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Sample records for hydrocarbon inhibitor system

  1. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Benjamin J. [Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Rojas, Itzel Y. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Murray, Iain A. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Seokwon; Hazlett, Haley F. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Perdew, Gary H. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tomlinson, Craig R., E-mail: Craig.R.Tomlinson@Dartmouth.edu [Department of Molecular and Systems Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands. Using mouse and human cell-based luciferase gene reporter assays, qPCR confirmation experiments, and CYP1A1 enzyme activity assays, we report that some of the promising clinical IDO1 inhibitors also act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), best known for its roles in xenobiotic metabolism and as another key regulator of the immune response. The dual role as IDO antagonist and AHR agonist for many of these IDO target drugs should be considered for full interrogation of their biological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. - Highlights: • Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors are in cancer clinical trials. • Some IDO1 inhibitors also potently activate AHR signaling. • The dual role of the IDO1 inhibitors may explain some past paradoxical findings. • AHR induction studies must be included in assessing clinical suitability.

  2. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Benjamin J.; Rojas, Itzel Y.; Murray, Iain A.; Lee, Seokwon; Hazlett, Haley F.; Perdew, Gary H.; Tomlinson, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands. Using mouse and human cell-based luciferase gene reporter assays, qPCR confirmation experiments, and CYP1A1 enzyme activity assays, we report that some of the promising clinical IDO1 inhibitors also act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), best known for its roles in xenobiotic metabolism and as another key regulator of the immune response. The dual role as IDO antagonist and AHR agonist for many of these IDO target drugs should be considered for full interrogation of their biological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. - Highlights: • Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors are in cancer clinical trials. • Some IDO1 inhibitors also potently activate AHR signaling. • The dual role of the IDO1 inhibitors may explain some past paradoxical findings. • AHR induction studies must be included in assessing clinical suitability.

  3. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  4. Identification of Inhibitors in Lignocellulosic Slurries and Determination of Their Effect on Hydrocarbon-Producing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify inhibitors in pretreated lignocellulosic slurries, evaluate high-throughput screening strategies, and investigate the impact of inhibitors on potential hydrocarbon-producing microorganisms. Compounds present in slurries that could inhibit microbial growth were identified through a detailed analysis of saccharified slurries by applying a combination of approaches of high-performance liquid chromatography, GC-MS, LC-DAD-MS, and ICP-MS. Several high-throughput assays were then evaluated to generate toxicity profiles. Our results demonstrated that Bioscreen C was useful for analyzing bacterial toxicity but not for yeast. AlamarBlue reduction assay can be a useful high-throughput assay for both bacterial and yeast strains as long as medium components do not interfere with fluorescence measurements. In addition, this work identified two major inhibitors (furfural and ammonium acetate for three potential hydrocarbon-producing bacterial species that include Escherichia coli, Cupriavidus necator, and Rhodococcus opacus PD630, which are also the primary inhibitors for ethanologens. This study was strived to establish a pipeline to quantify inhibitory compounds in biomass slurries and high-throughput approaches to investigate the effect of inhibitors on microbial biocatalysts, which can be applied for various biomass slurries or hydrolyzates generated through different pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis processes or different microbial candidates.

  5. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  6. Microstructural analysis of metal solution interfacial films in the multiphase brine CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S hydrocarbon inhibitor system; Analise microestrutural de filmes na interface metal-solucao no sistema multifasico salmoura Co{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S hidrocarboneto inibidor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, Adriana; Yesid Pena, Dario [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Bott, Ivani de S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    2005-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the formation of different films obtained at the metal - solution interface in a multiphase Brine - CO{sub /}H{sub 2}S Hydrocarbon - Inhibitor - Steel AISI SAE 1020 system. Tests were carried out on loss of mass test pieces in a static autoclave, for exposure times of 21 days. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (IAS), X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) techniques, were used for the analysis of the products of corrosion and the inhibitor films formed. The results obtained for XRD indicate the formation hydrous oxide of iron, Siderite, Magnetite, and in some cases chloride crystals and iron sulphates. The results obtained by SEM, show that the thin films of the inhibitor and corrosion products have irregular surfaces, are porous, fragile and have little adhesion to the metal. Additionally the generation of primary films of carbonate of iron saturated with carbon and oxide of iron was confirmed and also the formation of secondary carbonates of iron due to recrystallization of the of iron carbonate. (author)

  7. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  8. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  9. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  10. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another

  11. Interactive physically-based structural modeling of hydrocarbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Mael; Grudinin, Sergei; Bouju, Xavier; Redon, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbon systems have been intensively studied via numerical methods, including electronic structure computations, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Typically, these methods require an initial structural model (atomic positions and types, topology, etc.) that may be produced using scripts and/or modeling tools. For many systems, however, these building methods may be ineffective, as the user may have to specify the positions of numerous atoms while maintaining structural plausibility. In this paper, we present an interactive physically-based modeling tool to construct structural models of hydrocarbon systems. As the user edits the geometry of the system, atomic positions are also influenced by the Brenner potential, a well-known bond-order reactive potential. In order to be able to interactively edit systems containing numerous atoms, we introduce a new adaptive simulation algorithm, as well as a novel algorithm to incrementally update the forces and the total potential energy based on the list of updated relative atomic positions. The computational cost of the adaptive simulation algorithm depends on user-defined error thresholds, and our potential update algorithm depends linearly with the number of updated bonds. This allows us to enable efficient physically-based editing, since the computational cost is decoupled from the number of atoms in the system. We show that our approach may be used to effectively build realistic models of hydrocarbon structures that would be difficult or impossible to produce using other tools.

  12. Generalised Multiplicative Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzenoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulli, V. R.; Stone, Branden; Wang, Shaohui; Wei, Bing

    2017-05-01

    Many types of topological indices such as degree-based topological indices, distance-based topological indices, and counting-related topological indices are explored during past recent years. Among degree-based topological indices, Zagreb indices are the oldest one and studied well. In the paper, we define a generalised multiplicative version of these indices and compute exact formulas for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and jagged-rectangle Benzenoid systems.

  13. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  14. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  15. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  16. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts that hydrocarbons will remain the primary energy source to satisfy the surging energy demands in the near future. The three topics described in detail in this document aim to link microbiology with geotechnical engineering and the petroleum industry. Microorganisms have the potential to exploit residual hydrocarbons in depleted reservoirs in a technique known as microbial enhanced oil recovery, MEOR. The potential of biosurfactants was analyzed in detail with a literature review. Biosurfactant production is the most accepted MEOR technique, and has been successfully implemented in over 700 field cases. Temperature is the main limiting factor for these techniques. The dissolution of carbonates by microorganisms was investigated experimentally. We designed a simple, economical, and robust procedure to monitor diffusion through porous media. This technique determined the diffusion coefficient of H+ in 1.5% agar, 1.122 x 10-5 cm2 sec-1, by using bromothymol blue as a pH indicator and image processing. This robust technique allows for manipulation of the composition of the agar to identify the effect of specific compounds on diffusion. The Red Sea consists of multiple seeps; the nearby sediments are telltales of deeper hydrocarbon systems. Microbial communities associated with the sediments function as in-situ sensors that provide information about the presence of carbon sources, metabolites, and the remediation potential. Sediments seeps in the Red Sea revealed different levels of bioactivity. The more active seeps, from the southern site in the Red Sea, indicated larger pore sizes, higher levels of carbon, and bioactivity with both bacteria and archaeal species present.

  17. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  18. Identification of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors in bovine plasma as fatty acids and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, D M; Yanuck, M D; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    A preparative purification of endogenous inhibitors of the Na+/K+-ATPase has been carried out from bovine blood. Dried plasma was deproteinized, hexane-extracted and desalted, followed by further purification through a series of reverse-phase HPLC fractionations. Fractions active in inhibiting Na...... ouabain, and in addition it enhanced ouabain binding at high dilutions. These properties are indicative of nonspecific interactions with the Na+/K+-ATPase. The active fraction was identified by TLC, HPLC, NMR, GLC and GC-MS, to be a mixture of three unesterified fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (72...

  19. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  20. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...

  1. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2018-04-03

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  2. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-09-26

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuels and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  3. Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JM, and the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study Investigators. Validation of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay modifications to allow inhibitor ... webinars on blood disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Replacement inhibitors for tank farm cooling coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to their age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromate water to leak into the environment. When the leaks spill 10 lbs. or more of sodium chromate over a 24-hr period, the leak incidents are classified as Unusual Occurrences (UO) per CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act). The cost of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills prompted High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to initiate a study to investigate alternative tank cooling water inhibitor systems and the associated cost of replacement. Several inhibitor systems were investigated as potential alternatives to sodium chromate. All would have a lesser regulatory impact, if a spill occurred. However, the conversion cost is estimated to be $8.5 million over a period of 8 to 12 months to convert all 5 cooling systems. Although each of the alternative inhibitors examined is effective in preventing corrosion, there is no inhibitor identified that is as effective as chromate. Assuming 3 major leaks a year (the average over the past several years), the cost of maintaining the existing inhibitor was estimated at $0.5 million per year. Since there is no economic or regulatory incentive to replace the sodium chromate with an alternate inhibitor, HLWE recommends that sodium chromate continue to be used as the inhibitor for the waste tank cooling systems

  5. Green inhibitors. Rare Earth based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Perez, J.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Marcos, M.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanum, Cerium and Samarium chlorides have been investigated as uniform and pitting corrosion inhibitors of AISI 434 and AISI 304 stainless steels and AA 5083 Al-Mg alloy in 3.5% Na Cl aerated aqueous solutions. Their inhibitor power was evaluated by using electrochemical techniques such as Linear and Cyclic Polarisation. In each case, the highest protection degree was found in the solution dropped with 500 ppm of CeCl 3 . Similar results were obtained for additions of 500 ppm of LaCl 3 . Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy allowed us to confirm the cathodic nature of the inhibition process. (Author) 27 refs

  6. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  7. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  8. Stability of hydrocarbon systems at thermobaric conditions corresponding to depth down to 50 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcherov, V.; Kolesnikov, A.; Mukhina, E.; Serovaiskii, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the theoretical models show that crude oil stability is limited by the depth of 6-8 km (`oil window'). Commercial discovery of crude oil deposits on the depth more than 10 km in the different petroleum basins worldwide casts doubt on the validity of the above-mentioned theoretical calculations. Therefore, the question at which depth complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable is important not only from fundamental research point of view but has a great practical application. To answer this question a hydrocarbon mixture was investigated under thermobaric conditions corresponding to the conditions of the Earth's lower crust. Experiments were conducted by means of Raman Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the complex hydrocarbon systems could be stable and remain their qualitative and quantitative composition at temperature 320-450 °C and pressure 0.7-1.4 GPa. The oxidizing resistance of hydrocarbon system was tested in the modelled the Earth's crust surrounding. The hydrocarbon system stability at the presence of Fe2O3 strongly confirms that the Earth's crust oxygen fugacity does not influence on petroleum composition. The data obtained broaden our knowledge about the possible range of depths for crude oil and natural gas deposits in the Earth's crust and give us the possibility to revise the depth of petroleum deposits occurrence.

  9. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre [Rijswijk, NL; Schoeling, Lanny Gene [Katy, TX

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  11. Development of a System for the Analysis of Hydrocarbons Different to the Methane in Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Harrison, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    In the air there are more than 3000 organic compounds produced by the natural emissions and anthropoid-genetics. Many of these organic compounds are saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons; the volcanoes and the plants emit some, while others are emitted for the industrial processes and for the mobile sources. The hydrocarbons play a very important role in the Atmospheric Chemistry, since they take place through their oxidation a series of substances that affect the living beings, they sensitize the human being, producing him illnesses and they contribute to alter the climate of the planet. A sampling method by adsorption about cartridges that contained Tenax, Carbopack B, and molecular sieve, and a system for the analysis of hydrocarbons in the air for thermal desertion and cryogenic concentration was developed with the purpose of identifying and quantifying the hydrocarbons different to the methane present in the winds that travel San Jose Central Valley, Costa Rica. The effect of the ozone in these determinations was studied by taking samples with destroyer of ozone made with iodize of potassium and comparing them with samples taken without the destroyer. The samples were taken simultaneously between April 20 and 29 1999 in 3 sampling stations located in the northwest side of the Volcano Irazu, in Escazu and in Turrucares. There were eleven hydrocarbons being among the most abundant anthropoid-genetics the isooctane (among 34 y 149 μg/m 3 ) and etilbenceno while (among 13 y 231 μg/m 3 ), while the one α-pineno (among 25 y 153 μg/m 3 ), β-pineno (among 60 y 192 μg/m 3 ) y el limoneno (among 34 y 244 μg/m 3 ). It was also found that the ozone didn't affect the concentrations of the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the cartridges, since there were not significant differences in the concentrations of the measured hydrocarbons when the destroyer of ozone was used. (Author) [es

  12. Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems with pure hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbon and retardant for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for the recovery of engine waste heat. Systems with hydrocarbons as the working fluids exhibit good thermal performance. However, the flammability of hydrocarbons limits their practical applications because of safety concerns. This paper examines the potential of using mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant in an ORC system for engine waste heat recovery. Refrigerants R141b and R11 are selected as the retardants and blended with the hydrocarbons to form zeotropic mixtures. The flammability is suppressed, and in addition, zeotropic mixtures provide better temperature matches with the heat source and sink, which reduces the exergy loss within the heat exchange processes, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC systems with pure hydrocarbons and with mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant are conducted and compared. The net power output and the second law efficiency are chosen as the evaluation criteria to select the suitable working fluid compositions and to define the optimal set of thermodynamic parameters. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system with cyclohexane/R141b (0.5/0.5) is optimal for this engine waste heat recovery case, thereby increasing the net power output of the system by 13.3% compared to pure cyclohexane. - Highlights: • ORC with zeotropic mixtures for engine waste heat recovery is discussed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC system are conducted. • Optimal mixture working fluid composition is identified. • Greater utilization of jacket water and lower irreversible loss are important.

  13. A system for transportation of hydrocarbons at sea; System for transport av hydrokarboner til havs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, K.; Smedal, A.

    1997-04-01

    To exploit the offshore oil and gas fields economically it is important to use suitable methods and equipment for transporting the oil and gas to the landing sites. The present invention concerns a system for transportation of hydrocarbons to the landing sites. It consists of one or more loading buoys and a number of preferably conventional tankers and at least one offshore loading ship arranged to receive hydrocarbons from the loading buoy to which it is connected by means of a coupling device in the ship`s bow. The tankers have in their sterns arrangements to convey the fluid through flexible tubes from complementary arrangements in the bow of the loading ship. The loading ship and the tanker have a position reference system for mutual dynamical positioning. The entire operation of connecting the tubes and transferring the fluid flow takes place with both ships moving, at least at steerage way. The invention aims to provide efficient use of the expensive special ships that are needed to communicate with the loading buoys. Another aim is to reduce the need for expensive specialized equipment onboard both the loading ships and the tankers. 5 figs.

  14. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  15. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  16. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  17. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  18. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data.......Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon-water...... mixtures on the basis of the SRK equation of state. With this model, it is unnecessary to solve the time-consuming density-profile equations of the gradient-theory model. In addition, a correlation was developed for representing the effect of electrolytes on the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon...

  19. Estimation of free-hydrocarbon recovery from dual-pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Free-product hydrocarbon which floats on the water table may be recovered using single-pump and dual-pump systems. The factors that affect the long-term free-product recovery using dual-pump systems include the free-product thickness as measured in monitoring wells, the ground-water pumping rate, hydrocarbon density and viscosity, and the soil permeability. This paper presents a simple model for prediction of free-product recovery using dual-pump systems. The model predicts the long-term rather than short-term recovery rates, and lends itself to spreadsheet calculations on microcomputers. A particularly simple form arises for cases where the drawdown is small. An application for estimating recovery from a dual-pump system is presented, and limitations of the model are summarized

  20. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  1. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  2. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  3. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Using microbial bioelectrochemical systems to overcome an impasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Maria; Trably, Eric; Bernet, Nicolas; Patureau, Dominique

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hardly biodegradable carcinogenic organic compounds. Bioremediation is a commonly used method for treating PAH contaminated environments such as soils, sediment, water bodies and wastewater. However, bioremediation has various drawbacks including the low abundance, diversity and activity of indigenous hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, their slow growth rates and especially a limited bioavailability of PAHs in the aqueous phase. Addition of nutrients, electron acceptors or co-substrates to enhance indigenous microbial activity is costly and added chemicals often diffuse away from the target compound, thus pointing out an impasse for the bioremediation of PAHs. A promising solution is the adoption of bioelectrochemical systems. They guarantee a permanent electron supply and withdrawal for microorganisms, thereby circumventing the traditional shortcomings of bioremediation. These systems combine biological treatment with electrochemical oxidation/reduction by supplying an anode and a cathode that serve as an electron exchange facility for the biocatalyst. Here, recent achievements in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal using bioelectrochemical systems have been reviewed. This also concerns PAH precursors: total petroleum hydrocarbons and diesel. Removal performances of PAH biodegradation in bioelectrochemical systems are discussed, focussing on configurational parameters such as anode and cathode designs as well as environmental parameters like porosity, salinity, adsorption and conductivity of soil and sediment that affect PAH biodegradation in BESs. The still scarcely available information on microbiological aspects of bioelectrochemical PAH removal is summarised here. This comprehensive review offers a better understanding of the parameters that affect the removal of PAHs within bioelectrochemical systems. In addition, future experimental setups are proposed in order to study syntrophic relationships between PAH

  4. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H.; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m 2 . The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures

  5. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  6. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  7. Phase behaviour in water/hydrocarbon mixtures involved in gas production systems; etude des equilibres des systemes: eau-hydrocarbures-gaz acides dans le cadre de la production de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapoy, A.

    2004-11-15

    Inside wells, natural gases frequently coexist with water. The gases are in equilibrium with the sub-adjacent aquifer. Many problems are associated with the presence of water during the production, transport and processing of natural gases. Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the water/hydrocarbon and water-inhibitor/hydrocarbon equilibria near the hydrate forming conditions, at sub-sea pipeline conditions and during the transport is crucial for the petroleum industry. An apparatus based on a static/analytic method combined with a dilutor apparatus to calibrate on the gas chromatograph (GC) detectors with water was used to measure the water content of binary systems (i.e.: water - methane, ethane - water, nitrogen - water...) as well of a synthetic hydrocarbon gas mixture (i.e.: 94% methane, 4% ethane and 2% n-butane) with and without inhibitor. This same apparatus was also used generate data of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and nitrogen solubility in water and also the solubilities of a synthetic mixture in water. In-house software has been developed in order to fit and model the experimental data. (author)

  8. Dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in dispersant-seawater-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work examined effects of model oil dispersants on dispersion, sorption and photodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in simulated marine systems. Three dispersants (Corexit 9500A, Corexit 9527A and SPC 1000) were used to prepare dispersed water accommodated oil (DWAO). While higher doses of dispersants dispersed more n-alkanes and PAHs, Corexit 9500A preferentially dispersed C11-C20 n-alkanes, whereas Corexit 9527A was more favorable for smaller alkanes (C10-C16), and SPC 1000 for C12-C28 n-alkanes. Sorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on sediment was proportional to TPH types/fractions in the DWAOs. Addition of 18mg/L of Corexit 9500A increased sediment uptake of 2-3 ring PAHs, while higher dispersant doses reduced the uptake, due to micelle-enhanced solubilization effects. Both dispersed n-alkanes and PAHs were susceptible to photodegradation under simulated sunlight. For PAHs, both photodegradation and photo-facilitated alkylation were concurrently taking place. The information can facilitate sounder assessment of fate and distribution of dispersed oil hydrocarbons in marine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Countercurrent soil washing system for remediation of viscous hydrocarbons, heavy metals, radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, M.I.; Karlsson, M.K.; Downie, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Drying augers and multicell DAF tanks are excellent machines in which to countercurrently wash soil and remove hazardous hydrocarbons, metals or radionuclides. An auger works well because it preferentially moves soil along one side of its trough. Thus, when enough high pressure and temperature water jets are placed along that path, contaminants can be melted, or dissolved and scoured from the soil. Contaminants and fines flow down the opposite side of the auger and out for extraction in a series of flotation tanks. Countercurrent washing of the silt results when soil settles in tanks through rising water and air bubbles then is pumped through cyclones placed above the next DAF tank of the series. LNAPLs, DNAPLs, or metallic contaminants made hydrophobic by chemicals in the system are removed at the overflow of the cyclones or by flotation in the tanks. The overflow from the cyclones and DAF tanks flows into the previous tank of the series. Examples of contaminants remediated include; arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), uranium, solid oils, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote and coal tars, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons

  10. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  11. Application of magnetic techniques to lateral hydrocarbon migration - Lower Tertiary reservoir systems, UK North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, S. A.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Fraser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments show that magnetic minerals can be produced inorganically during oil formation in the `oil-kitchen'. Here we try to identify a magnetic proxy that can be used to trace hydrocarbon migration pathways by determining the morphology, abundance, mineralogy and size of the magnetic minerals present in reservoirs. We address this by examining the Tay formation in the Western Central Graben in the North Sea. The Tertiary sandstones are undeformed and laterally continuous in the form of an east-west trending channel, facilitating long distance updip migration of oil and gas to the west. We have collected 179 samples from 20 oil-stained wells and 15 samples from three dry wells from the British Geological Survey Core Repository. Samples were selected based on geological observations (water-wet sandstone, oil-stained sandstone, siltstones and shale). The magnetic properties of the samples were determined using room-temperature measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), low-temperature (0-300K) measurements on a Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and high-temperature (300-973K) measurements on a Kappabridge susceptibility meter. We identified magnetite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and siderite in the samples. An increasing presence of ferrimagnetic iron sulphides is noticed along the known hydrocarbon migration pathway. Our initial results suggest mineralogy coupled with changes in grain size are possible proxies for hydrocarbon migration.

  12. Control technologies for soil vapor extraction at petroleum hydrocarbon impacted sites -- Regulatory challenges to system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacossa, K.F.; Campbell, G.E.; Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently used to remediate soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons. Four technologies have proven to be viable methods to control the off-gas emissions from SVE systems, namely, internal combustion, thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption. The optimal range of influent vapor concentrations for system operation differs for each of the technologies. Over the past several years the authors have worked proactively with the state regulatory community to develop general, all inclusive air pollution control permits which allow for the potential use of all four technologies over the life of the permit. Private industry has similarly worked with the state regulators to develop a less labor intensive sampling/monitoring procedure. Actual system performances, which were monitored using summa canisters and field equipment, provided the basis for the new procedure. System performance data indicated that field sampling with portable hydrocarbon analyzers, such as flame ionization detectors (FID), was preferable over the use of summa canister sampling. In addition, to reduce the costs associated with the analysis of samples, the new SVE monitoring protocol also reduced the number of system monitoring visits. These reductions equated into a cost effective, yet environmentally sound SVE system monitoring programs. Finally, the authors have worked with the regulatory community to establish permit limitations which allow operational flexibility

  13. Methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbjakina, A. V.; Dolotovskij, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon (RH) processing plants. Modern RH processing facilities are the major consumers of energy resources (ER) for their own needs. To reduce ER, including fuel consumption, and to develop rational fuel system structure are complex and relevant scientific tasks that can only be done using system analysis and complex system synthesis. In accordance with the principles of system analysis, the hierarchical structure of the fuel system, the block scheme for the synthesis of the most efficient alternative of the fuel system using mathematical models and the set of performance criteria have been developed on the main stages of the study. The results from the introduction of specific engineering solutions to develop their own energy supply sources for RH processing facilities have been provided.

  14. Thermoeconomic Optimization of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Mixed Carbon Dioxide and Hydrocarbons at Low Temperature Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many applications and industrial processes require very low cooling temperature, such as cold storage in the biomedical field, requiring temperature below -80 °C. However,single-cycle refrigeration systems can only achieve the effective cooling temperature of -40 °C and, also, the performance of the cycle will decrease drastically for cooling temperatures lower than -35°C. Currently, most of cascade refrigeration systems use refrigerants that have ozone depletion potential (ODP and global warming potential (GWP, therefore, in this study, a cascade system is simulated using a mixture of environmentally friendly refrigerants, namely, carbon dioxide and a hydrocarbon (propane, ethane or ethylene as the refrigerant of the low temperature circuit. A thermodynamic analysis is performed to determine the optimal composition of the mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons in the scope of certain operating parameters. In addition, an economic analysis was also performed to determine the annual cost to be incurred from the cascade refrigeration system. The multi-objective/thermoeconomic optimization points out optimal operating parameter values of the system, to addressing both exergy efficiency and its relation to the costs to be incurred.

  15. Isotope reversals in hydrocarbon gases of natural shale systems and well head production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Schloemer, S.; Stiller, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Marquardt, D. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Relationships between gas geochemical signatures and the thermal maturity of source rocks containing aquatic organic matter are based on on pyrolysis experiments and have been successfully used in conventional hydrocarbon exploration since long. We demonstrate how these models can be applied to the evaluation of unconventional shale resources. For this purpose hydrocarbon gases have been extracted from low and high mature source rocks (type II kerogens) using laboratory desorption techniques. We determined the molecular composition of the gases as well as the carbon isotope ratios of methane to propane. In the extracted gases we observe an increase of {sup 13}C content in methane with increasing dry gas ratio (C1/{Sigma}C1-6). The carbon isotope ratios of ethane and propane initially increase with increasing dryness but start to become isotopically lighter above a dry gas ratio of 0.8. We show that oil-to-gas cracking explains the observed gas geochemical data, and that mixing between gases from different processes is a key factor to describe natural hydrocarbon systems of shales. However, data from published case studies using well head gases which show 'isotope roll-over' effects indicate that the isotopic reversal observed in well head samples deviate from those observed in natural shale systems in a fundamental way. We show that isotope reversals related to well head gases are best explained by an additional isotope fractionation effect induced through hydraulic fracturing and gas migration from the shale to the well head. Although, this induced isotope fractionation is an artifact which obscures isotopic information of natural systems to a large extend, we suggest a simple classification scheme which allows distinguishing between hot and cool spot areas using well head or mud line gas data. (orig.)

  16. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6 hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing ratios, to many tens of liters for samples from remote unpolluted regions with very low mixing ratios. The centerpiece of the sample preparation is the separation trap, which is used to separate CO2 and methane from the compounds of interest. The main features of the system are (i the capability to sample up to 300 l of air, (ii long term (since May 2009 operational δ13C accuracy levels in the range 0.3–0.8 ‰ (1-σ, and (iii detection limits of order 1.5–2.5 ngC (collected amount of substance for all reported compounds. The first application of this system was the analysis of 21 ambient air samples taken during 48 h in August 2009 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Results obtained are generally in good agreement with those from similar urban ambient air studies. Short sample intervals allowed by the design of the instrument help to illustrate the complex diurnal behavior of hydrocarbons in an urban environment, where diverse sources, dynamical processes, and chemical reactions are present.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants-based ethylene BOG re-liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladjine, Boumedienne M.; Ouadha, Ahmed; Addad, Yacine

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to make a thermodynamic analysis of an ethylene cascade re-liquefaction system that consists of the following two subsystems: a liquefaction cycle using ethylene as the working fluid and a refrigeration cycle operating with a hydrocarbon refrigerant. The hydrocarbon refrigerants considered are propane (R290), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), and propylene (R1270). A computer program written in FORTRAN is developed to compute parameters for characteristic points of the cycles and the system's performance, which is determined and analyzed using numerical solutions for the refrigerant condensation temperature, temperature in tank, and temperature difference in the cascade condenser. Results show that R600a gives the best performance, followed by (in order) R600, R290, and R1270. Furthermore, it is found that an increase in tank temperature improves system performance but that an increase in refrigerant condensation temperature causes deterioration. In addition, it is found that running the system at a low temperature difference in the cascade condenser is advantageous.

  18. Mud diaprism and it's effect on the hydrocarbon system in the south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganz, O.W.; Ballard, J.H.; Krenov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Mud diapirism plays a special role in the geology and petroleum system of the south Caspian basin. Hundreads of mud intrusions penetrate the thick Plio-Pleistocene section. This article talks in detail about aspects of the influence of mud diapirs and their related with mud volcanoes on the generation and trapping of hydrocarbons. Some of these aspects are : 1) The influence on the sedimentation; 2) Structural impact; 3) Stress and strain in the surrounded formations; 4) Thermal effect; 5) Pressure effect. All these aspects of the diapiric and mud-volcanic activity should be kept in mind during the volumetric calculations and play evaluation.

  19. The effect of fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on a vapor phase carbon adsorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.J.; Cheney, J.L.; Taggart, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system installed at the South Tacoma Well 12A Superfund Site was designed to recover 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TCA) from the vadose zone. The basic system consisted of twenty-two extraction wells, three centrifugal blowers, and three carbon adsorbers. The carbon adsorbers were regenerated on site by steam stripping. The mixture of steam and stripped organics was condensed and then decanted to separate the water from the organic phase. The recovered water was air stripped to remove the dissolved organics prior to discharge to the city storm sewer. The recovered organic phase was then shipped off site for thermal destruction. Previous reports described operating difficulties with the decanter, and air strippers. Sampling and analyses were performed which identified the problem as the simultaneous recovery of unexpected fuel hydrocarbons in addition to the solvents. Recovery of fuels resulted in a light phase in the decanter in addition to the water and heavy solvent phases. This required redesign of the decanter to handle the third phase. The effectiveness of desorption of the carbon beds by steam stripping gradually decreased as the remediation progressed into the second year of operation. Samples were collected from the carbon beds to evaluate the effect of the fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on the activated carbon. This report describes the results of these analyses. The data indicated that both 1,1,2,2-TCA and fuel hydrocarbons in the C-9 to C-24 range remained in the carbon beds after steam regeneration in sufficient quantities to require replacing the carbon

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants in a sub-cooling refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUKOLA O. BOLAJI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance simulation of some hydrocarbon refrigerants (R290, R600 and R600a as alternatives to R134a in refrigeration system with sub-cooling is conducted by thermodynamic calculation of performance parameters using the REFPROP software. The results obtained showed that the saturated vapour pressure and temperature characteristic profiles for R600 and R600a are very close to that of R134a. The three hydrocarbon refrigerants exhibited very high refrigerating effect and condenser duty than R134a. The best of these parameters was obtained using R600. The discharge temperatures obtained using R600 and R600a were low, while that of R290 was very much higher. The highest coefficient of performance (COP and relative capacity index were obtained using R600. Average COPs of R600 and R600a are 4.6 and 2.2% higher than that of R134a, respectively. The performances of R600 and R600a in system were better than those of R134a and R290. The best performance was obtained using R600 in the system.

  1. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  3. Natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors for highly cycled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. [Corrosion Research Lab., Aligarh (India)

    1999-11-01

    Strict environmental legislations have led to the development of green inhibitors in recent years. In continuation of the authors` research work on development of green inhibitors, they have investigated the aqueous extracts of three plants namely: Azadirachta indica, Punica Granatum and Momordica charantia as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 3% NaCl using weight loss and electrochemical methods. All the investigated compounds exhibited excellent corrosion inhibition properties comparable to that of HEDP. Azadirachta showed better scale inhibition effect than HEDP.

  4. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-08-02

    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  5. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  7. Ecopiling: A combined Phytoremediation and Passive Biopiling System for Remediating Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils at Field Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran J Germaine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil (1613 mg Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH kg-1 soil. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilisers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and white clover (Trifolium repens was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but 1 subsample (152mg TPH kg-1 soil. The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labour and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs. The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is aesthetically pleasing.

  8. Ecopiling: a combined phytoremediation and passive biopiling system for remediating hydrocarbon impacted soils at field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaine, Kieran J; Byrne, John; Liu, Xuemei; Keohane, Jer; Culhane, John; Lally, Richard D; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N

    2014-01-01

    Biopiling is an ex situ bioremediation technology that has been extensively used for remediating a wide range of petrochemical contaminants in soils. Biopiling involves the assembling of contaminated soils into piles and stimulating the biodegrading activity of microbial populations by creating near optimum growth conditions. Phytoremediation is another very successful bioremediation technique and involves the use of plants and their associated microbiomes to degrade, sequester or bio-accumulate pollutants from contaminated soil and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combined phytoremediation/biopiling system, termed Ecopiling, to remediate hydrocarbon impacted industrial soil. The large scale project was carried out on a sandy loam, petroleum impacted soil [1613 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) kg(-1) soil]. The contaminated soil was amended with chemical fertilizers, inoculated with TPH degrading bacterial consortia and then used to construct passive biopiles. Finally, a phyto-cap of perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was sown on the soil surface to complete the Ecopile. Monitoring of important physico-chemical parameters was carried out at regular intervals throughout the trial. Two years after construction the TPH levels in the petroleum impacted Ecopiles were below detectable limits in all but one subsample (152 mg TPH kg(-1) soil). The Ecopile system is a multi-factorial bioremediation process involving bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation and phytoremediation. One of the key advantages to this system is the reduced costs of the remediation process, as once constructed, there is little additional cost in terms of labor and maintenance (although the longer process time may incur additional monitoring costs). The other major advantage is that many ecological functions are rapidly restored to the site and the process is esthetically pleasing.

