-SiC surface. We were able to provide a direct evidence that the 90° rotation of Si grains around the growth direction occurs exactly on the termination of antiphase boundaries (APBs) in 3C-SiC layer. Increasing the 3C-SiC thickness reduces the APBs density on 3C-SiC surface leading to a clear improvement of the uppermost Si film crystal quality. Furthermore, we observed by high resolution plan-view TEM images the presence of hexagonal Si domains limited to few nm in size. These hexagonal Si domains are inclusions in small Si grains enclosed in larger ones rotated by 90°. Finally, we propose a model of grains formation in the Si layer taking into consideration the effect

  7. Growth and microstructure of iron nitride layers and pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, C.; Mader, W. [Univ. Bonn, Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Layers of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N and {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N on ferrite were produced by nitriding iron single crystals or rolled sheets of iron in flowing ammonia at 520 C. The nitride layers were characterised using X-ray diffraction, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound layer consists of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N at the surface and of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N facing the ferrite. After 4 h of nitriding, pores develop in the near surface region of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N showing more or less open porosity. Growth of the entire compound layer as well as of the massive and the porous {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N sublayer is diffusion-controlled and follows a parabolic growth rate. The {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N layer is formed as a transition phase within a narrow interval of nitrogen activity, and it shows little growth in thickness. The transformation of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N to {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N is topotactic, where the orientation of the closed-packed iron layers of the crystal structures is preserved. Determination of lattice plane spacings was possible by X-ray diffraction, and this was correlated to the nitrogen content of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N. While the porous layer exhibits an enhanced nitrogen content corresponding to the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1}, the massive e Fe{sub 3}N layer corresponds to Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0}. The pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1} is concluded to be the result of excess nitrogen atoms on non-structural sites, which have a high mobility. Therefore, recombination of excess nitrogen to molecular N{sub 2} at lattice defects is preferred in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N with high nitrogen content compared to stoichiometric {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0} with nitrogen on only structural sites. (orig.)

  8. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic approach under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  9. Diagnostic study of multiple double layer formation in expanding RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Paul, Manash Kumar; Roy, Jitendra Nath; Nath, Aparna

    2018-03-01

    Intensely luminous double layers develop and then expand in size in a visibly glowing RF discharge produced using a plasma source consisting of a semi-transparent cylindrical mesh with a central electrode, in a linear plasma chamber. Although RF discharge is known to be independent of device geometry in the absence of magnetic field, the initiation of RF discharge using such a plasma source results in electron drift and further expansion of the plasma in the vessel. The dynamics of complex plasma structures are studied through electric probe diagnostics in the expanding RF plasma. The measurements made to study the parametric dependence of evolution of double layer structures are analyzed and presented here. The plasma parameter measurements suggest that the complex potential structures initially form with low potential difference between the layers and then gradually expand producing burst oscillations. The present study provides interesting information about the stability of plasma sheath and charge particle dynamics in it that are important to understand the underlying basic sheath physics along with applications in plasma acceleration and propulsion.

  10. A radar study of emigratory flight and layer formation by insects at dawn over southern Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Chapman, J W

    2008-02-01

    Radar observations have consistently shown that high-altitude migratory flight in insects generally occurs after mass take-off at dusk or after take-off over a more extended period during the day (in association with the growth of atmospheric convection). In this paper, we focus on a less-studied third category of emigration - the 'dawn take-off' - as recorded by insect-monitoring radars during the summer months in southern England. In particular, we describe occasions when dawn emigrants formed notable layer concentrations centred at altitudes ranging from ca. 240 m to 700 m above ground, very probably due to the insects responding to local temperature maxima in the atmosphere, such as the tops of inversions. After persisting for several hours through the early morning, the layers eventually merged into the insect activity building up later in the morning (from 06.00-08.00 h onwards) in conjunction with the development of daytime convection. The species forming the dawn layers have not been positively identified, but their masses lay predominantly in the 16-32 mg range, and they evidently formed a fauna quite distinct from that in flight during the previous night. The displacement and common orientation (mutual alignment) characteristics of the migrants are described.

  11. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  12. Formation and electrical characteristics of silicon dioxide layers by use of nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imal, S.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuba, K.; Asuha; Ishikawa, Y.; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2005-01-01

    SiO 2 /Si structure can be formed at low temperatures by use of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) oxidation of Si (NAOS) method. When Si wafers are immersed in ∼ 40 wt% HNO 3 solutions at 108 deg C, ∼ 1 nm SiO 2 layers are formed. The subsequent immersion in 68 wt% HNO 3 (i.e., azeotropic mixture of HNO 3 with water) at 121 deg C increases the SiO 2 thickness. The 3,5 nm-thick SiO 2 layers produced by this two-step NAOS method possess a considerably low leakage current density (e.g. 1 x 10 2 A/cmi 2 at the forward gate bias, V G , of 1.5 V), in spite of the low temperature oxidation, and further decreased (e.g., 8 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at V G = 1.5 V) by post-metallization annealing at 250 deg C in hydrogen atmosphere. In order to increase the SiO 2 thickness, a bias voltage is applied during the NAOS method. When 10 V is applied to Si with respect to a Pt counter electrode both immersed in 1 M HNO 3 solutions at 25 deg C, SiO 2 layers with 8 nm thickness can be formed for 1 h(Authors)

  13. Study the formation of porous surface layer for a new biomedical titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Mohammed, Mohsin; Diwan, Abass Ali; Ali, Osamah Ihsan

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, chemical treatment using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and subsequent thermal treatment was applied to create a uniform porous layer over the surface of a new metastable β-Ti alloy. The results revealed that this oxidation treatment can create a stable ultrafine porous film over the oxidized surface. This promoted the electrochemical characteristics of H2O2-treated Ti-Zr-Nb (TZN) alloy system, presenting nobler corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) comparing with untreated sample.

  14. High-permeance crosslinked PTMSP thin-film composite membranes as supports for CO2 selective layer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan D. Bazhenov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of the composite gas separation membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture, little attention is focused on the optimization of the membrane supports, which satisfy the conditions of this technology. The primary requirements to the membrane supports are concerned with their high CO2 permeance. In this work, the membrane supports with desired characteristics were developed as high-permeance gas separation thin film composite (TFC membranes with the thin defect-free layer from the crosslinked highly permeable polymer, poly[1-(trimethylsilyl-1-propyne] (PTMSP. This layer is insoluble in chloroform and can be used as a gutter layer for the further deposition of the СО2-selective materials from the organic solvents. Crosslinking of PTMSP was performed using polyethyleneimine (PEI and poly (ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE as crosslinking agents. Optimal concentrations of PEI in PTMSP and PEGDGE in methanol were selected in order to diminish the undesirable effect on the final membrane gas transport characteristics. The conditions of the kiss-coating technique for the deposition of the thin defect-free PTMSP-based layer, namely, composition of the casting solution and the speed of movement of the porous commercial microfiltration-grade support, were optimized. The procedure of post-treatment with alcohols and alcohol solutions was shown to be crucial for the improvement of gas permeance of the membranes with the crosslinked PTMSP layer having thickness ranging within 1–2.5 μm. The claimed membranes showed the following characteristics: CO2 permeance is equal to 50–54 m3(STP/(m2 h bar (18,500–20,000 GPU, ideal CO2/N2 selectivity is 3.6–3.7, and their selective layers are insoluble in chloroform. Thus, the developed high-permeance TFC membranes are considered as a promising supports for further modification by enhanced CO2 selective layer formation. Keywords: Thin-film composite membrane

  15. Effects of Fermented Sumach on the Formation of Slime Layer of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kırmusaoğlu, Sahra; Yurdugül, Seyhun; Koçoğlu, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens in hospitals, and the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial staphylococcal foreign-body infections related to biofilm formation are a serious threat, demanding new therapeutic and preventive strategies. Implantation of intravenous catheters and surgical implantation of prosthetic implants carry a risk of infection. In order to prevent all these effects of biofilms, a study ...

  16. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.

    monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8018, doi:10.1029/2001JC000831, 2002. 1. Introduction [2] Several monsoon lows and depressions, that contrib- ute substantially to the summer monsoon rainfall of the Indian subcontinent, form over the Bay of Bengal... August–September, 1990,Murtyetal.[1996]foundthatthemixedlayerbasedon a temperature criterion is deeper than that using density. The regionwithrelativelyfreshwaterwithhighSSTappearstobe an excellent breeding ground for the formation of monsoon depressions...

  17. Durability of simulated waste glass: effects of pressure and formation of surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Mosley, W.C.; Whitkop, P.G.; Saturday, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    The leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was studied at elevated pressures and anticipated storage temperatures. An integrated approach, which combined leachate solution analyses with both bulk and surface studies, was used to study the corrosion process. Compositions of leachates were evaluated by colorimetry and atomic absorption. Used in the bulk and surface analyses were optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, wide-angle x-ray, diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, infrared reflectance spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results from this study show that there is no significant adverse effect of pressure, up to 1500 psi and 90 0 C, on the chemical durability of simulated SPR waste glass leached for one month in deionized water. In addition, the leached glass surface layer was characterized by an adsorbed film rich in minor constituents from the glass. This film remained on the glass surface even after leaching in relatively alkaline solutions at elevated pressures at 90 0 C for one month. The sample surface area to volume of leachant ratios (SA/V) was 10:1 cm -1 and 1:10 cm -1 . The corrosion mechanisms and surface and subsurface layers produced will be discussed along with the potential importance of these results to repository storage

  18. In situ monitoring of structure formation in the active layer of polymer solar cells during roll-to-roll coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea H. Rossander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The active layer crystallization during roll-to-roll coating of organic solar cells is studied in situ. We developed an X-ray setup where the coater unit is an integrated part of the small angle X-ray scattering instrument, making it possible to control the coating process while recording scattering measurements in situ, enabling us to follow the crystal formation during drying. By varying the distance between the coating head and the point where the X-ray beam hits the film, we obtained measurements of 4 different stages of drying. For each of those stages, the scattering from as long a foil as possible is summed together, with the distance from coating head to scattering point kept constant. The results are average crystallographic properties for the active layer coated on a 30 m long foil. With this insight into the dynamics of crystallization in a roll-coated polymer film, we find that the formation of textured and untextured crystallites seems uncorrelated, and happens at widely different rates. Untextured P3HT crystallites form later in the drying process than expected which may explain previous studies speculating that untextured crystallization depends on concentration. Textured crystallites, however, begin forming much earlier and steadily increases as the film dries, showing a development similar to other in situ studies of these materials.

  19. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  20. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie; Adil, Karim; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores

  1. Multilayered Films Produced by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Chitosan and Alginate as a Potential Platform for the Formation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of multilayered films with tunable properties could offer new routes to produce biomaterials as a platform for 3D cell cultivation. In this study, multilayered films produced with five bilayers of chitosan and alginate (CHT/ALG were built using water-soluble modified mesyl and tosyl–CHT via layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. NMR results demonstrated the presences of mesyl (2.83 ppm and tosyl groups (2.39, 7.37 and 7.70 ppm in the chemical structure of modified chitosans. The buildup of multilayered films was monitored by quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM-D and film thickness was estimated using the Voigt-based viscoelastic model. QCM-D results demonstrated that CHT/ALG films constructed using mesyl or tosyl modifications (mCHT/ALG were significantly thinner in comparison to the CHT/ALG films constructed with unmodified chitosan (p < 0.05. Adhesion analysis demonstrated that human adipose stem cells (hASCs did not adhere to the mCHT/ALG multilayered films and formed aggregates with sizes between ca. 100–200 µm. In vitro studies on cell metabolic activity and live/dead staining suggested that mCHT/ALG multilayered films are nontoxic toward hACSs. Multilayered films produced via LbL assembly of ALG and off-the-shelf, water-soluble modified chitosans could be used as a scaffold for the 3D aggregates formation of hASCs in vitro.

  2. Self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene micropowders and fluorocarbon acrylate resin formation on surface of geotextile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaoyun; He, Lifen; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders and two types fluorocarbon acrylate resin were formed on the surface of geotextile, to improves the evenness and decreases the frictional angle value of geotextile surface. The surface and cross section morphology of geotextile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was determined that composite resin emulsion was evenly coated on the surface of geotextile, to form a even and complete self-lubricating layer, and it was strongly combined with the geotextile due to formation of the transition layer. The tensile fracture stress and strain values of samples were evaluated by mechanical properties measurement, the tensile fracture stress of the untreated and treated sample was approximately 5329 kN/m and 5452 kN/m while the elongation at the yield of them was approximately 85% to 83.9%, respectively. In addition, the frictional angle values of municipal solid waste (MSW)/geotextile interface was measured by the tilt table test, the values of untreated sample was 28.1° and 24.2° under the dry and moist condition, the values of treated sample was 16.2° and 9.8°, respectively.

  3. Calcium dependent formation of tubular assemblies by recombinant S-layer proteins in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Nuriye; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard

    2011-03-01

    Surface layer proteins have the appealing property to self-assemble in nanosized arrays in solution and on solid substrates. In this work, we characterize the formation of assembly structures of the recombinant surface layer protein SbsC of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATTC 12980, which was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tubular structures formed by the protein in vivo are retained upon bursting the cells by osmotic shock; however, their average length is decreased. During dialysis, monomers obtained by treatment with chaotropic chemicals recrystallize again to form tube-like structures. This process is strictly dependent on calcium (Ca2 + ) ions, with an optimal concentration of 10 mM. Further increase of the Ca2 + concentration results in multiple non-productive nucleation points. We further show that the lengths of the S-layer assemblies increase with time and can be controlled by pH. After 48 h, the average length at pH 9.0 is 4.13 µm compared to 2.69 µm at pH 5.5. Successful chemical deposition of platinum indicates the potential of recrystallized mSbsC-eGFP structures for nanobiotechnological applications.

  4. Super-resolution by elliptical bubble formation with PtOx and AgInSbTe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jooho; Hwang, Inoh; Yoon, Duseop; Park, Insik; Shin, Dongho; Kikukawa, Takashi; Shima, Takayuki; Tominaga, Junji

    2003-01-01

    The recording and retrieval of signals below 100 nm mark length were attempted with elliptical bubble-type super-resolution technology with platinum oxide (PtO x ) and ductile AgInSbTe layers, using the same optical system as that of a digital versatile disk (a 635 nm wavelength red laser system). The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of over 47 dB for 100 nm mark length signals (over 43 dB for 80 nm mark length signals) was obtained, which can be considered as a commercially acceptable level of CNR. The recording mechanism of the sample disk was shown through the transmission electron microscopy cross-section image observation to be by rigid elliptical bubble formation at the PtO x layer located between the AgInSbTe layers. The results of this report represent the potential for a much higher-density storage using the red laser system and a subterabyte optical storage using the blue laser system

  5. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  6. Formation of electrostatic double-layers and electron-holes in a low pressure mercury plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraconi, G; Maciel, Homero S

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies of the formation of electrostatic double layers (DLs) and electron-holes (e-holes) are reported. The measurements were performed in the positive column of a mercury arc discharge operating in the low-pressure range of (2.0-14.0) x 10 -2 Pa with current density in the range of (3.0-8.0) x 10 3 A m -2 . Stable and unstable modes of the discharge were identified as the current was gradually increased, keeping constant the vapour pressure. The discharge remains stable until a critical current from which a slight increase of the current leads to an unstable regime characterized by high discharge impedance and strong oscillations. This mode ceased after a DL was formed in the plasma column. To induce the DL formation and to transport it smoothly along the discharge column, a low intensity B-field (7-10) x 10 -3 T produced by a movable single coil was used. The B-field locally increases the electron current density and makes the DL form at the centre of the magnetic constriction where it remained at rest. Electrostatic potential structures compatible with ordinary DLs and multiple-layers could be formed in the plasma column by dealing with the combined effects of the operational parameters of the discharge. It is noticeable that a pure e-hole, which is a symmetric triple-layer having a bell shape potential profile, could easily be formed by means of this experimental technique. A partial kinetic description, based on the space charge structure derived from an experimental e-hole, is presented in order to infer the charged particle populations that could contribute to the space charge of the e-hole. Evidence is shown that strong e-hole formation might be driven by an ion beam, therefore it could not be formed in isolation since its formation requires a nearby ion accelerating potential structure. Probe measurements of the plasma properties, at various radial positions of the stable positive column, are also presented. In the stable mode, prior to

  7. Investigations of material balance and the formation of metabolites on white rot in clamps in soil loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarth, M.

