WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon generation expulsion

  1. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  2. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  3. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  4. Secession and Expulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    If secession or expulsion ends in a `velvet divorce,' as with Czechoslovakia, costs areminimal and the split is relatively unimportant. High costs arise if a federation splits into mutuallyhostile, comparably sized regions. Perhaps the majority of splits lead to dangerous hostility. Awell-designe...

  5. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    can be computed from power functions of temperature along a typical US Gulf Coast geotherm. All of these reactions and relations are consistent with the well-known observations that (1) the relative abundance of mature kerogen increases, and that of immature kerogen decreases with increasing burial of hydrocarbon source rocks and (2) that the volume of oil generated in a given source rock increases with increasing weight percent total organic carbon (TOC) and the H/C and (to a lesser extent) the O/C of the immature kerogen. They are also compatible with preservation of biomarkers and other polymerized hydrocarbons during the incongruent melting process. It can be deduced from Reaction (A) that nearly 11 mol of crude oil are produced from one mole of the reactant kerogen (rk), which increases to ˜39.5 mol (mol rk) -1 as the carbon content and H/C of the reactant kerogen increase to that in the hydrogen-rich type-I kerogen represented by C 415H 698O 22(c). The secondary porosities created in source rocks by Reaction (A) and others like it are of the order of 75-80 vol % of the oil generated, which requires expulsion of the remainder, together with the CO 2 gas produced by the reaction. The expulsion of the CO 2 gas and excess crude oil from the hydrocarbon source rock is facilitated by their buoyancy and the fact that the pressure in the source rocks is ⩾ the fluid pressure in the adjoining formations during progressive generation of the volume of crude oil that exceeds the kerogen pore volume produced by the incongruent melting process. The expelled CO 2 gas lowers the pH of the surrounding formation waters, which promotes the development of secondary porosity and diagenetic reaction of detrital silicates to form authigenic mineral assemblages. Hence, the expulsion process facilitates initial upward migration of the oil, which is further enhanced by expansion of the oil and its reaction with H 2O at the oil-water interface to generate methane gas. Mass transfer

  6. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  7. A liquid hydrocarbon deuteron source for neutron generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental studies of a deuteron spark source for neutron generators using hydrogen isotope fusion reactions are reported. The ion source uses a spark discharge between electrodes coated with a deuterated hydrocarbon liquid, here Santovac 5, to inhibit permanent electrode erosion and extend the lifetime of high-output neutron generator spark ion sources. Thompson parabola mass spectra show that principally hydrogen and deuterium ions are extracted from the ion source. Hydrogen is the chief residual gas phase species produced due to source operation in a stainless-steel vacuum chamber. The prominent features of the optical emission spectra of the discharge are C+ lines, the hydrogen Balmer Hα-line, and the C2 Swan bands. Operation of the ion source was studied in a conventional laboratory neutron generator. The source delivered an average deuteron current of ˜0.5 A nominal to the target in a 5 μs duration pulse at 1 Hz with target voltages of -80 to -100 kV. The thickness of the hydrocarbon liquid in the spark gap and the consistency thereof from spark to spark influences the deuteron yield and plays a role in determining the beam-focusing characteristics through the applied voltage necessary to break down the spark gap. Higher breakdown voltages result in larger ion beam spots on the target and vice-versa. Because the liquid self-heals and thereby inhibits permanent electrode erosion, the liquid-based source provides long life, with 104 pulses to date, and without clear evidence that, in principle, the lifetime could not be much longer. Initial experiments suggest that an alternative cylindrical target-type generator design can extract approximately 10 times the deuteron current from the source. Preliminary data using the deuterated source liquid as a neutron-producing target are also presented.