  9. Selectivity of phenothiazine cholinesterase inhibitors for neurotransmitter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan; Macdonald, Ian R; Martin, Earl

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic derivatives of phenothiazine have been used for over a century as well-tolerated drugs against a variety of human ailments from psychosis to cancer. This implies a considerable diversity in the mechanisms of action produced by structural changes to the phenothiazine scaffold. For example, chlorpromazine treatment of psychosis is related to its interaction with dopaminergic receptors. On the other hand, antagonistic action of such drugs on cholinergic receptor systems would be counter-productive for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In a search for phenothiazines that are inhibitors of cholinesterases, especially butyrylcholinesterase, with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease, we wished to ascertain that such molecules could be devoid of neurotransmitter receptor interactions. To that end, a number of our synthetic N-10-carbonyl phenothiazine derivatives, with cholinesterase inhibitory activity, were tested for interaction with a variety of neurotransmitter receptor systems. We demonstrate that phenothiazines can be prepared without significant neurotransmitter receptor interactions while retaining high potency as cholinesterase ligands for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz; Gersh, Michael E.; Goldstein, Neil

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution.

  11. Selectivity of radiation-induced processes in hydrocarbons, related polymers and organized polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Sukhov, F.F.; Zezin, A.A.; Orlov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the selectivity of radiation-induced events in polymers and polymeric systems were considered: (1) The grounds of selectivity of the primary events were analyzed on the basis of the results of studies of model compounds (molecular aspect). Basic results were obtained for hydrocarbon molecules irradiated in low-temperature matrices. The effects of selective localization of the primary events on the radical formation were examined for several polymers irradiated at low and superlow temperatures (77 and 15 K). A remarkable correlation between the properties of prototype ionized molecules (radical cations) and selectivity of the primary bond rupture in the corresponding polymers were found for polyethylene, polystyrene and some other hydrocarbon polymers. The first direct indication of selective localization of primary events at conformational defects was obtained for oriented high-crystalline polyethylene irradiated at 15 K. The significance of dimeric ring association was proved for the radiation chemistry of polystyrene. Specific mechanisms of low-temperature radiation-induced degradation were also analyzed for polycarbonate and poly(alkylene terephthalates). (2) Specific features of the localization of primary radiation-induced events in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were investigated (microstructural aspect). It was found that the interphase processes played an important role in the radiation chemistry of such systems. The interphase electron migration may result in both positive and negative non-additive effects in the formation of radiolysis products. The effects of component diffusion and chemical reactions on the radiation-induced processes in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were studied with the example of polycarbonate - poly(alkylene terephthalate) blends. (3) The effects of restricted molecular motion on the development of the radiation-chemical processes in polymers were investigated (dynamic aspect). In particular, it

  12. Reduction of hydrocarbon impurities in 200 L/H helium liquefier-refrigerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Arata

    1993-11-01

    A cryogenic system with the capacity of 200 1/h or 500 W at 4.4 K has been operated to develop the superconducting conductors and coils for the LHD. The system has contributed in various superconducting technologies along with the dc 75kA power supply and 10 MN mechanical testing machine, and completed the basic R and D works of the LHD. On the way of operating the cryogenic system, impurity densities of hydrocarbon gases in circulating helium gas became much larger than the expected values for this cryogenic system, so that the densities of some impurity gases were carefully monitored in reference to the operational conditions of circulating compressor by using a gas chromatography. Impurity gas densities of oxygen, nitrogen and ethane increased obviously, when the output capacity of the compressor was reduced. In a two-stage oil injected compression system with a variable stroke mechanism for a first stage, a reduction in the capacity of the first stage leads to a larger compression ratio for the second stage, and the temperature of the injected oil becomes higher. The production of the impurities in the helium might be caused by cracking a part of injected oil in the compressor. The compressor, therefore, was reconstructed such that the injection oil is supplied sufficiently and the compression ratio division becomes even for each stage. It was confirmed that the impurities are not produced now after modification. (author)

  13. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800 mg l"−"1 and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30 days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81 mW/m"2 and 15.04 mW/m"2 respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000 mg l"−"1) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60 nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  14. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu, E-mail: megh.mallavarapu@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Marzorati, Massimo [Laboratory for Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lockington, Robin [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800 mg l{sup −1} and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30 days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81 mW/m{sup 2} and 15.04 mW/m{sup 2} respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000 mg l{sup −1}) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60 nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  15. Non-methane hydrocarbons in a controlled ecological life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Yu, Qingni; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are vital to people's health and plants' growth, especially inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. In this study, we measured 54 kinds of NMHCs to study their changing trends in concentration levels during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for plants growing and other two cabins for human daily activities and resources management. During the experiment, the total mixing ratio of measured NMHCs was 423 ± 283 ppbv at the first day and it approached 2961 ± 323 ppbv ultimately. Ethane and propane were the most abundant alkanes and their mixing ratios kept growing from 27.5 ± 19.4 and 31.0 ± 33.6 ppbv to 2423 ± 449 ppbv and 290 ± 10 ppbv in the end. For alkenes, ethylene and isoprene presented continuously fluctuating states during the experimental period with average mixing ratios of 30.4 ± 19.3 ppbv, 7.4 ± 5.8 ppbv. For aromatic hydrocarbons, the total mixing ratios of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes declined from 48.0 ± 44 ppbv initially to 3.8 ± 1.1 ppbv ultimately. Biomass burning, sewage treatment, construction materials and plants all contributed to NMHCs inside CELSS. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the changing trends of NMHCs in a long-term closed ecological environment's atmosphere which provides valuable information for both the atmosphere management of CELSS and the exploration of interactions between humans and the total environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of hydrocarbon impurities in 200 l/h helium liquefier-refrigerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Arata; Takahata, Kazuya; Satoh, Sadao; Yamamoto, Junya; Yamamura, Hidemasa; Masuda, Kaoru; Kashihara, Shinichirou; Fukusada, Katsuaki

    1993-11-01

    A cryogenic system with the capacity of 200 l/h or 500 W at 4.4 K was developed in order to supply the superconducting conductors and coils of the LHD. As a by-product of operating the cryogenic system, the impurity densities of hydrocarbon gases in the circulating helium gas became much larger than the expected values for this cryogenic system. So much larger in fact, that it became necessary to carefully monitor the operational conditions of the circulating compressor by means of gas chromatography. Impurity gas densities of oxygen, nitrogen, and ethane increased significantly when the output capacity of the compressor was reduced. In a two-stage oil injected compression system, with a variable stroke mechanism for a first stage, a reduction in the capacity of the first stage leads to a larger compression ratio for the second stage, and the temperature of the injected oil becomes higher. The production of the impurities in the helium might be caused by decomposition of the injected oil in the compressor. The compressor, therefore, was reconstructed such that the injection oil is supplied sufficiently, and the compression ratio division becomes even for each stage. It was confirmed that the impurities were not produced after the modification.

  17. Evaluating the utility of hydrocarbons for Re-Os geochronology : establishing the timing of processes in petroleum ore systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, D.; Creaser, R.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Oil from 6 Alberta oil sands deposits were analyzed with a rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope chronometer, an emerging tool for determining valuable age information on the timing of petroleum generation and migration. The tool uses molybdenite and other sulphide minerals to establish the timing and duration of mineralization. However, establishing the timing events of petroleum systems can be problematic because viable sulphides for the Re-Os chronometer are often not available. Therefore, the known presence of Re and Os associated with organic matter in black shale, a common source of hydrocarbons, may suggest that bitumen and petroleum common to petroleum systems may be utilised for Re-Os geochronology. This study evaluated the potential of the Re-Os isotopic system for geochronology and as an isotopic tracer for hydrocarbon systems. The evaluation was based on Re-Os isotopic analyses of bitumen and oil sands. Hydrocarbons formed from migrated oil in both Alberta oil sand deposits and a Paleozoic Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposit contain significant Re and Os contents with high {sup 187}Re/{sup 188}Os and radiogenic {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios suitable for geochronology. The oil from the 6 Alberta oil sand deposits yields Re-Os analyses with very high Re/{sup 188}Os ratios, and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Regression of the Re-Os data yields a date of 116 {+-} 27 Ma. This date plausibly represents the period of in situ radiogenic growth of {sup 187}Os following hydrocarbon migration and reservoir filling. Therefore, directly dating these processes, and this formation age corresponds with recent burial history models for parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The very high initial {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os for this regression requires rocks much older than Cretaceous for the hydrocarbon source.

  18. Morrowan stratigraphy, depositional systems, and hydrocarbon accumulation, Sorrento field, Cheyenne County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, D.M.; Kidwell, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    The Sorrento field, located on the western flank of the present-day Las Animas arch in western Cheyenne County, Colorado, has approximately 29 million bbl of oil and 12 bcf of gas in place in sandstones of the Lower Pennsylvanian Morrow units. The sandstones were deposited in a fluvially dominated deltaic system, and the trap for the hydrocarbon accumulation is formed by pinch-out of this deltaic system onto regional dip. The primary reservoirs are point-bar deposits. At the Sorrento field, the basal Keyes limestone member of the Morrow formation rests unconformably on the Mississippian St. Louis Formation. Above the Keyes limestone, the Morrow shale is 180 to 214 ft (55 to 65 m) thick, and locally contains reservoir sands. Gas/oil and oil/water contacts are not uniform through the field owing to discontinuities between separate point bars. One such discontinuity is formed by an apparent mud plug of an abandoned channel separating two point bars on the southeastern end of the field. In a well 7000 ft (2100 m) from the edge of the meander belt, the regressive sequence is represented by a shoreline siltstone unit 8 ft (2 m) thick with flaser bedding, graded bedding, load structures, and rare wave-ripple cross-bedding overlain by 3 ft (1 m) of flood-plain mudstone and coal with no indication of proximity to a nearby sand system.

  19. Gamma irradiation of hydrocarbon-liquid nitrogen systems and the synthesis of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The 60 Co-gamma radiolysis of hydrocarbons (HC)-liquid N 2 mixtures at 77 0 K and 1.8 atm of pressure was investigated. Batch irradiation studies of methane, ethane, and ethylene and semibatch studies of methane were made in the presence and absence of transition metal oxide catalysts. In noncatalyzed systems, the effects of varying the radiation dose, total dose, solute feed rate and concentration and liquid N 2 volume were investigated. NH 3 was found to be the major N-containing product in the alkane solute system. N 2 and HC radical addition was found to be the predominate initial reaction for nitrogeneous product formation. Results of scavenger studies indicate that excited N 2 played a lesser role in precursor formation. All product yields were found to be dependent upon the H-containing species availability in the liquid N 2 solution. Production rates were limited by HC solubility. The use of the transition metal oxide supported catalyst greatly increased product formation in all systems. Product yields were found to be dependent upon the available catalyst surface area, metal loading, and reduction techniques for each metal examined. As evidenced by the radiation lag time studies, the stability of the N 2 precursors on the catalyst surface was believed to be a significant factor in reaction enhancement. Energy transfer from the catalyst to the absorbates was examined and could not be ruled out

  20. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the immune system of fish: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Deschaux, P.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. This review summarizes the diverse literature on the effects of these pollutants on innate and acquired immunity in fish and the mechanism of PAH-induced immunotoxicity. Among innate immune parameters, many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Macrophage respiratory burst appears especially sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Among acquired immune parameters, lymphocyte proliferation appears highly sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. However, the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on both specific and non-specific immunity are contradictory and depend on the mode of exposure, the dose used or the species studied. In contrast to mammals, fewer studies have been done in fish to determine the mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced toxicity. This phenomenon seems to implicate different intracellular mechanisms such as metabolism by cytochrome P4501A, binding to the Ah-receptor, or increased intracellular calcium. Advances in basic knowledge of fish immunity should lead to improvements in monitoring fish health and predicting the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish populations, which is a fundamental ecotoxicological goal

  1. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the immune system of fish: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine. UMR CNRS 5553. Universite Joseph Fourier. BP 53. 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France) and Laboratory of General and Comparative Immunophysiology, Science Teaching and Research Unit, 123, av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)]. E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr; Deschaux, P. [Laboratory of General and Comparative Immunophysiology, Science Teaching and Research Unit, 123, av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. This review summarizes the diverse literature on the effects of these pollutants on innate and acquired immunity in fish and the mechanism of PAH-induced immunotoxicity. Among innate immune parameters, many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Macrophage respiratory burst appears especially sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Among acquired immune parameters, lymphocyte proliferation appears highly sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. However, the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on both specific and non-specific immunity are contradictory and depend on the mode of exposure, the dose used or the species studied. In contrast to mammals, fewer studies have been done in fish to determine the mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced toxicity. This phenomenon seems to implicate different intracellular mechanisms such as metabolism by cytochrome P4501A, binding to the Ah-receptor, or increased intracellular calcium. Advances in basic knowledge of fish immunity should lead to improvements in monitoring fish health and predicting the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish populations, which is a fundamental ecotoxicological goal.

  2. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  3. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  4. Fate of diesel fuel hydrocarbon in composting bioremediation system using radio- labeled 14C phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesnawi, R. M.; McCartney, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the fate of fuel hydrocarbon in bioremediation composting system, diesel fuel, spiked with radio-labeled [9-1 4C ] phenanthrene at activity of 0.15μCi g - 1 of diesel fuel, was added to the soil to yield a contaminant load of 20,000 mg kg - 1 dry soil. The contaminated soil was amended with either fresh feedstock material (municipal sludge, leaves, and wood shaving) or mature compost and then incubated at thermophilic temperature pattern for 126 day. The mineralized, volatilized, and extractable fractions of 1 4C labeled phenanthrene were determined every two weeks over 126-days experimental period. The 1 4C data were used to predict the amount of removal due to biodegradation and sorption. In controls that were not amended with compost, no mineralization of 1 4C phenanthrene was detected, whereas treatments that received compost amendment showed significant release of phenanthrene as 1 4C O 2., ranging from 25% to 42% of initial radioactivity concentrations. The 1 4C extracted from the solids were decreasing with time. The total radioactivity extracted at the end of the experiment was less than 11% in the amended soil, whereas in the controls, more than 65% of the 1 4C was extracted. The 1 4C data indicated that bound residues formation was the major mechanism for the removal of pantherine or its metabolites. (author)

  5. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  6. Design and implementation of a highly integrated and automated in situ bioremediation system for petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, J.C.; Rosenwinkel, P.; Norris, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The proposed sale of an industrial property required that an environmental investigation be conducted as part of the property transfer agreement. The investigation revealed petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (PHCs) in the subsurface. Light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) varsol (a gasoline like solvent), gasoline, and fuel oil were found across a three (3) acre area and were present as liquid phase PHCs, as dissolved phase PHCs, and as adsorbed phase PHCs in both saturated and unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Fuel oil was largely present in the unsaturated soils. Varsol represented the majority of the PHCs present. The presence of liquid phase PHCs suggested that any remedial action incorporate free phase recovery. The volatility of varsol and gasoline and the biodegradability of the PHCs present in the subsurface suggested that bioremediation, air sparging, and soil vapor extraction/bioventing were appropriate technologies for incorporation in a remedy. The imminent conversion of the impacted area to a retail facility required that any long term remedy be unobtrusive and require minimum activity across much of the impacted area. In the following sections the site investigation, selection and testing of remedial technologies, and design and implementation of an integrated and automated remedial system is discussed

  7. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  9. Correlation of phase equilibria for water + hydrocarbon systems at high temperatures and pressures by cubic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruki, Masashi; Yahiro, Yukihito; Higashi, Hidenori; Iwai, Yoshio; Arai, Yasuhiko [Kyushu University, FUkuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-08-01

    A modified-Soave-Redlich-Kwong (MSRK) equation of state with an exponent-type mixing rule for the energy parameter and a conventional rule for the size parameter is applied to correlate the phase equilibria for four binary mixtures of water + hydrocarbon (benzene, hexane, decane, and dodecane) systems at high temperatures and pressures. It is noted that good correlation results are obtained by using the mixing rules with interaction parameters between unlike molecules. (author)

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  11. New Estimation of the Dosage of Scale Inhibitor in the Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jiaomei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cooling water system, excessive use of organic phosphate scale inhibitors is harmful to environment. Reducing the dosage of the organic phosphate scale inhibitor is important. A self-made jacketed crystallizer was used in this experiment. The critical pH values have been determined in cooling water systems with series of Ca2+ concentrations by adding different concentration of the scale inhibitor ATMP (Amino Trimethylene Phosphonic Acid according to the calcium carbonate Metastable zone theory. A model equation at 45 °C and pH=9 was proposed to estimate the lowest dose of the scale inhibitor ATMP. The measured pH value was approximate to the expected pH value in two cooling water systems through verification test.

  12. Bacterial diversity in the active stage of a bioremediation system for mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Nicole; Schlömann, Michael; Mau, Margit

    2006-11-01

    Soils contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons are often cleaned in off-site bioremediation systems. In order to find out which bacteria are active during the degradation phase in such systems, the diversity of the active microflora in a degrading soil remediation system was investigated by small-subunit (SSU) rRNA analysis. Two sequential RNA extracts from one soil sample were generated by a procedure incorporating bead beating. Both extracts were analysed separately by generating individual SSU rDNA clone libraries from cDNA of the two extracts. The sequencing results showed moderate diversity. The two clone libraries were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were two other large groups in the clone libraries. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Epsilonproteobacteria were detected in lower numbers. The obtained sequences were predominantly related to genera for which cultivated representatives have been described, but were often clustered together in the phylogenetic tree, and the sequences that were most similar were originally obtained from soils and not from pure cultures. Most of the dominant genera in the clone libraries, e.g. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Acidovorax and Thiobacillus, had already been detected in (mineral oil hydrocarbon) contaminated environmental samples. The occurrence of the genera Zymomonas and Rhodoferax was novel in mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  13. 2Dbasin modelling of the hydrocarbon systems in the forearc basin of Sumatra; 2D-Beckenmodellierung des Kohlenwasserstoff-Systems im Forearc-Bereich von Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, V.; Berglar, K.; Lutz, R.; Schloemer, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Djajadihardja, Y.S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-10-23

    In the forearc basin of Sumatra, individual industrial drillings indicated the existence of hydrocarbons. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an investigation of the hydrocarbon system within this forearc basin by means of a two-dimensional modelling of this basin. The structural development of the basins in the forearc area proceeded differently. Therefore, geophysical data for the investigation of the geological structures as well as geological/geochemical data were raised. The preliminary results of the two-dimensional modelling of the Simeulue basin northwest from Sumatra are presented.

  14. Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in an automotive air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwises, Somchai; Kamboon, Amnouy; Orachon, Banchob

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the application of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in automotive air conditioners. The hydrocarbons investigated are propane (R290), butane (R600) and isobutane (R600a). The measured data are obtained from an automotive air conditioning test facility utilizing HFC-134a as the refrigerant. The air conditioner, with a capacity of 3.5 kW driven by a Diesel engine, is charged and tested with four different ratios of hydrocarbon mixtures. The experiments are conducted at the same surrounding conditions. The temperature and pressure of the refrigerant at every major position in the refrigerant loop, the temperature, flow rate and humidity of air, torque and engine speed are recorded and analyzed. The parameters investigated are the refrigeration capacity, the compressor power and the coefficient of performance (COP). The results show that propane/butane/isobutane: 50%/40%/10% is the most appropriate alternative refrigerant to replace HFC-134a, having the best performance of all the hydrocarbon mixtures investigated

  15. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 30, 1979-July 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This progress report covers experiments on pulse radiolysis of methyl iodide, radiation induced reactions in H 2 -CO mixtures and photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF 3 I-CH 3 I systems. In the pulse radiolysis of alkyl iodide, it was possible to follow rate processes involving atomic iodine in the 2 P/sub 1/2/ excited state and 2 P/sub 3/2/ ground state resulting from irradiation of these compounds. The excited state proved easy to follow, since it can be observed in a strong transition at 206.2 nm. Observation of atomic iodine in the 2 P/sub 3/2/ ground state proved difficult, since it must be observed at 178.3 nm, well into the vacuum ultraviolet. Several design improvements in the pulse radiolysis apparatus were made to achieve a reliable measurement of the I*/I production ratio. The physical arrangement of the apparatus which was adopted is illustrated. A remaining problem which stands in the way of measuring I*/I ratios is the lack of information on extinction coefficients of 2 P/sub 1/2/ and 2 P/sub 3/2/ atomic iodine at 206 and 178 nm. It is expected that indirect calculations and/or computer modelling will be employed. In the H 2 -CO system, investigation of the effect of total pressure in the homogeneous gas phase was made, concentrating on the 3:1 H 2 -CO mixtures. Measurements were made as a function of pressure in the range of 250 to 3300 torr for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon in the C 1 to C 6 range. Two trends were exhibited; yields of all products dropped markedly as system pressure was increased; and yields in the nickel vessels were generally in excess of yields in the stainless vessels. Photolysis of CF 3 I-CH 3 I gas phase showed a substantial yield of the product CH 2 I 2 . High pressure mass spectrometry of CF 3 -CH 3 I mixtures revealed (CH 3 ICH 3 ) + , I 2 + , CF 3 I 2 + , (CF 3 I) 2 + , and unique species such as CF 3 ICH 3 and CF 2 ICH 2 +

  16. Influence on moisture and hydrocarbons on conversion rate of tritium in catalytic reactors of fusion-DEMO detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Yuki; Sato, Katsumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Thoughtful consideration of abnormal events such as fire is required to design and qualify a detritiation system (DS) of a nuclear fusion facility. Since conversion of tritium to tritiated vapor over catalyst is the key process of the DS, it is indispensable to evaluate the effect of excess moisture and hydrocarbons produced by combustion of cables on tritium conversion rate considering fire events. We conducted demonstration tests on tritium conversion under the following representative conditions: (I) leakage of tritium, (II) leakage of tritium plus moisture, and (III) leakage of tritium plus hydrocarbons. Detritiation behavior in the simulated room was assessed, and the amount of catalyst to fulfill the requirement on tritium conversion rate was evaluated. The dominant parameters for detritiation are the concentration of hydrogen in air and catalyst temperature. The tritium in the simulated room was decreased for condition (I) following ventilation theory. An initial reduction in conversion rate was measured for condition (II). To recover the reduction smoothly, it is suggested to optimize the power of preheater. An increase in catalyst temperature by heat of reaction of hydrocarbon combustion was evaluated for condition (III). The heat balance of catalytic reactor is a point to be carefully investigated to avoid runaway of catalyst temperature. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation

  18. A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtu Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

  19. Petrophilic, Fe(III Reducing Exoelectrogen Citrobacter sp. KVM11, Isolated From Hydrocarbon Fed Microbial Electrochemical Remediation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni Venkidusamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exoelectrogenic biofilms capable of extracellular electron transfer are important in advanced technologies such as those used in microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS Few bacterial strains have been, nevertheless, obtained from MERS exoelectrogenic biofilms and characterized for bioremediation potential. Here we report the identification of one such bacterial strain, Citrobacter sp. KVM11, a petrophilic, iron reducing bacterial strain isolated from hydrocarbon fed MERS, producing anodic currents in microbial electrochemical systems. Fe(III reduction of 90.01 ± 0.43% was observed during 5 weeks of incubation with Fe(III supplemented liquid cultures. Biodegradation screening assays showed that the hydrocarbon degradation had been carried out by metabolically active cells accompanied by growth. The characteristic feature of diazo dye decolorization was used as a simple criterion for evaluating the electrochemical activity in the candidate microbe. The electrochemical activities of the strain KVM11 were characterized in a single chamber fuel cell and three electrode electrochemical cells. The inoculation of strain KVM11 amended with acetate and citrate as the sole carbon and energy sources has resulted in an increase in anodic currents (maximum current density of 212 ± 3 and 359 ± mA/m2 with respective coulombic efficiencies of 19.5 and 34.9% in a single chamber fuel cells. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain KVM11 are electrochemically active whereas aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. Electrobioremediation potential of the strain KVM11 was investigated in hydrocarbonoclastic and dye detoxification conditions using MERS. About 89.60% of 400 mg l-1 azo dye was removed during the first 24 h of operation and it reached below detection limits by the end of the batch operation (60 h. Current generation and biodegradation capabilities of strain KVM11 were examined using an

  20. Petrophilic, Fe(III) Reducing Exoelectrogen Citrobacter sp. KVM11, Isolated From Hydrocarbon Fed Microbial Electrochemical Remediation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Hari, Ananda Rao; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-01-01

    Exoelectrogenic biofilms capable of extracellular electron transfer are important in advanced technologies such as those used in microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS) Few bacterial strains have been, nevertheless, obtained from MERS exoelectrogenic biofilms and characterized for bioremediation potential. Here we report the identification of one such bacterial strain, Citrobacter sp. KVM11, a petrophilic, iron reducing bacterial strain isolated from hydrocarbon fed MERS, producing anodic currents in microbial electrochemical systems. Fe(III) reduction of 90.01 ± 0.43% was observed during 5 weeks of incubation with Fe(III) supplemented liquid cultures. Biodegradation screening assays showed that the hydrocarbon degradation had been carried out by metabolically active cells accompanied by growth. The characteristic feature of diazo dye decolorization was used as a simple criterion for evaluating the electrochemical activity in the candidate microbe. The electrochemical activities of the strain KVM11 were characterized in a single chamber fuel cell and three electrode electrochemical cells. The inoculation of strain KVM11 amended with acetate and citrate as the sole carbon and energy sources has resulted in an increase in anodic currents (maximum current density) of 212 ± 3 and 359 ± mA/m2 with respective coulombic efficiencies of 19.5 and 34.9% in a single chamber fuel cells. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain KVM11 are electrochemically active whereas aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. Electrobioremediation potential of the strain KVM11 was investigated in hydrocarbonoclastic and dye detoxification conditions using MERS. About 89.60% of 400 mg l-1 azo dye was removed during the first 24 h of operation and it reached below detection limits by the end of the batch operation (60 h). Current generation and biodegradation capabilities of strain KVM11 were examined using an initial

  1. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems containing glycols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and water: Experimental measurements and modeling with the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of four binary glycol + aromatic hydrocarbon systems and three ternary systems containing water have been measured at atmospheric pressure. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + benzene or toluene, triethylene glycol (TEG) + benzene or toluene, MEG...... + water + benzene, MEG + water + toluene, and TEG + water + toluene. The binary systems are correlated with the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state while the ternary systems are predicted from interaction parameters obtained from the binary systems. Very satisfactory liquid-liquid equilibrium...... correlations are obtained for the binary systems using temperature-independent interaction parameters, while adequate predictions are achieved for multicomponent water + glycol + aromatic hydrocarbons systems when accounting for the solvation between the aromatic hydrocarbons and glycols or water....

  2. Studies on corrosion inhibitors for the cooling water system at the Heavy Water Project, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, B.P.; Mehta, C.T.; Abubacker, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Water Project at Kota uses the water from the Rana Pratap Sagar Lake as coolant in the open recirculation system. In order to find suitable corrosion inhibitors for the above system, a series of laboratory experiments on corrosion inhibitors were carried out using the constructional materials of the cooling water system and a number of proprietary formulations and the results are tabulated. From the data thus generated through various laboratory experiments, the most useful ones have been recommended for application in practice. (author)

  3. Strong CH/O interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and water: Influence of aromatic system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dušan Ž

    2018-03-01

    Energies of CH/O interactions between water molecule and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a different number of aromatic rings were calculated using ab initio calculations at MP2/cc-PVTZ level. Results show that an additional aromatic ring in structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons significantly strengthens CH/O interactions. Calculated interaction energies in optimized structures of the most stable tetracene/water complex is -2.27 kcal/mol, anthracene/water is -2.13 kcal/mol and naphthalene/water is -1.97 kcal/mol. These interactions are stronger than CH/O contacts in benzene/water complex (-1.44 kcal/mol) while CH/O contacts in tetracene/water complex are even stronger than CH/O contacts in pyridine/water complexes (-2.21 kcal/mol). Electrostatic potential maps for different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were calculated and used to explain trends in the energies of interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were exploration and occurs in a forearc basin. Each of these hydrate-bearing systems overlies and is likely supported by the presence and possible migration of gas from deeper gas-prone petroleum

  5. A Novel System for Identification of Inhibitors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Piper

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly to a wide array of known and previously unknown chemical inhibitors. This system should be useful for screening for small molecule inhibitors of RVFV replication.

  6. A novel system for identification of inhibitors of rift valley Fever virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Mary E; Gerrard, Sonja R

    2010-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly to a wide array of known and previously unknown chemical inhibitors. This system should be useful for screening for small molecule inhibitors of RVFV replication.

  7. Revealing the properties of oils from their dissolved hydrocarbon compounds in water with an integrated sensor array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiubin; Crooke, Emma; Ross, Andrew; Bastow, Trevor P; Stalvies, Charlotte

    2011-09-21

    This paper presents a system and method developed to identify a source oil's characteristic properties by testing the oil's dissolved components in water. Through close examination of the oil dissolution process in water, we hypothesise that when oil is in contact with water, the resulting oil-water extract, a complex hydrocarbon mixture, carries the signature property information of the parent oil. If the dominating differences in compositions between such extracts of different oils can be identified, this information could guide the selection of various sensors, capable of capturing such chemical variations. When used as an array, such a sensor system can be used to determine parent oil information from the oil-water extract. To test this hypothesis, 22 oils' water extracts were prepared and selected dominant hydrocarbons analyzed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); the subsequent Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that the major difference between the extract solutions is the relative concentration between the volatile mono-aromatics and fluorescent polyaromatics. An integrated sensor array system that is composed of 3 volatile hydrocarbon sensors and 2 polyaromatic hydrocarbon sensors was built accordingly to capture the major and subtle differences of these extracts. It was tested by exposure to a total of 110 water extract solutions diluted from the 22 extracts. The sensor response data collected from the testing were processed with two multivariate analysis tools to reveal information retained in the response patterns of the arrayed sensors: by conducting PCA, we were able to demonstrate the ability to qualitatively identify and distinguish different oil samples from their sensor array response patterns. When a supervised PCA, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA), was applied, even quantitative classification can be achieved: the multivariate model generated from the LDA achieved 89.7% of successful classification of the type of the

  8. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  9. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    findings indicate that hydrocarbon solubility does not exert a strong influence on hydrocarbon behavior in the systems studied. Other factors such as coal composition and maceral content, surface processes (physisorption), or other molecular interactions appear to affect the partitioning of hydrocarbons within the coal–supercritical CO2 system. Resolving the extent to which these factors might affect hydrocarbon behavior under different geological settings is important to efforts seeking to model petroleum generation, fractionation and expulsion from coal beds and to delineate potential hydrocarbon fate and transport in geologic CO2 sequestration settings.