    1993-01-01

    One examines from a concrete case to what extent the potential danger of white rot in bio-beds caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) is reduced. The potential danger is mainly determined by the remainder of the PAH's. The remainder paths to be considered (micro-biological decomposition, transport and abiotic processes) are shown. (orig.) [de

  8. Heterogeneous reactions between ions NH3+and NH+andhydrocarbons adsorbed on a tungsten surface.Formation of HCN+in NH+-surface hydrocarbon collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harnisch, M.; Scheier, P.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 392, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ion-surface collisions * NH3+ and NH+projectiles * surface hydrocarbons Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  9. Formation of an interface layer in thermionic oxide cathodes for CRT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A A; Barratt, D S; Ray, A K; Hassan, A K

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic techniques were employed to study the surface morphological changes of oxide cathodes and nickel caps as a result of cathode activation extending over periods of 1-12 h. Elemental analysis of barium, strontium, tungsten, magnesium and aluminium was performed using energy dispersion x-ray spectroscopy. An abrupt change was observed after activation longer than 3 h. Conduction through well activated cathode assemblies was found to be due to intergranular electron tunnelling at low temperatures (T ≤ 500 K), while trapping and detrapping at grain boundaries becomes the dominant mechanism at high temperatures (T ≥ 500 K). The contribution of the interfacial layer to conductivity was found to be significant for cathodes activated for smaller periods

  10. Formation of Silver Nanoplates Layer on Amino Group Grafted Silica Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis PILIPAVICIUS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the self-arrangement of Ag nanoplates on (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES silanized silica coatings was investigated. Silica coatings were made by sol-gel method and silanized in two different ways. The first one includes silanization in acidic 2-propanol solution, the other one – in dry toluene. Coatings were silanized by using different amounts of APTES in case of silanization in 2-propanol. Silver nanoplates layer of functionalized silica coatings was obtained via self-assembly. Coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM, water contact angle measurements (CA, FT-IR analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Research showed that dense Ag nanoplates arrangement occurs when there is a high amount of amino groups on the surface.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.8405

  11. Femtosecond laser patterning, synthesis, defect formation, and structural modification of atomic layered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Eunpa; Hwang, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes recent research on laser-based processing of twodimensional (2D) atomic layered materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Ultrafast lasers offer unique processing routes that take advantage of distinct interaction mechanisms with 2D materials to enable extremely localized energy deposition. Experiments have shown that ablative direct patterning of graphene by ultrafast lasers can achieve resolutions of tens of nanometers, as well as single-step pattern transfer. Ultrafast lasers also induce non-thermal excitation mechanisms that are useful for the thinning of TMDCs to tune the 2D material bandgap. Laser-assisted site-specific doping was recently demonstrated where ultrafast laser radiation under ambient air environment could be used for the direct writing of high-quality graphene patterns on insulating substrates. This article concludes with an outlook towards developing further advanced laser processing with scalability, in situ monitoring strategies and potential applications.

  12. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, A.; Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H.; Akkari, F. Chaffar; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Kanzari, M.; Bessais, B.; Maaref, M.

    2011-01-01

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  13. Dry air effects on the copper oxides sensitive layers formation for ethanol vapor detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, A., E-mail: Ahmed_laabidi@yahoo.fr [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Bejaoui, A.; Ouali, H. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia); Akkari, F. Chaffar [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-conducteurs, ENIT, Universite de Tunis el Manar, BP 37, Le belvedere 1002, Tunis (Tunisia); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et de technologies de l' energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Maaref, M. [URPSC (UR 99/13-18) Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST, Universite de Carthage, BP 51, La Marsa 2070, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-09-15

    The copper oxide films have been deposited by thermal evaporation and annealed under ambient air and dry air respectively, at different temperatures. The structural characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. They showed the presences of two hydroxy-carbonate minerals of copper for annealing temperatures below 250 deg. C. Above this temperature the conductivity measurements during the annealing process, show a transition phase from metallic copper to copper oxides. The copper oxides sensitivity toward ethanol were performed using conductivity measurements at the working temperature of 200 deg. C. A decrease of conductivity was observed under ethanol vapor, showing the p-type semi-conducting characters of obtained copper oxide films. It was found that the sensing properties of copper oxide toward ethanol depend mainly on the annealing conditions. The best responses were obtained with copper layers annealed under dry air.

  14. Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia Jitsev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character modulated by an oscillatory rhythm. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units and their synaptic connections. Choosing human face recognition as a test task, we show that, under the condition of open-ended, unsupervised incremental learning, the system is able to form memory traces for individual faces in a parts-based fashion. On a lower memory layer the synaptic structure is developed to represent local facial features and their interrelations, while the identities of different persons are captured explicitly on a higher layer. An additional property of the resulting representations is the sparseness of both the activity during the recall and the synaptic patterns comprising the memory traces.

  15. Soil surface organic layers in Arctic Alaska: spatial distribution, rates of formation, and microclimatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Carson; Mann, Daniel H.; Verbyla, David L.; Kunz, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Organic layers of living and dead vegetation cover the ground surface in many permafrost landscapes and play important roles in ecosystem processes. These soil surface organic layers (SSOLs) store large amounts of carbon and buffer the underlying permafrost and its contained carbon from changes in aboveground climate. Understanding the dynamics of SSOLs is a prerequisite for predicting how permafrost and carbon stocks will respond to warming climate. Here we ask three questions about SSOLs in a representative area of the Arctic Foothills region of northern Alaska: (1) What environmental factors control the thickness of SSOLs and the carbon they store? (2) How long do SSOLs take to develop on newly stabilized point bars? (3) How do SSOLs affect temperature in the underlying ground? Results show that SSOL thickness and distribution correlate with elevation, drainage area, vegetation productivity, and incoming solar radiation. A multiple regression model based on these correlations can simulate spatial distribution of SSOLs and estimate the organic carbon stored there. SSOLs develop within a few decades after a new, sandy, geomorphic surface stabilizes but require 500–700 years to reach steady state thickness. Mature SSOLs lower the growing season temperature and mean annual temperature of the underlying mineral soil by 8 and 3°C, respectively. We suggest that the proximate effects of warming climate on permafrost landscapes now covered by SSOLs will occur indirectly via climate's effects on the frequency, extent, and severity of disturbances like fires and landslides that disrupt the SSOLs and interfere with their protection of the underlying permafrost.

  16. Electrochemistry of metal complexes applications from electroplating to oxide layer formation

    CERN Document Server

    Survila, Arvydas

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to sequentially cover all the major stages of electrochemical processes (mass transport, adsorption, charge transfer), with a special emphasis on their deep interrelation. Starting with general considerations on equilibria in solutions and at interfaces as well as on mass transport, the text acquaints readers with the theory and common experimental practice for studying electrochemical reactions of metals complexes. The core part of the book deals with all important aspects of electroplating, including a systematic discussion of co-deposition of metals and formation of alloys.

  17. Enhanced corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy by a silane-based solution treatment after an in-situ formation of the Mg(OH)2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fubao; Shen, Jun; Gao, Runhua; Xie, Xiong; Luo, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    A novel organic-inorganic Mg(OH)2/silane surface layer has been developed for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the immersion tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and sellotape tests showed that the Mg(OH)2/silane-based composite surface layer possessed excellent corrosion resistance and very good adhesion due to the formation of Si-O-Mg bond between Mg(OH)2 layer and silane layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests results indicated that for the long-term corrosion protection of AZ31 the increase of the curing temperature improved the impedance of the composited layer when the curing temperature was lower than 130 °С. However, the impedance of the composited layer deceased when the curing temperature was more than 130 °С due to the carbonization of the silane layer.

  18. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  19. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  20. Study on the formation of heterogeneous structures in leached layers during the corrosion process of glass

    OpenAIRE

    Willemien Anaf

    2010-01-01

    Le verre, corrodé dans des conditions naturelles, montre souvent des hétérogénéités dans la couche lixiviée, comme une structure lamellaire ou des inclusions de MnO2 ou Ca3(PO4)2. La formation de ces hétérogénéités n’est pas encore bien comprise. Des structures de ce type ont été produites artificiellement en laboratoire en immergeant des échantillons de verre dans des solutions riches en métaux. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été comparés avec des théories décrivant la corrosion du verre.Gl...

  1. On possible mechanisms of rim-layer formation in the high-burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovskii, V.; Likhanskii, V.

    2006-01-01

    Two models determining threshold conditions for onset of UO 2 fuel restructuring are developed. In the first model the conditions for fuel restructuring are related with development of the Kinoshita instability. The second model is based upon attainment of critical values by radius of over pressurised bubbles. Possibility of large bubbles formation on dislocation lines is considered with account of Xe atoms drift in the field of mechanical strain of dislocation and irradiation-induced Xe drift in vacancy concentration gradient. Computer simulations of behaviour of point defects and Xe atoms near dislocation core are carried out, results are compared with experimental data. The computer program is developed which consistently calculates point defects and Xe atoms distributions inside fuel grain with account of their behaviour near dislocation core

  2. Atomic layer deposition of Pd and Pt nanoparticles for catalysis: on the mechanisms of nanoparticle formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackus, Adriaan J M; Weber, Matthieu J; Thissen, Nick F W; Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Vervuurt, René H J; Assali, Simone; Bol, Ageeth A; Verheijen, Marcel A; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of Pd and Pt nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been studied extensively in recent years for the synthesis of nanoparticles for catalysis. For these applications, it is essential to synthesize nanoparticles with well-defined sizes and a high density on large-surface-area supports. Although the potential of ALD for synthesizing active nanocatalysts for various chemical reactions has been demonstrated, insight into how to control the nanoparticle properties (i.e. size, composition) by choosing suitable processing conditions is lacking. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the reaction mechanisms during the nucleation stage of metal ALD. In this work, nanoparticles synthesized with four different ALD processes (two for Pd and two for Pt) were extensively studied by transmission electron spectroscopy. Using these datasets as a starting point, the growth characteristics and reaction mechanisms of Pd and Pt ALD relevant for the synthesis of nanoparticles are discussed. The results reveal that ALD allows for the preparation of particles with control of the particle size, although it is also shown that the particle size distribution is strongly dependent on the processing conditions. Moreover, this paper discusses the opportunities and limitations of the use of ALD in the synthesis of nanocatalysts. (paper)

  3. Formation of apatite layers on modified canasite glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C A; Kokubo, T; Reaney, I M; Hatton, P V; James, P F

    2002-03-05

    Canasite glass-ceramics were modified by either increasing the concentration of calcium in the glass, or by the addition of P2O5. Samples of these novel materials were placed in simulated body fluid (SBF), along with a control material (commercial canasite), for periods ranging from 12 h to 28 days. After immersion, surface analysis was performed using thin film X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, silicon, and phosphorus in the SBF solution were measured using inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. No apatite was detected on the surface of commercial canasite, even after 28 days of immersion in SBF. A crystalline apatite layer was formed on the surface of a P2O5-containing canasite after 5 days, and after 3 days for calcium-enriched canasite. Ion release data suggested that the mechanism for apatite deposition was different for P2O5 and non-P2O5-containing glass-ceramics. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  5. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Moody, G.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ˜2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with "ab initio" theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A1 ' phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  6. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D.; Moody, G.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A 1 ′ phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal

  7. Biexciton formation and exciton coherent coupling in layered GaSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Glikin, N.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Moody, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colarado 80305 (United States); Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R. [Chernivtsi Department, Frantsevich Institute of Material Sciences Problems, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Iryna Vilde St., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Romero, A. H. [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 2205, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and linear absorption spectroscopy are used to study the electronic structure and optical properties of excitons in the layered semiconductor GaSe. At the 1s exciton resonance, two peaks are identified in the absorption spectra, which are assigned to splitting of the exciton ground state into the triplet and singlet states. 2DFT spectra acquired for co-linear polarization of the excitation pulses feature an additional peak originating from coherent energy transfer between the singlet and triplet. At cross-linear polarization of the excitation pulses, the 2DFT spectra expose a new peak likely originating from bound biexcitons. The polarization dependent 2DFT spectra are well reproduced by simulations using the optical Bloch equations for a four level system, where many-body effects are included phenomenologically. Although biexciton effects are thought to be strong in this material, only moderate contributions from bound biexciton creation can be observed. The biexciton binding energy of ∼2 meV was estimated from the separation of the peaks in the 2DFT spectra. Temperature dependent absorption and 2DFT measurements, combined with “ab initio” theoretical calculations of the phonon spectra, indicate strong interaction with the A{sub 1}{sup ′} phonon mode. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal excitation induced dephasing and provide a lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of the excitons in the present GaSe crystal.

  8. Formation of a Molecular Wire Using the Chemically Adsorbed Monomolecular Layer Having Pyrrolyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Ogawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular wire containing polypyrrolyl conjugate bonds has been prepared by a chemical adsorption technique using 1,1,1-trichloro-12-pyrrolyl-1-siladodecane (PNN and an electrooxidative polymerization technique, and the conductivity of the molecular wire without any dopant has been measured by using AFM/STM at room temperature. When sample dimension measured was about 0.3 nm (thickness of the conductive portion in the PNN monomolecular layer ×100 μm (the average width of an electric path ×2 mm (the distance between Pt positive electrode and the AFM tip covered with Au, the conductivity of the polymerized PNN molecular wire at room temperature was larger than 1.6 × 105 S/cm both in an atmosphere and in a vacuum chamber of 10−5 Torr. The activation energy obtained by Arrhenius' plots was almost zero in the temperature range between 320 and 450 K.

  9. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  10. Germ-layer commitment and axis formation in sea anemone embryonic cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Anastasia; Genikhovich, Grigory; Pukhlyakova, Ekaterina; Demilly, Adrien; Kraus, Yulia; Technau, Ulrich

    2018-02-20

    Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a combination of microsurgery and transgenic reporter gene expression, we show that, facing a new developmental context, the aggregates of dissociated embryonic cells of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis take an alternative developmental trajectory. The self-organizing aggregates rely on Wnt signals produced by the cells of the original blastopore lip organizer to form body axes but employ morphogenetic events typical for normal development of distantly related cnidarians to re-establish the germ layers. The reaggregated cells show enormous plasticity including the capacity of the ectodermal cells to convert into endoderm. Our results suggest that new developmental trajectories may evolve relatively easily when highly plastic embryonic cells face new constraints. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Single track and single layer formation in selective laser melting of niobium solid solution alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling GUO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM was employed to fabricate Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si (at% alloy, using pre-alloyed powders prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP. A series of single tracks and single layers under different processing parameters was manufactured to evaluate the processing feasibility by SLM, including laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. Results showed that continuous single tracks could be fabricated using proper laser powers and scanning velocities. Both the width of a single track and its penetration depth into a substrate increased with an increase of the linear laser beam energy density (LED, i.e., an increase of the laser power and a decrease of the scanning speed. Nb, Ti, Si, Cr, and Al elements distributed heterogeneously over the melt pool in the form of swirl-like patterns. An excess of the hatch distance was not able to interconnect neighboring tracks. Under improper processing parameters, a balling phenomenon occurred, but could be eliminated with an increased LED. This work testified the SLM-processing feasibility of Nb-based alloy and promoted the application of SLM to the manufacture of niobium-based alloys. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Melt pool, Niobium alloy, Powder metallurgy, Selective laser melting

  12. Deformation-phase transformation coupling mechanism of white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jin [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China); Liu, Zhanqiang, E-mail: melius@sdu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong (China); Lv, Shaoyu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Ni-based superalloy represents a significant metal portion of the aircraft critical structural and engine components. When these critical structural components in aerospace industry are manufactured with the objective to reach high reliability levels and excellent service performance, surface integrity is one of the most relevant parameter used for evaluating the quality of finish machined surfaces. In the study of surface integrity, the formation white layer is a very important research topic. The formation of white layer on the Ni-based superalloy machined surface will reduce the machined parts service performance and fatigue life. This paper was conducted to determine the effects of cutting speed on white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to analyze the elements and microstructures of white layer and bulk materials. The statistical analysis for grain numbers was executed to study the influence of cutting speed on the grain refinement in the machined surface. The investigation results showed that white layer exhibits significantly different microstructures with the bulk materials. It shows densification, no obvious structural features characteristic. The microstructure and phase of Ni-based solid solution changed during cutting process. The increase of cutting speed causes the increase of white layer thickness when the cutting speed is less than 2000 m/min. However, white layer thickness reduces with the cutting speed further increase. The higher the cutting speed, the more serious grains refinement in machined surface. 2-D FEM for machining FGH95 were carried out to simulate the cutting process and obtained the cutting temperature field, cutting strain field and strain rate field. The impact mechanisms of cutting temperature, cutting strain and strain rates on white layer formation were analyzed. At last, deformation-phase transformation

  13. Formation of organic layer on femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumaru, Naoki, E-mail: yasuma@fukui-nct.ac.jp [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Sentoku, Eisuke [National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Sabae, Fukui 916-8507 (Japan); Kiuchi, Junsuke [Eyetec Co., Ltd., Sabae, Fukui 916-0016 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surface analyses of two types of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium were conducted. • The parallel-oriented ultrafine LIPSS showed the almost same roughness and chemical states as the non-irradiated Ti surface. • The well-known perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were typically covered with an organic layer similar to a cellulose derivative. - Abstract: Two types of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formed on titanium by femtosecond (fs) laser pulses (λ = 800 nm, τ = 180 fs, ν = 1 kHz) in air were investigated experimentally. At a laser fluence F above the ablation threshold, LIPSS with a minimum mean spacing of D < λ⁄2 were observed perpendicular to the laser polarization direction. In contrast, for F slightly below than the ablation threshold, ultrafine LIPSS with a minimum value of D < λ/10 were formed parallel to the polarization direction. The surface roughness of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was almost the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, unlike the high roughness of the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS. In addition, although the surface state of the parallel-oriented LIPSS was the same as that of the non-irradiated surface, the perpendicular-oriented LIPSS were covered with an organic thin film similar to a cellulose derivative that cannot be easily formed by conventional chemical synthesis. The results of these surface analyses indicate that these two types of LIPSS are formed through different mechanisms. This fs-laser processing technique may become a new technology for the artificial synthesis of cellulose derivatives.