  8. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  9. Experimental investigation of the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation: Anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis of a bitumen-rich Eagle Ford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Deyong; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Tongwei

    2018-01-01

    Gold-tube pyrolysis experiments were conducted on miniature core plugs and powdered rock from a bitumen-rich sample of Eagle Ford Shale to investigate the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation. The samples were isothermally heated at 130, 300, 310, 333, 367, 400, and 425 °C for 72 h under a confining pressure of 68.0 MPa, corresponding to six levels of induced thermal maturity: pre-oil generation (130 °C/72 h), incipient oil/bitumen generation (300 and 310 °C/72 h), early oil generation (333 °C/72 h), peak oil generation (367 °C/72 h), early oil cracking (400 °C/72 h), and late oil cracking (425 °C/72 h). Experimental results show that gas retention coupled with compositional fractionation occurs in the core plug experiments and varies as a function of thermal maturity. During the incipient oil/bitumen generation stage, yields of methane through pentane (C1–C5) from core plugs are significantly lower than those from rock powder, and gases from core plugs are enriched in methane. However, the differences in C1–C5 gas yield and composition decrease throughout the oil generation stage, and by the oil cracking stage no obvious compositional difference in C1–C5 gases exists. The decrease in the effect of rock fabric on gas yield and composition with increasing maturity is the result of an increase in gas expulsion efficiency. Pyrolysis of rock powder yields 4–16 times more CO2 compared to miniature core plugs, with δ13CCO2 values ranging from −2.9‰ to −0.6‰, likely due to carbonate decomposition accelerated by reactions with organic acids. Furthermore, lower yields of gaseous alkenes and H2 from core plug experiments sugge

  10. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  11. Transport and deposition of injected hydrocarbons in plasma generator PSI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmeyer, W.; Naujoks, D.; Markin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Koch, B.; Schroeder, D.; Fussmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and deposition of hydrocarbons were studied in the stationary plasma of plasma generator PSI-2. CH 4 or C 2 H 4 were injected into the plasma at different positions in the target chamber. After an interaction between the plasma and the hydrocarbons, different species are produced, some of them having high sticking probabilities and forming a:CH films on a temperature controlled collector. The film growth is studied in situ for different plasma parameters. The 3D Monte Carlo code ERO including three different sets of atomic data is used to describe the formation of hydrocarbon films

  12. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  13. Hydrogen generator from light hydrocarbons for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, F.; Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, L.; Vita, A.; Lagana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present article describes the activities carried out in the CNR institute, particularly the development, realization and testing of one unit of hydrogen generation to integrate with fuel-cells for residential applications [it

  14. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  15. Reconstruction of burial history, temperature, source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern Dutch offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Verweij, J.M.; Witmans, N.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2012-01-01

    3D basin modelling is used to investigate the history of maturation and hydrocarbon generation on the main platforms in the northwestern part of the offshore area of the Netherlands. The study area covers the Cleaverbank and Elbow Spit Platforms. Recently compiled maps and data are used to build the

  16. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  17. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos basin and relationship with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Wei; Xue Chunji; Chi Guoxiang

    2012-01-01

    The Ordos Basin is not only an important uranium mineralization province but also a major producer of oil. gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. In a previous study we have demonstrated that the preferential localization of uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Jurassic strata may have been related to the interface of an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid, and that this interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure, which was related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and drove the upward flow, and topographic relief which drove the down- ward flow. In the present study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation was taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation after ceasing of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow against the pushing of topography driven. downward flow, thus helping stabilize the interface between the two fluid system and localization of uranium mineralization. (authors)

  18. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  19. Microwave plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids for hydrocarbons reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational modeling study of microwave plasma generated in cluster of atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in a liquid. We demonstrate that the use of microwaves allows the generation of a dense chemically active non-equilibrium plasma along the gas–liquid interface. Also, microwaves allow generation of overdense plasma in all the bubbles considered in the cluster which is possible because the collisional skin depth of the wave exceeds the bubble dimension. These features of microwave plasma generation in bubbles immersed in liquids are highly desirable for the large-scale liquid hydrocarbon reforming technologies. (letter)