  10. Preoperative renin-angiotensin system inhibitors protect renal function in aging patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Viachaslau; Silvestry, Scott; Zhao, Ning; Jiao, Xiangyin; Whellan, David J; Diehl, James; Sun, Jian-Zhong

    2011-05-15

    Renal failure (RF) represents a major postoperative complication for elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This observational cohort study examines effects of preoperative use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors on postoperative renal failure in aging patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 1287 patients who underwent cardiac surgery at this institution (2003-2007). The patients included were ≥65 years old, scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, and without preexisting RF (defined by the criteria of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons as described in Method). Of all patients evaluated, 346 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups: using (n = 122) or not using (n = 224) preoperative RAS inhibitors. A comparison of the two groups showed no significant differences in baseline parameters, including creatinine clearance, body mass index, history of diabetes and smoking, preoperative medicines (except that more patients with RAS inhibitors had a history of hypertension or congestive heart failure, fewer RAS inhibitor patients had chronic lung disease), in intraoperative perfusion and aortic cross-clamp time, and in postoperative complications and 30-d mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated, however, that preoperative RAS inhibitors significantly and independently reduced the incidence of postoperative RF in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery compared with those not taking RAS inhibitors: 1.6% versus 7.6%, yielding an odds ratio of 0.19 (95 % CI 0.04-0.84, P = 0.029). Preoperative RAS inhibitors may have significant renoprotective effects for aging patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PCSK9 Inhibitors Show Value for Patients and the US Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Han; Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as cholesterol-lowering therapies for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. To estimate the long-term health and economic value of PCSK9 inhibitors for Americans (51 years and older). We conducted simulations using the Future Elderly Model, an established dynamic microsimulation model to project the lifetime outcomes for the US population aged 51 years and older. Health effects estimates and confidence intervals from published meta-analysis studies were used to project changes in life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years, and lifetime medical spending resulting from the use of PCSK9 inhibitors. We considered two treatment scenarios: 1) current FDA eligibility and 2) an extended eligibility scenario that includes patients with no pre-existing cardiovascular disease but at high risk. We assumed that the price of PCSK9 inhibitors was discounted by 35% in the first 12 years and by 57% thereafter, with gradual uptake of the drug in eligible populations. Use of PCSK9 inhibitors by individuals covered by current FDA approval would extend life expectancy at the age of 51 years by an estimated 1.1 years and would yield a lifetime net value of $5800 per person. If use was extended to those at high risk for cardiovascular disease, PCSK9 inhibitors would generate a lifetime net benefit of $14,100 per person. Expanded access to PCSK9 inhibitors would offer positive long-term net value for patients and the US health care system at the current discounted prices. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of Corrosion Inhibitors of Primary and Secondary Closed Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Seon; Kim, K. M.; Kim, K. H.

    2010-08-01

    In nuclear power plants, the Closed Cooling Water (CCW) system provide cooling to both safety-related and non-safety-related heat exchange equipment. Various chemicals are used to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the CCW systems. In nuclear plants, these inhibitors have included chromates, nitrites, molybdates, hydrazine, and silicate. In the case of the CCW of some domestic nuclear power plants, there is during the overhaul period, a saturation of ion exchange resin caused by an inhibitor which has high conductivity for an increase in radiation exposure and radioactive waste. The objective of this study is to evaluate the corrosion behavior of structural materials with various corrosion inhibitors. In the present study, more than 50 ppm hydrazine concentration is needed to reduce the corrosion rate of carbon steel to satisfy the CCW operational guidelines. However, if hydrazine is continuously injected into the CCW system, the critical concentration of hydrazine will be lower. Hydrazine might be an alternative corrosion inhibitor for nitrite in the CCW system of nuclear power plant

  13. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  14. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  15. The validation of corrosion inhibitors for ancillary cooling systems at Sizewell B PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, S.J.; Garnsey, R.; Lawson, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Sizewell B has several low temperature ancillary cooling circuits for removing low grade heat. One of the principal circuits is the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS) primarily constructed from carbon steel pipework but also containing stainless steel, titanium, copper and cupronickel components. Linked to the CCWS is another carbon steel system namely the Reserve Ultimate Heat Sink (RUHS) a system unique to Sizewell B providing an independent heat removal capability for the CCWS as a safety back-up. Both systems utilize demineralized water with the addition of an inhibitor to prevent corrosion. The vendor recommended inhibitor namely potassium chromate is highly toxic to marine life and initial discussions with the regulatory authorities indicated that it would be extremely difficult to obtain a discharge consent to cover leakage or potential system purges and dumps associated with maintenance operations. Thus an alternative was sought. Sodium nitrite (anhydrous NaN0 2 )/borax (Na 2 B 4 0 7 1OH 2 0) inhibitor solutions have been used for many years in the power industry for preservation of carbon steel plant and several proprietary formulations are based on this mixture. There has been extensive test work in the UK on this inhibitor for secondary side boiler storage on gas reactors and therefore it was considered a prime candidate for use at Sizewell B. Starting in 1985 a programme of work sponsored by Nuclear Electric plc has been completed by NNC Ltd to compare nitrite/borax with other suitable inhibitors and validate its use for Sizewell B. (authors). 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Study of low cost eco-friendly compounds as corrosion inhibitors for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, I H; Hussain, A; Saini, P A [AMU, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Quraishi, M A [AMU, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    Attempts are made to utilize the aqueous extracts of natural compounds, namely cordia latifolia and curcumin, as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in cooling systems, and their inhibition efficiencies are compared with that of Hydroxyethylidene 1-1 diphosphonic acid (HEDP). HEDP is also blended with aqueous extracts of natural compounds so as to improve their inhibition efficiency. The blowdown of the cooling system is also analysed for environmental factors. (author)

  17. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were compositions range from −65.2 to −80.7‰ for methane, −53.1 to −55.2‰ for ethane is consistent with mainly microbial gas sources, although one value recorded of −35.4‰ for propane

  18. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  19. Influence of performance characteristic of a gaseous fuel supply system on hydrocarbon emissions of a dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Zhong, H.; Hao, S.H. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Automobile Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of the gaseous fuel supply and its influence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of dual-fuel engines have been investigated. A new design of manifold respirators with mixers is also presented in the paper. The design of the gaseous fuel supply system has a great influence on HC emissions in the dual-fuel engine at light load. The problem of scavenging is discussed and solved by using the manifold respirators in the dual-fuel engine. It performs the function of retarding the gaseous fuel entry timing from the moment of intake valve opening, and its delaying effects have been measured and tested. Experimental results show that the manifold respirator gives the best performance in reducing HC emissions compared with a common pipe mixer and a respirator with bo miser. In addition, the mixing effects are sensitive to the mixer configuration. (Author)

  20. THE NEW METALL-BETA-LACTAMASE’S INHIBITOR EFFICACY IN A MODEL SYSTEM IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Afinogenova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterobacteriaceae antibiotics resistance depends on a combination of several mechanisms, such as the beta-lactamases overproduction, the microbial cell reduction outer membrane permeability (usually associated with loss of protein porin, the presence of efflux systems. Particularly noteworthy are the metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL whose presence causes resistance of gram-negative microorganisms to all beta-lactam antibiotics (in some cases except aztreonam. Currently there are no MBL inhibitors permitted for use in the clinic. The effective inhibitors search for carbapenem-resistant bacteria’ MBL authorized for use in the clinic and reinforcing effects of carbapenems, served as the basis for the present study. The work was carried out in three stages: 1 creating a model system using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, to evaluate the increasing of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of carbapenems against previously sensitive Gram-negative microorganisms strains in vitro; 2 evaluation of MBL promising inhibitors in the presence of the same standard enzyme reagent; 3 evaluation of the ability of the identified inhibitors increase the carbapenems effects against clinical isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms producing MBL, in terms of the their MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index. The checkerboard array was modified to evaluate the combined use of carbapenems and potential MBL inhibitor — a drug from the group of bisphosphonates — etidronic acid. Using a standard enzyme reagent metallo-beta-lactamase P. aeruginosa recombinant expressed in E. coli, we created a model system that allows to assess the prospects of new inhibitors MBL gram-negative microorganisms. A dose-dependent effect of increasing the meropenem level MIC from reagent MBL quantity in a model system against previously antibiotic sensitive reference strains of microorganisms was

  1. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  2. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic

  3. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  4. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  5. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  8. The effects of GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the renal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Mogensen, Carl Erik; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects an estimated 20%-40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Key modifiable risk factors for DN are albuminuria, anaemia, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, together with lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. Early detection and treatment of these risk factors can prevent DN or slow its progression, and may even induce remission in some patients. DN is generally preceded by albuminuria, which frequently remains elevated despite treatment in patients with T2DM. Optimal treatment and prevention of DN may require an early, intensive, multifactorial approach, tailored to simultaneously target all modifiable risk factors. Regular monitoring of renal function, including urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate, is critical for following any disease progression and making treatment adjustments. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lower blood glucose levels without additional risk of hypoglycaemia, and may also reduce albuminuria. Further investigation of the potential renal benefits of DPP-4 and SGLT2 inhibitors is underway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  10. Equine protease inhibitor system as a marker for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinocur Myriam E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease inhibitor system (PI was investigated to ascertain if it can be used as a marker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in thoroughbred horses. Serum samples were taken from healthy thoroughbreds (n = 13 and those diagnosed as having COPD (n = 24 or inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n = 38 as well as from 3,600 undiagnosed thoroughbred horses. PI allelic and genotypic frequencies were estimated using protein electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The four groups of horses showed high genotypic similarity and none of the observed alleles or genotypes of the equine PI system were found to be associated with COPD.

  11. Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I, sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  12. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  13. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  14. Performance comparison of a refrigerator system using R134a and hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR134a) with different expansion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Izzudin; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the performance of refrigerator system using working fluid between R134a refrigerant and HCR134a as hydrocarbon refrigerant for substitution of R134a. The use of capillary tube (CT) 1.5 m with HCR134a showed that slightly better COP than among the others, due to the lower pressure of condenser, conversely thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) showed that better COP than among the others with R134a. COP of CT 1.25 m and CT 1.5 m using HCR134a increase about 42.89% and 18.09% compared to R134a, where the electric current of refrigerator system decrease about 11.63% and 10.98%. However, the COP of HCR134a with CT 2.7 m and TEV were obtained lower than R134a about 16.2% and 17.06% and the use of electric current is higher than R134a about 12.98% and 16.5%. The use of HCR134a provides a higher refrigeration effect than R134a about 66.71%-88.27% for various types of expansion devices. The results confirmed that HCR134a could be an alternative refrigerant for replacement of R134a refrigerant.

  15. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  16. In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Brunero Bronzin, M.

    2005-01-01

    It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with

  17. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  18. Development of a biotreatment system for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, B.R.; Kurisko, P.R.; Ensley, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Inadvertent release of fuels and solvents into soil has resulted in groundwater contamination across the United States. This paper reports on the development of biologically based systems for treating mixtures of chemical contaminants which often requires knowledge of both degradative pathways and interactions between individual chemicals. These issues may necessitate the use of specialized microorganisms and/or treatment systems designed to overcome these limitations. One strategy for the treatment of chemical mixtures which cannot be source separated, such as contaminated groundwater, is a modular system to sequentially biodegrade groups of compatible chemicals. A two-stage bioreactor system was constructed for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and TCE. This treatment system is undergoing development for a field pilot demonstration. Successful implementation of this system should result in significant cost and time savings compared to competitive technologies

  19. Phase transitions on (liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + light aromatic hydrocarbon) ternary systems at T = (563, 573, and 583) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Masaki; Inamori, Yoshiki; Shimoyama, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mixtures of (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + light aromatic hydrocarbon) are focused. ► Phase transition pressures on (liquid + liquid) equilibria were measured. ► Effects of aromatic hydrocarbons on phase transition pressure are investigated. ► Phase transition pressures are discussed using dielectric constants of hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Phase transitions for (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + light aromatic hydrocarbon) ternary systems are observed at their (liquid + liquid) equilibria at T = (563, 573, and 583) K and (8.6 to 25.0) MPa. The phase transition pressures at T = (563, 573, and 583) K were measured for the five species of light aromatic hydrocarbons, o-, m-, p-xylenes, ethylbenzene, and mesitylene. The measurements of the phase transition pressures were carried out by changing the feed mole fraction of water and 1-methylnaphthalene in water free, respectively. Effects of the feed mole fraction of water on the phase transition pressures are very small. Increasing the feed mole fraction of 1-methylnaphthalene results in decreasing the phase transition pressures at constant temperature. The slopes depending on the feed mole fraction for 1-methylnaphthalene at the phase transition pressures are decreased with increasing temperature for (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + p-xylene), (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + o-xylene), and (water + 1-methylnaphthalene + mesitylene) systems. For xylene isomers, the highest and lowest of the phase transition pressures are obtained in the case of p- and o-xylenes, respectively. The phase transition pressures for ethylbenzene are lower than those in the case of p-xylene. The similar phase transition pressures are given for p-xylene and mesitylene.

  20. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 1, 1980-July 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results reported here include new measurements on the four systems proposed for study last year. These are pulse radiolysis of alkyl iodide and perfluoaroalkyl iodide systems; gamma radiolysis of H 2 -CO mixtures; photochemistry and mass spectrometry of propane. The work accomplished is described

  1. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogues, potential chemotherapeutic agents, and substrates/inhibitors in various enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikowski, T.; Bretner, M.; Felczak, K.; Drabikowska, A.; Shugar, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text. Pyrimidine nucleoside analogues are an important class of compounds with antimetabolic (antitumor, antiparasitic and antiviral) properties. The synthesis of thiated nucleoside and nucleotide analogues, determination of structures, conformation and dissociation constans, their potential chemotherapeutic activities, and their substrate/inhibitor properties in various enzyme systems, with emphasis on enzymes related to chemotherapeutic activities, were investigated. In the series of thionated inhibitors of thymidylate synthase (TS), potential antitumor agents, regioselective syntheses were elaborated for 2- and 4-thio, and 2,4-dithio derivatives of 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd), 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), and several other 5-fluoro-, 5-bromo- and 5-trifluoromethyl congeners, and the 2-thio derivatives of FdUrd and its α-anomer, which proved to be selective agents with high cytotoxicities correlated with the inhibitory activities vs TS of their corresponding 5'-monophosphates. Regioslective syntheses were also elaborated for 2'-deoxycytidin e and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycitidine derivatives. Solution conformation of these nucleosides were deduced from high-resolution (500 MHz) 1 H NMR spectra. Substrate/inhibitor properties of 2-thio-2'-deoxycitidine (S 2 dCyd) and 5-fluoro-2-thio-2'-deoxycitidine ( S 2 FdCyd) with respect to human leukemic spleen deoxycytidine kinase have been examined. Both are substrates, and also good inhibitors, of phosphorylation of 2'-deoxycitidine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Particular attention was directed to the specificity of t he NTP phosphate donor for several nucleoside kinases, and procedures have been developed for distinguishing between ATP and other NTP donors, a problem of importance in chemotherapy with nucleoside analogues. Biological properties of the newly synthetize d thiated pyrimidine 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluoronucleosides, S 2 ,3'-FddUrd and S 2 ,3'-FddThd, were also investigated. Thiated 3'-fluoronucleosides were moderate

  2. Toward Understanding the Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the Immune System: Current Progress and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hanieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is regulated by distinct signaling pathways that control the development and function of the immune cells. Accumulating evidence suggest that ligation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr, an environmentally responsive transcription factor, results in multiple cross talks that are capable of modulating these pathways and their downstream responsive genes. Most of the immune cells respond to such modulation, and many inflammatory response-related genes contain multiple xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs boxes upstream. Active research efforts have investigated the physiological role of Ahr in inflammation and autoimmunity using different animal models. Recently formed paradigm has shown that activation of Ahr by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM prompts the differentiation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and inhibits T helper (Th-17 suggesting that Ahr is an innovative therapeutic strategy for autoimmune inflammation. These promising findings generate a basis for future clinical practices in humans. This review addresses the current knowledge on the role of Ahr in different immune cell compartments, with a particular focus on inflammation and autoimmunity.

  3. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The development of an “artificial photosynthetic system” (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as “architecture-directing agents” for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

  4. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental work was in progress during the past year on three systems: investigation of gas phase OH radical reactions using the pulse radiolysis method; studies of the radiolytic oxidation of propane; and an investigation of photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF 3 I-CH 3 I mixtures. In addition, data analysis and interpretation of previously obtained results on H 2 /CO systems was under way. Progress made in these areas is described

  5. Design of Electrical System for Inhibitor Injection Pump’s Motor PAQ 01/02/03 RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, M.; Teguh Sulistyo; Kiswanto; Santosa Pujiarta

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the water quality related to the growth of scale, corrosion and micro-organism in the PA01 BR01 and PA02 BR 02 piping system of secondary cooling system of RSG-GAS, electrical systems for motor of inhibitor injection pump PAQ 01/02/03, including motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP01, motor control system circuit for NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP01, motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 and control system circuit for stir pump RW02 have been designed. Motor control system circuit for pump PAQ02 AP01 which attached at the inhibitor tank will operate when conductivity control CQ01 indicates blow down condition and pump motor PAQ02 AP02 is not operate when level control CL02 indicates minimum level. This design is expected that, NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP 01 will operate continuously and inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 will operate automatically. (author)

  6. Aromatic hydrocarbons in a controlled ecological life support system during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Yu, Qingni; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xinming

    2018-01-01

    Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene were found to decrease exponentially from 7.91±3.72, 37.2±35.2, 100.8±111.7 and 46.8±44.1μg/m 3 to 0.39±0.34, 1.4±0.5, 2.8±0.7 and 2.1±0.9μg/m 3 , with half-lives of 25.3, 44.8, 44.7 and 69.3days, respectively. Toluene to benzene ratios indicated emission from construction materials or furniture to be a dominant source for toluene, and concentrations of toluene fluctuated during the experiment largely due to the changing sorption by growing plants. The cancer and no-cancer risks based on exposure pattern of the crews were insignificant in the end of the experiment. This study also suggested that using low-emitting materials/furniture, growing plants and purifying air actively would all help to lower hazardous air pollutants inside CELSS. Broadly, the results would benefit not only the development of safe and comfort life support systems for space exploration but also the understanding of interactions between human and the total environment in closed systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Daliao River water system in dry season, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; He Mengchang; Yang Zhifeng; Lin Chunye; Quan Xiangchun; Men Bing

    2009-01-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 29 surface water, 29 suspended particulate matter (SPM), 28 sediment, and 10 pore water samples from Daliao River water system in dry season. The total PAH concentration ranged from 570.2 to 2318.6 ng L -1 in surface water, from 151.0 to 28483.8 ng L -1 in SPM, from 102.9 to 3419.2 ng g -1 in sediment and from 6.3 to 46.4 μg l -1 in pore water. The concentration of dissolved PAHs was higher than that of particulate PAHs at many sites, but the opposite results were generally observed at the sites of wastewater discharge. The soluble level of PAHs was much higher in the pore water than in the water column. Generally, the water column of the polluted branch streams contained higher content of PAHs than their mainstream. The environmental behaviors and fates of PAHs were examined according to some physicochemical parameters such as pH, organic carbon, SPM content, water content and grain size in sediments. Results showed that organic carbon was the primary factor controlling the distribution of the PAHs in the Daliao River water system. Partitioning of PAHs between sediment solid phase and pore water phase was studied, and the relationship between log K oc and log K ow of PAHs on some sediments and the predicted values was compared. PAHs other than naphthalene and acenaphthylene would be accumulated largely in the sediment of the Dalaio River water system. The sources of PAHs were evaluated employing ratios of specific PAHs compounds and different wastewater discharge sources, indicating that combustion was the main source of PAHs input.

  8. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 1, 1977--August 1, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Progress of experimental work is reported on pulse radiolysis of simple alkyl halides in the gas phase, gas phase radiolysis of CHF 3 -CH 3 I mixtures, gamma radiolysis of the system CO/H 2 , and improvements in equipment and facilities

  9. Investigation of the system aluminum soap-hydrocarbon by the dielectric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovaya, V.I.; Dagaev, V.A.; Mankovskaya, N.K.

    The plots of the dielectric parameters (epsilon, tg delta) vs. temperature, obtained during heating of aluminum disoap suspensions in organic solvents, show 2 maxima. The first is associated with the gelation process in the system, and the second with the transition of the colloidal solution into a true one. (11 refs.)

  10. Peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors abrogate local and systemic toxicity induced by Echis ocellatus (saw-scaled) snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana Silvia; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-06-15

    The ability of two peptidomimetic hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, Batimastat and Marimastat, to abrogate toxic and proteinase activities of the venom of Echis ocellatus from Cameroon and Ghana was assessed. Since this venom largely relies for its toxicity on the action of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the hypothesis was raised that toxicity could be largely eliminated by using SVMP inhibitors. Both hydroxamate molecules inhibited local and pulmonary hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, and proteinase activities of the venoms in conditions in which venom and inhibitors were incubated prior to the test. In addition, the inhibitors prolonged the time of death of mice receiving 4 LD 50 s of venom by the intravenous route. Lower values of IC 50 were observed for in vitro and local hemorrhagic activities than for systemic effects. When experiments were performed in conditions that simulated the actual circumstances of snakebite, i.e. by administering the inhibitor after envenoming, Batimastat completely abrogated local hemorrhage if injected immediately after venom. Moreover, it was also effective at inhibiting lethality and defibrinogenation when venom and inhibitor were injected by the intraperitoneal route. Results suggest that these, and possibly other, metalloproteinase inhibitors may become an effective adjunct therapy in envenomings by E. ocellatus when administered at the anatomic site of venom injection rapidly after the bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  12. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    To improve phytoremediation processes, multiple techniques that comprise different aspects of contaminant removal from soils have been combined. Using creosote as a test contaminant, a multi-process phytoremediation system composed of physical (volatilization), photochemical (photooxidation) and microbial remediation, and phytoremediation (plant-assisted remediation) processes was developed. The techniques applied to realize these processes were land-farming (aeration and light exposure), introduction of contaminant degrading bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and plant growth of contaminant-tolerant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Over a 4-month period, the average efficiency of removal of 16 priority PAHs by the multi-process remediation system was twice that of land-farming, 50% more than bioremediation alone, and 45% more than phytoremediation by itself. Importantly, the multi-process system was capable of removing most of the highly hydrophobic, soil-bound PAHs from soil. The key elements for successful phytoremediation were the use of plant species that have the ability to proliferate in the presence of high levels of contaminants and strains of PGPR that increase plant tolerance to contaminants and accelerate plant growth in heavily contaminated soils. The synergistic use of these approaches resulted in rapid and massive biomass accumulation of plant tissue in contaminated soil, putatively providing more active metabolic processes, leading to more rapid and more complete removal of PAHs. - Persistent PAH contaminants in soils can be removed more completely and rapidly by using multiple remediation processes

  13. Transport and fluxes of terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a small mountain river and submarine canyon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing-Sian; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Liu, James T

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the Gaoping River were investigated in the wet and dry seasons. PAH characteristics allowed us to trace the particulate matter transported in a river-sea system containing a small mountain river, continental shelf, and submarine canyon. PAH signatures of the Gaoping River showed that particles were rapidly transported from the high mountain to the Gaoping coastal areas in the wet season, even arriving at the deep ocean via the Gaoping Submarine Canyon. By contrast, in the dry season, the particles were delivered quite slowly and included mostly pyrogenic contaminants. The annual riverine flux estimates for PAHs were 2241 kg in the Gaoping river-sea system. Only 18.0 kg were associated with the dissolved phase; the rest was bound onto particles. The fluxes caused by typhoons and their effects accounted for 20.2% of the dissolved and 68.4% of the particulate PAH fluxes from the river. Normalized partition coefficients for organic carbon suggested that PAHs were rigid on the particles. Distinct source characteristics were evident for PAHs on riverine suspended particles and coastal surface sediments: the particles in the wet season (as background signals) were similar to petrogenic sources, whereas the particles in the dry season had characteristics of coal burning and vehicular emissions. The sediments in the northwestern shelf were similar to pyrogenic sources (including vehicular emissions and coal and biomass burning), whereas the sediments in the canyon and southeastern shelf arose from mixed sources, although some diesel signature was also evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  15. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    hydrocarbons in a contaminated soil. This knowledge can enhance the selection and determine the duration of a proper remediation strategy. Information will be provided on the correlation of the results from this protocol to the results of chemical loss in contaminated soil bioremediation systems. This research has been completed, the data is currently being analyzed and the results will be fully evaluated by early 2002. As a result, the protocol and potential applications to field decisions will be presented and discussed. (author)

  16. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Bargoni, G.; Bretti, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The monitoring of the site conditions was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes (levels, concentrations, etc.) related both to seasonal variations and to the pilot tests. The groundwater is located in a highly heterogeneous aquifer, with a saturated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 x 10 -5 m/s. The seepage velocity is extremely low, with a mean value around 1.3 mm/d. This results in a long residence time and limited volumes per time unit to be treated. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 15 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms

  17. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglietto, I.; Bargoni, G.; Bretti, L.L. [Studio aglietto s.r.l. (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The monitoring of the site conditions was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes (levels, concentrations, etc.) related both to seasonal variations and to the pilot tests. The groundwater is located in a highly heterogeneous aquifer, with a saturated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 x 10{sup -5} m/s. The seepage velocity is extremely low, with a mean value around 1.3 mm/d. This results in a long residence time and limited volumes per time unit to be treated. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 15 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms

  18. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India))

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  19. Development of a fibre-optic sensor system for the continuous monitoring of a sanitary landfill for low-halogenated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Baumann, T.; Gahr, A.; Mueller-Ackermann, E.; Panne, U.; Niessner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a mobile fibre-optic sensor system for monitoring the ground water aquifer in the area of a landfill. Not only are the analytical methods to be developed further; but the system's performance in the field is to be tested as well. As a large part of knowledge on the long-time safety of mineral sealing systems of sanitary landfills derives from damage events, a measuring area was additionally established at the Augsburg-Nord landfill. This measuring area is to permit monitoring of the sealing also during operation and reclamation. Within the measuring area and in the environs of the landfill, both conventional sensors for temperature, conductibility, etc., and the specially developed fibre-optic sensors for on-line in-situ monitoring will be used. (orig.) [de

  20. Modeling flows of heterogeneous media in pipelines when substantiating operating conditions of hydrocarbon field transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, S. M.; Novitskiy, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The works of researchers at VNIIgaz, Giprovostokneft, Kuibyshev NIINP, Grozny Petroleum Institute, etc., are devoted to modeling heterogeneous medium flows in pipelines under laboratory conditions. In objective consideration, the empirical relationships obtained and the calculation procedures for pipelines transporting multiphase products are a bank of experimental data on the problem of pipeline transportation of multiphase systems. Based on the analysis of the published works, the main design requirements for experimental installations designed to study the flow regimes of gas-liquid flows in pipelines were formulated, which were taken into account by the authors when creating the experimental stand. The article describes the results of experimental studies of the flow regimes of a gas-liquid mixture in a pipeline, and also gives a methodological description of the experimental installation. Also the article describes the software of the experimental scientific and educational stand developed with the participation of the authors.

  1. A high volume sampling system for isotope determination of volatile halocarbons and hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bahlmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs can provide valuable information on their sources and fate not deducible from mixing ratios alone. In particular the reported carbon stable isotope ratios of chloromethane and bromomethane from different sources cover a δ13C-range of almost 100‰ making isotope ratios a very promising tool for studying the biogeochemistry of these compounds. So far, the determination of the isotopic composition of C1 and C2 halocarbons others than chloromethane is hampered by their low mixing ratios.

    In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of C1 and C2 halocarbons with mixing ratios as low as 1 pptv (i a field suitable cryogenic high volume sampling system and (ii a chromatographic set up for processing these samples have been developed and validated. The sampling system was tested at two different sampling sites, an urban and a coastal location in Northern Germany. The average δ13C-values for bromomethane at the urban site were −42.9 ± 1.1‰ and agreed well with previously published results. But at the coastal site bromomethane was substantially enriched in 13C by almost 10‰. Less pronounced differences were observed for chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chloromethane. We suggest that these differences are related to the turnover of these compounds in ocean surface waters. Furthermore we report first carbon isotope ratios for iodomethane (−40.4‰ to −79.8‰, bromoform (−13.8‰ to 22.9‰, and other halocarbons.

  2. Portable electrochemical system using screen-printed electrodes for monitoring corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squissato, André L; Silva, Weberson P; Del Claro, Augusto T S; Rocha, Diego P; Dornellas, Rafael M; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a portable electrochemical system for the continuous monitoring of corrosion inhibitors in a wide range of matrices including ethanol, seawater and mineral oil following simple dilution of the samples. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the sensing of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,5-thiadiazole (DMCT), an important corrosion inhibitor. Disposable screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) associated with a portable batch-injection cell are proposed for the amperometric determination of DMCT following sample dilution with electrolyte (95% v/v ethanol + 5% v/v 0.1molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution). This electrolyte was compatible with all samples and the organic-resistant SPGE could be used continuously for more than 200 injections (100µL injected at 193µLs -1 ) free from effects of adsorption of DMCT, which have a great affinity for metallic surfaces, and dissolution of the other reported SPGE inks which has hampered prior research efforts. Fast (180h -1 ) and precise responses (RSD < 3% n = 10) with a detection limit of 0.3µmolL -1 was obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was attested through recovery tests (93-106%) and the reasonable agreement of results of DMCT concentrations in samples analyzed by both proposed and spectrophotometric (comparative) methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrocarbon-Seeded Ignition System for Small Spacecraft Thrusters Using Ionic Liquid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Merkley, Daniel P.; Eilers, Shannon D.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    "Green" propellants based on Ionic-liquids (ILs) like Ammonium DiNitramide and Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate have recently been developed as reduced-hazard replacements for hydrazine. Compared to hydrazine, ILs offer up to a 50% improvement in available density-specific impulse. These materials present minimal vapor hazard at room temperature, and this property makes IL's potentially advantageous for "ride-share" launch opportunities where hazards introduced by hydrazine servicing are cost-prohibitive. Even though ILs present a reduced hazard compared to hydrazine, in crystalline form they are potentially explosive and are mixed in aqueous solutions to buffer against explosion. Unfortunately, the high water content makes IL-propellants difficult to ignite and currently a reliable "coldstart" capability does not exist. For reliable ignition, IL-propellants catalyst beds must be pre-heated to greater than 350 C before firing. The required preheat power source is substantial and presents a significant disadvantage for SmallSats where power budgets are extremely limited. Design and development of a "micro-hybrid" igniter designed to act as a "drop-in" replacement for existing IL catalyst beds is presented. The design requires significantly lower input energy and offers a smaller overall form factor. Unlike single-use "squib" pyrotechnic igniters, the system allows the gas generation cycle to be terminated and reinitiated on demand.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates the toxicity of Paclobutrazol on the digestive system of zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Der; Chen, Guan-Ting; Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Wu, Chang-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ), a trazole-containing fungicide and plant growth retardant, has been widely used for over 30 years to regulate plant growth and promote early fruit setting. Long-term usage of PBZ in agriculture and natural environments has resulted in residual PBZ in the soil and water. Chronic exposure to waterborne PBZ can cause various physiological effects in fish, including hepatic steatosis, antioxidant activity, and disruption of spermatogenesis. We have previously shown that PBZ also affects the rates of zebrafish embryonic survival and hatching, and causes developmental failure of the head skeleton and eyes; here, we further show that PBZ has embryonic toxic effects on digestive organs of zebrafish, and describe the underlying mechanisms. PBZ treatment of embryos resulted in dose-dependent morphological and functional abnormalities of the digestive organs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to show that PBZ strongly induces cyp1a1 expression in the digestive system, and slightly induces ahr2 expression in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of ahr2 with morpholino oligonucleotides prevents PBZ toxicity. Thus, the toxic effect of PBZ on digestive organs is mediated by AhR2, as was previously reported for retene and TCDD. These findings have implications for understanding the potential toxicity of PBZ during embryogenesis, and thus the potential impact of fungicides on public health and the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel forward osmosis system in landfill leachate treatment for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and for direct fertigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Niu, Aping; Lu, Chun-Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Junaid, Muhammad; Strauss, Phyllis R; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Xiao; Ren, Yi-Wei; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3 ) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells. The water recovery rate was improved using the current protocol up to 86.6% and 91.6% by both the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode and the forward osmosis (FO) mode. Water flux increased with the increasing DS concentrations, but solution velocities decreased with the operation time. Toxicity tests revealed that the M-LL treated by NH 4 HCO 3 had no toxic effect on zebrafish and human cells. Moreover, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the transgenic zebrafish Tg(cyp1a:gfp) induced by PAHs was very weak compared to the effects induced by untreated M-LL. Since the diluted DS met local safety requirements of liquid fertilizer, it could be directly applied as the liquid fertilizer for fertigation. In conclusion, this novel FO system using NH 4 HCO 3 as the DS provides a cheap and efficient protocol to effectively remove PAHs and other pollutants in LL, and the diluted DS can be directly applied to crops as a liquid fertilizer, indicating that this technique is effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of different types of LL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the water–SPM–sediment system of Lake Chaohu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ning [MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao [MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jorgensen, Sven Erik [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Institute A, University of Copenhagen, University Park 2, DK 2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Xu, Fu-Liu, E-mail: xufl@urban.pku.edu.cn [MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Xiao-Li, E-mail: zhaoxiaoli_zxl@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The residual levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water, suspended particular matter (SPM) and sediment from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (GC–MS). The spatial–temporal distributions and the SPM–water partition of PAHs and their influencing factors were investigated. The potential sources and contributions of PAHs in the sediment were estimated by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and probabilistic stable isotopic analysis (PSIA). The results showed that the average residual levels of total PAHs (PAH16) in the water, SPM and sediment were 170.7 ± 70.8 ng/L, 210.7 ± 160.7 ng/L and 908.5 ± 1878.1 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The same spatial distribution trend of PAH16 in the water, SPM and sediment was found from high to low: river inflows > western lake > eastern lake > water source area. There was an obvious seasonal trend of PAH16 in the water, while no obvious seasonal trend was found in the SPM. The residues and distributions of PAHs in the water, SPM and sediment relied heavily on carbon content. Significant Pearson correlations were found between LogK{sub oc} and LogK{sub ow} as well as some hydro-meteorological factors. Three major sources of PAHs including coal and biomass combustions, and vehicle emissions were identified. - Highlights: • Highest residual level of total PAHs in the SPM was detected. • Similar spatial trend of PAH16 in the water, SPM and sediment. • PAHs distributions in the water-sediment system relied heavily on organic carbon. • Correlations between LogK{sub oc} and LogK{sub ow} as well as hydro-meteorological factors. • Coal and biomass combustions and vehicle emissions were three major sources of PAHs.