  14. Long-wave-instability-induced pattern formation in an evaporating sessile or pendent liquid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Duan, Fei

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics and stability of an evaporating liquid layer subject to vapor recoil, capillarity, thermocapillarity, ambient cooling, viscosity, and negative or positive gravity combined with buoyancy effects in the lubrication approximation. Using linear theory, we identify the mechanisms of finite-time rupture, independent of thermocapillarity and direction of gravity, and predict the effective growth rate of an interfacial perturbation which reveals competition among the mechanisms. A stability diagram is predicted for the onset of long-wave (LW) evaporative convection. In the two-dimensional simulation, we observe well-defined capillary ridges on both sides of the valley under positive gravity and main and secondary droplets under negative gravity, while a ridge can be trapped in a large-scale drained region in both cases. Neglecting the other non-Boussinesq effects, buoyancy does not have a significant influence on interfacial evolution and rupture time but makes contributions to the evaporation-driven convection and heat transfer. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with a stronger buoyancy effect. The flow field and interface profile jointly manifest the LW Marangoni-Rayleigh-Bénard convection under positive gravity and the LW Marangoni convection under negative gravity. In the three-dimensional simulation of moderate evaporation with a random perturbation, the rupture patterns are characterized by irregular ridge networks with distinct height scales for positive and negative gravity. A variety of interfacial and internal dynamics are displayed, depending on evaporation conditions, gravity, Marangoni effect, and ambient cooling. Reasonable agreement is found between the present results and the reported experiments and simulations. The concept of dissipative compacton also sheds light on the properties of interfacial fractalization.

  15. Formation of titanium nitride layers on titanium metal: Results of XPS and AES investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Pfennig, G.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Willin, E.

    1988-09-01

    The reaction of titanium metal with gaseous nitrogen and ammonia at temperatures of 890 0 C leads to the formation of nitridic overlayers on the metallic substrate. The thicknesses of the overlayers increase with increasing reaction time. Under comparable conditions ammonia reacts much slower than nitrogen. XPS and AES depth profile analyses show continuous changes of the in-depth compositions of the overlayers. This can be interpreted in terms of a very irregular thickness of the overlayers, an assumption which is substantiated by local AES analyses and by the observation of a pronounced crystalline structure of the substrate after annealing pretreatment, which can give rise to locally different reaction rates. The depth profile is also influenced by the broad ranges of stability of the titanium nitride phases formed during the reaction. The quantitative analysis of the titanium/nitrogen overlayers by AES is difficult because of the overlap of titanium and nitrogen Auger peaks. In quantitative XPS analysis problems arise due to difficulties in defining Ti 2p peak areas. This work presents practical procedures for the quantitative evaluation by XPS and AES of nitridic overlayers with sufficient accuracy. (orig.) [de

  16. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement. PMID:22221730

  17. Microstructures and phase formations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, J.X.; Grosdidier, T.; Zhang, K.M.; Gao, B.; Hao, S.Z.; Dong, C.

    2007-01-01

    The nanostructures and metastable phase transformations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) were investigated. The surface structure is marked by two distinct features, i.e. the formation of sub-micrometer fine austenite γ grains (50-150 nm), and the disappearance of carbides via dissolution and crater eruption. The γ phase directly grows from the melt and is retained down to room temperature. Although the cooling rate is as high as 10 7 K/s in our case, the martensitic transformation could completely be suppressed. Such an effect is due to the increased stability of the austenite phase through grain refinement and chemistry modification

  18. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  19. Interaction of single and multi-layer graphene oxide with fetal bovine serum: assessing the protein corona formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Farias, Marcelo Alexandre de; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; Costa, Carlos Alberto; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: lidiane.franqui@pos.ft.unicamp.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Coluci, Vitor Rafael [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: When in contact with biological systems, nanomaterials surface adsorbs biomolecules present in the biological medium, mainly proteins, yielding a molecular coating 'protein corona' which affects the biological response and toxicity of the nanomaterials. Several factors can influence the protein corona formation, such as nanomaterial physicochemical properties and the nature of biological medium. In this work, we have performed a comparative study between the single and multi-layer graphene oxide nanomaterials (SL-GO and ML-GO, respectively) after their interaction with DMEM cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bare GOs and FBS protein corona-coated GOs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The protein corona composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that, after interaction with FBS, GO particle size increased due to the protein corona formation. Besides, the presence of proteins also has significantly increased the dispersion stability of SLGO and ML-GO over time. Whereas the main proteins have been identified in both SL-GO and ML-GO, SL-GO has adsorbed larger amounts of proteins than ML-GO. Finally, the number of GO layers influences its interactions with FBS proteins and dispersion stability in DMEM medium. These results point out implications for in vitro cytotoxicity assessment and biomedical applications of these promising carbon nanomaterials. (author)

  20. Interaction of single and multi-layer graphene oxide with fetal bovine serum: assessing the protein corona formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Farias, Marcelo Alexandre de; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; Costa, Carlos Alberto; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Coluci, Vitor Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Full text: When in contact with biological systems, nanomaterials surface adsorbs biomolecules present in the biological medium, mainly proteins, yielding a molecular coating 'protein corona' which affects the biological response and toxicity of the nanomaterials. Several factors can influence the protein corona formation, such as nanomaterial physicochemical properties and the nature of biological medium. In this work, we have performed a comparative study between the single and multi-layer graphene oxide nanomaterials (SL-GO and ML-GO, respectively) after their interaction with DMEM cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Bare GOs and FBS protein corona-coated GOs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The protein corona composition was characterized by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that, after interaction with FBS, GO particle size increased due to the protein corona formation. Besides, the presence of proteins also has significantly increased the dispersion stability of SLGO and ML-GO over time. Whereas the main proteins have been identified in both SL-GO and ML-GO, SL-GO has adsorbed larger amounts of proteins than ML-GO. Finally, the number of GO layers influences its interactions with FBS proteins and dispersion stability in DMEM medium. These results point out implications for in vitro cytotoxicity assessment and biomedical applications of these promising carbon nanomaterials. (author)

  1. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  2. Mechanisms of oxide layer formation and destruction on a chromia former nickel base alloy in HTR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouillard, F.

    2007-10-01

    Haynes 230 alloy which contains 22 wt.% chromium could be a promising candidate material for structures and heat exchangers (maximum operating temperature: 850-950 C) in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). The feasibility demonstration involves to valid its corrosion resistance in the reactor specific environment namely impure helium. The alloys surface reactivity was investigated at temperatures between 850 and 1000 C. We especially focused on the influence of different parameters such as concentrations of impurities in the gas phase (carbon monoxide and methane, water vapour/hydrogen ratio), alloy composition (activities of Cr and C, alloying element contents) and temperature. Two main behaviours have been revealed: the formation of a Cr/Mn rich oxide layer at 900 C and its following reduction at higher temperatures. At 900 C, the water vapour is the main oxidizing gas. However in the initial times, the carbon monoxide reacts at the metal/oxide interface which involves a gaseous transport through the scale; CO mainly oxidizes the minor alloying elements aluminium and silicon. Above a critical temperature TA, the carbon in solution in the alloy reduces chromia. To ascribe the scale destruction, a model is proposed based on thermodynamic interfacial data for the alloy, oxide layer morphology and carbon monoxide partial pressure in helium; the model is then validated regarding experimental results and observations. (author)

  3. A Study on Characterization of Light-Induced Electroless Plated Ni Seed Layer and Silicide Formation for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaloo, Ashkan Vakilipour; Joo, Seung Ki; Es, Firat; Turan, Rasit; Lee, Doo Won

    2018-03-01

    Light-induced electroless plating (LIEP) is an easy and inexpensive method that has been widely used for seed layer deposition of Nickel/Copper (Ni/Cu)-based metallization in the solar cell. In this study, material characterization aspects of the Ni seed layer and Ni silicide formation at different bath conditions and annealing temperatures on the n-side of a silicon diode structure have been examined to achieve the optimum cell contacts. The effects of morphology and chemical composition of Ni film on its electrical conductivity were evaluated and described by a quantum mechanical model. It has been found that correlation exists between the theoretical and experimental conductivity of Ni film. Residual stress and phase transformation of Ni silicide as a function of annealing temperature were evaluated using Raman and XRD techniques. Finally, transmission line measurement (TLM) technique was employed to determine the contact resistance of Ni/Si stack after thermal treatment and to understand its correlation with the chemical-structural properties. Results indicated that low electrical resistive mono-silicide (NiSi) phase as low as 5 mΩ.cm2 was obtained.

  4. Using quantitative magnetic resonance methods to understand better the gel-layer formation on polymer-matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, Urša; Kristl, Julijana; Baumgartner, Saša

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, non-invasive technique that can help improve our understanding of the hydrogel layer formed on swellable, polymer-matrix tablets, as well as the layer's properties and its influence on drug release. In this paper, the authors review the NMR and MRI investigations of hydrophilic, swellable polymers published since 1994. The review covers NMR studies on the properties of water and drugs within hydrated polymers. In addition, MRI studies using techniques for determining the different moving-front positions within the swollen tablets, the polymer concentration profiles across them, the influence of the incorporated drug, and so on, are presented. Some complementary methods are also briefly presented and discussed. Using MRI, the formation of a hydrogel along with simultaneous determination of the drug's position within it can be observed non-invasively. However, the MRI parameters can influence the signal's intensity and therefore they need to be considered carefully in order to prevent any misinterpretation of the results. MRI makes possible an in situ investigation of swollen-matrix tablets and provides valuable information that can lead, when combined with other techniques, to a better understanding of polymeric systems and a more effective development of optimal dosage forms.

  5. Nano-beta-tricalcium phosphates synthesis and biodegradation: 2. Biodegradation and apatite layer formation on nano-{beta}-TCP synthesized via microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Elkhooly, Tarek A, E-mail: nrcfifi@yahoo.co [Department of Biomaterials, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-01

    The degradation and/or apatite layer precipitation ability of porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) samples treated and untreated with microwave radiation during synthesis is investigated. Microwave heating was used to accelerate the formation of CDHA with the Ca/P ratio 1.5 in a shorter processing time which later forms {beta}-TCP at around 650 {sup 0}C. Soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for several periods (4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) is performed in a cumulative manner. The deposition of an apatite layer is followed through diffuse reflected FT-IR, SEM and EDS. A microwave-treated sample having a smaller particle size than its parent induces the formation of a homogeneous carbonated apatite layer on its surface. On the other hand, the parent {beta}-TCP sample exhibited less ability to induce Ca-P formation after being soaked in SBF. The formation of an apatite layer is attributed to the increase in surface area consequent to reduced particle and grain sizes besides the presence of a minor amount of hydroxyapatite phase in the microwave-treated {beta}-TCP sample. The results prove that it is possible to control the biodegradation and apatite layer formation on sintered {beta}-TCP porous disks through controlling the particle size.

  6. Formation of edge transport barrier in the ergodic field layer of helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K; Ohdachi, S; Watanabe, F; Narihara, K; Morisaki, T; Sakakibara, S; Morita, S; Goto, M; Ida, K; Masuzaki, S; Miyazawa, K; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K W; Yoshinuma, M

    2006-01-01

    On the Large Helical Device (LHD), low to high confinement (L-H) transition and edge transport barrier (ETB) formation were observed in the low beta regime ((β dia ) dia ): volume-averaged beta derived from diamagnetic measurement) as well as in relatively high beta regime (>1.5%). In most of ETB plasmas electron density preferentially increases in the edge region without a substantial rise of the edge electron temperature. The ETB zone develops inside the ergodic field layer calculated in the vacuum field. The ETB formation strongly destabilizes edge coherent modes such as m/n = 2/3 or 1/2 (m, n: poloidal and toroidal mode numbers), because the plasma edge region is in the magnetic hill. The ETB is partially destroyed by the combination of these edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities. For a particular experimental condition, the forced generation of a sizable m/n = 1/1 magnetic island near the edge by application of external field perturbations facilitates the L-H transition at a lower electron density and suppresses edge MHD modes and ELM-like activities to lower levels

  7. A novel Eulerian approach for modelling cyanobacteria movement: Thin layer formation and recurrent risk to drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen Quang, Tri; Kahawita, René; Hamilton, David; de Boutray, Marie Laure; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms are being reported in an increasing number of water bodies worldwide. As drinking water (DW) treatment can be disrupted by CB, in addition to long term management plans, short term operational decision-making tools are needed that enable an understanding of the temporal variability of CB movement in relation to drinking water intakes. In this paper, we propose a novel conservative model based on a Eulerian framework and compare results with data from CB blooms in Missisquoi Bay (Québec, Canada). The hydrodynamic model considered the effects of wind and light intensity, demonstrated that current understanding of cell buoyancy in relation to light intensity in full-scale systems is incomplete and some factors are yet to be fully characterized. Factors affecting CB buoyancy play a major role in the formation of a thin surface layer that could be of ecological importance with regards to cell concentrations and toxin production. Depending on velocities, wind contributes either to the accumulation or to the dispersion of CB. Lake recirculation effects have a tendency to create zones of low CB concentrations in a water body. Monitoring efforts and future research should focus on short-term variations of CB throughout the water column and the characterization of factors other than light intensity that affect cell buoyancy. These factors are critical for understanding the risk of breakthrough into treatment plants as well as the formation of surface scums and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Double-layer model of the venus night-side ionosphere formation from the radio occultation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmolovskij, I.K.; Savich, N.A.; Samoznaev, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the radio occultation experiments performed with the Venera space probes - 9, 10(1975) and Pioneer - Venus satellite (1978) have shown that in most of the cases the electron concentration distribution in the Venus night-side ionosphere in the low solar activity years has two maxima (double-layer profile) whereas in the high activity years - one maximum. The two-component (O + and O 2 + ) diffusion model is suggested that describes naturally the formation of one or two maxima depending on physical conditions in the Venus upper atmosphere. At initial hypothesis accepted is the well-known hypothesis of the night-side ionosphere formation for account of the O + plasma overflow from the day side to the night one. The main idea of the study consists in finding conditions when the upper maximum formed in the O + ion downward current is spaced by height at a certain distance from the lower current caused by the O 2 + ions being formed as a result of O + ion chemical reactions with CO 2 molecules

  9. Effect of Annealed Oxides on the Formation of Inhibition Layer During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of 590Mpa Trip Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Huh, Joo Youl; Lee, Suk Kyu; Park, Rho Bum; Kim, Jong Sang

    2011-01-01

    The selective surface oxidation of a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing 1.6 wt.% Mn and 1.5 wt.% Si during annealing at 800 .deg. C was investigated for its influence on the formation of an inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing. The selective oxidation of the alloying elements and the oxide morphology were significantly influenced by the annealing atmosphere. The pure N 2 atmosphere with a dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Mn as a crystalline Mn 2 SiO 4 phase, whereas the N 2 + 10% H 2 atmosphere with the same dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Si as an amorphous Si-rich oxide phase. During hot-dip galvanizing, the Mn 2 SiO 4 phase was reduced more readily by Al in the Zn bath than the Si-rich oxide phase. Consequently, the pure N 2 atmosphere resulted in a higher formation rate of Fe 2 Al 5 particles at the Zn/steel interface and better galvanizability than the N 2 + 10% H 2 atmosphere

  10. Formation Dynamics of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Following Two-Step Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay B; Milot, Rebecca L; Wright, Adam D; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B

    2016-01-07

    Hybrid metal-halide perovskites have emerged as a leading class of semiconductors for optoelectronic devices because of their desirable material properties and versatile fabrication methods. However, little is known about the chemical transformations that occur in the initial stages of perovskite crystal formation. Here we follow the real-time formation dynamics of MAPbI3 from a bilayer of lead iodide (PbI2) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) deposited through a two-step thermal evaporation process. By lowering the substrate temperature during deposition, we are able to initially inhibit intermixing of the two layers. We subsequently use infrared and visible light transmission, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence lifetime measurements to reveal the room-temperature transformations that occur in vacuum and ambient air, as MAI diffuses into the PbI2 lattice to form MAPbI3. In vacuum, the transformation to MAPbI3 is incomplete as unreacted MAI is retained in the film. However, exposure to moist air allows for conversion of the unreacted MAI to MAPbI3, demonstrating that moisture is essential in making MAI more mobile and thus aiding perovskite crystallization. These dynamic processes are reflected in the observed charge-carrier lifetimes, which strongly fluctuate during periods of large ion migration but steadily increase with improving crystallinity.