  7. Childhood exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to epigenetic modifications and impaired systemic immunity in T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K. M.; Walker, A. I.; Kohli, A.; Garcia, M.; Syed, A.; McDonald-Hyman, C.; Noth, E. M.; Mann, J. K.; Pratt, B.; Balmes, J.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Eisen, E. A.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Evidence suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases atopy; it is unclear how PAH exposure is linked to increased severity of atopic diseases. Objective We hypothesized that ambient PAH exposure is linked to impairment of immunity in atopic children (defined as children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis) from Fresno, California, an area with elevated ambient PAHs. Methods We recruited 256 subjects from Fresno, CA. Ambient PAH concentrations (ng/m3) were measured using a spatial-temporal regression model over multiple time periods. Asthma diagnosis was determined by current NHLBI criteria. Phenotyping and functional immune measurements were performed from isolated cells. For epigenetic measurements, DNA was isolated and pyrosequenced. Results We show that higher average PAH exposure was significantly associated with impaired Treg function and increased methylation in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) locus (P < 0.05), conditional on atopic status. These epigenetic modifications were significantly linked to differential protein expression of FOXP3 (P < 0.001). Methylation was associated with cellular functional changes, specifically Treg dysfunction, and an increase in total plasma IgE levels. Protein expression of IL-10 decreased and IFN-γ increased as the extent of PAH exposure increased. The strength of the associations generally increased as the time window for average PAH exposure increased from 24 hr to 1 year, suggesting more of a chronic response. Significant associations with chronic PAH exposure and immune outcomes were also observed in subjects with allergic rhinitis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased ambient PAH exposure is associated with impaired systemic immunity and epigenetic modifications in a key locus involved in atopy: FOXP3, with a higher impact on atopic children. The results suggest that increased atopic clinical symptoms in children

  8. A microliter-scale high-throughput screening system with quantum-dot nanoprobes for amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Ishigaki

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid β protein (Aβ is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and therefore inhibitory substances for Aβ aggregation may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential for AD. Here we report a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors based on fluorescence microscopy-imaging technology with quantum-dot Nanoprobes. This screening system could be analyzed with a 5-µl sample volume when a 1536-well plate was used, and the inhibitory activity could be estimated as half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50. We attempted to comprehensively screen Aβ aggregation inhibitors from 52 spices using this system to assess whether this novel screening system is actually useful for screening inhibitors. Screening results indicate that approximately 90% of the ethanolic extracts from the spices showed inhibitory activity for Aβ aggregation. Interestingly, spices belonging to the Lamiaceae, the mint family, showed significantly higher activity than the average of tested spices. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the main inhibitory compound from Saturejahortensis, summer savory, a member of the Lamiaceae, using this system, and revealed that the main active compound was rosmarinic acid. These results demonstrate that this novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system could be applied to the actual screening of Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Since this system can analyze at a microscopic scale, it is likely that further minimization of the system would easily be possible such as protein microarray technology.

  9. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was applied to provide the first large scale dataset of freely dissolved concentrations for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Baltic Sea sediment cores. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were used for ex-situ equilibrium sampling followed...

  10. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arrieta

    Full Text Available The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy. From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%.

  11. Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor-Trypsin Complex as a Detection System for Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Jimo; Nathans, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) binds to trypsin and anhydrotrypsin (an enzymatically inactive derivative of trypsin) with affinities of 6 x 10-14 and 1.1 x 10-13 M, respectively. We have taken advantage of the high affinity and specificity of this binding reaction to develop a protein tagging system in which biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin is used as the reagent to detect recombinant fusion proteins into which BPTI has been inserted. Two proteins, opsin and growth hormone, were used as targets for insertional mutagenesis with BPTI. In each case, both domains of the fusion protein appear to be correctly folded. The fusion proteins can be specifically and efficiently detected by biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin, as demonstrated by staining of transfected cells, protein blotting, affinity purification, and a mobility shift assay in SDS/polyacrylamide gels.

  12. Role of the inhibitors of angiotensin renin system on the DNA integrity of irradiated spermatozoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadella, Maria A.; Mansano, Naira S.; Schwarz, Franciele C.; Viani, Gustavo A.; Chies, Agnaldo B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation action in the testes can significantly affect the reproductive capacity due to oxidative stress generated; phenomenon in which there is evidence of involvement of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS). This study evaluated the role of AT1 receptor inhibitors, in mitigating the radioinduced DNA damage sperm from semen samples left vas deferens. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: Control, 5Gy, Telmisartan (12mg/kg/day) and Losartan (34mg/kg/2x/day), 5 Gy + Telmisartan and 5 Gy + Losartan. The results showed increase in the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA in irradiated groups when compared to controls, which was not reversed in the irradiated and treated groups. The radiation of 5Gy (single dose) affected the DNA-protein complex of the sperm and the treatments did not influence in reversing this damage, considering the experimental protocol used. (author)

  13. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum systems and hydrocarbon accumulation models in the Santos Basin, SP, Brazil; Sistemas petroliferos e modelos de acumulacao de hidrocarbonetos na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung Kiang; Assine, Mario Luis; Correa, Fernando Santos; Tinen, Julio Setsuo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Estudos de Bacias]. E-mails: chang@rc.unesp.br; assine@rc.unesp.br; fscorrea@rc.unesp.br; jstinen@rc.unesp.br; Vidal, Alexandre Campane; Koike, Luzia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo]. E-mails: vidal@ige.unicamp.br; luzia@iqm.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Santos Basin was formed by rifting process during Mesozoic Afro-American separation. Sediment accumulation initiated with fluvial-lacustrine deposits, passing to evaporitic stage until reaching marginal basin stages. The analysis of hydrocarbon potential of Santos Basin identified two petroleum systems: Guaratiba-Guaruja and Itajai-Acu-Ilhabela. The Guaratiba Formation is less known in the Santos Basin because of small number of wells that have penetrated the rift section. By comparison with Campos Basin, hydrocarbons are of saline lacustrine origin deposited in Aptian age. Analogous to Campos Basin the major source rock is of saline-lacustrine origin, which has been confirmed from geochemical analyses of oil samples recovered from the various fields. These analyses also identified marine source rock contribution, indicating the Itajai-Acu source rock went through oil-window, particularly in structural lows generated by halokynesis. Models of hydrocarbon accumulation consider Guaratiba Formacao as the major source rock for shallow carbonate reservoirs of Guaruja Formacao and for late Albian to Miocene turbidites, as well as siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs of the rift phase. Migration occurs along salt window and through carrier-beds. The seal rock is composed of shales and limestones intercalated with reservoir facies of the post-rift section and by thick evaporites overlying rift section, especially in the deeper water. In the shallow portion, shale inter-tongued with reservoir rocks is the main seal rock. The hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the central-north portion of the basin is caused by overburden of a thick Senonian section. Traps can be structural (rollovers and turtle), stratigraphic (pinch-outs) and mixed origins (pinch-outs of turbidites against salt domes). (author)

  15. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  16. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  17. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  19. Combination therapy with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor telmisartan and serine protease inhibitor camostat mesilate provides further renoprotection in a rat chronic kidney disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Narita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that camostat mesilate (CM had renoprotective and antihypertensive effects in rat CKD models. In this study, we examined if CM has a distinct renoprotective effect from telmisartan (TE, a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS inhibitor, on the progression of CKD. We evaluated the effect of CM (400 mg/kg/day and/or TE (10 mg/kg/day on renal function, oxidative stress, renal fibrosis, and RAS components in the adenine-induced rat CKD model following 5-weeks treatment period. The combination therapy with CM and TE significantly decreased the adenine-induced increase in serum creatinine levels compared with each monotherapy, although all treatment groups showed similar reduction in blood pressure. Similarly, adenine-induced elevation in oxidative stress markers and renal fibrosis markers were significantly reduced by the combination therapy relative to each monotherapy. Furthermore, the effect of the combination therapy on plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC was similar to that of TE monotherapy, and CM had no effect on both PRA and PAC, suggesting that CM has a distinct pharmacological property from RAS inhibition. Our findings indicate that CM could be a candidate drug for an add-on therapy for CKD patients who had been treated with RAS inhibitors.

  20. Acute renal failure with sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Analysis of the FDA adverse event report system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, A; Heyman, S N; Matok, I; Stokar, J; Muszkat, M; Szalat, A

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been proposed that these agents could induce acute renal failure (ARF) under certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association between SGLT2-inhibitors and ARF in the FDA adverse event report system (FAERS) database. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to FAERS between January 2013 and September 2016. ARF cases were identified using a structured medical query. Medications were identified using both brand and generic names. During the period evaluated, 18,915 reports (out of a total of 3,832,015 registered in FAERS) involved the use of SGLT2-inhibitors. SGLT2-inhibitors were reportedly associated with ARF in 1224 of these cases (6.4%), and were defined as the "primary" or "secondary" cause of the adverse event in 96.8% of these cases. The proportion of reports with ARF among reports with SGLT2 inhibitor was almost three-fold higher compared to reports without these drugs (ROR 2.88, 95% CI 2.71-3.05, p SGLT2-inhibitors was significantly greater than the proportion of ARF among cases with T2DM without SGLT2-inhibitors (ROR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.8, p SGLT2-inhibitors, canagliflozin was associated with a higher proportion of reports of renal failure (7.3%), compared to empagliflozin and dapagliflozin (4.7% and 4.8% respectively, p SGLT2-inhibitors are associated with an increase in the proportion of reports of ARF compared to other medications. SGLT2-inhibitor agents may differ from one another in their respective risk for ARF. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolated etioplasts as test system for inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Kobek, K.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated intact chloroplasts of mono- and dicotyledonous plants possess the capacity for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, starting from 14 C-acetate. These can be taken as test system for herbicides affecting fatty acid biosynthesis as shown earlier in our laboratory. The incorporation rates of acetate into the total fatty acids depend on the photosynthetic cofactors ATP and NADPH and amount in the light to 33 kBq (oat) and 39 kBq (pea) per mg chlorophyll x h, whereas in the dark only ca. 10% of these rates are obtained. In order to establish a test system, which is fully independent of light, we isolated and characterized etioplast fractions from oat and pea seedlings with a very high capacity of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis (500 and 400 kBq per mg carotenoids in a 20 min period). This activity was blocked by herbicides such as cycloxydim, sethoxydim and diclofop in a dose-dependent manner. This new test system has the great advantage that one can verify whether inhibitors of photosynthesis affect fatty acid biosynthesis

  2. A new screening method to identify inhibitors of the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system, a novel antibacterial target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideaki; Ura, Atsushi; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamagishi, Jun-Ichi; Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Matsuyama, Shin-Ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    As the Lol system, which is involved in localization of lipoproteins, is essential for Escherichia coli growth and widely conserved among gram-negative bacteria, it is considered to be a promising target for the development of anti-gram-negative bacterial agents. However, no high-throughput screening method has so far been developed to screen for Lol system inhibitors. By combining three assay systems (anucleate cell blue assay, Lpp assay, and LolA-dependent release inhibition assay) and a drug susceptibility test, we have successfully developed a new screening method for identification of compounds that inhibit the Lol system. Using this new screening method, we screened 23,600 in-house chemical compounds and found 2 Lol system inhibitors. We therefore conclude that our new screening method can efficiently identify new antibacterial agents that target the Lol system.

  3. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  4. Redox system and phospholipid metabolism in the kidney of hypertensive rats after FAAH inhibitor URB597 administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Biernacki

    2018-05-01

    In conclusion, because URB597 disturbed the kidney redox system and phospholipid ROS-dependent and enzymatic-dependent metabolism, the administration of this inhibitor may enhance kidney disorders depending on model of hypertension, but may also cause kidney disturbances in control rats. Therefore, further studies are warranted.

  5. Tea Polyphenols as Inhibitors of Furan Formed in the Maillard Model System and Canned Coffee Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K H; Zhang, L; Qiao, X G; Xu, Z X

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the effects of sugars and amino acids on furan formation via the Maillard reaction in low-moisture model systems were investigated. Glucose and alanine are important furan precursors, and the effects of the heating temperature, heating time, and molar ratio of glucose to alanine on furan formation were studied in glucose/alanine model system by response surface methodology. The heating temperature greatly affected furan formation. The maximum furan concentration was obtained with a glucose-to-alanine molar ratio of 0.83:1.00, by heating at 151 °C for 41 min. Tea polyphenols effectively inhibited furan formation in the glucose/alanine model and a canned coffee model. A high inhibition rate of 42.4% ± 1.5% was obtained in the canned coffee model during sterilization procedure with addition of 84 mg (the mass fraction is 12.1%) of tea polyphenols (99%). However, the content of aromatic components in the canned coffee model was significantly reduced at the same time. This study provides evidence for a good furan inhibitor that can be used in food processing. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. An Unusual Case of Systemic Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor with Successful Treatment with ALK-Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivini V. Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an exceedingly rare entity. A 45-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 6-month history of left-sided thigh pain, low back pain, and generalized weakness. PET/CT scan revealed abnormal activity in the liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas. MRI of the abdomen demonstrated two 6-7 cm masses in the liver. MRI of the lumbar spine demonstrated lesions in the L2 to L4 spinous processes, paraspinal muscles, and subcutaneous tissues, as well as an 8 mm enhancing intradural lesion at T11, all thought to be metastatic disease. A biopsy of the liver showed portal tract expansion by a spindle cell proliferation rich in inflammation. Tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for smooth muscle actin and anaplastic lymphoma kinase 1 (ALK1. Tissue from the L5 vertebra showed a process histologically identical to that seen in the liver. FISH analysis of these lesions demonstrated an ALK (2p23 gene rearrangement. The patient was successfully treated with an ALK-inhibitor, Crizotinib, and is now in complete remission. We present the first reported case, to our knowledge, of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with systemic manifestations and ALK translocation. This case is a prime example of how personalized medicine has vastly improved patient care through the use of molecular-targeted therapy.

  7. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  8. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated. PMID:26927113

  9. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  10. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, modulates acid-induced lung and systemic injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; Kudoh, I; Hattori, S; Yamada, H; Ohara, M; Wiener-Kronish, J; Okumura, F

    1997-09-01

    Acid instillation leads to direct lung and to secondary systemic organ injury, probably via activated macrophages and neutrophils. This study investigated the effects of neutrophil elastase on organ injury after unilateral lung acid instillation by administrating a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, before acid instillation. Three groups of anesthetized rabbits (n = 12 in each group) underwent tracheostomies, and instillations were made into their right lower lobe airspaces with either phosphate buffered saline (pH, 7.4; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 12) or HCl (pH, 1.25; volume, 1.2 ml/kg; n = 24). In half of the acid-instilled rabbits, ONO-5046, 10 mg/kg, was given intravenously 15 min before the HCl instillation, and then 10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) of the drug was continuously infused throughout the experiment. The other groups of animals received the vehicle intravenously. Anesthesia and mechanical ventilation was continued for 8 h, whereas arterial blood gases were sampled intermittently. Eight hours after saline or acid instillation, the animals were killed, and their lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and small intestines were harvested. Wet-to-dry weight ratios (W/ D) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays of these organs were done, and elastase assays on the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) obtained from each lung also were performed. Pretreatment with ONO-5046 attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. Significant decreases in W/D of the noninstilled lungs and of the small intestine and normalization of the oxygenation of the experimental animals occurred. The ONO-5046 pretreatment did not affect the neutrophil sequestration in the lungs or in the other organs as determined by neutrophil counts in BALF and by the MPO assays. A neutrophil elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046, administered immediately before acid instillation attenuated the physiologic changes seen in the vehicle-treated animals. The drug blocked neutrophil elastase but

  11. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. From axiomatics of quantum probability to modelling geological uncertainty and management of intelligent hydrocarbon reservoirs with the theory of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia

    2018-04-01

    As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper, we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures. The belief state of a geological expert about the potential of exploring a hydrocarbon reservoir is continuously updated by outputs of measurements, and selection of mathematical models and scales of numerical simulation. These outputs can be treated as signals from the information environment E. The dynamics of the belief state can be modelled with the aid of the theory of open quantum systems: a quantum state (representing uncertainty in beliefs) is dynamically modified through coupling with E; stabilization to a steady state determines a decision strategy. In this paper, the process of decision-making about hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. `explore or not?'; `open new well or not?'; `contaminated by water or not?'; `double or triple porosity medium?') is modelled by using the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation. In our model, this equation describes the evolution of experts' predictions about a geophysical structure. We proceed with the information approach to quantum theory and the subjective interpretation of quantum probabilities (due to quantum Bayesianism). This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  13. From axiomatics of quantum probability to modelling geological uncertainty and management of intelligent hydrocarbon reservoirs with the theory of open quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Khrennikov, Andrei; Oleschko, Klaudia

    2018-04-28

    As was recently shown by the authors, quantum probability theory can be used for the modelling of the process of decision-making (e.g. probabilistic risk analysis) for macroscopic geophysical structures such as hydrocarbon reservoirs. This approach can be considered as a geophysical realization of Hilbert's programme on axiomatization of statistical models in physics (the famous sixth Hilbert problem). In this conceptual paper , we continue development of this approach to decision-making under uncertainty which is generated by complexity, variability, heterogeneity, anisotropy, as well as the restrictions to accessibility of subsurface structures. The belief state of a geological expert about the potential of exploring a hydrocarbon reservoir is continuously updated by outputs of measurements, and selection of mathematical models and scales of numerical simulation. These outputs can be treated as signals from the information environment E The dynamics of the belief state can be modelled with the aid of the theory of open quantum systems: a quantum state (representing uncertainty in beliefs) is dynamically modified through coupling with E ; stabilization to a steady state determines a decision strategy. In this paper, the process of decision-making about hydrocarbon reservoirs (e.g. 'explore or not?'; 'open new well or not?'; 'contaminated by water or not?'; 'double or triple porosity medium?') is modelled by using the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation. In our model, this equation describes the evolution of experts' predictions about a geophysical structure. We proceed with the information approach to quantum theory and the subjective interpretation of quantum probabilities (due to quantum Bayesianism).This article is part of the theme issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  16. Does the concept of Clar's aromatic sextet work for dicationic forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?--testing the model against charged systems in singlet and triplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominikowska, Justyna; Palusiak, Marcin

    2011-07-07

    The concept of Clar's π-electron aromatic sextet was tested against a set of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in neutral and doubly charged forms. Systems containing different types of rings (in the context of Clar's concept) were chosen, including benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and triphenylene. In the case of dicationic structures both singlet and triplet states were considered. It was found that for singlet state dicationic structures the concept of aromatic sextet could be applied and the local aromaticity could be discussed in the context of that model, whereas in the case of triplet state dicationic structures Clar's model rather failed. Different aromaticity indices based on various properties of molecular systems were applied for the purpose of the studies. The discussion about the interdependence between the values of different aromaticity indices applied to neutral and charged systems in singlet and triplet states is also included. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  17. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  18. Inhibitors Alter the Stochasticity of Regulatory Proteins to Force Cells to Switch to the Other State in the Bistable System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Wun-Sin; Lo, Shih-Chiang; Yeh, Chen-Chao; Shu, Che-Chi

    2017-06-30

    The cellular behaviors under the control of genetic circuits are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. The stochasticity in gene regulation, far from a nuisance, has been gradually appreciated for its unusual function in cellular activities. In this work, with Chemical Master Equation (CME), we discovered that the addition of inhibitors altered the stochasticity of regulatory proteins. For a bistable system of a mutually inhibitory network, such a change of noise led to the migration of cells in the bimodal distribution. We proposed that the consumption of regulatory protein caused by the addition of inhibitor is not the only reason for pushing cells to the specific state; the change of the intracellular stochasticity is also the main cause for the redistribution. For the level of the inhibitor capable of driving 99% of cells, if there is no consumption of regulatory protein, 88% of cells were guided to the specific state. It implied that cells were pushed, by the inhibitor, to the specific state due to the change of stochasticity.

  19. Systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics of N-4-benzoylaminophenylsulfonylglycine (BAPSG), a novel aldose reductase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Ayalasomayajula, Surya P.; Rao, Cheruku S.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; DeRuiter, Jack; Kompella, Uday B.

    2015-01-01

    To better develop N-[4-(benzoylamino)phenylsulfonyl]glycine (BAPSG), a potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitor capable of delaying the progression of ocular diabetic complications, the objective of this study was to assess its pharmacokinetics. The plasma pharmacokinetics of BASPG was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration and its distribution to various tissues including those of the eye was studied following intraperitoneal administration. In addition, rat plasma protein binding of BAPSG was studied using ultracentrifugation method and its ocular tissue disposition was assessed following topical administration in rabbits. Plasma and tissue levels of BAPSG were analysed using an HPLC assay. BAPSG exhibited dose-proportionate AUC0→∞ (area under the plasma concentration–time curve) following both intravenous and intraperitoneal administration over the dose range (5–50 mg kg−1) studied and an erratic oral absorption profile with low oral bioavailability. The fraction bioavailability following oral and intraperitoneal administration was 0.06 and 0.7–1, respectively. BAPSG exhibited short plasma elimination half-lives in the range 0.5–1.5 h. BAPSG was bound to rat plasma proteins and the percent protein binding ranged from 83 to 99.8%. BAPSG was better distributed to cornea, lens and retina than to brain, following intraperitoneal administration in rats. However, the distribution was lower compared with kidney and liver. Following topical administration in rabbits, BAPSG delivery to the surface ocular tissues, cornea and conjunctiva was higher compared with intraocular tissues, aqueous humour, iris-ciliary body and lens. Thus, BAPSG was distributed to ocular tissues following systemic and topical modes of administration. PMID:15025860

  20. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  1. Synchronization of Well Log Data and Geophysical Data with Remote Sensing Technique to Develop the Hydrocarbon System of Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesh, S.; Samadder, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing along with more conventional exploration techniques such as geophysics and reconnaissance field mapping can help to establish regional geologic relationships, to extract major structural features and to pinpoint anomalous patterns. Many well have been drilled in Bengal basin still no commercially viable reserves have been discovered. Geophysical well logging is used in virtually every oil well. It is the primary means by which we characterize the subsurface in search of hydrocarbons. Oil and gas exploration activities for large areas require ground gravity surveys to facilitate detailed geological interpretations for subsurface features integrating geological cross-sections with the sub-surface structural trends leads to the identification of prospect areas. Remote sensing, geological and geophysical data integration provide accurate geometric shapes of the basins. Bengal basin has a sedimentary fill of 10-15 km, is the northernmost of the east coast basins of India In the first phase Remote sensing satellite sensors help in identifying surface anomaly which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon reservoirs providing regional geological settings of petroleferous basins. It provides accurate and visual data for directly determining geometric shapes of basin. It assists in the selection of exploration regions by defining the existence of sedimentary basin. Remote sensing methods can generate a wealth of information useful in determining the value of exploratory prospecting. In the second phase Well Log data provide relative subsurface information for oil and gas exploration. Remote sensing data are merged with other available information such as Aeromagnetic, gravity, geochemical surveys and 2D seismic surveys. The result of this phase is to estimate the outcome of oil discovery probabilities for locating oil prospects

  2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors improve membrane stability and change gene-expression profiles in dystrophic skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jessica A; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Lowe, Jeovanna; Weisleder, Noah; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2017-02-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are FDA-approved drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and are used to treat heart failure. Combined treatment with the ACEi lisinopril and the nonspecific MR antagonist spironolactone surprisingly improves skeletal muscle, in addition to heart function and pathology in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mouse model. We recently demonstrated that MR is present in all limb and respiratory muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor in differentiated normal human skeletal muscle fibers. The goals of the current study were to begin to define cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the skeletal muscle efficacy of RAAS inhibitor treatment. We also compared molecular changes resulting from RAAS inhibition with those resulting from the current DMD standard-of-care glucocorticoid treatment. Direct assessment of muscle membrane integrity demonstrated improvement in dystrophic mice treated with lisinopril and spironolactone compared with untreated mice. Short-term treatments of dystrophic mice with specific and nonspecific MR antagonists combined with lisinopril led to overlapping gene-expression profiles with beneficial regulation of metabolic processes and decreased inflammatory gene expression. Glucocorticoids increased apoptotic, proteolytic, and chemokine gene expression that was not changed by RAAS inhibitors in dystrophic mice. Microarray data identified potential genes that may underlie RAAS inhibitor treatment efficacy and the side effects of glucocorticoids. Direct effects of RAAS inhibitors on membrane integrity also contribute to improved pathology of dystrophic muscles. Together, these data will inform clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in DMD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Research Advances and Detection Methodologies for Microbe-Derived Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Systemic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqian Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs are an attractive research subject owing to their potential applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Fungi and bacteria are major producers of AChEIs. Their active ingredients of fermentation products include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and steroids. A variety of in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitor assays have been developed and used to measure the activity of acetylcholinesterases, including modified Ellman’s method, thin layer chromatography bioautography, and the combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/modified Ellman’s method. In this review, we provide an overview of the different detection methodologies, the microbe-derived AChEIs, and their producing strains.

  4. The pro-urokinase plasminogen-activation system in the presence of serpin-type inhibitors and the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels; List, Karin; Andreasen, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    The reciprocal pro-enzyme activation system of plasmin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and their respective zymogens is a potent mechanism in the generation of extracellular proteolytic activity. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) acts as a negative regulator. This system...... is complicated by a poorly understood intrinsic reactivity of the uPA pro-enzyme (pro-uPA) before proteolytic activation, directed against both plasminogen and PAI-1. We have studied the integrated activation mechanism under the repression of PAI-1 in a purified system. A covalent reaction between pro...

  5. [A study on facilitators and inhibitors to the introduction of outsourcing in the hospital information systems in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Soon; Shin, Hyeong-Sik; Choi, Inyoung; Kim, Sukil

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the current status of outsourcing in Korean hospital information systems and the factors influencing its introduction. The authors surveyed 136 hospitals located in Seoul and its surrounding vicinities from June 7 to June 23, 2006. The facilitators and inhibitors to outsourcing in hospital information systems were derived from literature and expert reviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the major influencing factors on outsourcing in hospital information systems. Eighty-six (63.2%) of the 136 hospitals surveyed, which were mainly tertiary hospitals, responded to using outsourcing for their hospital information systems. "Hardware and software maintenance and support," "application development," and "management of service and staff" were the major areas of outsourcing. Outsourcing had been employed for 4-7 years by 45.5% of the hospitals and the proportion of the budget used for outsourcing was less than 20%. A need for an extension in outsourcing was agreed on by 76.5% of the hospitals. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both consumer satisfaction and security risk have an influence on hospital information system outsourcing. Outsourcing in hospital information systems is expected to increase just as in other industries. One primary facilitator to outsourcing in other industries is consumer satisfaction. We found that this was also a facilitator to outsourcing in hospital information systems. Security risk, which is usually considered an inhibitor to information technology outsourcing, was proven to be an inhibitor here as well. The results of this study may help hospital information systems establish a strategy and management plan for outsourcing.

  6. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  7. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge by ultrasound combined zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xiaoyuan; Ning, Xun-An; Zou, Haiyuan; Liang, Jieying; Sun, Jian; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Jiekui

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined ultrasound (US) and zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air (ZEA) system to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge. The removal efficiencies of 16 PAHs using ZEA, US/Air (air injected into the US process), and US/ZEA treatments were investigated, together with the effects of various operating parameters. The enhanced mechanisms of US and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in removing PAHs in the US/ZEA system were explored. Results showed that only 42.5% and 32.9% of ∑16 PAHs were removed by ZEA and US/Air treatments respectively, whereas 70.1% were removed by US/ZEA treatment, (with favorable operating conditions of 2.0 mM EDTA, 15 g/L ZVI, and 1.08 w/cm 3 ultrasonic density). The US/ZEA system could be used with a wide pH range. US led to synergistic improvement of PAHs removal in the ZEA system by enhancing sludge disintegration to release PAHs and promoting ZVI corrosion and oxygen activation. In the US/ZEA system, PAHs could be degraded by ROS (namely OH, O 2 - /HO 2 , and Fe(IV)) and adsorbed by ZVI, during which the ROS made the predominant contribution. This study provides important insights into the application of a US/ZEA system to remove PAHs from sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics of N-4-benzoylaminophenylsulfonylglycine (BAPSG), a novel aldose reductase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Ayalasomayajula, Surya P.; Rao, Cheruku S.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; DeRuiter, Jack; Kompella, Uday B.

    2004-01-01

    To better develop N-[4-(benzoylamino)phenylsulfonyl]glycine (BAPSG), a potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitor capable of delaying the progression of ocular diabetic complications, the objective of this study was to assess its pharmacokinetics. The plasma pharmacokinetics of BASPG was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration and its distribution to various tissues including those of the eye was studied following intr...

  10. Zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, acts as a chemopreventive agent in intestinal polyposis, by modulating polyp and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gounaris

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes and prostaglandins, products of arachidonic acid metabolism, sustain both systemic and lesion-localized inflammation. Tumor-associated Inflammation can also contribute to the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have increased risk of developing colon cancer. The levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, the key enzyme for leukotrienes production, are increased in colon cancer specimens and colonic dysplastic lesions. Here we report that Zileuton, a specific 5-LO inhibitor, can prevent polyp formation by efficiently reducing the tumor-associated and systemic inflammation in APCΔ468 mice.In the current study, we inhibited 5-LO by dietary administration of Zileuton in the APCΔ468 mouse model of polyposis and analyzed the effect of in vivo 5-LO inhibition on tumor-associated and systemic inflammation.Zileuton-fed mice developed fewer polyps and displayed marked reduction in systemic and polyp-associated inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory innate and adaptive immunity cells were reduced both in the lesions and systemically. As part of tumor-associated inflammation Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, product of 5-LO activity, is increased focally in human dysplastic lesions. The 5-LO enzymatic activity was reduced in the serum of Zileuton treated polyposis mice.This study demonstrates that dietary administration of 5-LO specific inhibitor in the polyposis mouse model decreases polyp burden, and suggests that Zileuton may be a potential chemo-preventive agent in patients that are high-risk of developing colon cancer.

  11. Probable existence of a Gondwana transcontinental rift system in western India: Implications in hydrocarbon exploration in Kutch and Saurashtra offshore: A GIS-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, S.; Tep, Blecy; Pangtey, K. K. S.; Das, K. K.; Mitra, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    The Gondwanaland assembly rifted dominantly during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian forming several intracratonic rift basins. These rifts were subsequently filled with a thick sequence of continental clastic sediments with minor marine intercalations in early phase. In western part of India, these sediments are recorded in enclaves of Bikaner-Nagaur and Jaisalmer basins in Rajasthan. Facies correlatives of these sediments are observed in a number of basins that were earlier thought to be associated with the western part of India. The present work is a GIS based approach to reconnect those basins to their position during rifting and reconstruct the tectono-sedimentary environment at that time range. The study indicates a rift system spanning from Arabian plate in the north and extending to southern part of Africa that passes through Indus basin, western part of India and Madagascar, and existed from Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic. Extensions related to the opening of Neo-Tethys led to the formation of a number of cross trends in the rift systems that acted as barriers to marine transgressions from the north as well as disrupted the earlier continuous longitudinal drainage systems. The axis of this rift system is envisaged to pass through present day offshore Kutch and Saurashtra and implies a thick deposit of Late Carboniferous to Early Jurassic sediments in these areas. Based on analogy with other basins associated with this rift system, these sediments may be targeted for hydrocarbon exploration.