  11. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  12. Effect of Annealed Oxides on the Formation of Inhibition Layer During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of 590Mpa Trip Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Huh, Joo Youl [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk Kyu; Park, Rho Bum; Kim, Jong Sang [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The selective surface oxidation of a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel containing 1.6 wt.% Mn and 1.5 wt.% Si during annealing at 800 .deg. C was investigated for its influence on the formation of an inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing. The selective oxidation of the alloying elements and the oxide morphology were significantly influenced by the annealing atmosphere. The pure N{sub 2} atmosphere with a dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Mn as a crystalline Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase, whereas the N{sub 2} + 10% H{sub 2} atmosphere with the same dew point -40 .deg. C promoted the selective oxidation of Si as an amorphous Si-rich oxide phase. During hot-dip galvanizing, the Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase was reduced more readily by Al in the Zn bath than the Si-rich oxide phase. Consequently, the pure N{sub 2} atmosphere resulted in a higher formation rate of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} particles at the Zn/steel interface and better galvanizability than the N{sub 2} + 10% H{sub 2} atmosphere.

  13. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  14. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  15. 3D Voronoi grid dedicated software for modeling gas migration in deep layered sedimentary formations with TOUGH2-TMGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduà, Stefano; Battistelli, Alfredo; Berry, Paolo; Bortolotti, Villiam; Consonni, Alberto; Cormio, Carlo; Geloni, Claudio; Vasini, Ester Maria

    2017-11-01

    As is known, a full three-dimensional (3D) unstructured grid permits a great degree of flexibility when performing accurate numerical reservoir simulations. However, when the Integral Finite Difference Method (IFDM) is used for spatial discretization, constraints (arising from the required orthogonality between the segment connecting the blocks nodes and the interface area between blocks) pose difficulties in the creation of grids with irregular shaped blocks. The full 3D Voronoi approach guarantees the respect of IFDM constraints and allows generation of grids conforming to geological formations and structural objects and at the same time higher grid resolution in volumes of interest. In this work, we present dedicated pre- and post-processing gridding software tools for the TOUGH family of numerical reservoir simulators, developed by the Geothermal Research Group of the DICAM Department, University of Bologna. VORO2MESH is a new software coded in C++, based on the voro++ library, allowing computation of the 3D Voronoi tessellation for a given domain and the creation of a ready to use TOUGH2 MESH file. If a set of geological surfaces is available, the software can directly generate the set of Voronoi seed points used for tessellation. In order to reduce the number of connections and so to decrease computation time, VORO2MESH can produce a mixed grid with regular blocks (orthogonal prisms) and irregular blocks (polyhedron Voronoi blocks) at the point of contact between different geological formations. In order to visualize 3D Voronoi grids together with the results of numerical simulations, the functionality of the TOUGH2Viewer post-processor has been extended. We describe an application of VORO2MESH and TOUGH2Viewer to validate the two tools. The case study deals with the simulation of the migration of gases in deep layered sedimentary formations at basin scale using TOUGH2-TMGAS. A comparison between the simulation performances of unstructured and structured

  16. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  17. Effect of strip temperature on the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} inhibition layer during hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Monojit [R and D Division, Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur 831001 (India)], E-mail: monoron@yahoo.com; Singh, Shiv Brat [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The theory of nucleation has been employed to derive expressions for the formation of an Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer during commercial strip galvanizing. This is then used to show the effect of the strip entry temperature on the nucleation of the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer. An attempt was also made to verify this effect through controlled experiments in a hot-dip galvanizing simulator and electron microscopic characterization of a few samples.

  18. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  19. The footprints of Saharan air layer and lightning on the formation of tropical depressions over the eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno Delgado, Diana C.; Chiao, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The roles of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and lightning during genesis of Tropical Depression (TD) 8 (2006) and TD 12 (2010) were investigated in relation to the interaction of the dust outbreaks with each system and their surrounding environment. This study applied data collected from the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis and 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes projects. Satellite observations from METEOSAT and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were also employed for the study of the dust content. Lightning activity data from the Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system were used as another parameter to correlate moist convective overturning and a sign of cyclone formation. The AOD and lightning analysis for TD 8 demonstrated the time-lag connection through their positive contribution to TC-genesis. TD 12 developed without strong dust outbreak, but with lower wind shear (2 m s-1) and an organized Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Overall, the results from the combination of various data analyses in this study support the fact that both systems developed under either strong or weak dust conditions. From these two cases, the location (i.e., the target area) of strong versus weak dust outbreaks, in association with lightning, were essential interactions that impacted TC-genesis. While our dust footprints hypothesis applied under strong dust conditions (i.e., TD 8), other factors (e.g., vertical wind shear, pre-existing vortex and trough location, thermodynamics) need to be evaluated as well. The results from this study suggest that the SAL is not a determining factor that affects the formation of tropical cyclones (i.e., TD 8 and TD 12).

  20. Formation of Long-Lived Color Centers for Broadband Visible Light Emission in Low-Dimensional Layered Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Edward P; Thomas, Tudor H; Quarti, Claudio; Stanton, Michael R; Dashwood, Cameron D; Gillett, Alexander J; Richter, Johannes M; Pearson, Andrew J; Davis, Nathaniel J L K; Sirringhaus, Henning; Price, Michael B; Greenham, Neil C; Beljonne, David; Dutton, Siân E; Deschler, Felix

    2017-12-27

    We investigate the origin of the broadband visible emission in layered hybrid lead-halide perovskites and its connection with structural and photophysical properties. We study ⟨001⟩ oriented thin films of hexylammonium (HA) lead iodide, (C 6 H 16 N) 2 PbI 4 , and dodecylammonium (DA) lead iodide, (C 12 H 28 N) 2 PbI 4 , by combining first-principles simulations with time-resolved photoluminescence, steady-state absorption and X-ray diffraction measurements on cooling from 300 to 4 K. Ultrafast transient absorption and photoluminescence measurements are used to track the formation and recombination of emissive states. In addition to the excitonic photoluminescence near the absorption edge, we find a red-shifted, broadband (full-width at half-maximum of about 0.4 eV), emission band below 200 K, similar to emission from ⟨110⟩ oriented bromide 2D perovskites at room temperature. The lifetime of this sub-band-gap emission exceeds that of the excitonic transition by orders of magnitude. We use X-ray diffraction measurements to study the changes in crystal lattice with temperature. We report changes in the octahedral tilt and lattice spacing in both materials, together with a phase change around 200 K in DA 2 PbI 4 . DFT simulations of the HA 2 PbI 4 crystal structure indicate that the low-energy emission is due to interstitial iodide and related Frenkel defects. Our results demonstrate that white-light emission is not limited to ⟨110⟩ oriented bromide 2D perovskites but a general property of this class of system, and highlight the importance of defect control for the formation of low-energy emissive sites, which can provide a pathway to design tailored white-light emitters.

  1. Formation of crystalline Zn-Al layered double hydroxide precipitates on γ-alumina: the role of mineral dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Livi, Kenneth J T; Xu, Wenqian; Siebecker, Matthew G; Wang, Yujun; Phillips, Brian L; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-11-06

    To better understand the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases in soils, we systematically examined the presence of Al and the role of mineral dissolution during Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-Al(2)O(3) (γ-alumina) at pH 7.5 using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), synchrotron-radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), and (27)Al solid-state NMR. The EXAFS analysis indicates the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates at Zn concentration ≥0.4 mM, and both HR-TEM and SR-XRD reveal that these precipitates are crystalline. These precipitates yield a small shoulder at δ(Al-27) = +12.5 ppm in the (27)Al solid-state NMR spectra, consistent with the mixed octahedral Al/Zn chemical environment in typical Zn-Al LDHs. The NMR analysis provides direct evidence for the existence of Al in the precipitates and the migration from the dissolution of γ-alumina substrate. To further address this issue, we compared the Zn sorption mechanism on a series of Al (hydr)oxides with similar chemical composition but differing dissolubility using EXAFS and TEM. These results suggest that, under the same experimental conditions, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed on γ-alumina and corundum but not on less soluble minerals such as bayerite, boehmite, and gibbsite, which point outs that substrate mineral surface dissolution plays an important role in the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates.

  2. Crossed-beam reaction of carbon atoms with hydrocarbon molecules. IV. Chemical dynamics of methylpropargyl radical formation, C4H5, from reaction of C(3Pj) with propylene, C3H6 (X1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.I.; Stranges, D.; Bevsek, H.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Suits, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction between ground state carbon atoms and propylene, C 3 H 6 , was studied at average collision energies of 23.3 and 45.0 kJmol -1 using the crossed molecular beam technique. Product angular distributions and time-of-flight spectra of C 4 H 5 at m/e=53 were recorded. Forward-convolution fitting of the data yields a maximum energy release as well as angular distributions consistent with the formation of methylpropargyl radicals. Reaction dynamics inferred from the experimental results suggest that the reaction proceeds on the lowest 3 A surface via an initial addition of the carbon atom to the π-orbital to form a triplet methylcyclopropylidene collision complex followed by ring opening to triplet 1,2-butadiene. Within 0.3 endash 0.6 ps, 1,2-butadiene decomposes through carbon endash hydrogen bond rupture to atomic hydrogen and methylpropargyl radicals. The explicit identification of C 4 H 5 under single collision conditions represents a further example of a carbon endash hydrogen exchange in reactions of ground state carbon with unsaturated hydrocarbons. This versatile machine represents an alternative pathway to build up unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in combustion processes, chemical vapor deposition, and in the interstellar medium. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Atomic layer deposition and post-growth thermal annealing of ultrathin MoO3 layers on silicon substrates: Formation of surface nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Ren Bin; Yang, Weifeng; Jin, Yunjiang; Lee, Coryl J. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrathin MoO3 layers have been grown on Si substrates at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] and ozone (O3) as the Mo- and O-source precursors, respectively. The ultrathin films were further annealed in air at Tann = 550-750 °C for 15 min. Scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the morphological and elemental properties as well as their evolutions upon annealing of the thin films. They revealed an interfacial SiOx layer in between the MoO3 layer and the Si substrate; this SiOx layer converted into SiO2 during the annealing; and the equivalent thickness of the MoO3 (SiO2) layer decreased (increased) with the increase in Tann. Particles with diameters smaller than 50 nm emerged at Tann = 550 °C and their sizes (density) were reduced (increased) by increasing Tann to 650 °C. A further increase of Tann to 750 °C resulted in telephone-cord-like MoO3 structures, initiated from isolated particles on the surface. These observations have been discussed and interpreted based on temperature-dependent atomic interdiffusions, surface evaporations, and/or melting of MoO3, which shed new light on ALD MoO3 towards its electronic applications.

  4. Chlorine-Incorporation-Induced Formation of the Layered Phase for Antimony-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangyuan; Yang, Dongwen; Jiang, Youyu; Liu, Tiefeng; Zhao, Xingang; Ming, Yue; Luo, Bangwu; Qin, Fei; Fan, Jiacheng; Han, Hongwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhou, Yinhua

    2018-01-24

    The environmental toxicity of Pb in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells remains an issue, which has triggered intense research on seeking alternative Pb-free perovskites for solar applications. Halide perovskites based on group-VA cations of Bi 3+ and Sb 3+ with the same lone-pair ns 2 state as Pb 2+ are promising candidates. Herein, through a joint experimental and theoretical study, we demonstrate that Cl-incorporated methylammonium Sb halide perovskites (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X show promise as efficient solar absorbers for Pb-free perovskite solar cells. Inclusion of methylammonium chloride into the precursor solutions suppresses the formation of the undesired zero-dimensional dimer phase and leads to the successful synthesis of high-quality perovskite films composed of the two-dimensional layered phase favored for photovoltaics. Solar cells based on the as-obtained (CH 3 NH 3 ) 3 Sb 2 Cl X I 9-X films reach a record-high power conversion efficiency over 2%. This finding offers a new perspective for the development of nontoxic and low-cost Sb-based perovskite solar cells.

  5. Morphological effects of single-layer graphene oxide in the formation of covalently bonded polypyrrole composites using intermediate diisocyanate chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, Raymond L. D.; Korobeinyk, Alina; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer graphene oxide (SLGO) possesses carboxylic and hydroxyl groups suitable for reactions with aliphatic or aromatic diisocyanate molecules. TEM analysis reveals that aliphatic diisocyanate molecules caused SLGO to scroll into star-like formations, whereas aromatic diisocyanate molecules retained SGLO in a flat-sheet morphology. TGA confirms the stabilisation of the formed urea and urethane groups on SLGO, but the onset of sheet pyrolysis occurs at a lower temperature due to isocyanate reactions with anhydride and epoxide groups embedded in the sheet. Pendant isocyanate groups act as bridging units to facilitate the attachment of pyrrole molecules, which are then used as anchor sites for the covalent polymerisation of pyrrole to polypyrrole (PPy). The use of FeCl 3 as the polymerisation catalyst generated both covalent and free PPy, but also iron hydroxide nanoparticles were observed decorating the SLGO surface. When using ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and dodecylbenzenesulfonate as a dopant, free PPy could be removed under treatment with solvents to leave a purely covalent system. Discrete regions of SLGO were observed decorated with nanoparticles of PPy along the edge or across the surface of individual sheets. It was found that the flexibility of the SLGO sheet and the type of diisocyanate used directly affected the electrical resistance of the final composite.

  6. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  7. Bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in coastal regions; Bioremediation des hydrocarbures en milieu cotier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyoneaud, R. [IBEAS, LEM - Lab. d' Ecologie Moleculaire - JE 159, 64 - Pau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coasts are exposed to chronic or accidental pollutions by hydrocarbons. The aim of this study is to show the importance of the microbial layers (stratified sedimentary systems) in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. (A.L.B.)

  8. Wetting-layer formation mechanisms of surface-directed phase separation under different quench depths with off-critical compositions in polymer binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Tang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Focusing on the off-critical condition, the quench depth dependence of surface-directed phase separation in the polymer binary mixture is numerically investigated by combination of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory and the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory. Two distinct situations, i.e., for the wetting, the minority component is preferred by the surface and the majority component is preferred by the surface, are discussed in detail. The simulated results show that the formation mechanism of the wetting layer is affected by both the quench depth and the off-critical extent. Moreover, a diagram, illustrating the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer with various quench depths and compositions, is obtained on the basis of the simulated results. It is found that, when the minority component is preferred by the surface, the growth of the wetting layer can exhibit pure diffusion limited growth law, logarithmic growth law, and Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law. However, when the majority component is preferred by the surface, the wetting layer always grows logarithmically, regardless of the quench depth and the off-critical extent. It is interesting that the surface-induced nucleation can be observed in this case. The simulated results demonstrate that the surface-induced nucleation only occurs below a certain value of the quench depth, and a detailed range about it is calculated and indicated. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer are theoretically analyzed in depth by the chemical potential gradient.

  9. In situ TEM observation of the Boudouard reaction: Multi-layered graphene formation from CO on cobalt nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, G.M.; Zacharaki, E.; Sjåstad, A.O.; Navarro, V.; Frenken, J.W.M.; Kooyman, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Using a MEMS nanoreactor in combination with a specially designed in situ Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) holder and gas supply system, we imaged the formation of multiple layers of graphene encapsulating a cobalt nanoparticle, at 1 bar CO:N2 (1:1) and 500 °C. The cobalt nanoparticle was

  10. Optimal topotactic conversion of layered octosilicate to RWR-type zeolite by separating the formation stages of interlayer condensation and elimination of organic guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Osada, Shimon; Hosaka, Nami; Terasawa, Taichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate that the separation of two stages of interlayer condensation under refluxing and elimination of organic guests provides the optimal conditions for the formation of RWR-type zeolite from layered octosilicate. The obtained RWR-type zeolite has higher quality than any other RWR-type zeolite reported previously.

  11. Cube Texture Formation of Cu-33at.%Ni Alloy Substrates and CeO2 Buffer Layer for YBCO Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Suo Hong; Ru, Liang Ya

    2014-01-01

    Cube texture formation of Cu-33 at.%Ni alloy substartes and CeO2 buffer layer prepared by chemical solution deposition on the textured substrate were investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and XRD technics systematically. The results shown that a strong cube textured Cu-33at...

  12. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE; WEE, DAEHYUN; MARZOUK, YOUSSEF M.; GHONIEM, AHMED F.

    2011-01-01

    generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary

  13. Formation mechanisms of neutral Fe layers in the thermosphere at Antarctica studied with a thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinzhao; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-06-01

    With a thermosphere-ionosphere Fe/Fe+ (TIFe) model developed from first principles at the University of Colorado, we present the first quantitative investigation of formation mechanisms of thermospheric Fe layers observed by lidar in Antarctica. These recently discovered neutral metal layers in the thermosphere between 100 and 200 km provide unique tracers for studies of fundamental processes in the space-atmosphere interaction region. The TIFe model formulates and expands the TIFe theory originally proposed by Chu et al. that the thermospheric Fe layers are produced through the neutralization of converged Fe+ layers. Through testing mechanisms and reproducing the 28 May 2011 event at McMurdo, we conceive the lifecycle of meteoric metals via deposition, transport, chemistry, and wave dynamics for thermospheric Fe layers with gravity wave signatures. While the meteor injection of iron species is negligible above 120 km, the polar electric field transports metallic ions Fe+ upward from their main deposition region into the E-F regions, providing the major source of Fe+ (and accordingly Fe) in the thermosphere. Atmospheric wave-induced vertical shears of vertical and horizontal winds converge Fe+ to form dense Fe+ layers. Direct electron-Fe+ recombination is the major channel to neutralize Fe+ layers to form Fe above 120 km. Fe layer shapes are determined by multiple factors of neutral winds, electric field, and aurora activity. Gravity-wave-induced vertical wind plays a key role in forming gravity-wave-shaped Fe layers. Aurora particle precipitation enhances Fe+ neutralization by increasing electron density while accelerating Fe loss via charge transfer with enhanced NO+ and O2+ densities.Plain Language SummaryThe discoveries of neutral metal layers reaching near 200 km in the thermosphere have significant scientific merit because such discoveries challenge the current understandings of upper atmospheric composition, chemistry, dynamics, electrodynamics, and

  14. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts. PMID:27958290

  15. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  16. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  17. Study of the processes of ion pairs formation by the method of ion-ion coincidence: I2 and chlorine-containing hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method of ion-ion coincidences was suggested to study the process of ion pairs formation during molecule photoionization. The principle of action of ion-ion coincidence method is based on recording of only the negative and positive ions that formed as a result of a molecule decomposition. The flowsheet of the facility of ion-ion coincidences was presented. The processes of ion pairs formation in iodine, chloroform, propyl-, n-propenyl-, tert.butyl- and benzyl-chlorides were studied. A simple model permitting to evaluate the dependence of quantum yield of ion pair formation on excitation energy was suggested

  18. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  19. Rare earth elements as a tool for studying the formation of cemented layers in an area affected by acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawunder, Anja; Lonschinski, Martin; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatially resolved analysis of 14 rare earth elements (REE) by LA-ICP-MS. • Positive correlation of Mn contents and (positive) Ce anomalies. • Linkage of the two cemented layer’s formation to soil solution and groundwater. - Abstract: In a profile with two cemented layers sampled in an area affected by acid mine drainage, both have rare earth element (REE) signatures with positive Ce anomalies in the Post Archean Australian Shale-normalised patterns. Both cemented layers have higher contents of environmentally relevant metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, and Zn) than the over- and underlying unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and are depleted of Al, Ca, K, and Mg. The cemented layers are enriched in middle and heavy REE, but only the bulk pattern of the lower cemented layer reveals a positive Ce anomaly. For the upper cemented layer, this positive Ce anomaly was only determined by spatially resolved laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) studies only for segments with a high abundance of Mn, occurring as Mn phases as proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Mn phases are formed secondarily to the ferric cement and are especially enriched in Ce and Co. The Ce anomaly of the lower cemented layer most probably is inherited from groundwater to the ferric cement, whereas the Ce anomaly of the upper cemented layer is the result of preferential scavenging of Ce onto the Mn phases compared to other REE

  20. Sediment transport and fluid mud layer formation in the macro-tidal Chikugo river estuary during a fortnightly tidal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhikodan, Gubash; Yokoyama, Katsuhide

    2018-03-01

    The erosion and deposition dynamics of fine sediment in a highly turbid estuarine channel were successfully surveyed during the period from August 29 to September 12, 2009 using an echo sounder in combination with a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler. Field measurements were conducted focusing on the tide driven dynamics of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and fluid mud at the upstream of the macrotidal Chikugo river estuary during semidiurnal and fortnightly tidal cycles. Morphological evolution was observed especially during the spring tide over a period of two weeks. The elevation of the channel bed was stable during neap tide, but it underwent fluctuations when the spring tide occurred owing to the increase in the velocity and shear stress. Two days of time lag were observed between the maximum SSC and peak tidal flow, which resulted in the asymmetry between neap-to-spring and spring-to-neap transitions. During the spring tide, a hysteresis loop was observed between shear stress and SSC, and its direction was different during flood and ebb tides. Although both fine sediments and flocs were dominant during flood tides, only fine sediments were noticed during ebb tides. Hence, the net elevation change in the bed was positive, and sedimentation took place during the semilunar tidal cycle. Finally, a bed of consolidated mud was deposited on the initial bed, and the height of the channel bed increased by 0.9 m during the two-week period. The observed hysteretic effect between shear stress and SSC during the spring tides, and the asymmetrical neap-spring-neap tidal cycle influenced the near-bed sediment dynamics of the channel, and led to the formation of a fluid mud layer at the bottom of the river.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of electrolytes variation on formation of oxide layers of 6061 Al alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Bon-Heun KOO; Chan-Gyu LEE; Young-Joo KIM; Sung-Hun LEE; Eungsun BYON

    2009-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO) processes were carried out to produce ceramic layers on 6061 aluminum substrates in four kinds of electrolytes such as silicate and aluminate solution with and without sodium fluorosilicate. The PEO processes were carried out under a hybrid voltage (260 V DC combined with 200 V, 60 Hz AC amplitude) at room temperature for 5 min. The composition, microstructure and element distribution analyses of the PEO-treated layers were carried out by XRD and SEM & EDS. The effect of the electrolyte contents on the growth mechanism, element distribution and properties of oxide layers were studied. It is obvious that the layers generated in aluminate solutions show smoother surfaces than those in silicate solutions. Moreover, an addition of fluorine ion can effectively control the layer porosity; therefore, it can enhance the properties of the layers.

  3. Formation mechanism of Al-depleted bands in MOVPE-AlGaN layer on GaN template with trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ezaki, Tetsuya; Kurogi, Takuya [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A microstructure in an AlGaN/GaN layer was analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with special attention to the formation of steps on the surface. The AlGaN layer was grown by MOVPE on a GaN template with periodic trenches. It was revealed that there formed were Al-depleted bands in the AlGaN layer. These bands were generated from rather lower regions in the AlGaN layer or those above the trenches, and run upwards. Some of them reached the top surface to connect a macro step. The formation mechanism of the Al-depleted region is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. If the total bonding energy of atoms on the macro step of surface is assumed to be smaller than that of atoms on a flat surface, the Al-depletion can be explained provided that the local equilibrium in concentration is conserved during the growth of AlGaN layer. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. About the effect of melted zinc mass additives on the formation on layers during hot galvanizing; Zur Wirkung von Zusaetzen zur Zinkschmelze auf die Schichtbildung beim Feuerverzinken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, P.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of various melted zinc mass additives on the galvanizing behaviour of steels is examined by way of comparison. The mechanisms influencing the formation of layers are very different. In case tin is added, a material barrier of enriched tin develops in the zinc coating, which inhibits the iron transport. The mechanisms of Ni, Ti and Al in the melted zinc mass are explained by means of a new theory on the formation of layers, which is based on the influence of the growth of layers via hydrogen escaping from the steel surface during hot galvanizing. This behaviour makes it clear why the single melted mass additives only have a layer-thickness reducing effect on steels with very definite Si contents. The different inhibitions of the growth of the layer during hot galvanizing are discussed. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zinkschmelzezusaetze auf das Verzinkungsverhalten der Staehle wird vergleichend untersucht. Die Mechanismen der Einflussnahme auf die Schichtbildung sind sehr unterschiedlich. Bei Zusatz von Zinn entsteht im Zinkueberzug eine Materialbarriere aus angereichertem Zinn, die den Eisentransport hemmt. Die Wirkungsweise von Ni, Ti und Al in der Zinkschmelze wird mit Hilfe einer neuen Theorie der Schichtbildung erklaert. Diese beruht auf der Beeinflussung des Schichtwachstums durch Wasserstoff, der waehrend des Feuerverzinkens aus der Stahloberflaeche austritt. Diese Erklaerung macht verstaendlich, warum die einzelnen Schmelzezusaetze nur bei Staehlen mit ganz bestimmten Si-Gehalten schichtdickenreduzierend wirken. Die unterschiedlichen Hemmungen des Schichtwachstums beim Feuerverzinken werden diskutiert. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  6. Formation of thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in layered intrusion and frequent replenishment of fractionated mafic magma: Evidence from the Panzhihua intrusion, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Qi, Hua-Wen; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, Lie-Meng; Yu, Song-Yue; Zhang, Jia-Fei

    2013-03-01

    Panzhihua intrusion is one of the largest layered intrusions that hosts huge stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in the central part of the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Up to 60 m thick stratiform massive Fe-Ti oxide layers containing 85 modal% of magnetite and ilmenite and overlying magnetite gabbro compose cyclic units of the Lower Zone of the intrusion. The cyclic units of the Middle Zone consist of magnetite gabbro and overlying gabbro. In these cyclic units, contents of Fe2O3(t), TiO2 and Cr and Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio of the rocks decrease upward, Cr content of magnetite and forsterite percentage of olivine decrease as well. The Upper Zone consists of apatite gabbro characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements (e.g., 12-18 ppm La, 20-28 ppm Y) and increasing of Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio (from 1.3 to 2.3) upward. These features indicate that the Panzhihua intrusion was repeatedly recharged by more primitive magma and evolved magmas had been extracted. Calculations using MELTS indicate that extensive fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene in deep level resulted in increasing Fe and Ti contents in the magma. When these Fe-Ti-enriched magmas were emplaced along the base of the Panzhihua intrusion, Fe-Ti oxides became an early crystallization phase, leading to a residual magma of lower density. We propose that the unusually thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers resulted from coupling of gravity settling and sorting of the crystallized Fe-Ti oxides from Fe-Ti-enriched magmas and frequent magma replenishment along the floor of the magma chamber.

  7. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  8. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Formation of scandium nitride (ScN) layer on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate using a combined technique of e-beam evaporator and ammonia annealing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Shee Meng, Alvin; Zainal, Norzaini; Hassan, Zainuriah; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Forming ScN layer using electron e-beam evaporator with successive NH_3 annealing thermal has been successfully demonstrated. • NH_3 annealing played the role in changing the grain structure of the ScN layer. • The existence of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by XPS measurement. • The 900 °C annealed ScN layer showed the best structural and optical characteristics. • ScN layer annealed at 980 °C exhibited poor structural and optical characteristics. - Abstract: A demonstration on a new technique of growing ScN using electron beam (e-beam) evaporator, coupled with successive ammonia (NH_3) annealing treatment is presented in this paper. The annealing temperature was varied at 750, 800, 850, 900 and 980 °C in order to obtain the best ScN layer. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased, the surface morphology of the ScN layer changed and ScN grains formed abundantly on the surface. The best surface of ScN layer was found in the 900 °C annealed sample. However, the roughness of the ScN increased with temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the near-to-band-edge (NBE) of ScN was observable in all samples and its intensity was the highest in the 900 °C annealed sample. Note that when the annealing treatment was conducted at 980 °C, the GaN PL peak is observable. Raman peaks of TO(X) of ScN were much evident at the annealing temperature above 900 °C. The formation of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. In the end of this work, we propose that the formation of ScN using the above techniques was successful, with thermal annealing at the temperature of 900 °C.

  10. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  11. Contribution of natural analogues to the choice of constraints for the long term modelling. Formation, properties and aging of surficial gel layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The study of palagonite layers formed on basaltic glasses can help to built and develop models applicable to R7T7 glass. Sub-glacial hyaloclastites from Iceland with ages ranging from 2 ka to 2.2 Ma have been studied from a mineralogical and geochemical standpoint. It has been shown that the chemical composition of palagonite layers and intergranular clays is similar but changes with increasing reaction progress. As a consequence both palagonitic gel layers and clays minerals have not to be distinguished during modeling of basaltic glass alteration. The formation of well crystallized intergranular clay minerals results of the aging of the palagonitic poorly crystalline layers. During this evolution REE (rare earth elements) are loosed due to a decrease of the specific area of clayey particles. The comparison with the alteration layers formed on R7T7 glass is difficult, due to a relative lake of data concerning nuclear waste form glasses. In particular, the structural and chemical evolution of the gel layer with time is poorly documented. (author)

  12. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-10-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  13. Computer simulation for the formation of the insulator layer of silicon-on-insulator devices by N sup + and O sup + Co-implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Qing; Xie Xin Yun; Lin Chenglu; Liu Xiang Hua

    2002-01-01

    A buried sandwiched layer consisting of silicon dioxide (upper part), silicon oxynitride (medium part) and silicon nitride (lower part) is formed by N sup + and O sup + co-implantation in silicon wafers at a constant temperature of 550 degree C. The microstructure is performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. To predict the quality of the buried sandwiched layer, the authors study the computer simulation for the formation of the SIMON (separated by implantation of oxygen and nitrogen) structure. The simulation program for SIMOX (separated by implantation of oxygen) is improved in order to be applied in O sup + and N sup + co-implantation on the basis of different formation mechanism between SIMOX and SIMNI (separated by implantation of nitrogen) structures. There is a good agreement between experiment and simulation results verifying the theoretical model and presumption in the program

  14. A study of the formation of Cr-surface alloyed layer on structural alloy steel by Co2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Han, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve wear and erosion-resistances of a structural alloy steel (SNCM 8) during heat-cycling, chromium-alloyed layers were produced on the surface by irradiating Co 2 laser. Specimens were prepared either by electroplating of hard-chromium or coating of chromium powders on the steel followed by the laser treatment. Index values, which related the depth and the width of the alloyed layers to the scanning speed of laser, for both samples are experimentally measured. At a fixed scanning speed, while both samples resulted in a similar depth of the alloyed layers, the chromium powder coated specimen showed larger width of the alloyed layer than the chromium electroplated one. The hardness values of the alloyed layers in both samples were slightly lower than that of the martensitic region beneath the alloyed layers. But they are considerably higher than those of steel matrices. Regardless of the prior treatments before laser irradiation, distributions of chromium were fairly uniform throughout the alloyed layers. (Author)

  15. Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongchong; Xu, Lishuai; Mu, Guijin

    2018-02-01

    Yardangs are a type of wind-sculpted landform which generally form in hyper-arid regions. Several factors affect the development of yardangs, and the relative importance of these factors likely varies with differences in regional environmental factors. In the Loulan region of Lop Nur, wind dynamics are the principal factor affecting the development of yardangs. However, layered yardangs, which have undergone a unique form of differential erosion, are common in the region. These erosional landforms differ from typical yardangs which are eroded solely by abrasion and deflation. We conducted field and laboratory investigations of layered yardangs to determine their origin. The results indicate that there are two types of strata comprising the yardangs: uncompacted sand-silt layers, with a lower carbonate content; and compacted clay-silt layers, with a higher carbonate content. Both types of strata are horizontal and occur in alternating layers. This type of structure enables the wind to more easily erode the less resistant sand-silt layers at different heights, leaving the more resistant compacted clay-silt layers relatively intact. Eventually the undercut remnant clay-silt layers collapse once the weight of the suspended strata exceeds their elastic resistance (more than 90% of the fallen blocks have length/thickness ratios between 1.2 and 2.5). Therefore, in addition to wind dynamics, the lithology and structure of the strata are important factors affecting the development of the layered yardangs. This type of differential erosion accelerates the development of the yardangs in the Loulan region.

  16. Formation of layer-by-layer assembled titanate nanotubes filled coating on flexible polyurethane foam with improved flame retardant and smoke suppression properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haifeng; Wang, Wei; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2015-01-14

    A fire blocking coating made from chitosan, titanate nanotubes and alginate was deposited on a flexible polyurethane (FPU) foam surface by a layer-by-layer assembly technique in an effort to reduce its flammability. First, titanate nanotubes were prepared by a hydrothermal method. And then the coating growth was carried out by alternately submerging FPU foams into chitosan solution, titanate nanotubes suspension and alginate solution. The mass gain of coating on the surface of FPU foams showed dependency on the concentration of titanate nanotubes suspension and the trilayers's number. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that titanate nanotubes were distributed well on the entire surface of FPU foam and showed a randomly oriented and entangled network structure. The cone calorimeter result indicated that the coated FPU foams showed reduction in the peak heat release rate (peak HRR), peak smoke production rate (peak SPR), total smoke release (TSR) and peak carbon monoxide (CO) production compared with those of the control FPU foam. Especially for the FPU foam with only 5.65 wt % mass gain, great reduction in peak HRR (70.2%), peak SPR (62.8%), TSR (40.9%) and peak CO production (63.5%) could be observed. Such a significant improvement in flame retardancy and the smoke suppression property for FPU foam could be attributed to the protective effect of titanate nanotubes network structure formed, including insulating barrier effect and adsorption effect.