  12. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  13. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  14. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Treude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ13C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO42-m-2 day-1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO42-m-2 day-1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C6 n-alkanes passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n-alkanes (C10–C38 decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30 was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  15. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonakshi; Wefers, Peggy; Schmidt, Mark; Knittel, Katrin; Krüger, Martin; Stagars, Marion H; Treude, Tina

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length) collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT) system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ 13 C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2-C6 n -alkanes) passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n -alkanes (C10-C38) decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30) was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei

    2017-09-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  18. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  19. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  20. Novel Therapeutic Targets for Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: current state-of-the-art on systemic arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B; Balarini, Camille M; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is well known, first for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary hypertension. The discovery that PDE5 is present in the systemic artery endothelium and smooth muscle cells led investigators to test the extra sexual effects of sildenafil, the first and most investigated PDE5 inhibitor, in diseases affecting the systemic arteries. Cumulative data from experimental and clinical studies have revealed beneficial effects of sildenafil on systemic arterial hypertension and its target organs, such as the heart, kidneys and vasculature. An important effect of sildenafil is reduction of hypertension and improvement of endothelial function in experimental models of hypertension and hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, in angiotensin-dependent hypertension, its beneficial effects on endothelial and kidney dysfunctions seem to at least in part be caused by its ability to decrease the levels of angiotensin II and increase angiotensin 1-7, in addition to improving nitric oxide bioavailability and diminishing reactive oxygen species. Another remarkable finding on the effects of sildenafil comes from studies in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis that closely resembles human atherosclerotic disease. In this review, we focus on the promising beneficial effects of sildenafil for treating systemic high blood pressure, especially resistant hypertension, and the endothelial dysfunction that is present in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  1. Investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing signaling system for identifying multiple inhibitors using molecular docking and structural analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Vahid; Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly; Abdollahpour, Nooshin; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and a common Gram-negative bacterium in hospital-acquired infections. It causes death in many burn victims, cystic-fibrosis and neutropenic-cancer patients. It is known that P. aeruginosa biofilm maturation and production of cell-associated and extracellular virulence factors such as pyocyanin, elastase and rhamnolipids are under the control of a quorum-sensing (QS) system. Among several proteins involved in the Pseudomonas QS mechanism, LasR and PqsE play an important role in its cascade signaling system. They can cause increases in QS factors, biofilm maturation, and the production of virulence factors. Therefore, inhibition of these proteins can reduce the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. According to the structure of corresponding auto-inducers bound to these proteins, in silico calculations were performed with some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to estimate possible interactions and find the co-inhibitors of LasR and PqsE. The results showed that oxicams (Piroxicam and Meloxicam) can interact well with active sites of both proteins with the Ki of 119.43 nM and 4.0 μM for Meloxicam and 201.39 nM and 4.88 μM against LasR and PqsE, respectively. These findings suggested that Piroxicam and Meloxicam can be used as potential inhibitors for control of the P. aeruginosa QS signaling system and biofilm formation, and may be used in the design of multiple inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  4. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. X. Phase equilibria for binary systems formed by imidazoles and hydrocarbons: Experimental data and modelling using DISQUAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej [Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Gonzalez, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.e [G.E.T.E.F., Grupo Especializado en Termodinamica de Equilibrio entre Fases, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071, Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) temperatures have been determined using a dynamic method for the systems (1H-imidazole, + benzene, + toluene, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + benzene, or + toluene, 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + benzene, + toluene, or + cyclohexane, and benzimidazole + benzene). In addition (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) temperatures have been obtained using a cloud point method for (1H-imidazole, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + toluene, and 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + cyclohexane). The measured systems show positive deviations from the Raoult's law, due to strong dipolar interactions between amine molecules related to the high dipole moment of imidazoles. On the other hand, DISQUAC interaction parameters for the contacts present in these solutions and for the amine/hydroxyl contacts in (1H-imidazole + 1-alkanol) mixtures have been determined. The model correctly represents the available data for the examined systems. Deviations between experimental and calculated SLE temperatures are similar to those obtained using the Wilson or NRTL equations, or the UNIQUAC association solution model. The quasichemical interaction parameters are the same for mixtures containing 1H-imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, or 2-methyl-1H-imidazole and hydrocarbons. This may be interpreted assuming that they are members of a homologous series. Benzimidazole behaves differently.

  5. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines. X. Phase equilibria for binary systems formed by imidazoles and hydrocarbons: Experimental data and modelling using DISQUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Zawadzki, Maciej; Gonzalez, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) equilibrium (SLE) temperatures have been determined using a dynamic method for the systems (1H-imidazole, + benzene, + toluene, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + benzene, or + toluene, 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + benzene, + toluene, or + cyclohexane, and benzimidazole + benzene). In addition (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) temperatures have been obtained using a cloud point method for (1H-imidazole, + hexane, or + cyclohexane; 1-methylimidazole + toluene, and 2-methyl-1H-imidazole + cyclohexane). The measured systems show positive deviations from the Raoult's law, due to strong dipolar interactions between amine molecules related to the high dipole moment of imidazoles. On the other hand, DISQUAC interaction parameters for the contacts present in these solutions and for the amine/hydroxyl contacts in (1H-imidazole + 1-alkanol) mixtures have been determined. The model correctly represents the available data for the examined systems. Deviations between experimental and calculated SLE temperatures are similar to those obtained using the Wilson or NRTL equations, or the UNIQUAC association solution model. The quasichemical interaction parameters are the same for mixtures containing 1H-imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, or 2-methyl-1H-imidazole and hydrocarbons. This may be interpreted assuming that they are members of a homologous series. Benzimidazole behaves differently.

  6. Thermophysical properties and phase equilibria study of the binary systems {l_brace}N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide + aromatic hydrocarbons, or an alcohol{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Thermodynamic Research Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, King George V Avenue, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Zawadzki, Maciej [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Zwolinska, Magdalena [Department of Ergonomics, Laboratory of Thermal Loads, Central Institute for Labour Protection-National Research Institute, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: We synthesized new ionic liquid, [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] with low viscosity, and low density. We found high heat capacity, high enthalpy of melting and low melting temperature. HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] is proposed for possible use in the phase change materials (PCM). We examine phase equilibrium changes, SLE and LLE with hydrocarbons and alcohols. [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] may be proposed as entrainer for the separation proceses. - Abstract: The new quinolinium ionic liquid has been synthesised as a continuation of our work with quinolinium-based ionic liquids (ILs). The work includes specific basic characterisation of synthesized compounds: N-hexylquinolinium bromide, [HQuin][Br] and N-hexylquinolinium bis{l_brace}(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl{r_brace}imide [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] by NMR spectra, elementary analysis and water content. The basic thermal properties of the pure [HQuin][NTf{sub 2}] i.e. melting and glass-transition temperatures, the enthalpy of fusion as well as heat capacity have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC) and thermal analysis instrument (TA). Densities and viscosities were determined as a function of temperature. Phase equilibria for the binary systems: {l_brace}[HQuin][NTf{sub 2}]) + aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, or toluene, or ethylbenzene, or n-propylbenzene), or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol){r_brace} have been determined at ambient pressure. A dynamic method was used over a broad range of mole fractions and temperatures from (270 to 320) K. For all the binary systems with benzene and alkylbenzenes, the eutectic diagrams were observed with immiscibility gap in the liquid phase beginning from (0.13 to 0.28) mole fraction of the IL with very high an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). For mixtures with alcohols, the complete miscibility was observed for 1-butanol and immiscibility with UCST in the liquid phase for the remaining alcohols. The typical

  7. Identification of Cysteine Proteases and Screening of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors in Biological Samples by a Two-Dimensional Gel System of Zymography and Reverse Zymography

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Shinya; Okamoto, Eishiro; Hayakawa, Yoshimi; Hoshino, Takashi; Sato, Ritsuko; Isemura, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Sadami; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D-) gel system of zymography and reverse zymography for the detection and characterization of proteases and protease inhibitors. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) agarose gels with pH gradients were employed for separation in the fi rst-dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with gelatin used for the second dimension. Proteases and protease inhibitors separated by IEF gel were applied on the second gel without trichloroacetic...

  8. RELATING DAILY SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE IN SALT MARSH-ASSOCIATED ESTUARINE SYSTEMS TO LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS OF PHOTOACTIVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries of the southeastern United States not only serve an important nursery function but also are common repositories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from upland activities. Thus, these habitats may be at risk for PAHphototoxicity. To better characterize ...

  9. Hazardous Waste Management System - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Toxicity Characteristic - Hydrocarbon Recovery Operations - Federal Register Notice, April 2, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposal to extend the compliance date for the Toxicity Characteristic until January 25, 1993 for produced groundwater from free phase hydrocarbon recovery operations at certain petroleum industry sites-namely, refineries, marketing terminals, bulk plants.

  10. Hazardous Waste Management System - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Toxicity Characteristic - Hydrocarbon Recovery Operations - Federal Register Notice, February 1, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extends the compliance date of the Toxicity Characteristic until January 25, 1991 for groundwater that is reinjected or reinfiltrated during existing hydrocarbon recovery operations at petroleum refineries, marketing terminals, and bulk plants.

  11. How tyrosine kinase inhibitors impair metabolism and endocrine system function: a systematic updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-12-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) advent has deeply changed the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, with improved rates of response and overall survival. However, for this success some patients paid the price of a number of peculiar side effects, the so-called off-target side effects, specific for each one TKI. These effects are due to non-selective inhibition of other tyrosine kinase receptors, such as PDGFR, c-KIT, Src, VEGF. Consequences of this inhibition, some metabolic changes during the treatment with TKIs are reported. Aim of present review is to report metabolic changes and potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis related to imatinib, second (nilotinib and dasatinib) and third generation (bosutinib and ponatinib) TKIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  13. Crosstalk between liver antioxidant and the endocannabinoid systems after chronic administration of the FAAH inhibitor, URB597, to hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernacki, Michał; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Gęgotek, Agnieszka [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Toczek, Marek [Department of Experimental Physiology and Pathophysiology Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Bielawska, Katarzyna [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta, E-mail: elzbieta.skrzydlewska@umb.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension is accompanied by perturbations to the endocannabinoid and antioxidant systems. Thus, potential pharmacological treatments for hypertension should be examined as modulators of these two metabolic systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl]N-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) on the endocannabinoid system and on the redox balance in the livers of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension caused an increase in the levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)] and CB{sub 1} receptor and the activities of FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in antioxidant activity/level, enhanced expression of transcription factor Nrf2 and changes to Nrf2 activators and inhibitors. Moreover, significant increases in lipid, DNA and protein oxidative modifications, which led to enhanced levels of proapoptotic caspases, were also observed. URB597 administration to the hypertensive rats resulted in additional increases in the levels of AEA, NADA and the CB{sub 1} receptor, as well as decreases in vitamin E and C levels, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and Nrf2 expression. Thus, after URB597 administration, oxidative modifications of cellular components were increased, while the inflammatory response was reduced. This study revealed that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with URB597 disrupts the endocannabinoid system, which causes an imbalance in redox status. This imbalance increases the levels of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products, which later participate in metabolic disturbances in liver homeostasis. - Highlights: • Chronic administration of URB597 to hypertensive rats reduces liver inflammation. • URB597 enhances the redox imbalance in the

  14. Experimental etch-and-rinse adhesive systems containing MMP-inhibitors: Physicochemical characterization and resin-dentin bonding stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; de Sá Rodrigues, Carolina Ullmann Fernandes; de Oliveira Matos, Marcos Paulo; de Carvalho, Thais Rodrigues; dos Santos, Glauco Botelho; Amaral, Cristiane Mariote

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC%), water sorption (WS), solubility (SO) and the resin-dentin bonding stability (μTBS) of experimental (EXP) etch-and-rinse adhesive systems containing MMP-inhibitors: Galardin-GAL, Batimastat-BAT, GM1489-GM1 and chlorhexidine diacetate-CHX. DC% was measured using FT-IR spectroscopy, while WS and SO were calculated based on ISO4049. Thirty-six human molars were wet ground until the occlusal dentin was exposed. The adhesive systems were applied and resin composite buildups were incrementally constructed. After 24 h immersion in distilled water at 37 °C, the specimens were cut into resin-dentin beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2). The μTBS was evaluated after 24 h, 6 months and 12 months of water storage at 37 °C. Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2) was used as a commercial control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. SB2 presented the highest DC% (p0.05). SO was found to be not significant (p>0.05). All adhesive systems maintained μTBS stability after 6 months of water storage. Only BAT, GM1 and CHX maintained μTBs stability after 12 months of water storage. The experimental adhesive systems with GM1489 and chlorhexidine diacetate presented the best physicochemical properties and preserved resin-dentin bonding stability after 12 months of water storage. GM1489 could be suitable for inclusion as an MMP-inhibitor in etch-and-rinse adhesive systems to maintain resin-dentin bonding stability over time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Crosstalk between liver antioxidant and the endocannabinoid systems after chronic administration of the FAAH inhibitor, URB597, to hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, Michał; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Toczek, Marek; Bielawska, Katarzyna; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is accompanied by perturbations to the endocannabinoid and antioxidant systems. Thus, potential pharmacological treatments for hypertension should be examined as modulators of these two metabolic systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl]N-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) on the endocannabinoid system and on the redox balance in the livers of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension caused an increase in the levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)] and CB 1 receptor and the activities of FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in antioxidant activity/level, enhanced expression of transcription factor Nrf2 and changes to Nrf2 activators and inhibitors. Moreover, significant increases in lipid, DNA and protein oxidative modifications, which led to enhanced levels of proapoptotic caspases, were also observed. URB597 administration to the hypertensive rats resulted in additional increases in the levels of AEA, NADA and the CB 1 receptor, as well as decreases in vitamin E and C levels, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and Nrf2 expression. Thus, after URB597 administration, oxidative modifications of cellular components were increased, while the inflammatory response was reduced. This study revealed that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with URB597 disrupts the endocannabinoid system, which causes an imbalance in redox status. This imbalance increases the levels of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products, which later participate in metabolic disturbances in liver homeostasis. - Highlights: • Chronic administration of URB597 to hypertensive rats reduces liver inflammation. • URB597 enhances the redox imbalance in the liver of

  16. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  17. The origin of high hydrocarbon groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Qi, Shihua; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Fangzhi; Ding, Yang; Huang, Huanfang; Chen, Zhihua; Cheng, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Original high hydrocarbon groundwater represents a kind of groundwater in which hydrocarbon concentration exceeds 0.05 mg/L. The original high hydrocarbon will significantly reduce the environment capacity of hydrocarbon and lead environmental problems. For the past 5 years, we have carried out for a long-term monitoring of groundwater in shallow Triassic aquifer in Northwest Guizhou, China. We found the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was always above 0.05 mg/L. The low-level anthropogenic contamination cannot produce high hydrocarbon groundwater in the area. By using hydrocarbon potential, geochemistry and biomarker characteristic in rocks and shallow groundwater, we carried out a comprehensive study in Dalongjing (DLJ) groundwater system to determine the hydrocarbon source. We found a simplex hydrogeology setting, high-level water-rock-hydrocarbon interaction and obviously original hydrocarbon groundwater in DLJ system. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon in shallow aquifer was found to increase with the strong water-rock interaction. Higher hydrocarbon potential was found in the upper of Guanling formation (T 2 g 3 ) and upper of Yongningzhen formation (T 1 yn 4 ). Heavily saturated carbon was observed from shallow groundwater, which presented similar distribution to those from rocks, especially from the deeper groundwater. These results indicated that the high concentrations of original hydrocarbon in groundwater could be due to the hydrocarbon release from corrosion and extraction out of strata over time.

  18. Bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in coastal regions; Bioremediation des hydrocarbures en milieu cotier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyoneaud, R. [IBEAS, LEM - Lab. d' Ecologie Moleculaire - JE 159, 64 - Pau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coasts are exposed to chronic or accidental pollutions by hydrocarbons. The aim of this study is to show the importance of the microbial layers (stratified sedimentary systems) in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. (A.L.B.)

  19. Renin inhibitor aliskiren exerts beneficial effect on trabecular bone by regulating skeletal renin-angiotensin system and kallikrein-kinin system in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Song, Y; Zhao, X; Wong, M S; Zhang, W

    2016-03-01

    The skeletal renin-angiotensin system contributes to the development of osteoporosis. The renin inhibitor aliskiren exhibited beneficial effects on trabecular bone of osteoporotic mice, and this action might be mediated through angiotensin and bradykinin receptor pathways. This study implies the potential application of renin inhibitor in the management for postmenopausal osteoporosis. The skeletal renin-angiotensin system plays key role in the pathological process of osteoporosis. The present study is designed to elucidate the effect of renin inhibitor aliskiren on trabecular bone and its potential action mechanism in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The OVX mice were treated with low dose (5 mg/kg) or high dose (25 mg/kg) of aliskiren or its vehicle for 8 weeks. The bone turnover markers were measured by ELISA. The structural parameters of trabecular bone at lumbar vertebra (LV) and distal femoral metaphysis were measured by micro-CT. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was studied by RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Aliskiren treatment reduced urinary excretion of calcium and serum level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in OVX mice. The treatment with aliskiren significantly increased bone volume (BV/TV) and connectivity density (Conn.D) of trabecular bone at LV-2 and LV-5 as well as dramatically enhanced BV/TV, Conn.D, bone mineral density (BMD/BV) and decreased bone surface (BS/BV) at the distal femoral end. Aliskiren significantly down-regulated the expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II (Ang II), Ang II type 1 receptor, bradykinin receptor (BR)-1, and osteocytic-specific gene sclerostin as well as the osteoclast-specific genes, including carbonic anhydrase II, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin K. This study revealed that renin inhibitor aliskiren exhibited the beneficial effects on trabecular bone of ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic mice, and the underlying mechanism for this action might be mediated through Ang II and

  20. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  1. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  2. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of a highly urbanized river system with special reference to energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Wang Jizhong; Liang Bo; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment samples collected from downstream of the Dongjiang River, a highly urbanized river network within the Pearl River Delta of South China, were analyzed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of 28 PAHs, 16 priority PAHs designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the seven carcinogenic PAHs classified by the USEPA ranged from 480 to 4600, 100 to 3400 and 10 to 1700 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Principal component analysis-based stepwise multivariate linear regression showed that sediment PAHs were predominantly derived from coal combustion, refined fossil fuel combustion and oil spills, accounting for 37%, 32% and 23%, respectively, of the total loading. The levels of sediment PAHs remained steady from 2002 to 2008, during which fossil fuel consumption had doubled, probably reflecting efforts to control PAH emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Finally, use of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in automobiles should be encouraged to improve environmental quality. - Highlights: → PAHs in sediment showed similar input sources as those in air particles. → Combustion of fossil fuel is the predominant source for sediment PAHs. → Local efforts to control PAHs emissions from fossil fuel combustion were effective. → Promotion of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can reduce emissions of PAHs. - Occurrence of PAHs in surface sediments from a highly urbanized river system is assessed in relation to energy consumption patterns.

  3. Two-liquid-phase system: A promising technique for predicting bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congying; Wang, Ziyu; Li, Zengbo; Ahmad, Riaz

    2017-02-01

    A two-liquid-phase system (TLPS), which consisted of soil slurry and silicone oil, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four long-term contaminated soils in order to assess the bioavailability of PAHs. Extraction kinetics of six PAHs viz. phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene were selected to investigate as they covered the susceptible and recalcitrant PAHs in soil. A parallel experiments were also carried out on the microbial degradation of these PAHs in soil with and without biostimulation (by adding (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ). The rapidly desorbed fraction of fluoranthene, as indicated by the two-fraction model, was found the highest, ranging from 21.4% to 37.4%, whereas dibenzo(a,h)anthrancene was the lowest, ranging from 8.9% to 20.5%. The rapid desorption of selected PAHs was found to be finished within 24 h. The rapidly desorbed fraction of PAHs investigated using TLPS, was significantly correlated (R 2  = 0.95) with that degraded by microorganisms in biostimulation treatment. This suggested that the TLPS-assisted extraction could be a promising technique in determining the bioavailability of aged PAHs in contaminated soils. It also suggested that applying sufficient nutrients in bioremediation of field contaminated soils is crucial. Further work is required to test its application to more hydrophobic organic pollutants in long-term contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective mitigation of nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in intensive vegetable production systems using a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Min; Sun, Xuecheng; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Zhao, Changsheng [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment; Di, Hong J. [Lincoln Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Center for Soil and Environment Research

    2011-07-15

    Vegetable production is one of the most intensive agricultural systems with high rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and irrigation, conditions conducive for nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) leaching, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), in decreasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions in vegetable production systems. Twenty-four undisturbed soil monolith lysimeters (610 mm in diameter; 700 mm in depth; surface area, 0.29 m{sup 2}) with two different soils, Huangzongrang (alfisol) and Chaotu (fluvisols), were collected and installed in a field lysimeter facility in Central China under irrigated vegetable production conditions. Urea fertilizer was applied at 650 kg N ha{sup -1}, and DCD was applied at 10 kg ha{sup -1} to the lysimeters planted with three kinds of vegetables (capsicum, Capsicum annuum L.; amaranth, Amaranthus mangostanus L.; radish, Raphanus sativus L.). The results showed that DCD reduced NO3- leaching by 58.5% and 36.2% and N{sub 2}O emissions factor by 83.8% and 72.7% in the two soils. The average NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N concentration in the drainage water was decreased from 4.9 mg NL{sup -1} to 2.3 mg NL{sup -1} and from 4.4 mg NL{sup -1} to 3.3 mg NL{sup -1}, in the Huangzongrang and Chaotu soils, respectively. In addition to the environmental benefits, the use of DCD also increased the yields of capsicum and radish in alfisol soil significantly (P < 0.01); only the amaranth yield in fluvisol soil was declined (P < 0.01), and the other vegetables yields were not affected. Total N concentrations of the three vegetables were increased significantly (P < 0.01) with the application of DCD with urea compared with urea alone. These results showed that the nitrification inhibitor DCD has the potential to significantly reduce NO{sub 3}{sup -} leaching and N{sub 2}O emissions and to make vegetable farming more environmentally

  5. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  6. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  7. Combined use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with diuretics and/or renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the community increases the risk of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischulte, Tobias; Morales, Daniel R; Bell, Samira; Guthrie, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) when used in triple combination with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics, but previous research reported that NSAIDs in dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone were not. However, earlier studies relied on hospital coding to define AKI, which may underestimate true risk. This nested case-control study characterized the risk of community-acquired AKI associated with NSAID use among 78,379 users of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics, where AKI was defined as a 50% or greater increase in creatinine from baseline. The AKI incidence was 68/10,000 person-years. The relative increase in AKI risk was similar for NSAID use in both triple (adjusted rate ratio 1.64 (95% CI 1.25-2.14)) and dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (1.60 (1.18-2.17)) or diuretics (1.64 (1.17-2.29)). However, the absolute increase in AKI risk was higher for NSAIDs used in triple versus dual combinations with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone (numbers needed to harm for 1 year treatment with NSAID of 158 vs. over 300). AKI risk was highest among users of loop diuretic/aldosterone antagonist combinations, in those over 75 years of age, and in those with renal impairment. Thus, the nephrotoxic potential of both dual and triple combinations of NSAIDs with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics yields a higher incidence of AKI than previously thought.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in superficial water from a tropical estuarine system: Distribution, seasonal variations, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ewerton; Souza, Michel R R; Vilela Junior, Antônio R; Soares, Laiane S; Frena, Morgana; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the PAH distribution, sources, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment in superficial water from the Japaratuba River, Brazil. PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 119ngL -1 . It was observed that the PAH total concentrations and profiles showed significant differences when comparing the dry season (summer) with the rainy season (winter). Furthermore, most of the PAH originated from pyrogenic sources in the winter, whereas a mixture of sources was observed in the summer. PAH concentration levels found in this study were considered lower than those obtained in other estuarine systems. Ecological risk assessment was determined for individual PAH, based on the risk quotient (RQ) to evaluate the risk of aquatic biota's exposure to PAH. Results suggested that the Japaratuba River has achieved a moderate degree of ecological risk for high molecular weight, showing the importance of identifying these carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Interim progress report, June 1, 1984-July 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental work in progress includes studies of gas phase OH radical reaction using argon sensitized pulse radiolysis and studies of the radiolytic oxidation of butane. Work on interpretation of results, writing, and revision of manuscripts is still in progress on several investigations including studies of the photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF3I-CH3I mixtures; an investigation of the radiolytic oxidation of propane; and certain parts of the study of radiolytic reactions in the H 2 - CO system. Work on experimental aspects of the radiolytic oxidation of butane nearing completion. It appears that the results do parallel the propane system as we anticipated, with major products being the C 4 alcohols and olefins

  10. Prevention of microalbuminuria using early intervention with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can...... prevent development of microalbuminuria. Materials and methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (2 June 2014) for randomised controlled trials, with a population of patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, comparing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis......-cause mortality(p=0.07). Conclusions: We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, early intervention with ACEis or ARBs reduces the risk for development of microalbuminuria....

  11. Thermodynamic inhibitor performance extender that, effectively and economically prevent hydrate formation in the oil field production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, Stephen; Johnston, Angela [Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a new additive that was developed to improve the effectiveness of the treatment two to four fold when added to the thermodynamic hydrate inhibitor (THI). Consequently, the THI/additive treatment can now enable the system to handle two to four times the amount of water production or can allow treatment of the same amount of water at half to quarter the dosage of THI. This new additive extends the performance of the THI and allows for a significant increase in production or a significant drop in the amount of THI usage with a corresponding drop in cost. This paper will further discuss the overall process of THI enhancement and will present several case studies where the enhanced THI has been successfully applied. (author)

  12. In vitro anticancer effects of a RAGE inhibitor discovered using a structure-based drug design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Far, Ali Hafez Ali Mohammed; Munesue, Seiichi; Harashima, Ai; Sato, Akira; Shindo, Mika; Nakajima, Shingo; Inada, Mana; Tanaka, Mariko; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shaheen, Hazem M.E.; El-Sayed, Yasser S.; Kawano, Shuhei; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of cancer. In the present study, papaverine was identified as a RAGE inhibitor using the conversion to small molecules through optimized-peptide strategy drug design system. Papaverine significantly inhibited RAGE-dependent nuclear factor κ-B activation driven by high mobility group box-1, a RAGE ligand. Using RAGE- or dominant-negative RAGE-expressing HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells, the present study revealed that papaverine suppressed RAGE-dependent cell proliferation and migration dose-dependently. Furthermore, papaverine significantly inhibited cell invasion. The results of the present study suggested that papaverine could inhibit RAGE, and provided novel insights into the field of RAGE biology, particularly anticancer therapies. PMID:29541234

  13. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  14. Numerical modelling of the work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting at the ignitions of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, A. D.

    2009-06-01

    The work of a pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting is modelled, which is designed for fire fighting at oil storages and at the spills of oil products, whose vapors were modelled by gaseous methane. The system represents a device for separate installation, which consists of a charge of solid propellant (the gas generator) and a container with fine-dispersed powder of the flame-damper substance. The methane combustion was described by a one-stage gross-reaction, the influence of the concentration of vapors of the flame-damper substance on the combustion process was taken into account by reducing the pre-exponent factor in the Arrhenius law and was described by an empirical dependence. The computational experiment showed that the application of the pulsed aerosol system for fire fighting ensures an efficient transport of fine-dispersed aerosol particles of the flame-damping substance and its forming vapors to the combustion zone; the concentration of particles ensures the damping of the heat source.

  15. Identification of cysteine proteases and screening of cysteine protease inhibitors in biological samples by a two-dimensional gel system of zymography and reverse zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Shinya; Okamoto, Eishiro; Hayakawa, Yoshimi; Hoshino, Takashi; Sato, Ritsuko; Isemura, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Sadami; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2007-11-18

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D-) gel system of zymography and reverse zymography for the detection and characterization of proteases and protease inhibitors. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) agarose gels with pH gradients were employed for separation in the first-dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with gelatin used for the second dimension. Proteases and protease inhibitors separated by IEF gel were applied on the second gel without trichloroacetic acid (TCA) fixation. Protease activity in the 2D-gel was visualized as transparent spots where gelatin substrate was digested after commassie brilliant blue (CBB) staining. Some of the transparent spots from the skin mucus extract of rainbow trout were determined to be a cysteine protease through use of E-64 or CA-074. In the reverse zymography technique, the gel was incubated with papain solution at 37 degrees C for 18 h. Cysteine protease inhibitors from broad bean seeds were detected as clear blue spots after CBB staining. The amino (N-) terminal sequences of four papain inhibitor spots thus detected were demonstrated to be identical to that of favin beta chain, a broad bean lectin. Taken together, our system can be considered to be an efficient technique for discovering and characterizing new proteases and protease inhibitors in biological samples. This is the first report describing a 2D-gel system of zymography and reverse zymography.

  16. Convergence of hepcidin deficiency, systemic iron overloading, heme accumulation, and REV-ERBα/β activation in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-elicited hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fader, Kelly A.; Nault, Rance [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kirby, Mathew P.; Markous, Gena [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Matthews, Jason [Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists elicit dose-dependent hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in mice. Iron (Fe) promotes AhR-mediated oxidative stress by catalyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To further characterize the role of Fe in AhR-mediated hepatotoxicity, male C57BL/6 mice were orally gavaged with sesame oil vehicle or 0.01–30 μg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) every 4 days for 28 days. Duodenal epithelial and hepatic RNA-Seq data were integrated with hepatic AhR ChIP-Seq, capillary electrophoresis protein measurements, and clinical chemistry analyses. TCDD dose-dependently repressed hepatic expression of hepcidin (Hamp and Hamp2), the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, resulting in a 2.6-fold increase in serum Fe with accumulating Fe spilling into urine. Total hepatic Fe levels were negligibly increased while transferrin saturation remained unchanged. Furthermore, TCDD elicited dose-dependent gene expression changes in heme biosynthesis including the induction of aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (Alas1) and repression of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Urod), leading to a 50% increase in hepatic hemin and a 13.2-fold increase in total urinary porphyrins. Consistent with this heme accumulation, differential gene expression suggests that heme activated BACH1 and REV-ERBα/β, causing induction of heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) and repression of fatty acid biosynthesis, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that Hamp repression, Fe accumulation, and increased heme levels converge to promote oxidative stress and the progression of TCDD-elicited hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • TCDD represses hepatic hepcidin expression, leading to systemic iron overloading. • Dysregulation of heme biosynthesis is consistent with heme and porphyrin accumulation. • Heme-activated REV-ERBα/β repress circadian-regulated hepatic lipid metabolism. • Disruption of iron

  17. Effects of oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment–seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiao; Gong, Yanyan; O’Reilly, S.E.; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances solubilization of PAHs more effectively than surfactants. • Dispersant and dispersed oil enhance sediment sorption of PAHs and induce hysteresis. • Partitioning to sediment-sorbed dispersant is the mechanism for enhanced PAH uptake. • Dual-mode models well simulate dispersant-facilitated sorption of PAHs on sediment. • Deepwater conditions reduce solubilization of PAHs and lessen dispersant effects. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a prototype oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of three model PAHs in sediment–seawater systems. Increasing dispersant dosage linearly enhanced solubility for all PAHs. Conversely, the dispersant enhanced the sediment uptake of the PAHs, and induced significant desorption hysteresis. Such contrasting effects (adsolubilization vs. solubilization) of dispersant were found dependent of the dispersant concentration and PAH hydrophobicity. The dual-mode models adequately simulated the sorption kinetics and isotherms, and quantified dispersant-enhanced PAH uptake. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene by sediment positively correlated with uptake of the dispersant, while sorption of pyrene dropped sharply when the dispersant exceeded its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The deepwater conditions diminished the dispersant effects on solubilization, but enhanced uptake of the PAHs, albeit sorption of the dispersant was lowered. The information may aid in understanding roles of dispersants on distribution, fate and transport of petroleum PAHs in marine systems

  18. Evaporite-hydrocarbon relationships: The case of the Laminite-reef-evaporite system in the Messinian of the Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouchy, J.M. (Museum d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France))

    1988-08-01

    The peripheral Messinian evaporitic basins of the Mediterranean frequently show the association between pre-evaporitic laminites, carbonate complexes (red algae, corals, and stromatolites), and evaporites which constitute a sedimentary system, including potential source rocks, reservoirs, and a cover. The pre-evaporitic laminites (mainly diatomites and carbonates) characterize two different highly productive hydrodynamic systems which follow one another: (1) coastal upwellings during lower Messinian high sea level (transgressive phase), and (2) restriction (semiclosed or land-locked basins) related to closure from the Atlantic and subsequent lower sea level (regressive phase). Preservation of the organic matter results from periodic water stratification: local O{sub 2} minimum intermediary layer and anoxic bottom conditions mainly related to hypersalinity. Extensive carbonate complexes overlie the shores and the high areas - biogenic buildups (mainly red algae and poorly diversified corals) and bioclastic accumulations locally overlapped by a stromatolitic blanket. Diagenesis and dissolution-karstification during drawdown periods (hypersaline episodes) increase the primary porosity. The evaporites constitute an efficient cover. One major property of hypersaline environments is their high primary production whose traces are identified in the Messinian series as organic-rich layers (marine or hypersaline-adapted flora and fauna) and calcareous or gypsified stromatolites. Stratified waters or reducing conditions in the pore waters favor preservation of organic matter. The evaporitic conditions greatly influence the reservoir properties, increasing porosity or destroying it by interstitial precipitation.

  19. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  20. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  1. In vitro study of effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as methanogenesis inhibitor on ruminal digestion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced in the rumen system causes the lost of ingested chemical energy, and the methane emitted contributes the greenhouse effect to the atmosphere environment. A study to evaluate the effectiveness of saponin from Sapindus rarak fruit as an inhibitor of ruminal methanogenesis was conducted. The method conducted in this study was a fermentation of a substrate by in vitro technique using rumen fluid (obtained from fistulated sheep as inoculum. Substrate (king grass was fermented in anaerobic incubator system at pH of medium 6.9 and temperature of 39°C for 48 hours. Inoculum was supplemented with an ingredient obtained by extraction of Sapindus rarak fruit with methanol (Aksapon SR and the ones without extraction (lerak powder, and further, these treatments were compared to other methanogenesis inhibitors (i.e. Fe3+, SO4 2– and poly unsaturated longchain fatty acids: PULCFA.The treatments were 1. Inoculum without treatment (K; 2. K + Aksapon SR (80 mg/100 ml; 3. K + lerak powder (160 mg/100 ml; 4. K + Fe3+ (0.8 mg/100 ml; 5. K + SO4 2- (96 mg/100 ml; 6. K + PULCFA (24 mg/100 ml. Measurements conducted were portion of methane, dry matter digestibility (DMD, NH3-N content, microbial population, and volatile fatty acids (VFA. The data measured were analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results of the experiment showed that Aksapon SR was the most effective inhibitor of methanogenesis compared to the others, that is when compared to control, Aksapon SR lowered methane production by 31% (P0.05 and SO4 2–(10% (P>0.05. All additive treatments did not affect the DMD value of the substrate fermented by control inoculum. Compared to control, all treatments lowered the protozoal population where the Aksapon SR gave the strongest effect (1.91 x 105 vs 9.94 x 105 cell/ml, and the decrease of protozoal number in Aksapon SR treatment was followed by the increase of bacterial (4.13 x 109 vs 2.56 x 109 colony/ml. Aksapon SR and SO4 2

  2. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes such as dispersion, advection, and biogradation serve to decrease concentrations of disssolved contaminants as they are transported in all ground-water systems.  However, the efficiency of these natural attenuation processes and the degree to which they help attain remediation goals, varies considerably from site to site.  This report provides a methodology for quantifying various natural attenuation mechanisms.  This methodology incorporates information on (1) concentrations of contaminants in space and/or time; (2) ambient reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions; (3) rates and directions of ground-water flow; (4) rates of contaminant biodegradation; and (5) demographic considerations, such as the presence of nearby receptor exposure points or property boundaries.  This document outlines the hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data needed to assess the efficiency of natural attenuation, provides a screening tool for making preliminary assessments, and provides examples of how to determine when natural attenuation can be a useful component of site remediation at leaking underground storage tank sites.

  3. Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaugh, Daniel J; Seger, Donna L; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed. Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: 59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated. 318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values. These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.

  4. Aflatoxin-exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a novel system for the generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani M Gummadidala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle- and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism.

  5. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  6. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  7. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  8. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  13. Escherichia coli as a potential hydrocarbon conversion microorganism. Oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds by recombinant E. coli in two-liquid phase (aqueous-organic) systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favre-Bulle, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    The increased interest in the study of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms in recent years has been stimulated by the possibility of using their monooxygenases in the selective oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. As an example, long chain (>C16) n-alkanes are converted to dicarboxylic

  14. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    environmental parameters on bioremediation is important in designing a bioremediation system to reduce petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in impacted soils.

  15. Development of an image-based screening system for inhibitors of the plastidial MEP pathway and of protein geranylgeranylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Hemmerlin, Andrea; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding study we have recently established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, which involves expressing a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the prenylable, carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was there demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of protein geranylgeranyl transferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect this localization. Furthermore, in this initial study complementation assays with pathway-specific intermediates confirmed that the precursors for the cytosolic isoprenylation of this fusion protein are predominantly provided by the MEP pathway. In order to optimize this visualization system from a more qualitative assay to a statistically trustable medium or a high-throughput screening system, we established now new conditions that permit culture and analysis in 96-well microtiter plates, followed by fluorescence microscopy. For further refinement, the existing GFP-BD-CVIL cell line was transformed with an estradiol-inducible vector driving the expression of a RFP protein, C-terminally fused to a nuclear localization signal (NLS-RFP). We are thus able to quantify the total number of viable cells versus the number of inhibited cells after various treatments. This approach also includes a semi-automatic counting system, based on the freely available image processing software. As a result, the time of image analysis as well as the risk of user-generated bias is reduced to a minimum. Moreover, there is no cross-induction of gene expression by dexamethasone and estradiol, which is an

  16. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  17. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  18. Correlation of Endostatin and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP2 Serum Levels With Cardiovascular Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Dziankowska-Bartkowiak

    2005-01-01

    pathogenesis of SSc. Heart fibrosis is one of the most important prognostic factors in SSc patients. So, the aim of our study was to examine cardiovascular dysfunction in SSc patients and its correlation with serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endostatin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2. The study group comprised 34 patients (19 with limited scleroderma (lSSc and 15 with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc. The control group consisted of 20 healthy persons, age and sex matched. Internal organ involvement was assessed on the basis of specialist procedures. Serum VEGF, endostatin, and TIMP2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found cardiovascular changes in 15 patients with SSc (8 with lSSc and 7 with dSSc. The observed symptoms were of different characters and also coexisted with each other. Higher endostatin serum levels in all systemic sclerosis patients in comparison to the control group were demonstrated (P<.05. Also higher serum levels of endostatin and TIMP2 were observed in patients with cardiovascular changes in comparison to the patients without such changes (P<.05. The obtained results support the notion that angiogenesis and fibrosis disturbances may play an important role in SSc. Evaluation of endostatin and TIMP2 serum levels seems to be one of the noninvasive, helpful examinations of heart involvement in the course of systemic sclerosis.

  19. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  20. Construction, internal validation and implementation in a mobile application of a scoring system to predict nonadherence to proton pump inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Mares-García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Other studies have assessed nonadherence to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, but none has developed a screening test for its detection. Objectives To construct and internally validate a predictive model for nonadherence to PPIs. Methods This prospective observational study with a one-month follow-up was carried out in 2013 in Spain, and included 302 patients with a prescription for PPIs. The primary variable was nonadherence to PPIs (pill count. Secondary variables were gender, age, antidepressants, type of PPI, non-guideline-recommended prescription (NGRP of PPIs, and total number of drugs. With the secondary variables, a binary logistic regression model to predict nonadherence was constructed and adapted to a points system. The ROC curve, with its area (AUC, was calculated and the optimal cut-off point was established. The points system was internally validated through 1,000 bootstrap samples and implemented in a mobile application (Android. Results The points system had three prognostic variables: total number of drugs, NGRP of PPIs, and antidepressants. The AUC was 0.87 (95% CI [0.83–0.91], p < 0.001. The test yielded a sensitivity of 0.80 (95% CI [0.70–0.87] and a specificity of 0.82 (95% CI [0.76–0.87]. The three parameters were very similar in the bootstrap validation. Conclusions A points system to predict nonadherence to PPIs has been constructed, internally validated and implemented in a mobile application. Provided similar results are obtained in external validation studies, we will have a screening tool to detect nonadherence to PPIs.

  1. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Carmany, Daniel; Retford, Michael; Guelta, Mark; Dorsey, Russell; Bozue, Joel; Lee, Michael S; Olson, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50) values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  2. Association between raf kinase inhibitor protein loss and prognosis in cancers of the digestive system: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Qian; Ding, Jiang-Wu; Yang, Zhen; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) may contribute to metastasis in a variety of human cancers. Many studies have evaluated whether loss of RKIP expression is a prognostic factor for survival in cancers of the digestive system, however, its predictive value remains controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the prognostic value of RKIP expression in digestive system cancers. Studies were identified by searching multiple electronic databases through December 12, 2013, and by reviewing reference lists of obtained articles. Studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between RKIP and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in cancers of the digestive system were eligible, including esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Nineteen studies involving approximately 3700 participants were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggested that loss of RKIP expression was associated with unfavorable OS (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and DFS (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.62) among patients with digestive system cancers, whereas the difference was not statistically significant in pancreatic cancer specifically (OS, HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.51-1.01; DFS, HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.28-1.13). Loss of RKIP expression might be an independent indicator of poor prognosis in patients with digestive tract cancers, which includes esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. More studies are needed to further clarify the prognostic value of RKIP in pancreatic cancer. Future studies, preferably large prospective studies utilizing formal marker assessment processes, are needed to establish the prognostic value of RKIP before these results can be clinically applied.

  3. A Novel System for Identification of Inhibitors of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Mary E.; Gerrard, Sonja R.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a human and livestock pathogen endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed a T7-dependent system for the efficient production of RVFV-like particles (RVF-VLPs) based on the virulent ZH-501 strain of RVFV. The RVF-VLPs are capable of performing a single round of infection, allowing for the study of viral replication, assembly, and infectivity. We demonstrate that these RVF-VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from authentic RVFV and respond similarly ...

  4. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  5. The vitamin C:vitamin K3 system - enhancers and inhibitors of the anticancer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Davis W; Gu, Yu-Huan; Plaza, Steven M; Brignall, Matthew S; Brinton, Cathy A; Sadlon, Angela E

    2010-12-01

    The oxidizing anticancer system of vitamin C and vitamin K₃ (VC:VK₃, producing hydrogen peroxide via superoxide) was combined individually with melatonin, curcumin, quercetin, or cholecalciferol (VD₃) to determine interactions. Substrates were LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Three of the tested antioxidants displayed differences in cell line cytotoxicity. Melatonin combined with VC:VK₃ quenched the oxidizing effect, while VC:VK₃ applied 24 hours after melatonin showed no quenching. With increasing curcumin concentrations, an apparent combined effect of VC:VK₃ and curcumin occurred in LNCaP cells, but not PC-3 cells. Quercetin alone was cytotoxic on both cell lines, but demonstrated an additional 50-percent cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells when combined with VC:VK₃. VD₃ was effective against both cell lines, with more effect on PC-3. This effect was negated on LNCaP cells with the addition of VC:VK₃. In conclusion, a natural antioxidant can enhance or decrease the cytotoxicity of an oxidizing anticancer system in vitro, but generalizations about antioxidants cannot be made.

  6. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  7. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V max ) and the michaelis constant (k m ) of PARG reaction were 4.46 μM and 128.33 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 μM. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  8. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  9. Evaluation of Inhibitors Blends Used in Iraqi Markets for Automobile Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watheq Naser Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.

  10. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  11. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  12. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  13. Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk for Fracture at Specific Sites: Data Mining of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Li, Mei; Cao, Yuying; Han, Zhengqi; Wang, Xueju; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Liu, Hongfang; Amin, Shreyasee

    2017-07-17

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat gastric acid-related disorders. Concerns have been raised about potential fracture risk, especially at the hip, spine and wrist. However, fracture risk at other bone sites has not been as well studied. We investigated the association between PPIs and specific fracture sites using an aggregated knowledge-enhanced database, the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System Data Mining Set (AERS-DM). Proportional reporting ratio (PRR) was used to detect statistically significant associations (signals) between PPIs and fractures. We analyzed both high level terms (HLT) and preferred terms (PT) for fracture sites, defined by MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Of PPI users reporting fractures, the mean age was 65.3 years and the female to male ratio was 3.4:1. Results revealed signals at multiple HLT and PT fracture sites, consistent for both sexes. These included fracture sites with predominant trabecular bone, not previously reported as being associated with PPIs, such as 'rib fractures', where signals were detected for overall PPIs as well as for each of 5 generic ingredients (insufficient data for dexlansoprazole). Based on data mining from AERS-DM, PPI use appears to be associated with an increased risk for fractures at multiple sites.

  14. Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology of immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab in cancer translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Nair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nivolumab, a fully human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb that targets the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 inhibitory receptor expressed on lymphocytes and dendritic cells, has been approved for metastatic melanoma, advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In this review, pharmacology and pharmacometrics systems of this immunopharmaceutical are discussed. Mechanistic actions of T-cell biology with respect to both “priming phase” (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA-4 mAb; ipilimumab and “effector phase” (anti-PD-1 mAb; nivolumab was discussed, respectively. Key pharmacometric variables in anticancer efficacy of nivolumab such as target engagement, metabolism, pharmacology systems and clearance are elucidated with an emphasis on current knowledge from pre-clinical as well as phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials information, including the data presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO 2015 and European Cancer Congress 2015. Nivolumab biomarkers, safety, and synergistic combination immunotherapies are delineated. Nivolumab, administered via intravenous infusion, has an acceptable safety profile and good efficacy. Indeed, the way forward to leverage maximum benefits for the cancer patient may be to synergize anti-PD-1 blockade with complementary targets in immune checkpoint pathways or other oncogenic signal transduction pathways. The encouraging results with nivolumab lend credence to the promise of immune checkpoint blockade as a therapeutic strategy that has been come-of-age in clinical oncology. Of necessity, the burden of “financial toxicity” on cancer patients and families must be factored in considering nivolumab therapy. The problem of ligand PD-L1 being a weak biomarker in clinical practice was discussed. Appropriate patient selection methods including immunopharmacogenomics may be used to identify those patients who are most

  15. Bioavailability assessment of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor utilizing pulsatile drug delivery system: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab I

    2016-09-01

    Chronotherapy or pulsatile drug delivery system could be achieved by increasing drug plasma concentration exactly at the time of disease incidence. Cholesterol synthesis shows a circadian rhythm being high at late night and early in the morning. Simvastatin (SIM) inhibits hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which is responsible for cholesterol synthesis. In this study, SIM lipid-based formulation filled in gelatin capsules and coated with aqueous Eudragit® S100 dispersion was prepared for chronotherapeutic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The pharmacokinetic parameters of SIM capsules were studied in human volunteers after a single oral dose and compared with that of Zocor® tablets as a reference in a randomized cross-over study. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC 0-∞ , C max , T max , t 1/2 and elimination rate constant were determined from plasma concentration-time profile for both formulations. The tested formulation had the ability to delay drug absorption and provide higher drug concentrations from 3 up to 10 h after oral administration compared to that of commercial tablets. The data in this study revealed that the prepared formulation could be effective in chronotherapeutic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the tested formulation was found to enhance SIM bioavailability by 29% over the reference tablets.

  16. Binary interaction parameters for nonpolar systems with cubic equations of state: a theoretical approach 1. CO2/hydrocarbons using SRK equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Stenby, Erling H.

    1994-01-01

    This work shows that, when suitable theoretically based combining rules are used for the cross energy and cross co-volume parameters, cubic equations of state (EoS) with the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules can adequately represent phase equilibria for the asymmetric CO2/hydrocarbon mixtures...... for the prediction of phase behavior of petroleum fluids. A brief theoretical analysis on the temperature dependency of the Kij interaction parameter is also presented....

  17. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  18. [Syk inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  19. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  20. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  1. Syk inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  2. New advances in pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H.; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer’ and Sjogren’s diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  3. Optimization of a hydrocarbon bioremediation system at laboratory scale; Optimizacion de un sistema de biorremediacion de hidrocarburos a escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, A. J.; Tonin, N. L.; Diaz, V.; Pucci, G. N.; Pucci, O. H. [Centro de Estudios e Investigacion en Microbiologia Aplicada (CEIMA), Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); ar, ntonin@unpata. edu.; com, victordj_2003@hotmail.; ar, granapu@unpata. edu.; ar, ceima@unpata. edu.

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to optimize the parameters of moisture, temperature and ratio of nutrients to estimate the possibility of applying the technique of bioremediation in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. For this, an initial characterization of contaminated soil was made according to their physical and chemical characteristics and the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon degraders bacteria. Also the contaminant concentration by gravimetric method and by gas chromatography was studied. To optimize moisture and temperature, microcosms with moisture of 3%, 10%, 15% and 20% and temperatures of 5, 15, 28 and 37 degrees Celsius were used. The monitoring of the mineralization of hydrocarbons was performed by measuring the CO{sub 2} produced. To optimize the ratio of nutrients, different microcosms were designed and were monitored by oxygen consumption and by determination of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography. The C:N:P relationships studied were 100:20:2, 100:10:1, 100:5:0,5 and 100:1:0,1. The results indicate that the mineralization of hydrocarbons was optimal for moisture of 10% to 20% and temperatures of 25 degrees Celsius to 37 degrees Celsius with CO{sub 2} production values of 3000-4500 mg CO{sub 2} kg-1. The optimal C:N:P ratio was 100:1:0,1 in which the highest oxygen consumption was and the elimination of 83% of total hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography with 78% and 89% of n-alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons elimination, respectively. [Spanish] El objeto de este trabajo fue optimizar los parametros de humedad, temperatura y relacion de nutrientes para estimar la posibilidad de aplicar la tecnica de biorremediacion en un suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos. Para esto se realizo una caracterizacion inicial del suelo contaminado en funcion de sus caracteristicas fisicas y quimicas, su cantidad de microorganismos heterotrofos y degradadores de hidrocarburos. Tambien se estudio la concentracion del contaminante por metodo gravimetrico y

  4. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  5. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  6. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivasigamani eUmadevi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  7. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  8. Ultrastructural changes in the membrane system of isolated chloroplasts of spinach under the influence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors AA and EA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Vodka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (АА and EA on the membrane system of isolated chloroplasts of spinach were investigated. Under the influence of AA the considerable alterations in granal structure occurred, the thickness of the granal thylakoids increased by 36% and the interspace between thylakoids by 10% comparable with the control. As a result of EA treatment, the thickness of granal thylakoids enhanced by 31% and the interspace between thylakoids increased by 8% in comparison to the control. It was shown that structure of the granal system of the chloroplast was more sensitive to AA than EA. The data obtained can indicate a decrease in the activity of the thylakoid carbonic anhydrase, inhibition of electron transport and photosynthetic process as a whole in the presence of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (AA and EA.

  9. Analysis of the Interaction between Clopidogrel, Aspirin, and Proton Pump Inhibitors Using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yukiya; Suzuki, Honami; Umetsu, Ryogo; Uranishi, Hiroaki; Abe, Junko; Nishibata, Yuri; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Miyamura, Nobuteru; Hara, Hideaki; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent widely used in combination with aspirin to limit the occurrence of cardiovascular (embolic/thrombotic) events. Consensus guidelines recommend proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a gastrointestinal (GI) prophylactic measure for all patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the simultaneous use of clopidogrel, aspirin, and PPIs on hemorrhagic and embolic/thrombotic events using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Reports of hemorrhagic and embolic/thrombotic events between 2004 and 2013 were analyzed with a reporting odds ratio (ROR) algorithm and logistic regression methods. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms was used to identify such events. Regarding hemorrhagic events, the adjusted RORs of the concomitant use of aspirin and clopidogrel and those of PPIs prescribed with aspirin and clopidogrel were 4.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.02-4.81) and 3.40 (95% CI, 2.84-4.06), respectively. For embolic/thrombotic events, the adjusted RORs of the concomitant use of aspirin and clopidogrel and those of PPIs prescribed with aspirin and clopidogrel were 2.37 (95% CI, 2.16-2.59) and 2.38 (95% CI, 2.00-2.84), respectively. Among patients included in the FAERS database, the concurrent use of aspirin and clopidogrel with PPIs reduced the adjusted ROR of GI hemorrhagic events. PPIs had little influence on the adjusted ROR of embolic/thrombotic events. These results support the use of PPIs as a preventive measure against GI hemorrhagic events for patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin.

  10. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  11. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  12. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  13. Erkitinib, a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor screened using a ProteoChip system from a phytochemical library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Choi, Young-Jin [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Innopharmascreen, Inc., Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan-Won [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biological Science, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In-Cheol, E-mail: ickang@hoseo.edu [Biochip Research Center, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biological Science, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Innopharmascreen, Inc., Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-20

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer. Therefore PTK inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation as potential drug candidates. Herein, we report on a ProteoChip-based screening of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, Erkitinibs, from phytochemical libraries. PLC-{gamma}-1 was used as a substrate immobilized on a ProteoChip and incubated with an EGFR kinase to phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the substrate, followed by a fluorescence detection of the substrate recognized by a phospho-specific monoclonal antibody. Erkitinibs inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data suggest that Erkitinibs can be a specific inhibitor of an EGFR kinase and can be further developed as a potent anti-tumor agent.

  14. Erkitinib, a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor screened using a ProteoChip system from a phytochemical library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Yoon; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Chan-Won; Kang, In-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer. Therefore PTK inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation as potential drug candidates. Herein, we report on a ProteoChip-based screening of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor, Erkitinibs, from phytochemical libraries. PLC-γ-1 was used as a substrate immobilized on a ProteoChip and incubated with an EGFR kinase to phosphorylate tyrosine residues of the substrate, followed by a fluorescence detection of the substrate recognized by a phospho-specific monoclonal antibody. Erkitinibs inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these data suggest that Erkitinibs can be a specific inhibitor of an EGFR kinase and can be further developed as a potent anti-tumor agent.

  15. Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors, Type 2 Diabetes and Fibrosis Progression: An Observational Study in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Pelusi

    Full Text Available The clinical determinants of fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD are still under definition.To assess the clinical determinants of fibrosis progression rate (FPR in NAFLD patients with baseline and follow-up histological evaluation, with a special focus on the impact of pharmacological therapy.In an observational cohort of 118 Italian patients from tertiary referral centers, liver histology was evaluated according to Kleiner. Independent predictors of FPR were selected by a stepwise regression approach.Median follow-up was 36 months (IQR 24-77. Twenty-five patients (18% showed some amelioration, 63 (53% had stability, 30 (25% had progression of fibrosis. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH had similar demographic and anthropometric features, but a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D; p = 0.010, and use of renin-angiotensin axis system (RAS inhibitors (p = 0.005. Fibrosis progression was dependent of the length of follow-up, and was associated with, but did not require, the presence of NASH (p<0.05. Both fibrosis progression and faster FPR were independently associated with higher APRI score at follow-up, absence of treatment with RAS inhibitors, and T2D diagnosis at baseline (p<0.05. There was a significant interaction between use of RAS inhibitors and T2D on FPR (p = 0.002. RAS inhibitors were associated with slower FPR in patients with (p = 0.011, but not in those without (p = NS T2D.NASH is not required for fibrosis progression in NAFLD, whereas T2D seems to drive fibrogenesis independently of hepatic inflammation. Use of RAS inhibitors may contrast fibrosis progression especially in high-risk patients affected by T2D.

  16. Performance of an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator operating in gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode with nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudath Nayak, H.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2009-07-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of auto refrigerant cascade (ARC) refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures. Both flammable and non-flammable refrigerant mixtures can be used in these systems. The performance of an ARC system with optimum nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon mixtures between 90 and 160 K is presented in this paper.

  17. Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Nanofuel Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    NUMBER (Include area code) 23 August 2017 Briefing Charts 01 August 2017 - 31 August 2017 Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon...Douglas Talley N/A 1 Study of Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Nanofuel Droplets DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release...Angeles ϯAir Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Combustion Devices Group, Edwards AFB, CA ONR/ARO/AFOSR Meeting, 23 Aug., 2017

  18. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and comorbidity in diabetes: results from the Vermont diabetes information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors reduce peripheral vascular resistance via blockage of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and high blood pressure, but other effects have been reported. In this study, we explored the association between ACE inhibitor therapy and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adults with diabetes Methods We surveyed 1003 adults with diabetes randomly selected from community practices. Patients were interviewed at home and self-reported their personal and clinical characteristics including comorbidity. Current medications were obtained by direct observation of medication containers. We built logistic regression models with the history of comorbidities as the outcome variable and the current use of ACE inhibitors as the primary predictor variable. We adjusted for possible confounding by social (age, sex, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and clinical factors (systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI, glycosolated hemoglobin (A1C, number of comorbid conditions, and number of prescription medications. Results ACE users reported a history of any cancer (except the non-life-threatening skin cancers less frequently than non-users (10% vs. 15%; odd ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [0.39, 0.89]; P = 0.01; and a history of stomach ulcers or peptic ulcer disease less frequently than non-users (12% vs. 16%, odd ratio = 0.70, [0.49, 1.01], P = 0.06. After correcting for potential confounders, ACE inhibitors remained significantly inversely associated with a personal history of cancer (odds ratio = 0.59, [0.39, 0.89]; P = 0.01 and peptic ulcer disease (odd ratio = 0.68, [0.46, 1.00], P = 0.05. Conclusion ACE inhibitor use is associated with a lower likelihood of a history of cancer and peptic ulcers in patients with diabetes. These findings are limited by the cross sectional study design, self-report of comorbid

  19. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  20. Delayed-type hypersensitivity lesions in the central nervous system are prevented by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyszak, M K; Perry, V H

    1996-09-01

    We have studied the effect of an inhibitor of matrix metalloproleinases, BB-1101, on a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the CNS. We used a recently described model in which heat-killed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) sequestered behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is targeted by a T-cell mediated response after subcutaneous injection of BCG (Matyszak and Perry, 1995). The DTH lesions are characterised by breakdown of the BBB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration and tissue damage including myelin loss. Treatment with BB-1101, which is not only a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases but also strongly inhibits TNF-alpha release, dramatically attenuated the CNS lesions. Breakdown of the BBB and the recruitment of T-cells into the site of the lesion were significantly reduced. There were many fewer inflammatory macrophages in DTH lesions than in comparable lesions from untreated animals. There was also significantly less myelin damage (assessed by staining with anti-MBP antibody). The DTH response in animals treated with dexamethasone was also reduced, but to a lesser degree. No significant effect was seen after administration of pentoxifylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor with effects including the inhibition of TNF-alpha production. Our results suggest that inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases may be of considerable therapeutic benefit in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  1. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism, and cancer: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Knaap (Ronald); C. Siemes (Claire); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism all influence serum angiotensin II action. Because angiotensin II levels have been associated with cancer, the objective of the current

  2. Neuronal NOS inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-imidazole augment the effects of antidepressants acting via serotonergic system in the forced swimming test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Güner; Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Füruzan Yildiz; Komsuoğlu, F Ipek; Tanyeri, Pelin; Erden, B Faruk

    2008-10-01

    Treatment-resistant depression has necessitated new therapeutic strategies in augmenting the therapeutic actions of currently existing antidepressant drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of synergistic interaction between 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-imidazole (TRIM), a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor and conventional antidepressants of different classes in the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. TRIM decreased the immobility time at 50 mg/kg doses in the FST in rats. Treatment with a behaviourally subeffective dose of TRIM (20 mg/kg) augmented the behavioural effect of tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram and fluoxetine or selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine but failed to augment the antidepressant effect of reboxetine, a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, in this test. Therefore inhibition of NOS augments the effects of antidepressants acting on serotonergic system in the FST. Neither TRIM (10-50 mg/kg) nor other drug treatments affected the locomotor activity of animals. These findings are in agreement with the view that antidepressant effects or augmentation of these effects in the FST may be explained with inhibition of NOS activity and this may be a new approach in offering greater therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants acting via serotonergic system.

  3. Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens.

  4. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  5. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  6. Acute kidney injury secondary to a combination of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, diuretics and NSAIDS: "The Triple Whammy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Rosa Maria Garcia; Cols, Montse; Chevarria, Julio Leonel; Osuna, Rosa García; Carreras, Marc; Lisbona, Josep Maria; Coderch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (ACEI/ARB-II), diuretics and NSAIDs, a combination known as "Triple Whammy", can result in decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Objectives: To describe the incidence of AKI for each drug type and their combinations. To define the profile of patients admitted for drug-related AKI secondary to Triple Whammy drugs (AKITW), with an assessment of costs and mortality. A retrospective observational 15-month study developed in three stages: - First: a cross-sectional stage to identify and describe hospitalizations due to AKITW. - Second: a follow-up stage of an outpatient cohort consuming these drugs (15,307 subjects). - Third: a cohort stage to assess costs and mortality, which compared 62 hospitalized patients with AKITW and 62 without AKI, paired by medical specialty, sex, age and comorbidity according to their Clinical Risk Groups. There were 85 hospitalization episodes due to AKITW, and 78% of patients were over the age of 70. The incidence of AKITW in the population was 3.40 cases/1000 users/year (95% CI: 2.59-4.45). By categories, these were: NSAIDs + diuretics 8.99 (95% CI: 3.16-25.3); Triple Whammy 8.82 (95% CI: 4.4-17.3); ACEI/ARB-II + diuretics 6.87 (95% CI: 4.81-9.82); and monotherapy with diuretics 3.31 (95% CI: 1.39-7.85). Mean hospital stay was 7.6 days (SD 6.4), and mean avoidable costs were estimated at €214,604/100,000 inhabitants/year. Mortality during hospitalization and at 12 months was 11.3% and 38.7% respectively, and there were no significant differences when compared with the control group. Treatment with ACEI, ARB-II, diuretics and/or NSAIDs shows a high incidence of hospitalization episodes due to AKI; diuretics as monotherapy or dual and triple combination therapy cause the highest incidence. AKITW involves high health care costs and avoidable mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  9. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  10. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  11. Wet-gas transport in the Mediterranean Sea. Selection of a combined kinetic hydrate/corrosion inhibitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettlitzer, M. [RWE Dea AG, Wietze (Germany); Rozengard, N.; Koeckritz, V. [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany); Malt, E. [RWE Dea AG (Egypt)

    2007-09-13

    Raw gas will be collected on a platform in the centre of the field. Due to volume and weight constraints, condensing fluids will not be separated from the gas on the platform so that the raw gas will be transported in three-phase mode (gas, water, and condensate) via a 33 km long pipeline to a gas treatment plant. Under the calculated pipeline pressure of about 100 barg, hydrate formation is - according to the outcome of thermodynamic simulations - to be expected at temperatures of 19 C and below while the pipeline may cool down to about 15 C in winter conditions. Due to logistical, environmental and economic reasons, RWE Dea decided to inhibit hydrate formation with kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHI). As the gas also contains carbon dioxide, certain corrosivity was forecasted and addition of a corrosion inhibitor turned out to be necessary. Laboratory tests were carried out to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to define the required dosage of KHI. Service companies were contacted and several kinetic hydrate and corrosion inhibitors were screened. Experiments with the different chemicals were performed at the University of Freiberg in a high-pressure cell at the pipeline pressure of 100 barg. Hydrate formation was detected by continuous pressure registration during temperature changes and by observation through a glass window. In order to preselect the chemicals, first tests were performed with pure methane. These tests also served for calibration of the equipment with literature data and especially as an indication for the minimum chemical concentration required. A second test series was performed with synthetic gas in a composition close to that of the field gas under consideration in order to verify the results obtained with methane. Finally, the optimum kinetic hydrate inhibitor was identified as well as the required dosage concentration. Compatibility of KHI and corrosion inhibitor was experimentally proven. A further set of kinetic inhibitor tests with

  12. In Silico Docking of Small-Molecule Inhibitors to the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System EscN ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Broad-spectrum antibiotic Drug discovery Enzyme inhibitors Enzyme structure Injectosome Molecular modeling Protein...Kagawa, Y.; Yoshida, M. The Crystal Structure of the Nucleotide- Free Alpha 3 Beta 3 Subcomplex of F1-ATPase from the Thermophilic Bacillus PS3 is...Kinases and other ATP- Requiring Enzymes and a Common Nucleotide Binding Fold. EMBO J. 1982, 1, 945–951. Zarivach, R.; Vuckovic, M.; Deng, W

  13. Prognostic Impact of Loop Diuretics in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure - Effects of Addition of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and β-Blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masanobu; Sugimura, Koichiro; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Miyata, Satoshi; Tadaki, Soichiro; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Onose, Takeo; Tsuji, Kanako; Abe, Ruri; Oikawa, Takuya; Kasahara, Shintaro; Nochioka, Kotaro; Takahashi, Jun; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-05-25

    It remains to be elucidated whether addition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors and/or β-blockers to loop diuretics has a beneficial prognostic impact on chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. From the Chronic Heart failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku district 2 (CHART-2) Study (n=10,219), we enrolled 4,134 consecutive patients with symptomatic stage C/D CHF (mean age, 69.3 years, 67.7% male). We constructed Cox models for composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke and HF admission. On multivariate inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) Cox modeling, loop diuretics use was associated with worse prognosis with hazard ratio (HR) 1.28 (Pdiuretics were associated with worse prognosis with HR 1.32 and 1.56, respectively (both Pdiuretics. Chronic use of loop diuretics is significantly associated with worse prognosis in CHF patients in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the triple combination of RAAS inhibitor(s), MRA, and β-blocker(s) is associated with better prognosis when combined with low-dose loop diuretics. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1396-1403).