  17. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  18. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  19. Silver nanoparticle formation in thin oxide layer on silicon by silver-negative-ion implantation for Coulomb blockade at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arai, Nobutoshi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Ueno, Kazuya; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouichiro; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    Formation of silver nanoparticles formed by silver negative-ion implantation in a thin SiO 2 layer and its I-V characteristics were investigated for development single electron devices. In order to obtain effective Coulomb blockade phenomenon at room temperature, the isolated metal nanoparticles should be in very small size and be formed in a thin insulator layer such as gate oxide on the silicon substrate. Therefore, conditions of a fine particles size, high particle density and narrow distribution should be controlled at their formation without any electrical breakdown of the thin insulator layer. We have used a negative-ion implantation technique with an advantage of 'charge-up free' for insulators, with which no breakdown of thin oxide layer on Si was obtained. In the I-V characteristics with Au electrode, the current steps were observed with a voltage interval of about 0.12 V. From the step voltage the corresponded capacitance was calculated to be 0.7 aF. In one nanoparticle system, this value of capacitance could be given by a nanoparticle of about 3 nm in diameter. This consideration is consistent to the measured particle size in the cross-sectional TEM observation. Therefore, the observed I-V characteristics with steps are considered to be Coulomb staircase by the Ag nanoparticles

  20. Visible light activity of pulsed layer deposited BiVO{sub 4}/MnO{sub 2} films decorated with gold nanoparticles: The evidence for hydroxyl radicals formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzciński, Konrad, E-mail: trzcinskikonrad@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Szkoda, Mariusz [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Sawczak, Mirosław [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} photoactive layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition method. • Prepared layers can act as photoanodes for water splitting. • The thin BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} film can be used as photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation. • The formation of hydroxyl radicals during photocatalys illumination has been proved. • The dropcasted GNP improved significantly photocatalytic properties of tested layers. - Abstract: Thin films containing BiVO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} deposited on FTO and modified by Au nanoparticles were studied towards their photoelectrochemical and photocatalytical activities in an aqueous electrolyte. Electrodes were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The surfactant-free ablation process was used for preparation of the gold nanoparticles (GNP) water suspension. Obtained layers of varied thicknesses (27–115 nm) were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear voltammetry and chronoamperometry under visible light illumination and in the dark were applied to characterize layers as photoanodes. Simple modification of the BiVO{sub 4} + MnO{sub 2} layer by drop-casting of small amount of colloidal gold (1.5 × 10{sup −14} mol of GNP on 1 cm{sup 2}) leads to enhancement of the generated photocurrent recorded at E = 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl (0.1 M KCl) from 63 μA/cm{sup 2} to 280 μA/cm{sup 2}. Photocatalytical studies were also exploited towards decomposition of methylene blue (MB). A possible mechanism of MB photodegradation was proposed. The formation of hydroxyl radicals was detected by photoluminescence spectra using terephthalic acid as the probe molecule.

  1. Deep sequencing of ESTs from nacreous and prismatic layer producing tissues and a screen for novel shell formation-related genes in the pearl oyster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Kinoshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its economic importance, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying shell formation in pearl oysters, wherein the calcium carbonate crystals, nacre and prism, are formed in a highly controlled manner. We constructed comprehensive expressed gene profiles in the shell-forming tissues of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata and identified novel shell formation-related genes candidates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the GS FLX 454 system and constructed transcriptome data sets from pallial mantle and pearl sac, which form the nacreous layer, and from the mantle edge, which forms the prismatic layer in P. fucata. We sequenced 260477 reads and obtained 29682 unique sequences. We also screened novel nacreous and prismatic gene candidates by a combined analysis of sequence and expression data sets, and identified various genes encoding lectin, protease, protease inhibitors, lysine-rich matrix protein, and secreting calcium-binding proteins. We also examined the expression of known nacreous and prismatic genes in our EST library and identified novel isoforms with tissue-specific expressions. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed EST data sets from the nacre- and prism-producing tissues in P. fucata and found 29682 unique sequences containing novel gene candidates for nacreous and prismatic layer formation. This is the first report of deep sequencing of ESTs in the shell-forming tissues of P. fucata and our data provide a powerful tool for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of molluscan biomineralization.

  2. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: Delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 2 (2011), s. 532-539 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058; GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : layered zinc hydroxide * delamination * exfoliation * hydroxide layer * ZnO Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2011

  3. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  4. Formation of zeolite-like zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonate open-frameworks by topotactic pillaring of anionic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takamatsu, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Miki; Kawawa, Kanako; Kondo, Atsushi

    2013-08-07

    An ab initio powder X-ray crystal structure analysis revealed that layered zinc 1,3,5-benzenetriphosphonates containing interlayer tetramethylammonium (ZBP-TMA) or 4,4'-bipyridinium cations (ZBP-bpy) are transformed to novel isomorphous 3D open-framework compounds ZBP-M (M: K, Rb, and Cs) by treatment in aqueous alkali metal chloride solutions. ZBP-Ms have a pillared layer-type of anionic framework containing 2D zigzag channels connected with cage-like spaces. The potassium atoms in ZBP-K are located near 8MR windows in the 2D zigzag channels, and the potassium cations are successfully exchanged with ammonium cations retaining the open-framework structure. The ammonium form (ZBP-NH4) showed remarkable cation exchange selectivity for Rb(+) and Cs(+) in a mixture of alkali metal cations. It is assumed that zinc ions partially dissolved from the starting layered ZBP precursors are intercalated in ZBP layers to form pillared layered 3D open-frameworks. These results clearly show that topotactic pillared layer approaches are applicable not only to zeolite-related materials but also to novel open-framework metal organophosphonates.

  5. Contributions of the wall boundary layer to the formation of the counter-rotating vortex pair in transverse jets

    KAUST Repository

    SCHLEGEL, FABRICE

    2011-04-08

    Using high-resolution 3-D vortex simulations, this study seeks a mechanistic understanding of vorticity dynamics in transverse jets at a finite Reynolds number. A full no-slip boundary condition, rigorously formulated in terms of vorticity generation along the channel wall, captures unsteady interactions between the wall boundary layer and the jet - in particular, the separation of the wall boundary layer and its transport into the interior. For comparison, we also implement a reduced boundary condition that suppresses the separation of the wall boundary layer away from the jet nozzle. By contrasting results obtained with these two boundary conditions, we characterize near-field vortical structures formed as the wall boundary layer separates on the backside of the jet. Using various Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, it is demonstrated that several near-wall vortical structures are formed as the wall boundary layer separates. The counter-rotating vortex pair, manifested by the presence of vortices aligned with the jet trajectory, is initiated closer to the jet exit. Moreover tornado-like wall-normal vortices originate from the separation of spanwise vorticity in the wall boundary layer at the side of the jet and from the entrainment of streamwise wall vortices in the recirculation zone on the lee side. These tornado-like vortices are absent in the case where separation is suppressed. Tornado-like vortices merge with counter-rotating vorticity originating in the jet shear layer, significantly increasing wall-normal circulation and causing deeper jet penetration into the crossflow stream. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  7. Structural and technological formation of surface nanostructured Ti-Ni-Mo layers by high-speed gas-flame spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blednova Zhesfina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a complex method of forming surface-modified layers using materials with shape memory effect (SME based on TiNiMo including pre-grinding and mechanical activation of the coating material, high-speed gas-flame spraying of Ni adhesive layer and subsequent TiNiMo spraying with molybdenum content up to 2%, thermal and thermomechanical processing in a single technological cycle. This allowed forming nanostructured surface layers with a high level of functional mechanical and performance properties. We defined control parameters of surface steel modification using material with shape memory effect based on TiNiMo, which monitor the structural material state, both at the stage of spraying, and during subsequent combined treatment, which allows affecting purposefully on the functional properties of the SME surface layer. Test results of samples before coating and after surface modification with TiNiMo in the seawater indicate that surface modification brings to a slower damage accumulation and to increase of steel J91171 endurance limit in seawater by 45%. Based on complex metallophysical research of surface layers we obtained new data about nano-sized composition “steel - Ni - TiNiMo”.

  8. The Gothic shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation Greater Aneth Field (Aneth Unit) Southeastern Utah U.S.A.: Seal for Hydrocarbons and Carbon Dioxide Storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chidsey, Thomas C. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Carney, Stephanie M. [Utah Geoglogical Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bereskin, S. R. [Bereskin and Associates, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Greater Aneth oil field, Utah’s largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 483 million barrels of oil. Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. Because Greater Aneth is a mature, major oil field in the western U.S., and has a large carbonate reservoir, it was selected to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage. The Aneth Unit in the northwestern part of the field has produced over 160 million barrels of the estimated 386 million barrels of original oil in place—a 42% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil made the Aneth Unit ideal to enhance oil recovery by carbon dioxide flooding and demonstrate carbon dioxide storage capacity.

  9. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  10. Picosecond kinetics of the electron-hole layers formation in wide-bandgap II-VI type-II heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, E.V.; Zaitsev, S.V.; Tartakovskii, I.I.; Maksimov, A.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D.R. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Experimentelle Physik II, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Considerable slowdown of luminescence kinetics of the direct optical transition was discovered in ZnSe/BeTe type-II heterostructures under high levels of optical pumping. The effect is attributed to forming of a potential barrier for holes in the ZnSe layer due to band bending at high densities of spatially separated carriers. That results in a longer time of the photoexcited holes energy relaxation to their ground state in the BeTe layer. The decrease of overlapping of electron and hole wavefunctions in the ZnSe layer in thick ZnSe/BeTe structures at high levels of optical excitation reveals an additional important effect, that leads to sufficient retardation of radiative recombination time for photoexcited carriers (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Zr-based conversion layer on Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets: insights into the formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lostak, Thomas; Maljusch, Artjom; Klink, Björn; Krebs, Stefan; Kimpel, Matthias; Flock, Jörg; Schulz, Stephan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Zr-based conversion layers are considered as environmentally friendly alternatives replacing trication phosphatation in the automotive industry. Based on excellent electronic barrier properties they provide an effective corrosion protection of the metallic substrate. In this work, thin protective layers were grown on novel Zn-Al-Mg alloy coated steel sheets by increasing the local pH-value at the sample surface leading to deposition of a Zr-based conversion layer. For this purpose Zn-Al-Mg alloy (ZM) coated steel sheets were treated in an aqueous model conversion solution containing well-defined amounts of hexafluorozirconic acid (H 2 ZrF 6 ) and characterized after different immersion times with SKPFM and field emission SEM (FE-SEM)/EDX techniques. A deposition mechanism of Zr-based conversion coatings on microstructural heterogeneous Zn-Al-Mg alloy surfaces was proposed

  12. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenaers, A., E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK• CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% {sup 235}U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL–matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium–Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)–matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  13. Fuel swelling and interaction layer formation in the SELENIUM Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates irradiated at high power in BR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

    2015-03-01

    In the framework of the SELENIUM project two full size flat fuel plates were produced with respectively Si and ZrN coated U(Mo) particles and irradiated in the BR2 reactor at SCK•CEN. Non-destructive analysis of the plates showed that the fuel swelling profiles of both SELENIUM plates were very similar to each other and none of the plates showed signs of pillowing or excessive swelling at the end of irradiation at the highest power position (local maximum 70% 235U). The microstructural analysis showed that the Si coated fuel has less interaction phase formation at low burn-up but at the highest burn-ups, defects start to develop on the IL-matrix interface. The ZrN coated fuel, shows a virtual absence of reaction between the U(Mo) and the Al, up to high fission densities after which the interaction layer formation starts and defects develop in the matrix near the U(Mo) particles. It was found and is confirmed by the SELENIUM (Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum) experiment that there are two phenomena at play that need to be controlled: the formation of an interaction layer and swelling of the fuel. As the interaction layer formation occurs at the U(Mo)-matrix interface, applying a diffusion barrier (coating) at that interface should prevent the interaction between U(Mo) and the matrix. The U(Mo) swelling, observed to proceed at an accelerating rate with respect to fission density accumulation, is governed by linear solid state swelling and fission gas bubble swelling due to recrystallization of the fuel. The examination of the SELENIUM fuel plates clearly show that for the U(Mo) dispersion fuel to be qualified, the swelling rate at high burn-up needs to be reduced.

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan

    2011-12-15

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results for very thin films, the shrinkage during the film manufacture typically prevents the build-up of sufficiently thick layers to enable optimum solar cell operation. Here, a study on the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination is presented. The in-situ investigation of the shrinkage process enables the establishment of a simple and fast protocol for the fabrication of thicker films. When used as photoanodes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, the mesoporous networks exhibit significantly enhanced transport and collection rates compared to the state-of-the-art nanoparticle-based devices. As a consequence of the increased film thickness, power conversion efficiencies above 4% are reached. Fabrication of sufficiently thick mesoporous TiO 2 photoelectrodes with morphology control on the 10 nm length scale is essential for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSC). This study of the temporal evolution of block-copolymer-directed mesoporous TiO 2 films during annealing and calcination enables the build-up of sufficiently thick films for high-performance ssDSC devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an el...

  18. On the formation of dense understory layers in forests worldwide: consequences and implications for forest dynamics, biodiversity, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2006-01-01

    The mechanistic basis underpinning forest succession is the gap-phase paradigm in which overstory disturbance interacts with seedling and sapling shade tolerance to determine successional trajectories. The theory, and ensuing simulation models, typically assume that understory plants have little impact on the advance regeneration layer's composition. We challenge...

  19. Formation of scandium nitride (ScN) layer on gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate using a combined technique of e-beam evaporator and ammonia annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong Shee Meng, Alvin [Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia); Zainal, Norzaini, E-mail: norzaini@usm.my [Nano Optoelectronics Research and Laboratory, Universiti Sains Malaysia, sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900, Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Zainuriah; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi [Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), sains@usm, Persiaran Bukit Jambul, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Forming ScN layer using electron e-beam evaporator with successive NH{sub 3} annealing thermal has been successfully demonstrated. • NH{sub 3} annealing played the role in changing the grain structure of the ScN layer. • The existence of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by XPS measurement. • The 900 °C annealed ScN layer showed the best structural and optical characteristics. • ScN layer annealed at 980 °C exhibited poor structural and optical characteristics. - Abstract: A demonstration on a new technique of growing ScN using electron beam (e-beam) evaporator, coupled with successive ammonia (NH{sub 3}) annealing treatment is presented in this paper. The annealing temperature was varied at 750, 800, 850, 900 and 980 °C in order to obtain the best ScN layer. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased, the surface morphology of the ScN layer changed and ScN grains formed abundantly on the surface. The best surface of ScN layer was found in the 900 °C annealed sample. However, the roughness of the ScN increased with temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the near-to-band-edge (NBE) of ScN was observable in all samples and its intensity was the highest in the 900 °C annealed sample. Note that when the annealing treatment was conducted at 980 °C, the GaN PL peak is observable. Raman peaks of TO(X) of ScN were much evident at the annealing temperature above 900 °C. The formation of Sc−N bonds was confirmed by X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. In the end of this work, we propose that the formation of ScN using the above techniques was successful, with thermal annealing at the temperature of 900 °C.

  20. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  1. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  2. Formation and investigation of multilayer nanostructured coatings TiN/MoN for different layers thicknesses with c-pvd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Bondar, O.V.; Postol'nyj, B.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Abadias, G.; Beresnev, V.M.; Sobol', O.B.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings based on TiN/MoN were obtained using the vacuum arc evaporation cathode method (C-PVD). Multilayers thickness was in the range 6,7 ÷ 8,7 μm and monolayers thickness was 2, 10, 20 and 40 nm. Vacuum-arc unit Bulat 6 was used for depositions. For the analysis of multilayer structures and properties of nanostructured coatings XRD analysis method was used (D8 ADVANCE, Bruker). For elemental composition and morphology investigation of the surface layers and multilayered coatings SEM (JEOL-7001F) with EDX attachment was used. Also HRTEM method was used to analyze the phase composition. In addition, this article provides investigation of hardness by Micro-Hardness Tester CSM (Switzerland). AFM was used for additional analysis of the topography and surface roughness of these coatings. This investigation have revealed the relationship between the layers thicknesses, substrate potential, the annealing process, physical and mechanical properties of samples. (authors)

  3. On the mechanical stress of Zr, Zry, and other materials due to the formation of oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.