  14. Kinetic analysis of enzyme systems with suicide substrate in the presence of a reversible competitive inhibitor, tested by simulated progress curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno-Dávila, M A; Garrido-del Solo, C; García-Moreno, M; Havsteen, B H; Garcia-Sevilla, F; Garcia-Cánovas, F; Varón, R

    2001-02-01

    The use of suicide substrates remains a very important and useful method in enzymology for studying enzyme mechanisms and designing potential drugs. Suicide substrates act as modified substrates for the target enzymes and bind to the active site. Therefore the presence of a competitive reversible inhibitor decreases the rate of substrate-induced inactivation and protects the enzyme from this inactivation. This lowering on the inactivation rate has evident physiological advantages, since it allows the easy acquisition of experimental data and facilitates kinetic data analysis by providing another variable (inhibitor concentration). However despite the importance of the simultaneous action of a suicide substrate and a competitive reversible inhibition, to date no corresponding kinetic analysis has been carried out. Therefore we present a general kinetic analysis of a Michaelis-Menten reaction mechanism with double inhibition caused by both, a suicide substrate and a competitive reversible inhibitor. We assume rapid equilibrium of the reversible reaction steps involved, while the time course equations for the reaction product have been derived with the assumption of a limiting enzyme. The goodness of the analytical solutions has been tested by comparison with the simulated curves obtained by numerical integration. A kinetic data analysis to determine the corresponding kinetic parameters from the time progress curve of the product is suggested. In conclusion, we present a complete kinetic analysis of an enzyme reaction mechanism as described above in an attempt to fill a gap in the theoretical treatment of this type of system.

  15. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Dapagliflozin, on Renal Renin-Angiotensin System in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seok Joon; Chung, Sungjin; Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Young-Hye; Kim, Ji-Won; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Kim, Eun-Sook; Moon, Sung-Dae; Kim, Myung-Jun; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is one of the important pathogenic mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on renal RAS in an animal model with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin (1.0 mg/kg, OL-DA) or voglibose (0.6 mg/kg, OL-VO, diabetic control) (n = 10 each) was administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats for 12 weeks. We used voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, as a comparable counterpart to SGLT2 inhibitor because of its postprandial glucose-lowering effect without proven renoprotective effects. Control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LT) and OLETF (OL-C) rats received saline (n = 10, each). Changes in blood glucose, urine albumin, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress were measured. Inflammatory cell infiltration, mesangial widening, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney were evaluated by histological analysis. The effects of dapagliflozin on renal expression of the RAS components were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in renal tissue. After treatment, hyperglycemia and urine microalbumin levels were attenuated in both OL-DA and OL-VO rather than in the OL-C group (P renal RAS component expression, oxidative stress and interstitial fibrosis in OLETF rats. We suggest that, in addition to control of hyperglycemia, partial suppression of renal RAS with an SGLT2 inhibitor would be a promising strategy for the prevention of treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  17. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  18. MET gene exon 14 deletion created using the CRISPR/Cas9 system enhances cellular growth and sensitivity to a MET inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yosuke; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomida, Shuta; Terashima, Masato; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    MET splice site mutations resulting in an exon 14 deletion have been reported to be present in about 3% of all lung adenocarcinomas. Patients with lung adenocarcinoma and a MET splice site mutation who have responded to MET inhibitors have been reported. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a recently developed genome-engineering tool that can easily and rapidly cause small insertions or deletions. We created an in vitro model for MET exon 14 deletion using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the HEK293 cell line. The phenotype, which included MET inhibitor sensitivity, was then investigated in vitro. Additionally, MET splice site mutations were analyzed in several cancers included in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. An HEK293 cell line with a MET exon 14 deletion was easily and rapidly created; this cell line had a higher MET protein expression level, enhanced MET phosphorylation, and prolonged MET activation. In addition, a direct comparison of phenotypes using this system demonstrated enhanced cellular growth, colony formation, and MET inhibitor sensitivity. In the TCGA dataset, lung adenocarcinomas had the highest incidence of MET exon 14 deletions, while other cancers rarely carried such mutations. Approximately 10% of the lung adenocarcinoma samples without any of driver gene alterations carried the MET exon 14 deletion. These findings suggested that this system may be useful for experiments requiring the creation of specific mutations, and the present experimental findings encourage the development of MET-targeted therapy against lung cancer carrying the MET exon 14 deletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

    Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  1. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladford, J.

    1996-07-18

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. (author) figs.

  2. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  4. Calcineurin inhibitor-induced complement system activation via ERK1/2 signalling is inhibited by SOCS-3 in human renal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschenberger, Beatrix; Niess, Lea; Würzner, Reinhard; Schwelberger, Hubert; Eder, Iris E; Puhr, Martin; Guenther, Julia; Troppmair, Jakob; Rudnicki, Michael; Neuwirt, Hannes

    2018-02-01

    One factor that significantly contributes to renal allograft loss is chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity (CIN). Among other factors, the complement (C-) system has been proposed to be involved CIN development. Hence, we investigated the impact of CNIs on intracellular signalling and the effects on the C-system in human renal tubule cells. In a qPCR array, CNI treatment upregulated C-factors and downregulated SOCS-3 and the complement inhibitors CD46 and CD55. Additionally, ERK1/-2 was required for these regulations. Following knock-down and overexpression of SOCS-3, we found that SOCS-3 inhibits ERK1/-2 signalling. Finally, we assessed terminal complement complex formation, cell viability and apoptosis. Terminal complement complex formation was induced by CNIs. Cell viability was significantly decreased, whereas apoptosis was increased. Both effects were reversed under complement component-depleted conditions. In vivo, increased ERK1/-2 phosphorylation and SOCS-3 downregulation were observed at the time of transplantation in renal allograft patients who developed a progressive decline of renal function in the follow-up compared to stable patients. The progressive cohort also had lower total C3 levels, suggesting higher complement activity at baseline. In conclusion, our data suggest that SOCS-3 inhibits CNI-induced ERK1/-2 signalling, thereby blunting the negative control of C-system activation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Measurement error potential and control when quantifying volatile hydrocarbon concentrations in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Due to their widespread use throughout commerce and industry, volatile hydrocarbons such as toluene, trichloroethene, and 1, 1,1-trichloroethane routinely appears as principal pollutants in contamination of soil system hydrocarbons is necessary to confirm the presence of contamination and its nature and extent; to assess site risks and the need for cleanup; to evaluate remedial technologies; and to verify the performance of a selected alternative. Decisions regarding these issues have far-reaching impacts and, ideally, should be based on accurate measurements of soil hydrocarbon concentrations. Unfortunately, quantification of volatile hydrocarbons in soils is extremely difficult and there is normally little understanding of the accuracy and precision of these measurements. Rather, the assumptions often implicitly made that the hydrocarbon data are sufficiently accurate for the intended purpose. This appear presents a discussion of measurement error potential when quantifying volatile hydrocarbons in soils, and outlines some methods for understanding the managing these errors

  6. [Effect of bio-charcoal on the trans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil-plant system with composted sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Li; Chen, Ying-xu; Wu, Wei-xiang; Ma, Hong-rui

    2009-08-15

    The effects of bio-charcoal acted as sludge-composting additive on soil characteristics and plant growth were studied. Compared with the treatment of composted sludge without bio-charcoal, soil cation exchange capacity in treatment of composted sludge with bio-charcoal increased over 5% and 10% respectively and soil nitrogen content increased 13% and 18% respectively for two kind soils. The composted sludge with bio-charcoal also resulted in 23% higher enhancement on ryegrass biomass and 8%-10% higher enhancement on ryegrass chlorophyll content. In addition, with the amendment of bio-charcoal, the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in composted sludge was decreased, which resulted in the lower absorption and accumulation of ryegrass to PAHs. Compared with the control, the PAHs concentration in ryegrass amended composted sludge with bio-charcoal decreased 27%-34%. The results indicated that composted sludge with bio-charcoal resulted in much more improvement on the plant growth as well as less negative effect on environment. Therefore, biocharcoal was in favor of the safe land application of sewage sludge.

  7. Systemic delivery of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor reduces CNS substrates and increases lifespan in a mouse model of type 2 Gaucher disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Cabrera-Salazar

    Full Text Available Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD, also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC. This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph, leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases.

  8. Systemic delivery of a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor reduces CNS substrates and increases lifespan in a mouse model of type 2 Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Deriso, Matthew; Bercury, Scott D; Li, Lingyun; Lydon, John T; Weber, William; Pande, Nilesh; Cromwell, Mandy A; Copeland, Diane; Leonard, John; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ronald K

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic Gaucher disease (nGD), also known as type 2 or type 3 Gaucher disease, is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GC). This deficiency impairs the degradation of glucosylceramide (GluCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GluSph), leading to their accumulation in the brains of patients and mouse models of the disease. These accumulated substrates have been thought to cause the severe neuropathology and early death observed in patients with nGD and mouse models. Substrate accumulation is evident at birth in both nGD mouse models and humans affected with the most severe type of the disease. Current treatment of non-nGD relies on the intravenous delivery of recombinant human glucocerebrosidase to replace the missing enzyme or the administration of glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors to attenuate GluCer production. However, the currently approved drugs that use these mechanisms do not cross the blood brain barrier, and thus are not expected to provide a benefit for the neurological complications in nGD patients. Here we report the successful reduction of substrate accumulation and CNS pathology together with a significant increase in lifespan after systemic administration of a novel glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor to a mouse model of nGD. To our knowledge this is the first compound shown to cross the blood brain barrier and reduce substrates in this animal model while significantly enhancing its lifespan. These results reinforce the concept that systemically administered glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors could hold enhanced therapeutic promise for patients afflicted with neuropathic lysosomal storage diseases.

  9. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  12. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  13. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  14. Non-covalent Interactions of Graphene with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zygouri, Panagiota; Potsi, Georgia; Mouzourakis, Eleftherios; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this mini review we discuss the interactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene and the experimental approaches developed so far to create novel graphene/PAH hybrids and composite systems. The utilization of these systems in electrical, biomedical and polymer-reinforcement

  15. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  16. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  17. Phase equilibria at low temperature for light hydrocarbons-methanol-water-acid gases mixtures: measurements and modelling; Equilibres de phases a basse temperature de systemes complexes CO{sub 2} - hydrocarbures legers - methanol - eau: mesures et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffine, L.

    2005-10-15

    The need to develop and improve natural gas treatment processes is real. The petroleum industry usually uses separation processes which require phase equilibrium phenomena. Yet, the complexity of the phase equilibria involved results in a lack of data, which in turn limits the development of thermodynamic models. The first part of this work is devoted to experimental investigations for systems containing light hydrocarbons, methanol, water and acid gases. We present a new apparatus that was developed to measure vapor-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria. It allowed us to obtain new phase composition data for the methanol-ethane binary system and different mixtures, and also to determine a part of the three phases equilibrium envelope of the same systems. In the second part of this work, we have developed a thermodynamic model based on the CPA equation of state. This choice may be justified by the presence of associating components like methanol, hydrogen sulfide and water in the systems. Such model is necessary for the design of gas treatment plants. Our model provides good results for phase equilibrium calculations for binaries systems without binary interaction parameter in many cases, and describes correctly the vapour-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for complex mixtures. (author)

  18. L-Cysteine/D,L-homocysteine-regulated ileum motility via system L and B°(,+) transporter: Modification by inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide synthesis and dietary treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Satoshi; Nomura, Ryouya; Yanagihara, Madoka; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fujino, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Horie, Syunji; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that L-cysteine treatments decreased motility in gastrointestinal tissues including the ileum via hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is formed from sulfur-containing amino acids such as L-cysteine and L-homocysteine. However, the amino acid transport systems involved in L-cysteine/L-homocysteine-induced responses have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, we investigated these systems pharmacologically by measuring electrical stimulation (ES)-induced contractions with amino acids in mouse ileum preparations. The treatments with L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine inhibited ES-induced contractions in ileum preparations from fasted mice, and these responses were decreased by the treatment with 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylate (BCH), an inhibitor of systems L and B°(,+). The results obtained using ileum preparations and a model cell line (PC12 cells) with various amino acids and BCH showed that not only L-cysteine, but also aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine, which act as H2S synthesis inhibitors, appeared to be taken up by these preparations/cells in L and B°(,+) system-dependent manners. The L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine responses were delayed and abolished, respectively, in ileum preparations from fed mice. Our results suggested that the regulation of ileum motility by L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine was dependent on BCH-sensitive systems, and varied depending on feeding in mice. Therefore, the effects of aminooxyacetic acid and D,L-propargylglycine on transport systems need to be considered in pharmacological analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventative and therapeutic effects of a GABA transporter 1 inhibitor administered systemically in a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willias Masocha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a dearth of drugs to manage a dose-limiting painful peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel in some patients during the treatment of cancer. Gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1 whose expression is increased in the brain and spinal cord during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP might be a potential therapeutic target for managing PINP. Thus, our aim was to evaluate if systemic administration of a GAT-1 inhibitor ameliorates PINP. Methods The reaction latency to thermal stimuli (hot plate test; at 55 °C and cold stimuli (cold plate test; at 4 °C of female BALB/c mice was recorded before and after intraperitoneal treatment with paclitaxel, its vehicle, and/or a selective GAT-1 inhibitor NO-711. The effects of NO-711 on motor coordination were evaluated using the rotarod test at a constant speed of 4 rpm or accelerating mode from 4 rpm to 40 rpm over 5 min. Results The coadministration of paclitaxel with NO-711 3 mg/kg prevented the development of paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia at day 7 after drug treatment. NO-711 at 3 mg/kg produced antihyperalgesic activity up to 1 h and antiallodynic activity up to 2 h in mice with established paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. No motor deficits were observed with NO-711 at a dose of 3 mg/kg, whereas a higher dose 5 mg/kg caused motor impairment and reduced mean time spent on the rotarod at a constant speed of 4 rpm. However, at a rotarod accelerating mode from 4 rpm to 40 rpm over 5 min, NO-711 3 mg/kg caused motor impairment up to 1 h, but had recovered by 2 h. Conclusions These results show that systemic administration of the GAT-1 inhibitor NO-711 has preventative and therapeutic activity against paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia. NO-711’s antiallodynic effects, but not antihyperalgesic effects, were independent of its motor impairment/sedation properties. Thus, low doses of GAT-1

  20. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  1. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  2. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical and isotopic signature of bulk organic matter and hydrocarbon biomarkers within mid-slope accretionary sediments of the northern Cascadia margin gas hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Shingai, Hiroshi; Pohlman, John W.; Naraoka, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) from two mid-slope sites of the northern Cascadia margin were investigated during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 to elucidate the organic matter origins and identify potential microbial contributions to SOM. Gas hydrate is present at both locations (IODP Sites U1327 and U1328), with distinct patterns of near-seafloor structural accumulations at the cold seep Site U1328 and deeper stratigraphic accumulations at the slope-basin Site U1327. Source characterization and evidence that some components of the organic matter have been diagenetically altered are determined from the concentrations and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbon biomarkers, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total sulfur (TS). The carbon isotopic compositions of TOC (δ13CTOC = −26 to −22‰) and long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31, δ13C = −34 to − 29‰) suggest the organic matter at both sites is a mixture of 1) terrestrial plants that employ the C3 photosynthetic pathway and 2) marine algae. In contrast, the δ15NTN values of the bulk sediment (+ 4 to + 8‰) are consistent with a predominantly marine source, but these values most likely have been modified during microbial organic matter degradation. The δ13C values of archaeal biomarker pentamethylicosane (PMI) (− 46.4‰) and bacterial-sourced hopenes, diploptene and hop-21-ene (− 40.9 to − 34.7‰) indicate a partial contribution from methane carbon or a chemoautotrophic pathway. Our multi-isotope and biomarker-based conclusions are consistent with previous studies, based only on the elemental composition of bulk sediments, that suggested a mixed marine-terrestrial organic matter origin for these mid-slope sites of the northern Cascadia margin.

  4. Discovery of a low-systemic-exposure DGAT-1 inhibitor with a picolinoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianwei; Wang, Gaihong; Dang, Xiangyu; Guo, Binbin; Chen, Wuhong; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Limin; Wang, Heyao; Hu, Youhong

    2017-09-01

    A series of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT-1) inhibitors with a picolinoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid moiety were designed and synthesized. Of these compounds, compound 22 exhibited excellent DGAT-1-inhibitory activity (hDGAT-1 enzyme assay, 50% inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ]=3.5±0.9nM) and effectively reduced the intracellular triglyceride contents in 3T3-L1, HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. A preliminary study of the plasma and tissue distributions of compound 22 in mice revealed low plasma exposure and high concentrations in different segments of the intestine and liver, which may facilitate targeting DGAT-1. Furthermore, in an acute lipid challenge test, compound 22 showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on high-serum triglycerides in C57/KSJ mice induced by olive oil (1, 3, and 10mg/kg, i.g.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...vital importance for hydrocarbon -fueled propulsion systems: fuel thermal performance as indicated by physical and chemical effects of cooling passage... analysis . The selection and acquisition of a set of chemically diverse fuels is pivotal for a successful outcome since test method validation and

  8. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  9. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  10. HYDROCARBON PROSPECTING OVE DROCARBON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    GEOLOGY OF THE AREA. The study area covers an area of approximately 41km2 which is located within the offshore southwestern,. Niger Delta (Figure 1). The Niger Delta province has one identified petroleum system which is referred to as Akata-Agbada petroleum system [7]. The stratigraphic units in chronological order ...

  11. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors targeting HDAC3 and HDAC1 ameliorate polyglutamine-elicited phenotypes in model systems of Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haiqun; Pallos, Judit; Jacques, Vincent; Lau, Alice; Tang, Bin; Cooper, Andrew; Syed, Adeela; Purcell, Judith; Chen, Yi; Sharma, Shefali; Sangrey, Gavin R.; Darnell, Shayna B.; Plasterer, Heather; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Thompson, Leslie M.; Rusche, James R.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    to a repressive chromatin environment in HD. No differences were detected in the localization of HDAC2, HDAC4 or HDAC7. These results suggest that inhibition of HDACs 1 and 3 can relieve HD-like phenotypes in model systems and that HDAC inhibitors targeting these isotypes might show therapeutic benefit in human HD. PMID:22590724

  12. Aqueous Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the M. tuberculosis Enoyl-ACP Reductase-NADH System and Its Complex with a Substrate Mimic or Diphenyl Ethers Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Henrique da Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of 12 aqueous systems of the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (InhA were carried out for up to 20–40 ns using the GROMACS 4.5 package. Simulations of the holoenzyme, holoenzyme-substrate, and 10 holoenzyme-inhibitor complexes were conducted in order to gain more insight about the secondary structure motifs of the InhA substrate-binding pocket. We monitored the lifetime of the main intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Our MD simulations demonstrate the importance of evaluating the conformational changes that occur close to the active site of the enzyme-cofactor complex before and after binding of the ligand and the influence of the water molecules. Moreover, the protein-inhibitor total steric (ELJ and electrostatic (EC interaction energies, related to Gly96 and Tyr158, are able to explain 80% of the biological response variance according to the best linear equation, pKi = 7.772 − 0.1885 × Gly96 + 0.0517 × Tyr158 (R2 = 0.80; n = 10, where interactions with Gly96, mainly electrostatic, increase the biological response, while those with Tyr158 decrease. These results will help to understand the structure-activity relationships and to design new and more potent anti-TB drugs.

  13. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  14. In Situ Hydrocarbon Degradation by Indigenous Nearshore Bacterial Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherrier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential episodic hydrocarbon inputs associated with oil mining and transportation together with chronic introduction of hydrocarbons via urban runoff into the relatively pristine coastal Florida waters poses a significant threat to Florida's fragile marine environment. It is therefore important to understand the extent to which indigenous bacterial populations are able to degrade hydrocarbon compounds and also determine factors that could potentially control and promote the rate at which these compounds are broken down in situ. Previous controlled laboratory experiments carried out by our research group demonstrated that separately both photo-oxidation and cometabolism stimulate bacterial hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected from a chronically petroleum contaminated site in Bayboro Bay, Florida. Additionally, we also demonstrated that stable carbon and radiocarbon abundances of respired CO 2 could be used to trace in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations at this same site. This current proposal had two main objectives: (a) to evaluate the cumulative impact of cometabolism and photo-oxidation on hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected the same site in Bayboro Bay, Florida and (b) to determine if in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations this site could be traced using natural radiocarbon and stable carbon abundances of assimilated bacterial carbon. Funds were used for 2 years of full support for one ESI Ph.D. student, April Croxton. To address our first objective a series of closed system bacterial incubations were carried out using photo-oxidized petroleum and pinfish (i.e. cometabolite). Bacterial production of CO 2 was used as the indicator of hydrocarbon degradation and (delta) 13 C analysis of the resultant CO 2 was used to evaluate the source of the respired CO 2 (i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons or the pinfish cometabolite). Results from these time

  15. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  16. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  17. How to Find the Fries Structures for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał K. Cyrański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm leading to the Fries canonical structure is presented for benzenoid hydrocarbons. This is a purely topological approach, which is based on adjacency matrices and the Hadamard procedure of matrix multiplication. The idea is presented for naphthalene, as an example. The Fries canonical-structures are also derived for anthracene, coronene, triphenylene, phenanthrene, benz[a]pyrene, and one large benzenoid system. The Fries concept can be convenient for obtaining Clar structures with the maximum number of sextets, which in turn effectively represent π-electron (delocalization in benzenoid hydrocarbons.

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Successive Release of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase-1 Through Graphene Oxide-Based Delivery System Can Promote Skin Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Shi, Dike; Zheng, Yixiong; Nelson, Peter J.; Bao, Qi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to testify the hypothesis that graphene oxide (GO) could act as an appropriate vehicle for the release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein in the context of skin repair. GO characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. After TIMP-1 absorbing GO, the release profiles of various concentrations of TIMP-1 from GO were compared. GO biocompatibility with fibroblast viability was assessed by measuring cell cycle and apoptosis. In vivo wound healing assays were used to determine the effect of TIMP-1-GO on skin regeneration. The greatest intensity of GO was 1140 nm, and the most intensity volume was 10,674.1 nm (nanometer). TIMP-1 was shown to be continuously released for at least 40 days from GO. The proliferation and viability of rat fibroblasts cultured with TIMP-1-GO were not significantly different as compared with the cells grown in GO or TIMP-1 alone ( p > 0.05). Skin defect of rats treated with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-GO showed significant differences in histological and immunohistochemical scores ( p tissue regeneration in skin defect.

  1. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH MOLECULAR MICELLES AND FREE ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of four systems available from the literature, based on cyclodextrins, dioctylsulfosuccinate, bile salts, and molecular micelles consisting of oligomers of undecylenic acid, the most successful separation system in our hands is based on the molecular micelles, oligomers of sodiu...

  3. Adsorption of polar aromatic hydrocarbons on synthetic calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Grøn, Christian

    1996-01-01

    The wettability of hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. A model system of synthetic call cite, cyclohexane and the three probe molecules: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine, have been...

  4. Enhancement of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon by modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three sediment samples collected from the Qua Iboe River System and eighteen different column packing ratios of silica gel and alumina were used in this investigation. The variation of the composition of the stationary phase (silica gel and alumina, SA) gave different yields of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons. In all the ...

  5. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  6. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  7. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  8. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  9. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  10. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  11. Stereoselective Inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Fluoxetine and Its Metabolite: Implications for Risk Assessment of Multiple Time-Dependent Inhibitor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Justin D.; VandenBrink, Brooke M.; Babu, Katipudi N.; Nelson, Wendel L.; Kunze, Kent L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent guidance on drug-drug interaction (DDI) testing recommends evaluation of circulating metabolites. However, there is little consensus on how to quantitatively predict and/or assess the risk of in vivo DDIs by multiple time-dependent inhibitors (TDIs) including metabolites from in vitro data. Fluoxetine was chosen as the model drug to evaluate the role of TDI metabolites in DDI prediction because it is a TDI of both CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 with a circulating N-dealkylated inhibitory metabolite, norfluoxetine. In pooled human liver microsomes, both enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine were TDIs of CYP2C19, (S)-norfluoxetine was the most potent inhibitor with time-dependent inhibition affinity constant (KI) of 7 μM, and apparent maximum time-dependent inhibition rate (kinact,app) of 0.059 min−1. Only (S)-fluoxetine and (R)-norfluoxetine were TDIs of CYP3A4, with (R)-norfluoxetine being the most potent (KI = 8 μM, and kinact,app = 0.011 min−1). Based on in-vitro-to-in-vivo predictions, (S)-norfluoxetine plays the most important role in in vivo CYP2C19 DDIs, whereas (R)-norfluoxetine is most important in CYP3A4 DDIs. Comparison of two multiple TDI prediction models demonstrated significant differences between them in in-vitro-to-in-vitro predictions but not in in-vitro-to-in-vivo predictions. Inclusion of all four inhibitors predicted an in vivo decrease in CYP2C19 (95%) and CYP3A4 (60–62%) activity. The results of this study suggest that adequate worst-case risk assessment for in vivo DDIs by multiple TDI systems can be achieved by incorporating time-dependent inhibition by both parent and metabolite via simple addition of the in vivo time-dependent inhibition rate/cytochrome P450 degradation rate constant (λ/kdeg) values, but quantitative DDI predictions will require a more thorough understanding of TDI mechanisms. PMID:23785064

  12. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  16. Investigating CH4 production in an oxic plant-soil system -a new approach combining isotopic labelling (13C) and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Keppler, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Typically, aerated soil are net sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4), being highest in native ecosystems (pristine forests > managed forests > grasslands > crop fields). However, this does not exclude a simultaneous endogenic CH4 production in the plant-soil system, which cannot be detected simply via CH4 flux measurements. Methanogenic archaea producing CH4 under anoxic conditions were thought to be the only biotic source of CH4 in the soil. However, until recently a non-archaeal pathway of CH4 formation is known where CH4 is produced under oxic conditions in plants (Keppler et al. 2006) and fungi (Lenhart et al. 2012). Additionally, abiotic formation of CH4 from soil organic matter was reported (Jugold et al. 2012) and may be ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The major goal of this project was to determine soil endogenic CH4 sources and to estimate their contribution to the endogenic CH4 production. Especially the effect of plants and fungi on soil CH4 production was investigated. Therefore, a series of experiments was carried out on field fresh soil collected in a grassland and a forest ecosystem under controlled laboratory conditions. By combining selective inhibitors and 13C labelling, CH4 production rates of several CH4 sources were quantified. The major difficulty was to detect the comparatively small flux of CH4 production against the background of the high CH4 consumption rates due to methanotrophic bacteria. Therefore, we supplemented bare soil and soil with vegetation with selective inhibitors and 13C labelled substrates in a closed chamber system. In a first step, CH4 production was determined by the inhibition of CH4 oxidizing bacteria with Difluoromethane (DFM, 2ml l-1). In the following, a 13C labelled substrate (either CO2, Acetate, or Methionine -S-CH3 labelled) was added in combination with a specific inhibitor -either for archaeal methanogenesis (Bromoethanesulfonate), bacteria (Streptomycin), or fungi (Captan, Cycloheximide). Gas samples were

  17. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  18. Lack of effect of chronic pre-treatment with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 on inflammatory pain behaviour: evidence for plastic changes in the endocannabinoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, Bright N; Norris, Leonie M; Woodhams, Stephen; Burston, James; Patel, Annie; Alexander, Stephen PH; Barrett, David A; Kendall, David A; Bennett, Andrew J; Chapman, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Elevating levels of endocannabinoids with inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a major focus of pain research, purported to be a safer approach devoid of cannabinoid receptor-mediated side effects. Here, we have determined the effects of sustained pharmacological inhibition of FAAH on inflammatory pain behaviour and if pharmacological inhibition of FAAH was as effective as genetic deletion of FAAH on pain behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of pre-treatment with a single dose, versus 4 day repeated dosing with the selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (i.p. 0.3 mg·kg−1), on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain behaviour and spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction were determined in rats. Effects of pain induction and of the drug treatments on levels of arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA) and oleolyl ethanolamide (OEA) in the spinal cord were determined. KEY RESULTS Single, but not repeated, URB597 treatment significantly attenuated the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia (P < 0.001, vs. vehicle-treated animals). Neither mode of URB597 treatment altered levels of AEA, PEA and OEA in the hind paw, or carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Single URB597 treatment produced larger increases in AEA, PEA and OEA in the spinal cord, compared with those after repeated administration. Single and repeated URB597 treatment decreased levels of immunoreactive N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in the spinal cord and attenuated carrageenan-induced spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Changes in the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the loss of analgesic effects following repeated administration of low dose URB597 in this model of inflammatory pain. PMID:22595021

  19. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Kumar, T.; Dayal, A.M.; Sudarshan, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable...

  1. Pilot fluidized bed combustor system applied to thermal energy production from light hydrocarbons - part I: description and hydrodynamics analysis; Sistema combustor piloto a leito fluidizado para producao de energia termica a partir de hidrocarbonetos leves. Parte I: descricao e analise hidrodinamica do sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro P. de; Souza Junior, Francisco de Assis; Alves, Stella M.A.; Estevao, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lucena, Sergio; Souza, Phillipi R. de O. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Controle e Otimizacao de Processos; Santos, Douglas A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, the employment of light hydrocarbons in combustion systems for power generation has been announced by Brazilian Government's like a great bet for diversification the energetic matrix in spite of the provisional crisis. As consequence, high demand and growing R and D investments caused immediate reflexes in all economical and industrial sectors of the Natural Gas chain, mainly considering the gas from Campos, Santos and Espirito Santo offshore fields offered to the market. Regarding this, Northeast Region of Brazil shows itself to be attentive to the energy market tendencies and to environmental sector, creating conditions for developing new technologies and applications for the gas consumption. Among the possible applications of the gas consumption, the fluidized bed combustion systems are highlighted, like a real alternative for energy applying of the hydrocarbons produced, considering a good safety range to effective environmental demands. Thereby, the present work aimed to perform the description of a pilot fluidized bed combustor system with sand using light hydrocarbons - specifically, natural gas and LPG. Thereby, said pilot fluidized bed combustor operates isothermically without developing flames and/or hot spots. Besides the exposed, a hydrodynamic analysis of the system was made, identifying variables and parameters onto fluidized bed combustion process. (author.

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons from service stations in the sewer system in Cartagena, Columbia; Hidrocarburos aromaticos en la red de alcantarillado procedentes de estaciones de servicio en Cartagena (Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachorro Sanchez, P.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Luna Jara, J.

    2000-07-01

    The results of this study are part of a project for characterising domestic and industrial waste flowing through the sewer system of Cartagena de Indias (Columbia). Characterisation was carried out in order to establish the contaminating load in the drinking water supply with a view to establishing a framework for compensatory taxes levied by the corresponding environmental agency. (Author)

  3. Design, construction and implementation of a packed reactor system to study the production of hydrogen by the catalytic reaction of reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Aguilar, Cesar Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica of the Universidad de Costa Rica has evaluated the performance of several types of catalysts and supports in steam reforming reactions, using different conditions for synthesis of the same. The construction of a reaction system at laboratory scale is described to improve the conditions of the reforming process compared to previous projects. Catalysts synthesized and characterized are used but providing better disposal through a packed bed reactor. The system has had the necessary instrumentation for proper measurement of the temperature at the entrance and inside the reactor, proper feeding of reactants, flow measurement and sampling and measurement system. The conceptual design of the reactions system presented has taken into account the income of reactants through a peristaltic pump, preheating or vaporization of reagents, income and measurement of carrier gas sampling, take of sampling, flow measurement product, reactor packed and cooler product. The order of each stage is defined and positioning in the entire system. The design of a preheater and a tubular reactor is detailed, taking into account the dimensions and construction materials of each of the pieces. The design is presented in a series of diagrams and then the result of the construction is illustrated by photographs, all work done also has been described. The implementation of the system has described by the coupling of all parties and the respective tests. A basic experimental plan is presented to evaluate the performance of the reaction system, using glycerin as a reactant, demonstrating ability to react and take effective data. Four experiments are performed: vacuum reactor, packed reactor with two types of filling and reactor with an exposed surface cobalt oxide (II) reduced, the gases produced in the reaction are analyzed by gas chromatography. The results are discussed and analyzed, focusing on the overall selectivity of hydrogen relative to methane, and the

  4. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  5. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  6. New methods for the identification of efflux mediated MDR bacteria, genetic assessment of regulators and efflux pump constituents, characterization of efflux systems and screening for inhibitors of efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viveiros, M; Martins, M; Couto, I

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a number of methods that identify efflux pump mediated multi-drug resistant bacteria, characterize efflux systems and screen for inhibitors of efflux pumps. These approaches were complemented by the quantification of the expression of genes that regulate and code for constituents...

  7. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  8. Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2012-03-01

    The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

  9. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  10. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  11. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  12. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  13. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  14. 3-Dimensional culture systems for anti-cancer compound profiling and high-throughput screening reveal increases in EGFR inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity compared to monolayer culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Amy L; Richardson, Robyn D; Finlay, Darren; Vuori, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional (3D) culture models have the potential to bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture and in vivo studies. To benefit anti-cancer drug discovery from 3D models, new techniques are needed that enable their use in high-throughput (HT) screening amenable formats. We have established miniaturized 3D culture methods robust enough for automated HT screens. We have applied these methods to evaluate the sensitivity of normal and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines against a panel of oncology drugs when cultured as monolayers (2D) and spheroids (3D). We have identified two classes of compounds that exhibit preferential cytotoxicity against cancer cells over normal cells when cultured as 3D spheroids: microtubule-targeting agents and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Further improving upon our 3D model, superior differentiation of EC50 values in the proof-of-concept screens was obtained by co-culturing the breast cancer cells with normal human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Further, the selective sensitivity of the cancer cells towards chemotherapeutics was observed in 3D co-culture conditions, rather than as 2D co-culture monolayers, highlighting the importance of 3D cultures. Finally, we examined the putative mechanisms that drive the differing potency displayed by EGFR inhibitors. In summary, our studies establish robust 3D culture models of human cells for HT assessment of tumor cell-selective agents. This methodology is anticipated to provide a useful tool for the study of biological differences within 2D and 3D culture conditions in HT format, and an important platform for novel anti-cancer drug discovery.

  15. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  16. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  17. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  18. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  19. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  1. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  2. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  3. Validation of the digital PCR system in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant EGFR mutant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masago, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Shiro; Hata, Akito; Okuda, Chiyuki; Yoshizumi, Yuko; Kaji, Reiko; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Yukio; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the QuantStudio 3D Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) system and a PCR-based next generation sequencing (NGS) system for detecting a secondary mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene T790M in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients previously diagnosed with EGFR-activating mutations. Twenty-five patients with NSCLC previously treated with EGFR-TKIs were examined. The patients were treated daily with either erlotinib or gefitinib. New biopsies, followed by DNA sequencing on an Ion Torrent systems using the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel and dPCR were performed. A comparison of NGS, sensitive PCR, and dPCR revealed that the sensitivities of NGS and dPCR were similar in this study. As well, T790M was detected in as low as about 5% of mutant allelic frequencies, which represented 5% of the total reads on site mapped reads in NGS and greater than 5% of the dPCR reads, which represented mutant and wild type copies. The strategy in which NGS sequencing is followed by revealed acquired mutation with dPCR may be a reasonable one. We demonstrated the utility of combining NGS and dPCR as a tool for monitoring T790M. NGS and dPCR with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens might become a standard genomic test for exploring acquired resistance to targeted molecular medicines. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Phase I Trial Using Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib and Concurrent Temozolomide and Radiotherapy for Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, Gregory J.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Machtay, Mitchell; Mallon, Gayle; Myers, Thomas; Ramirez, Michael; Andrews, David; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and response rate of bortezomib with concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide in the treatment of patients with central nervous system malignancies. Patients and Methods: This open-label, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical study evaluated the safety of three dose levels of intravenously administered bortezomib (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m 2 /dose) on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle, in addition to concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide at a daily dose of 75 mg/m 2 starting on Day 1. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity, defined as any Grade 4-5 toxicity or Grade 3 toxicity directly attributable to protocol treatment, requiring hospitalization and/or radiotherapy interruption. The secondary endpoints included feasibility, non-dose-limiting toxicity, and treatment response. Results: A total of 27 patients were enrolled, 23 of whom had high-grade glioma (10 recurrent and 13 newly diagnosed). No dose-limiting toxicities were noted in any dose group, including the highest (1.3 mg/m 2 /dose). The most frequent toxicities were Grade 1 and 2 stomatitis, erythema, and alopecia. All 27 patients were evaluable for response. At a median follow-up of 15.0 months, 9 patients were still alive, with a median survival of 17.4 months for all patients and 15.0 months for patients with high-grade glioma. Conclusion: Bortezomib administered at its typical 'systemic' dose (1.3 mg/m 2 ) is well tolerated and safe combined with temozolomide and radiotherapy when used in the treatment of central nervous system malignancies. A Phase II study to characterize efficacy is warranted.

  5. Hydrocarbons dating by Re-Os method: experimental study of the Re-Os couple geochemical behaviour in oils during the evolution of a petroleum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdaoui, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The Re-Os radiogenic system is well adapted to the dating of oils and bitumen. However the meaning of the obtained age is ambiguous. This is mainly due to gaps in our knowledge of the geochemical behavior and the speciation of Re and Os in oils. Specifically, use of the Re-Os geo-chronometer requires an understanding of how Re-Os behavior can lead to the fulfillment of the conditions necessary for the development of an isochron. These conditions are: i) the isotopic homogenization of oils at the scale of a petroleum field ii) the fractionation of Re from Os so as to obtain samples with various Re/Os ratios iii) the closure of the system during the period of radiogenic ingrowth of the daughter isotope, that is, from the time of the event of interest to the present day. Experimental investigation of the organic geochemical behavior of Re and Os in oils under various conditions, designed as analogs of the different stages of petroleum generation and evolution, were performed in order to evaluate the use of the Re-Os system as a geo-chronometer in the context of a direct use on petroleum. The possibility of Re-Os fractionation resulting from asphaltene loss during oil evolution was investigated by sequential asphaltene precipitation in the laboratory. This study determined that Re and Os are mainly located in the most polar asphaltene fractions, that is, in the first to precipitate. This study also demonstrated that Re/Os ratios are not disturbed by asphaltene loss during the evolution of oils, unless this loss is unrealistically large. Thus asphaltene precipitation during migration and emplacement is not responsible for the Re/Os fractionation required for the use of the geo-chronometer. The possibility of metal transfer from formation waters to petroleum was studied by performing contact experiments between oils and aqueous solutions of Re and Os of various concentrations over a wide range of temperatures and for varying periods of time. This study demonstrated a

  6. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance

  7. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  8. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  9. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  10. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  11. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  12. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  13. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  14. The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for high back pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Pak, H.Y. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for dehumidifier is investigated. The selected refrigerants are R12, R134a, HC-Blend(R290/R600a), CX(R152a/R600a) and OS-12a. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed for the selected refrigerants. The test results of hydrocarbon refrigerants have been compared to traditional refrigerant(R12) and R134a. The results show that hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures(HC-Blend, CX and OS-12a) are very good alternatives in the refrigeration system for R12 and R134a. 11 refs., 3 fig., 12 tabs.

  15. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  16. Multitarget Therapeutic Leads for Alzheimer's Disease: Quinolizidinyl Derivatives of Bi- and Tricyclic Systems as Dual Inhibitors of Cholinesterases and β-Amyloid (Aβ) Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Michele; Catto, Marco; Tasso, Bruno; Novelli, Federica; Canu, Caterina; Iusco, Giovanna; Pisani, Leonardo; Stradis, Angelo De; Denora, Nunzio; Sparatore, Anna; Boido, Vito; Carotti, Angelo; Sparatore, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Multitarget therapeutic leads for Alzheimer's disease were designed on the models of compounds capable of maintaining or restoring cell protein homeostasis and of inhibiting β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomerization. Thirty-seven thioxanthen-9-one, xanthen-9-one, naphto- and anthraquinone derivatives were tested for the direct inhibition of Aβ(1-40) aggregation and for the inhibition of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (eeAChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (hsBChE). These compounds are characterized by basic side chains, mainly quinolizidinylalkyl moieties, linked to various bi- and tri-cyclic (hetero)aromatic systems. With very few exceptions, these compounds displayed inhibitory activity on both AChE and BChE and on the spontaneous aggregation of β-amyloid. In most cases, IC50 values were in the low micromolar and sub-micromolar range, but some compounds even reached nanomolar potency. The time course of amyloid aggregation in the presence of the most active derivative (IC50 =0.84 μM) revealed that these compounds might act as destabilizers of mature fibrils rather than mere inhibitors of fibrillization. Many compounds inhibited one or both cholinesterases and Aβ aggregation with similar potency, a fundamental requisite for the possible development of therapeutics exhibiting a multitarget mechanism of action. The described compounds thus represent interesting leads for the development of multitarget AD therapeutics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Imaging of hepatic toxicity of systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer centre: chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, molecular targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrino, F; Tirumani, S H; Krajewski, K M; Shinagare, A B; Jagannathan, J P; Ramaiya, N H; Di Salvo, D N

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure. The recent arrival of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncology has introduced a new range of immune-related adverse events, with differing mechanisms of liver toxicity and varied imaging presentation of liver injury. High-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are associated with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Management of hepatic toxicity depends on the clinical scenario, the drug in use, and the severity of the findings. In this article, we will (1) present the most common types of oncological drugs associated with hepatic toxicity and associated liver injuries; (2) illustrate imaging findings of hepatic toxicities and the possible differential diagnosis; and (3) provide a guide for management of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploiting the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one ring system as a useful template to obtain potent adenosine deaminase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Motta, Concettina; Sartini, Stefania; Mugnaini, Laura; Salerno, Silvia; Simorini, Francesca; Taliani, Sabrina; Marini, Anna Maria; Da Settimo, Federico; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Antonioli, Luca; Fornai, Matteo; Blandizzi, Corrado; Del Tacca, Mario

    2009-03-26

    A number of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ones bearing either alkyl or arylalkyl substituents in position 2 of the nucleus were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit adenosine deaminase (ADA) from bovine spleen. The 2-arylalkyl derivatives exhibited excellent inhibitory activity, showing Ki values in the nanomolar/subnanomolar range. The most active compound, 1-(4-((4-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea, 14d, was tested in rats with colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to assess its efficacy to attenuate bowel inflammation. The treatment with 14d induced a significant amelioration of both systemic and intestinal inflammatory alterations in animals with experimental colitis. Docking simulations of the synthesized compounds into the ADA catalytic site were also performed to rationalize the structure-activity relationships observed and to highlight the key pharmacophoric elements of these products, thus prospectively guiding the design of novel ADA inhibitors.

  19. Insect P450 inhibitors and insecticides: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, René

    2015-06-01

    P450 enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes in insects, often over a hundred. They play important roles in insecticide metabolism and resistance, and growing numbers of P450 enzymes are now known to catalyse important physiological reactions, such as hormone metabolism or cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis. Ways to inhibit P450 enzymes specifically or less specifically are well understood, as P450 inhibitors are found as drugs, as fungicides, as plant growth regulators and as insecticide synergists. Yet there are no P450 inhibitors as insecticides on the market. As new modes of action are constantly needed to support insecticide resistance management, P450 inhibitors should be considered because of their high potential for insect selectivity, their well-known mechanisms of action and the increasing ease of rational design and testing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Systemic inflammation is linked to low arginine and high ADMA plasma levels resulting in an unfavourable NOS substrate-to-inhibitor ratio: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, L.P.; Scheffer, P.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Heine, R.J.; Teerlink, T.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with a reduced availability of NO in the vasculature. We investigated the possible involvement of altered levels of the substrate (arginine) and the inhibitor [ADMA (asymmetric ω-N

  1. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  2. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  3. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  4. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  5. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  6. Potential impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and calcium channel blockers on plasma high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Yao, Naoyuki; Hirayama, Tomoya

    2011-01-01

    Although metabolic syndrome confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population, little is known about the alteration of abdominal adiposity and its association with adipocytokines in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the plasma high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin level and its relationship to visceral fat area (VFA) and various markers of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, plasma total and HMW adiponectin, the number of components of the metabolic syndrome and, using computed tomography, the distribution of abdominal adiposity were assessed in 144 hemodialysis patients (90 men and 54 women; mean age, 60.7 years) and 30 age- and sex-matched patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma HMW adiponectin levels in hemodialysis patients were significantly higher than those in patients with CKD, negatively associated with VFA and serum triglycerides and positively associated with plasma total adiponectin, as well as the HMW-to-total adiponectin ratio in men and women (all P<0.05) in a simple regression analysis. In a multiple regression analysis, VFA was a significant determinant of HMW adiponectin in hemodialysis patients. Furthermore, after adjustment for classical risk factors, HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or calcium channel blockers compared with patients not undergoing such treatment. This study shows that plasma HMW adiponectin levels were negatively associated with VFA and positively associated with treatment with blockade of the renin-angiotensin system and of the calcium channel. Therefore, these drugs might be effective for improving adipocytokine-related metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  7. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  8. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  9. Monoamine depletion by reuptake inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz1, Alvin Stein2, Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc, Cape Coral, FL; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL; 3DBS Labs Inc, Duluth, MN, USABackground: Disagreement exists regarding the etiology of cessation of the observed clinical results with administration of reuptake inhibitors. Traditionally, when drug effects wane, it is known as tachyphylaxis. With reuptake inhibitors, the placebo effect is significantly greater than the drug effect in the treatment of depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, leading some to assert that waning of drug effects is placebo relapse, not tachyphylaxis.Methods: Two groups were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 was composed of subjects with depression and Group 2 was composed of bariatric subjects treated with reuptake inhibitors for appetite suppression.Results: In Group 1, 200 subjects with depression were treated with citalopram 20 mg per day. A total of 46.5% (n = 93 achieved relief of symptoms (Hamilton-D rating score ≤ 7, of whom 37 (39.8% of whom experienced recurrence of depression symptoms, at which point an amino acid precursor formula was started. Within 1–5 days, 97.3% (n = 36 experienced relief of depression symptoms. In Group 2, 220 subjects were treated with phentermine 30 mg in the morning and citalopram 20 mg at 4 pm. In this group, 90.0% (n = 198 achieved adequate appetite suppression. The appetite suppression ceased in all 198 subjects within 4–48 days. Administration of an amino acid precursor formula restored appetite suppression in 98.5% (n = 195 of subjects within 1–5 days.Conclusion: Reuptake inhibitors do not increase the total number of monoamine molecules in the central nervous system. Their mechanism of action facilitates redistribution of monoamines from one place to another. In the process, conditions are induced that facilitate depletion of monoamines. The "reuptake inhibitor monoamine depletion theory" of this paper

  10. Dynamic Viscosity and Compensation Effect in Hydrocarbon Media with a High Content of Resins and Paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitsova, A. A.; Kondrasheva, N. K.; Dolomatov, M. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Linear dependences have been obtained for multicomponent hydrocarbon media (oils and high-boiling fractions), which relate the preexponent and the activation energy of viscous flow in the Arrhenius equation. A distinctive feature of the established kinetic compensation effect is it existing before and after the phase-transition temperature. The obtained results have been confirmed by statistical data and make it possible to predict the dynamic viscosity of multicomponent hydrocarbon systems, such as oil and high-boiling fractions.

  11. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  12. Natural hydrocarbon seeps observation with underwater gliders and UV fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, V.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons may leak to the near-surface from subsurface accumulations, from mature source rock, or by buoyancy along major cross-strata routes. The presence of migrating near-surface hydrocarbons can provide strong evidence for the presence of a working petroleum system, as well as valuable information on source, maturity, and migration pathways. Detection and characterization of hydrocarbons in the water column may then help to de-risk hydrocarbon plays at a very preliminary stage of an exploration program. In order to detect hydrocarbons in the water column, an underwater glider survey was conducted in an offshore frontier area. Driven by buoyancy variation, underwater gliders enable collecting data autonomously along the water column for weeks to months. Underwater gliders are regularly piloted from shore by satellite telemetry and do not require a surface supervising vessel resulting in substantial operational costs savings. The data compiled, over 700m depth of the water column, included temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and hydrocarbon components (phenanthrene and naphthalene) measured by "MINIFLUO" sensors to particularly target representative crude oil compounds Two gliders were deployed at sea, one from coast in shallow water and the other one offshore on the survey area. Both accurately squared the survey area following pre-defined lines and cross lines. Data files were transmitted by satellite telemetry in near real time during the performance of the mission for real time observations and appropriate re-positioning of the gliders. Using rechargeable underwater gliders increased reliability reducing the risk of leakage and associated logistics during operation at sea. Despite strong evidences of seabed seepages such as pockmarks, faults, etc, over the area of interest, no hydrocarbon indices were detected in the water column, which was confirmed later by seabed sample analysis. The use of glider platforms for hydrocarbon detection has

  13. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  14. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  15. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic regimes of the ecosystem. Several remediation alternatives have been in use for the restoration of ... In this paper, we present an overview of bioremediation alternative vis-à-vis other ...

  16. Impact of ubiquitous inhibitors on the GUS gene reporter system: evidence from the model plants Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice and correction methods for quantitative assays of transgenic and endogenous GUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerola Paolo D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-glucuronidase (GUS gene reporter system is one of the most effective and employed techniques in the study of gene regulation in plant molecular biology. Improving protocols for GUS assays have rendered the original method described by Jefferson amenable to various requirements and conditions, but the serious limitation caused by inhibitors of the enzyme activity in plant tissues has thus far been underestimated. Results We report that inhibitors of GUS activity are ubiquitous in organ tissues of Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, and significantly bias quantitative assessment of GUS activity in plant transformation experiments. Combined with previous literature reports on non-model species, our findings suggest that inhibitors may be common components of plant cells, with variable affinity towards the E. coli enzyme. The reduced inhibitory capacity towards the plant endogenous GUS discredits the hypothesis of a regulatory role of these compounds in plant cells, and their effect on the bacterial enzyme is better interpreted as a side effect due to their interaction with GUS during the assay. This is likely to have a bearing also on histochemical analyses, leading to inaccurate evaluations of GUS expression. Conclusions In order to achieve reliable results, inhibitor activity should be routinely tested during quantitative GUS assays. Two separate methods to correct the measured activity of the transgenic and endogenous GUS are presented.

  17. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  18. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  19. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  20. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  1. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  2. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  3. Frequency of polymorphisms and protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A in central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mev Dominguez Valentin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic investigation of central nervous system (CNS tumors provides valuable information about the genes regulating proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, migration and apoptosis in the CNS. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms (codon 31 and 3' untranslated region, 3'UTR and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A gene in patients with and without CNS tumors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pediatric Oncology Department, Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto. METHODS: 41 patients with CNS tumors and a control group of 161 subjects without cancer and paires for sex, age and ethnicity were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Protein analysis was performed on 36 patients with CNS tumors, using the Western Blotting technique. RESULTS: The frequencies of the heterozygote (Ser/Arg and polymorphic homozygote (Arg/Arg genotypes of codon 31 in the control subjects were 28.0% and 1.2%, respectively. However, the 3'UTR site presented frequencies of 24.2% (C/T and 0.6% (T/T. These frequencies were not statistically different (P > 0.05 from those seen in the patients with CNS tumors (19.4% and 0.0%, codon 31; 15.8% and 2.6%, 3'UTR site. Regarding the protein expression in ependymomas, 66.67% did not express the protein CDKN1A. The results for medulloblastomas and astrocytomas were similar: neither of them expressed the protein (57.14% and 61.54%, respectively. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in protein expression patterns or polymorphisms of CDKN1A in relation to the three types of CNS tumors were observed among Brazilian subjects.

  4. Effect of an ionizing radiation on the activity of the components of the system: DNA ase 1-natural DNA ase 1 inhibitor in blood serum of white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, A.B.; Kerova, N.I.; Pukhova, G.G.; Baraboj, V.A.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Onkologii)

    1976-01-01

    The presence of a natural inhibitor of DNAase 1 of protein nature is responsible for the inhibiting action of blood serum on pancreatic DNAase. Depending on the radiation dose (ranging from 450 to 750 R), the activity of the serum inhibitor of DNAase 1 increases for a short time, then, in the period from 15 minutes to 24 hours, it normalizes (450 R) or drastically decreases on the seventh day (750 R). At the dose of 750 R, the activity of free serum DNAase 1 increases throughout the entire period of the experiment; the activity of bound DNAase 1 gradually decreases and it is not observed on the seventh day. The dose of 450 R does not substantially affect the activity of free DNAase 1. Evidently, at high X-ray doses, formation of the inhibitor-serum DNAase 1 complex is disturbed

  5. Surfactant Membrane Phases Containing Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Campo, Liliana; Warr, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We describe the structure and stability of sponge and lamellar phases comprising mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. Such mixtures can show limited miscibility with each other, forming for example coexisting populations of hydrocarbon rich and fluorocarbon rich micelles under some circumstances. Our system is based on the well-characterised lamellar and sponge phases of cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol and 0.2M brine, into which the partially fluorinated surfactant N-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluorooctylpyridinium chloride is incorporated. By probing the structures with SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using contrast variation, and by characterizing the dynamic properties with dynamic light scattering, we will describe the effect of incorporating the fluorinated surfactant on the phase equilibria and properties of the surfactant membrane structures. (authors)

  6. A new biodegradation prediction model specific to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip; Meylan, William; Aronson, Dallas; Stiteler, William; Tunkel, Jay; Comber, Michael; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2005-08-01

    A new predictive model for determining quantitative primary biodegradation half-lives of individual petroleum hydrocarbons has been developed. This model uses a fragment-based approach similar to that of several other biodegradation models, such as those within the Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimation program. In the present study, a half-life in days is estimated using multiple linear regression against counts of 31 distinct molecular fragments. The model was developed using a data set consisting of 175 compounds with environmentally relevant experimental data that was divided into training and validation sets. The original fragments from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry BIOWIN model were used initially as structural descriptors and additional fragments were then added to better describe the ring systems found in petroleum hydrocarbons and to adjust for nonlinearity within the experimental data. The training and validation sets had r2 values of 0.91 and 0.81, respectively.

  7. Proceedings of the Hydrocarbons annual days - JAH 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunck, Robert; Bouchard, Georges; Jones, Richard; Percebois, Jacques; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Barre, Bertrand; Duval, Valerie; Nauroy, Jean-Francois; Su, Kun; Borelli, Antoine; Daniel, Olivier; Bobrie, Xavier; Cambos, Philippe; Foussard, Christian; Despeche, Jean-Michel; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Roland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand; Pelcot, Julien; Aulnoit, Thierry de l'; Pinchon, Philippe; Karnik, Jean-Luc; Josse, Philippe; Bouteca, Maurice; Argillier, Jean-Francois; Durieux, Jean-Yves; Josseron, Eric; Zaitoun, Alain; Alazard Toux, Nathalie; Lacoin, Geoffroy; Marcus, Philippe; Malcor, Jean-Georges; Bales, Vincent; Appert, Olivier; Le Cuziat, Jean-Yves; Peyrat, Olivier; Fort, Joel; Fallouey, Patrick; Contie, Michel; Heurtier, Jean-Michel; Bouchard, Alban; Hazel, Terence; Baylocq, Pascal; Saincry, Daniel; Laparra, Thibault; Burban, Bruno; Poyet, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Christine; Foussard, Christian; Collieux, Regis; Schilansky, Jean-Louis; Nusbaumer, Bertrand; Muller, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Francois; Jullian, Sophie; Blez, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed during plenary sessions and workshops. Plenary sessions addressed the relationship between hydrocarbons and new energy balances, the attractiveness of oil industry for students, operators operating in France, perspectives for the refining activity in Europe, the evolution of French system for research and innovation. The workshop topics have been: Gas, renewable and nuclear as the winning trio for 2050, Geomechanics for a better production, Economic intelligence, Ships for offshore service, Safety in the oil industry, Peak oil or peak demand, A know-how at the service of sea energies, Education in oil producing countries, Water treatment in hydrocarbon industries, Re-development of mature fields, Standards as an unavoidable tool for the international development, Future underwater fields, Technological challenges, environmental impact and safety for deep sea and ground-based drillings, Refining development and project financing

  8. Autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons for H{sub 2} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, C.; Montel, S.; Cremer, P.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems IWV-3: Process Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The process of autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons can be used for the production of hydrogen within a fuel cell system. The application of three precious metal catalysts for the autothermal reforming of alkane mixtures with boiling ranges between 235 and 325 C was examined. The experiments were carried out at n(O{sub 2})/n(C) = 0.40, n(H{sub 2}O)/n(C) = 2.20, a catalyst bed temperature between 730 and 570 C and a hydrocarbon feed of 30 g/h. The catalysts yielded different hydrocarbon conversions, which can be explained by differences in the activity for the steam reforming reaction. The most active catalyst was also successfully utilized in the conversion of 400 g/h hydrocarbon feed. (orig.)

  9. Cobalt/N-Hydroxyphthalimide(NHPI)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons with Ionic Liquid Additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Xu, Bao Hua; Ren, Tian Lu

    2018-01-01

    A highly efficient and solvent-free system of cobalt/NHPI-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons was developed using imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) as an additive. These amphipathic ILs were found self-assemble at the interface between the organic hydrocarbons and the aqueous phase...... the optimum reactivity. Besides, the interfacial boundary between aqueous and organic phase composed by C2-alkylated imidazolium ILs, such as [bdmim]SbF6 and [C12dmim]SbF6, not only has ternary aggregates (hydrocarbons/IL/H2O) of higher stability but renders O2 a faster diffusion rate and higher concentration......, thereby offering a high reactivity of the protocol towards hydrocarbon oxidation....

  10. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health-medications/index.shtml. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Discontinuing antidepressant medications in adults. ...

  11. Composition and Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    HNN- XTHDCPD Binary System IX. VTF Eq. Parameters for Shear Viscosities Using Constant B Parameter X. Results of Fits to Master Viscosity Eqs. (43...T(K) for 5 C10 Hydrocarbons I Fig. 2a. log n versus 103/T(K) for HNNi I Fig. 2b. log n versus 103/T(K) for XTHDCPD Fig. 3. Isothem of log n versus X...CD for CO-MO Binary System Fig. 4. Isotherm of log n versus XNBC for NBC-DMO Binary System ( ~Fig. 5. Isotherm of log n versus XfINN for HNN- XTHDCPD

  12. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  13. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  14. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  15. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  16. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  17. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  18. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  19. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  20. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  1. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  2. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  3. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  4. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  5. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  6. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  7. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  8. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  11. Development of an on-line high performance liquid chromatography detection system for human cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitors in extracts of natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Claassen, F.W.; Havlik, J.; Bouwmans, E.E.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Beek, T.A. van

    2007-01-01

    An on-line HPLC screening method for detection of inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 1A2 in extracts was developed. HPLC separation of extracts is connected to a continuous methoxyresorufin-O-demethylation (MROD) assay in which recombinant human P450 1A2 converts methoxyresorufin to its fluorescent

  12. Response of the digestive system of Helicoverpa zea to ingestion of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and characterization of an uninhibited carboxypepidase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayes, A.; Rodrigues de la Vega, M.; Vendrell, J.; Aviles, F.X.; Jongsma, M.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase activity participates in the protein digestion process in the gut of lepidopteran insects, supplying free amino-acids to developing larvae. To study the role of different carboxypeptidases in lepidopteran protein digestion, the effect of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) on

  13. Systemic retinoids for the chemoprevention of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and verrucal keratosis in a cohort of patients on BRAF inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anforth, R; Blumetti, T C M P; Clements, A; Kefford, R; Long, G V; Fernandez-Peñas, P

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of metastatic melanoma has changed greatly with the development of inhibitors targeted at the mutated BRAF kinase present in up to 50% of metastatic melanoma cases. These agents, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, have been shown to increase median survival. Unfortunately, they have also been associated with the development of verrucal keratosis (VK) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). These lesions require surgical excision, and when a large number of these lesions need to be treated, it can significantly affect the patient's quality of life. To determine if acitretin is suitable as a chemopreventative agent against the development of verrucal keratosis and cuSCC, in patients on BRAF inhibitors. Patients treated with a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib or dabrafenib, for stage IV metastatic melanoma, who had undergone more than five surgical excisions to remove lesions suggestive of cuSCC, were offered the opportunity to commence acitretin as a chemopreventative agent. Patients were evaluated every 4 weeks. Clinical and histological data were collected. Eight patients, who had a total of 24 cuSCC removed, were included in the study. After commencement of acitretin, only five cuSCC were excised from two patients. The most significant reduction was in a patient who had developed 13 cuSCC over 10 months and only two cuSCC 3 months after commencing acitretin. No modifications in the dose of the BRAF inhibitor were made as a result of cuSCC in any of these patients. Acitretin should be considered as a chemopreventative agent for VK and cuSCC in patients taking BRAF inhibitors, before considering dosage reductions. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  15. Towards Zero emissions. The challenge for hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The limited availability of natural resources, a still rapidly rising world population combined with overall economic growth will be stretching the Earth's carrying capacity beyond its limit, unless a suitable strategy is set in place. This scenario renders the concept of Zero Emissions all the more relevant, stressing as it does that the problem of environmental pollution cannot be effectively solved simply by reducing the production of wastes. In practical terms Zero Emissions can be conceived along similar lines to already establish corporate programs aiming to achieve zero accidents. Although no one claims that accidents are never going to occur, unless a clear objective is established, systems will not evolve in that direction. The target of Zero Emissions is therefore to move towards achieving the highest possible level of material productivity and energy efficiency. Considering how the hydrocarbon industry could become ever more engaged in applying the concept of Zero Emissions, and what in practice this means, can therefore play an important role in defining an appropriate innovation policy, and promoting long term corporate competitiveness

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Bruno; Natividad, Jane M; Sokol, Harry

    2018-04-07

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-(bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors, which are associated with cellular responses to environmental stimuli, such as xenobiotics and oxygen levels. Unlike other members of bHLH, AhR is the only bHLH transcription factor that is known to be ligand activated. Early AhR studies focused on understanding the role of AhR in mediating the toxicity and carcinogenesis properties of the prototypic ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In recent years, however, it has become apparent that, in addition to its toxicological involvement, AhR is highly receptive to a wide array of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and that its activation leads to a myriad of key host physiological functions. In this study, we review the current understanding of the functions of AhR in the mucosal immune system with a focus on its role in intestinal barrier function and intestinal immune cells, as well as in intestinal homeostasis.

  17. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  19. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  20. Coupling spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for evaluation of the depositional history of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, César C.; Doumer, Marta E.; Gallice, Wellington C.; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L.; Cabral, Ana Caroline; Cardoso, Fernanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques can be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments such as the Paranaguá estuarine system (PES), located in the SW Atlantic, Brazil. Historical inputs of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using two sediment cores from the PES. The AHs were related to the presence of biogenic organic matter and degraded oil residues. The PAHs were associated with mixed sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations were related to oil spills, while relatively low levels could be attributed to the decrease in oil usage during the global oil crisis. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance were in agreement with the absolute AHs and PAHs concentrations measured by chromatographic techniques, while near-infrared spectroscopy results were consistent with unresolved complex mixture (UCM)/total n-alkanes ratios. These findings suggest that the use of a combination of techniques can increase the accuracy of assessment of contamination in sediments. - Highlights: • Historical inputs of hydrocarbons in a subtropical estuary were evaluated. • Spectroscopic and chromatographic methods were used in combination. • High hydrocarbon concentrations were related to anthropogenic activities. • Low hydrocarbon levels could be explained by the 1970s global oil crisis. - Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques could be used together to evaluate hydrocarbon inputs to coastal environments