    1977-06-01

    Several mechanisms are indicated which during oxidation of sheets, tubes, and cylinders of pure metals and alloys might lead to plastic deformation of the remaining uncorroded cross section. Some experimental methods are described which allow evaluation of stresses occurring in oxide layers. The main reason for the creep deformation of flat and tubular specimens made of Zr and Zr alloys lies in the stresses that arise from volume increase due to the growth of oxide layers. Plastic deformations of the sheet metal specimens can be up to 100% and are anisotropic. In tubular specimens the changes in geometry (axial, radial) are much smaller in the course of oxidation and attain 2% at the maximum for Zr- or Zry-tubes and go up to 10% for Ta-tubes when no differential pressure is applied simultaneously. (orig.) [de

  4. Formation of BaSi2 heterojunction solar cells using transparent MoOx hole transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W.; Takabe, R.; Baba, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Hara, K. O.; Toko, K.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Heterojunction solar cells that consist of 15 nm thick molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x < 3) as a hole transport layer and 600 nm thick unpassivated or passivated n-BaSi2 layers were demonstrated. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics were observed when the surface of BaSi2 was exposed to air. When the exposure time was decreased to 1 min, an open circuit voltage of 200 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 were obtained under AM1.5 illumination. The photocurrent density under a reverse bias voltage of -1 V reached 25 mA/cm2, which demonstrates the significant potential of BaSi2 for solar cell applications.

  5. Analysis of physical layer performance of data center with optical wavelength switches based on advanced modulation formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz

    2018-05-01

    In this paper the IRIS (Integrated Router Interconnected spectrally), an optical domain architecture for datacenter network is analyzed. The IRIS integrated with advanced modulation formats (M-QAM) and coherent optical receiver is analyzed. The channel impairments are compensated using the DSP algorithms following the coherent receiver. The proposed scheme allows N2 multiplexed wavelengths for N×N size. The performance of the N×N-IRIS switch with and without wavelength conversion is analyzed for different Baud rates over M-QAM modulation formats. The performance of the system is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) vs OSNR curves.

  6. Electrochemical studies of iron/carbonates system applied to the formation of thin layers of siderite on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithurbide, A.; Peulon, S.; Mandin, Ph.; Beaucaire, C.; Chausse, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the complex mechanisms of the reactions occurring, a methodology is developed. It is based on the use of compounds electrodeposited under the form of thin layers and which are used then as electrodes to study their interactions with the toxic species. It is in this framework that is studied the electrodeposition of siderite on inert substrates. At first, have been studied iron electrochemical systems in carbonated solutions. These studies have been carried out with classical electrochemical methods (cyclic voltametry, amperometry) coupled to in-situ measurements: quartz microbalance, pH. Different compounds have been obtained under the form of homogeneous and adherent thin layers. The analyses of these depositions, by different ex-situ characterizations (XRD, IR, SEM, EDS..) have revealed particularly the presence of siderite. Then, the influence of several experimental parameters (substrate, potential, medium composition, temperature) on the characteristics of siderite thin layers has been studied. From these experimental results, models have been proposed. (O.M.)

  7. Overturn of magma ocean ilmenite cumulate layer: Implications for lunar magmatic evolution and formation of a lunar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P. C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    We explore a model for the chemical evolution of the lunar interior that explains the origin and evolution of lunar magmatism and possibly the existence of a lunar core. A magma ocean formed during accretion differentiates into the anorthositic crust and chemically stratified cumulate mantle. The cumulative mantle is gravitationally unstable with dense ilmenite cumulate layers overlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates with Fe/Mg that decreases with depth. The dense ilmenite layer sinks to the center of the moon forming the core. The remainder of the gravitationally unstable cumulate pile also overturns. Any remaining primitive lunar mantle rises to its level of neutral buoyancy in the cumulate pile. Perhaps melting of primitive lunar mantle due to this decompression results in early lunar Mg-rich magmatism. Because of its high concentration of incompatible heat producing elements, the ilmenite core heats the overlying orthopyroxene-bearing cumulates. As a conductively thickening thermal boundary layer becomes unstable, the resulting mantle plumes rise, decompress, and partially melt to generate the mare basalts. This model explains both the timing and chemical characteristics of lunar magmatism.

  8. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  9. SF{sub 6} decomposition and layer formation due to excimer laser photoablation of SiO{sub 2} surface at gas-solid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajad, Batool [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parvin, Parviz [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bassam, Mohamad Amin [Excimer Laser Lab, Emam Hussain University, PO Box 16575-4347, Tehrann (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-21

    In this work, the effect of an excimer laser has been studied for presenting a method for SF{sub 6} decomposition and simultaneous formation of a SiF{sub 2} layer on amorphous SiO{sub 2}. Though the excimer laser did not establish a gas phase photodissociation, we have shown that UV photoablation leads strongly to molecular decomposition in the SF{sub 6}-SiO{sub 2} system. Moreover, the dependence of the decomposition process on the exposure parameters such as the wavelength and intensity as well as the gas pressure and the focal point distance from the gas-solid interface has been investigated.

  10. The influence of solder mask and hygroscopic flux residues on water layer formation on PCBA surface and corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    was described in terms of their varying hygroscopicity defined by chemical structure and test temperature. The climatic testing of two acids was performed under relative humidity (RH) conditions varying from 30% to ~99% at 25˚C and 40˚C using gravimetric water vapour sorption/desorption and electrochemical...... impedance methods. The corrosivity of WOAs was evaluated via leakage current measurements using surface insulation resistance (SIR) comb patterns. The corrosion studies were correlated with the hygroscopicity studies. The results show that the water layer formation depends on the PCBA surface topography...

  11. Study in electron microscopy of the formation of the hybrid layer using adhesive systems One Coat and Experimental (EXL 759), at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria Guzman, S. Marcela; Guevara Lopez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The formation of the hybrid layer is observed in dental pieces in vitro, utilizing conventional adhesives systems and of self etching with different times of acid etching, by applying of electron microscopy. Samples of dental pieces are prepared utilizing conventional adhesive systems as Single Bond 2 of 3M, One Coat of Coltene and the adhesive self etching Experimental (EXL 759) of 3M. Samples of dental pieces collected have been molars recently extracted and later stored in jars with water. Samples prepared with the adhesive systems are observed in the electron microscope to obtain images of the hybrid layers formed. The hybrid layers formed are compared observing the photographs of the images obtained in the electron microscope. The adhesive system that has allowed the formation of a hybrid layer more convenient is determined. The time of acid etching is determined and has interfered in the formation of a hybrid layer more stable [es

  12. In-situ confined formation of NiFe layered double hydroxide quantum dots in expanded graphite for active electrocatalytic oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinxue; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanfang; Liu, Qingyun; Quan, Zhenlan; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-06-01

    Development of noble-metal-free catalysts towards highly efficient electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical but challenging in the renewable energy area. Herein, we firstly embed NiFe LDHs quantum dots (QDs) into expanded graphite (NiFe LDHs/EG) via in-situ confined formation process. The interlayer spacing of EG layers acts as nanoreactors for spatially confined formation of NiFe LDHs QDs. The QDs supply huge catalytic sites for OER. The in-situ decoration endows the strong affinity between QDs with EG, thus inducing fast charge transfer. Based on the aforementioned benefits, the designed catalyst exhibits outstanding OER properties, in terms of small overpotential (220 mV required to generate 10 mA cm-2), low Tafel slope, and good durable stability, making it a promising candidate for inexpensive OER catalyst.

  13. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  15. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  16. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  17. The Key Enzyme of the Sialic Acid Metabolism Is Involved in Embryoid Body Formation and Expression of Marker Genes of Germ Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Thate

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The bi-functional enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE is the key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis. Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon amino sugars and are found on most glycoproteins and many glycolipids in terminal positions, where they are involved in a variety of biological important molecular interactions. Inactivation of the GNE by homologous recombination results in early embryonic lethality in mice. Here, we report that GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells express less differentiation markers compared to wild-type embryonic stem cells. As a result, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells fail to form proper embryoid bodies (EB within the first day of culture. However, when culturing these cells in the presence of sialic acids for three days, also GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells form normal EBs. In contrast, when culturing these cells in sialic acid reduced medium, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells proliferate faster and form larger EBs without any change in the expression of markers of the germ layers.

  18. FST-formation of cryogenic layer inside spherical shells of HiPER-class. Results of mathematical modeling and mock-ups testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belolipetskiy, A.A.; Lalinina, E.A.; Panina, L.V.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Current stage in the IFE research has passed to a closing stage: creation of the experimental reactor and realization of electric power generation. HiPER is a proposed European High Power laser Energy Research facility dedicated to demonstrating the feasibility of laser driven fusion for IFE reactor. The HiPER facility operation requires the formation and delivery of spherical shock ignition cryogenic targets with a rate of several Hz. The targets must be free-standing, or un-mounted. At the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets which refers to as FST layering method. It allows one to form cryogenic targets with a required rate. In this report, we present the results of a feasibility study on high rep-rate formation of HiPER-class targets by FST. We consider two types of the baseline target for shock ignition. The first one (BT-2) is a 2.094-mm diameter compact polymer shell with a 3 μm thick wall. The solid layer thickness is 211 μm. The second (BT-2a) consists of a 2.046-mm diameter compact polymer shell (3 μm thick also) having a DT-filled CH foam (70 μm) on its inner surface, and then a 120 μm thick solid layer of pure DT. The work addresses the physical concept, and the modeling results of the major stages of FST technologies for different shell materials: Filling stage optimization (computation): optimal filling of a target batch up to ∼ 1000 atm at 300 K requires minimizing the diffusion fill time due to using the ramp filling method for both BT-2 and BT-2a; Depressurization stage optimization (computation and experiments): it requires providing the shell container leak proofness during the process of its cooling down to a depressurization temperature. This allows one to fulfill the technical requirements on the risks minimization associated with the damage of the HiPER-class targets

  19. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  20. Surface cleaning and adsorbate layer formation: Dual role of alkylamines in the formation of self-assembled monolayers on cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.E.; Murray, W.R.; Kershan, K.; Diaz, V.; Tran, L.; McDevitt, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of monolayer adsorption chemistry for superconductor surfaces is particularly important for a number of practical and fundamental reasons. As high-T c superconductors begin to approach the marketplace in areas of communications, power industries, medical applications, and scientific instrumentation, the development of new soft chemistry approaches for the surface modification of these technologically relevant electronic materials becomes increasingly important. Monolayer adsorption chemistry has been developed extensively for electronic materials such as metals, semiconductors, and insulators. These methodologies have been expanded recently to include a variety of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). The authors describe a series of new X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point conductivity, critical current, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), grazing angle infrared spectroscopy, and GE--MS experiments, which lead the suggestion that an entirely different mechanism is involved in the formation of HTSC-localized monolayers. According to the new model, the amine reagents serve two chemically distinct roles. In the initial phase, the degraded superconductor exteriors is etched away with the help of the amine compounds. The etching process proceeds to the point where fresh YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is exposed, and only at this point do the amines adsorb and remain at the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 surface. As the adsorption process continues, there is an accumulation of an organized monolayer at the surface, which prevents further etching of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 material

  1. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  3. XPS and STEM study of the interface formation between ultra-thin Ru and Ir OER catalyst layers and perylene red support whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasoska Ljiljana L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interface formation between nano-structured perylene red (PR whiskers and oxygen evolution reaction (OER catalysts ruthenium and iridium has been studied systematically by XPS and STEM. The OER catalyst over-layers with thicknesses ranging from ~0.1 to ~50 nm were vapor deposited onto PR ex-situ. STEM images demonstrate that, with increasing thickness, Ru and Ir transform from amorphous clusters to crystalline nanoparticles, which agglomerate with increased over-layer thickness. XPS data show a strong interaction between Ru and PR. Ir also interacts with PR although not to the extent seen for Ru. At low coverages, the entire Ru deposit is in the reacted state while a small portion of the deposited Ir remains metallic. Ru and Ir bonding occur at the PR carbonyl sites as evidenced by the attenuation of carbonyl photoemission and the emergence of new peak assigned to C-O single bond. The curve fitting analysis and the derived stoichiometry indicates the formation of metallo-organic bonds. The co-existence of oxide bonds is also apparent.

  4. Multi-layer porous fiber-reinforced composites for implants: in vitro calcium phosphate formation in the presence of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Sara; Zhang, Di; Moritz, Niko; Vallittu, Pekka K; Hupa, Leena

    2012-11-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), based on bifunctional methacrylate resin, have recently shown their potential for use as durable cranioplasty, orthopedic and oral implants. In this study we suggest a multi-component sandwich implant structure with (i) outer layers out of porous FRC, which interface the cortical bone, and (ii) inner layers encompassing bioactive glass granules, which interface with the cancellous bone. The capability of Bioglass(®) 45S5 granules (100-250μm) to induce calcium phosphate formation on the surface of the FRC was explored by immersing the porous FRC-Bioglass laminates in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 28d. In both static (agitated) and dynamic conditions, bioactive glass granules induced precipitation of calcium phosphate at the laminate surfaces as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The proposed dynamic flow system is useful for the in vitro simulation of bone-like apatite formation on various new porous implant designs containing bioactive glass and implant material degradation. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective Duration of Gas Nitriding Process on AISI 316L for the Formation of a Desired Thickness of Surface Nitrided Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassan R. S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas nitriding performed on AISI 316L at the temperature of 1200°C. The microstructure of treated AISI 316L samples were observed to identify the formation of the microstructure of nitrided surface layer. The grain size of austenite tends to be enlarged when the nitriding time increases, but the austenite single phase structure is maintained even after the long-time solution nitriding. Using microhardness testing, the hardness values drop to the center of the samples. The increase in surface hardness is due to the high nitrogen concentration at or near the surface. At 245HV, the graph of the effective duration of nitriding process was plotted to achieve the maximum depth of nitrogen diffuse under the surface. Using Sigma Plot software best fit lines of the experimental result found and plotted to find out effective duration of nitriding equation as Y=1.9491(1-0.7947x, where Y is the thickness of nitrided layer below the surface and X is duration of nitriding process. Based on this equation, the duration of gas nitriding process can be estimated to produce desired thickness of nitrided layer.

  6. Low-temperature interface reactions in layered Au/Sb films: In situ investigation of the formation of an amorphous phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, H.-G.; Cossy-Favre, A.; Oelhafen, P.; Siber, A.; Ziemann, P.; Lauinger, C.; Moser, T.; Häussler, P.; Baumann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron-spectroscopy methods combined with electrical-resistance measurements were employed to study the effects of intermixing at Au/Sb interfaces at low temperatures. For the purpose of characterizing the growth processes of the intermixed phase on a ML scale, Au/Sb bilayers (layer thicknesses DAu=0.5-75 ML and DSb=150 ML) were evaporated at 77 K and the different in situ techniques allowed a comparison to vapor-quenched amorphous AuxSb100-x alloys. For Au thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.9 ML, a change from a semiconducting to a metallic behavior of the samples has been detected, as indicated by the development of a steplike photoelectron intensity at the Fermi level. Evidence has been found that for Au coverages quenched amorphous alloys. Variation of the deposition temperature Ts revealed that an amorphous interface layer is only formed for Ts<= 220 K. This is consistent with the fact that for multilayers with large modulation lengths containing unreacted polycrystalline Au and Sb layers, long-range interdiffusion is found to set in at temperatures above 230 K. This interdiffusion, however, results in the formation of polycrystalline Au-Sb alloys.

  7. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  8. Formation of InAs/GaAs quantum dots from a subcritical InAs wetting layer: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Z.; Usuki, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Sasakura, H.; Muto, S.

    2006-01-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) are formed by postgrowth annealing of an InAs wetting layer thinner than the critical thickness for the transition from two- (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) growth mode. Reflection high energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the QD formation. Based on a mean-field theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 897 (1997)], the time evolution of total QD's volume, first increasing and finally saturating, is well explained by precursors forming during wetting layer growth and converting into nucleated QD's after growth stop. Both the saturation QD's volume and the QD nucleation rate depend exponentially on the InAs coverage. These behaviors and their temperature and InAs growth rate dependences are essentially understandable in the frame of the mean-field theory. Similar analysis to conventional QD growth suggests that the often observed significant mass transport from wetting layer to QD's can be ascribed to the precursors existing before 2D-3D growth mode transition

  9. Spectral evidence for inherent 'dead layer' formation at La1-ySryFeO3 /La1-xSrxMnO3 heterointerface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, R.; Chikamatsu, A.; Kumigashira, H.; Oshima, M.; Nakagawa, N.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.; Ono, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Koinuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have investigated the electronic structure of a La 0.6 Sr 0.4 FeO 3 (LSFO)/La 0.6 Sr 0.4 MnO 3 (LSMO) heterointerface using Mn 2p-3d resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The strong enhancement of Mn 3d partial density of states (PDOS) at Mn 2p-3d threshold enables us to extract true Mn 3d PDOS of LSMO layers in the vicinity of interface with the LSFO overlayer. The LSFO / LSMO multilayers have been successfully grown on single-crystal (001) SrTiO 3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. Figure 1 shows the Mn 2p-3d resonant spectra near the Fermi level (E F ) of LSMO layers. We clearly found that the spectral intensity of e g states near E F is gradually reduced with increasing the LSFO overlayer thickness and finally saturated at 5-7 ML. In the inset, we plotted the spectral intensity of e g states of Mn 3d as a function of the LSFO overlayer thickness. These results indicate the formation of the charge transfer layer with the decay length of about 2 ML at the heterointerface

  10. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine mediated particle formation in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5·H2O. In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH. On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the

  11. Optimizing the dual elemental thermal reactive deposition time in carbide layer formation on SUJ2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochtar, Myrna Ariati; Putra, Wahyuaji Narottama; Mahardika, Bayu

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents developments contributing to the improvement of thermo-reactive deposition (TRD) process in producing hard carbide layers, on automotive components application. The problem in using FeV powder as a coating material that has been applied in the industries is it is high cost. In this study, FeCr powder coating material was mixed into FeV powder with a ratio of 35:65 weight percent. The SUJ2 steel pins components are processed at 980° C, with varying TRD time was 4,6,8 and 10 hours. Scanning Electron microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were applied to analyze the coating layers. The thickness of the carbide layer formed will increase with the longer processing time, which thickness at 4-10 hours is increase from 22.7 to 29.7 micron. The gained thickness tends to be homogeneous. Increasing the TRD process holding time results in a higher hardness of the carbide layerwith hardness at 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours is 2049, 2184, 2175 and 2343 HV. The wear rate at TRD holding time of 4-10 hours with the Ogoshi method was reduced from 5.1 × 10-4 mm3/m to 2.5 × 10-4 mm3/m. Optical microscope observations shows that substrate phases consisting of pearlite and cementite and grains that tend to enlarge with the addition of time. Carbide compounds that are formed are vanadium carbide (V8C7, V6C5, V2C) and chromium carbide (Cr3C2, Cr23C7, Cr3C7). While EDS-Linescan results show complex phase (Fe, V, Cr) xC formed. The research shows that addition of FeCr into FeV powder in TRD process in 980°C with optimum time of 10 hours processing meet the mechanical properties requirement of automotive components.

  12. Controlling the formation of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Wen Hui

    2011-08-01

    The initiation and development of wrinkles in a single layer graphene sheet subjected to in-plane shear displacements are investigated. The dependence of the wavelength and amplitude of wrinkles on the applied shear displacements is explicitly obtained with molecular mechanics simulations. A continuum model is developed for the characteristics of the wrinkles which show that the wrinkle wavelength decreases with an increase in shear loading, while the amplitude of the wrinkles is found to initially increase and then become stable. The propagation and growth process of the wrinkles in the sheet is elucidated. It is expected that the research could promote applications of graphenes in the transportation of biological systems, separation science, and the development of the fluidic electronics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  14. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  15. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  16. Influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of masking layers on the electrochemical etching of silicon for single trench formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G; Ventura, L; Jerisian, R

    2005-01-01

    Deep single trenches can be produced at the edge of apertures of protective films masking the surface of silicon samples. This macropore formation, from polarized HF based solutions, is electrically activated depending on the mask geometrical and physical parameters whatever the silicon type or the electrolyte composition. The mask thickness increase is known to induce deeper trenches. In this paper, we show that we can predict and localize this phenomenon by simulating two dimensional hole current distributions below the mask. We demonstrate also the influence of the material permittivity on trench depth. These 2D simulation results are correlated with experimental results

  17. Parametric Study of Solder Flux Hygroscopicity: Impact of Weak Organic Acids on Water Layer Formation and Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Ud Din, Rameez; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2018-01-01

    °C, 40°C, and 60°C. Water absorption levels were determined using the gravimetric method, and the influence on reliability was assessed using electrochemical impedance and leak current measurements performed on the surface insulation resistance comb patterns. The corrosion studies were correlated...... the critical RH level for water vapour absorption towards lower RH range, accelerating the formation of a conductive electrolyte and the occurrence of ion transport-induced electrochemical migration. The overall ranking of flux activators with the increasing order of aggressivity is: palmitic

  18. Influences of the Saharan Air Layer on the Formation and Intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003): Analysis of AIRS data and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Braun, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past two decades, little advance has been made in prediction of tropical cyclone intensity while substantial improvements have been made in forecasting hurricane tracks. One reason is that we don't well understand the physical processes that govern tropical cyclone intensity. Recent studies have suggested that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) may be yet another piece of the puzzle in advancing our understanding of tropical cyclone intensity change in the Atlantic basin. The SAL is an elevated mixed layer, forming as air moves across the vast Sahara Desert, in particular during boreal summer months. The SAL contains warm, dry air as well as a substantial amount of mineral dust, which can affect radiative heating and modify cloud processes. Using the retrieved temperature and humidity profiles from the AIRS suite on the NASA Aqua satellite, the SAL and its influences on the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel (2003) are analyzed and simulated with MM5. When the warmth and dryness of the SAL (the thermodynamic effect) is considered by relaxing the model thermodynamic state to the AIRS profiles, MM5 can well simulate the large-scale flow patterns and the activity of Hurricane Isabel in terms of the timing and location of formation and the subsequent track. Compared with the experiment without nudging the AIRS data, it is suggested that the simulated SAL effect may delay the formation and intensification of Hurricane Isabel. This case study generally confirms the argument by Dunion and Velden (2004) that the SAL can suppress Atlantic tropical cyclone activity by increasing the vertical wind shear, reducing the mean relative humidity, and stabilizing the environment at lower levels.

  19. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Koerdt, Andrea; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH) domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA. This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T).

  20. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Janesch

    Full Text Available Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB.Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA.This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T.

  1. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  2. Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe Roscoff coastal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the measurements made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France throughout September 2006. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially exposed by the receding waterline. Ultrafine particle concentrations strongly correlate with the rapidly recycled reactive iodine species, IO, produced at high concentrations following photolysis of I2. The heterogeneous macroalgal I2 sources lead to variable relative concentrations of iodine species observed by path-integrated and in situ measurement techniques.

    Apparent particle emission fluxes were associated with an enhanced apparent depositional flux of ozone, consistent with both a direct O3 deposition to macroalgae and involvement of O3 in iodine photochemistry and subsequent particle formation below the measurement height. The magnitude of the particle formation events was observed to be greatest at the lowest tides with the highest concentrations of ultrafine particles growing to the largest sizes, probably by the condensation of anthropogenically-formed condensable material. At such sizes the particles should be able to act as cloud condensation nuclei at reasonable atmospheric supersaturations.

  3. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  5. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  6. The part of the solar spectrum with the highest influence on the formation of SOA in the continental boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between nucleation events and spectral solar irradiance was analysed using two years of data collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. We analysed the data in two different ways. In the first step we calculated ten nanometer average values from the irradiance measurements between 280 and 580 nm and explored if any special wavelengths groups showed higher values on event days compared to a spectral reference curve for all the days for 2 years or to reference curves for every month. The results indicated that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 340 nm is higher on event days in winter (February and March compared to the monthly reference graph but quantitative much smaller than in spring or summer. By building the ratio between the average values of different event classes and the yearly reference graph we obtained peaks between 1.17 and 1.6 in the short wavelength range (300--340 nm. In the next step we included number concentrations of particles between 3 and 10 nm and calculated correlation coefficients between the different wavelengths groups and the particles. The results were quite similar to those obtained previously; the highest correlation coefficients were reached for the spectral irradiance groups 3--5 (300--330 nm with average values for the single event classes around 0.6 and a nearly linear decrease towards higher wavelengths groups by 30%. Both analyses indicate quite clearly that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 330 or 340 nm is the most important solar spectral radiation for the formation of newly formed aerosols. In the end we introduce a photochemical mechanism as one possible pathway how short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of SOA by calculating the production rate of excited oxygen. This mechanism shows in which way short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of new particles even though the

  7. Formation of pyroxenite layers in the Totalp ultramafic massif (Swiss Alps) - Insights from highly siderophile elements and Os isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Acken, David; Becker, Harry; Walker, Richard J.; McDonough, William F.; Wombacher, Frank; Ash, Richard D.; Piccoli, Phil M.

    2010-01-01

    Pyroxenitic layers are a minor constituent of ultramafic mantle massifs, but are considered important for basalt generation and mantle refertilization. Mafic spinel websterite and garnet-spinel clinopyroxenite layers within Jurassic ocean floor peridotites from the Totalp ultramafic massif (eastern Swiss Alps) were analyzed for their highly siderophile element (HSE) and Os isotope composition. Aluminum-poor pyroxenites (websterites) display chondritic to suprachondritic initial γOs (160 Ma) of -2 to +27. Osmium, Ir and Ru abundances are depleted in websterites relative to the associated peridotites and to mantle lherzolites worldwide, but relative abundances (Os/Ir, Ru/Ir) are similar. Conversely, Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir are elevated. Aluminum-rich pyroxenites (clinopyroxenites) are characterized by highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os with initial γOs (160 Ma) between +20 and +1700. Their HSE composition is similar to that of basalts, as they are more depleted in Os, Ir and Ru compared to Totalp websterites, along with even higher Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir and Re/Ir. The data are most consistent with multiple episodes of reaction of mafic pyroxenite precursor melts with surrounding peridotites, with the highest degree of interaction recorded in the websterites, which typically occur in direct contact to peridotites. Clinopyroxenites, in contrast, represent melt-dominated systems, which retained the precursor melt characteristics to a large extent. The melts may have been derived from a sublithospheric mantle source with high Pd/Ir, Pt/Ir and Re/Os, coupled with highly radiogenic 187Os/ 188Os compositions. Modeling indicates that partial melting of subducted, old oceanic crust in the asthenosphere could be a possible source for such melts. Pentlandite and godlevskite are identified in both types of pyroxenites as the predominant sulfide minerals and HSE carriers. Heterogeneous HSE abundances within these sulfide grains likely reflect subsolidus processes. In contrast, large grain

  8. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  9. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  10. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  11. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} irradiated with swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachurin, G. A., E-mail: kachurin@isp.nsc.ru; Cherkova, S. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Skuratov, V. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    Thermally grown SiO{sub 2} layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3-10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. It is found that, even after a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO{sub 2} proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8-9 nm.

  12. Formation of light-emitting nanostructures in layers of stoichiometric SiO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachurin, G. A.; Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Volodin, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally grown SiO 2 layers have been irradiated with 700-MeV Bi ions with doses of (3–10) × 10 12 cm −2 . It is found that, even after a dose of 3 × 10 12 cm −2 , a photoluminescence band in the region of 600 nm appears. Its intensity levels off at a dose of ∼5 × 10 12 cm −2 . The nature of the emission centers is studied by the methods of infrared transmission, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and the reaction to passivating low-temperature anneals. It is established that irradiation brings about a decrease in the number of Si-O bonds with a relevant increase in the Si-Si bonds. It is assumed that the photoluminescence is caused by nanostructures containing an excess Si and/or having a deficit of O. The reaction of reduction of SiO 2 proceeds in ion tracks due to high levels of ionization and heating within these tracks. The dose dependence is used to estimate the diameter of a track at 8–9 nm.

  13. A novel strategy for high-stability lithium sulfur batteries by in situ formation of polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liming; Li, Gaoran; Liu, Binhong; Li, Zhoupeng; Zheng, Junsheng; Zheng, Jim P.

    2017-07-01

    Lithium sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries are one of the most promising energy storage devices owing to their high energy and power density. However, the shuttle effect as a key barrier hinders its practical application by resulting in low coulombic efficiency and poor cycling performance. Herein, a novel design of in situ formed polysulfide adsorptive-blocking layer (PAL) on the cathode surface was developed to tame the polysulfide shuttling and promote the cycling stability for Lisbnd S batteries. The PAL is consisted of La2S3, which is capable to chemically adsorb polysulfide via the strong interaction of Lasbnd S bond and Ssbnd S bond, and build an effective barrier against sulfur escaping. Moreover, the La2S3 is capable to suppress the crystallization of Li2S and promote the ion transfer, which contributes to the reduced internal resistance of batteries. Furthermore, the by-product LiNO3 simultaneously forms a stable anode solid and electrolyte interface to further inhibit the polysulfide shuttle. By this simple and convenient method, the resultant Lisbnd S batteries achieved exceptional cycling stability with an ultralow decay rate of 0.055% since the 10th cycle.

  14. Influence of Different Defects in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on TiO2 Nanoparticle Formation through Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acauan, Luiz; Dias, Anna C; Pereira, Marcelo B; Horowitz, Flavio; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2016-06-29

    The chemical inertness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) requires some degree of "defect engineering" for controlled deposition of metal oxides through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The type, quantity, and distribution of such defects rules the deposition rate and defines the growth behavior. In this work, we employed ALD to grow titanium oxide (TiO2) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT). The effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen plasma pretreatment of the CNT on the morphology and total amount of TiO2 were systematically studied using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route were identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The TiO2 mass fraction deposited with the same number of cycles for the pristine CNT, nitrogen-doped CNT, and plasma-treated CNT were 8, 47, and 80%, respectively. We demonstrate that TiO2 nucleation is dependent mainly on surface incorporation of heteroatoms and their distribution rather than structural defects that govern the growth behavior. Therefore, selecting the best way to functionalize CNT will allow us to tailor TiO2 distribution and hence fabricate complex heterostructures.

  15. The impact of porosity on the formation of manganese based copper diffusion barrier layers on low-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, A P; Bogan, J; Walsh, L; Byrne, C; O’Connor, R; Hughes, G; Woicik, J C

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the impact of porosity in low-κ dielectric materials on the chemical and structural properties of deposited Mn thin films for copper diffusion barrier layer applications. X-ray photoelectron spectrscopy (XPS) results highlight the difficulty in distinguishing between the various Mn oxidation states which form at the interlayer dielectric (ILD)/Mn interface. The presence of MnSiO 3 and MnO were identified using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on both porous and non-porous dielectric materials with evidence of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 in the deposited film on the latter surface. It is shown that a higher proportion of deposited Mn converts to Mn silicate on an ILD film which has 50% porosity compared with the same dielectric material with no porosity, which is attributed to an enhanced chemical interaction with the effective larger surface area of porous dielectric materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data shows that the Mn overlayer remains predominately surface localised on both porous and non-porous materials. (paper)

  16. Geochemical prerequisites of petroleum-gas formation in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary layer of the world's oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotsyuk, V Ya

    1979-05-01

    A summarization is given of the latest material on the geochemistry of trace organic matter of Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of the world's oceans, obtained as a result of deep-sea drilling. Trace organic matter was found to be present in the sedimentary layers of the ocean outskirts in amounts near that found in the continental stratosphere, but that content was five times less in the interior region of the oceans. The trace organic matter of deposits in the marginal region of the oceans was found to have a significant petroleum-gas matrix potential with respect to the level of content and composition characteristics. The distribution of organic carbon was found to be uneven in variously aged horizons of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The maximum content of organic carbon was noted in the Neogene-Quaternary and lower Cretaceous deposits. An elevated content of trace organic matter was found to be characteristic of the oceanic stratisphere in lithological mixed sediments: terrigenous-carbonate and terrigenous-silicons was 1.5 times greater than the trace organic matter in clays. Fundamental geochemical propagation laws were formulated, possibly for petroleum-gas-bearing sediment basins under the ocean bottom and beyond the shelf. 18 references, 3 figures.

  17. Compositional effects on the formation of a calcium phosphate layer and the response of osteoblast-like cells on polymer-bioactive glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Tang, Amy; Oh, Seong Cheol; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Dionisio, Kathie

    2005-11-01

    Biodegradable polymer-ceramic composites are attractive systems for bone tissue engineering applications. These composites have the combined advantages of the component phases, as well as the inherent ease in optimization where desired material properties can be tailored in a well-controlled manner. This study focuses on the optimization of a polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) composite for bone tissue engineering. The first objective is to examine the effects of composition or overall BG content on the formation of a Ca-P layer on the PLAGA-BG composite. It is expected that with increasing BG content (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% by weight), the required incubation time in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for the composite to form a detectable surface Ca-P layer will decrease. Both the kinetics and the chemistry will be determined using SEM+EDAX, FTIR, and mu-CT methods. Solution phosphorous and calcium concentrations will also be measured. The second objective of the study is to determine the effects of BG content on the maturation of osteoblast-like cells on the PLAGA-BG composite. It is hypothesized that mineralization will increase with increasing BG content, and the composite will support the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Specifically, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization will be monitored as a function of BG content (0%, 10%, 50% by weight) and culturing time. It was found that the kinetics of Ca-P layer formation and the resulting Ca-P chemistry were dependent on BG content. The response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite was also a function of BG content. The 10% and 25% BG composite supported greater osteoblast growth and differentiation compared to the 50% BG group. The results of this study suggest that there is a threshold BG content which is optimal for osteoblast growth, and the interactions between PLAGA and BG may modulate the kinetics of Ca-P formation and the