  20. Effects of hydrocarbon contamination on ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.; Vezzu, Guido; Freilich, Alfred; Paolini, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The increasing usage of the feed gases of lower grade liquid oxygen (LOX) containing higher levels of trace hydrocarbon impurities in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation requires a better understanding of the kinetics of the by-product formation resulting from reactions involving these hydrocarbon impurities. As a case study of hydrocarbon impurities, the kinetics of CH4 conversion in DBDs and the subsequent HNO3 formation were investigated by means of gas-phase plasma diagnostics, supported by detailed process modeling, and extensive in-situ and ex-situ by-product analysis. The by-products formation in the plasma with the presence of CH4, were found to differ significantly in oxygen-fed generators as compared to generators fed with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The amount of HNO3 formed depends on the concentration of NOx formed in the plasma and the amount of CH4 that is converted, but not on the O3 concentration. In the present work we have investigated CH4 concentrations of up to 1.95 wt% of the feed gas. The rate of deterioration of the overall ozone generator performance was found to be affected by the concentration of nitrogen in the oxygen/nitrogen mixture.

  1. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  2. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  3. Thermal maturity history and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the Catatumbo basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Antonio; Hernandez, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    A thermal model integrated with oil and gas geochemical study has been constructed for the Catatumbo basin, Colombia for provides petroleum system data for hydrocarbon exploration. The calibration of the thermal model with maturity data took into account a changing heat flow scheme which included a thermal increase towards the end of the Jurassic and another one in the early Eocene, associated with rifting events. Locally, active/generating source rocks are within the synclines axes. The hydrocarbon expulsion time for Cretaceous source rocks (Capacho and La Luna formations) started in the upper Paleocene-Eocene, while for the los Cuervos Formation the generation and expulsion started of 1 0 my. The petroleum expelled during the Paleocene-Miocene, were likely accumulated in structures formed since the end of the cretaceous, while the younger structures that resulted from the Andean orogen were charged by remigration from the older structures and additionally with the youngest lately generated hydrocarbons. The accumulations of hydrocarbons are mainly the result of generation and migration locally within the basin. The Catatumbo Basin contains thermogenic wet gases with different degrees of thermal maturity which varies from around 1,0 for 2,5 equivalent Ro. The highest degree of thermal evolution according to maturity indicators and thermal modeling is in the southern area, which is prospective for wet gas. The central and northern area appears more prospective for oil with minor amounts of gas

  4. Effects of hydrocarbon generation on fluid flow in the Ordos Basin and its relationship to uranium mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunji Xue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ordos Basin of North China is not only an important uranium mineralization province, but also a major producer of oil, gas and coal in China. The genetic relationship between uranium mineralization and hydrocarbons has been recognized by a number of previous studies, but it has not been well understood in terms of the hydrodynamics of basin fluid flow. We have demonstrated in a previous study that the preferential localization of Cretaceous uranium mineralization in the upper part of the Ordos Jurassic section may have been related to the interface between an upward flowing, reducing fluid and a downward flowing, oxidizing fluid. This interface may have been controlled by the interplay between fluid overpressure related to disequilibrium sediment compaction and which drove the upward flow, and topographic relief, which drove the downward flow. In this study, we carried out numerical modeling for the contribution of oil and gas generation to the development of fluid overpressure, in addition to sediment compaction and heating. Our results indicate that when hydrocarbon generation is taken into account, fluid overpressure during the Cretaceous was more than doubled in comparison with the simulation when hydrocarbon generation was not considered. Furthermore, fluid overpressure dissipation at the end of sedimentation slowed down relative to the no-hydrocarbon generation case. These results suggest that hydrocarbon generation may have played an important role in uranium mineralization, not only in providing reducing agents required for the mineralization, but also in contributing to the driving force to maintain the upward flow.

  5. Evaluation of abundant hydrocarbon-generation depressions in the deepwater area of Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; SUN Zhipeng; WANG Zisong; ZHANG Wei; LI Tingan; HE Weijun; LI Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    It has been confirmed that the key source rocks of Qiongdongnan Basin are associated with the Yacheng Formation, which was deposited in a transitional marine-continental environment. Because the distribution and evolution patterns of the source rocks in the major depressions are different, it is important to determine the most abundant hydrocarbon-generation depressions in terms of exploration effectiveness. Based on an analysis of organic matter characteristics of the source rocks, in combination with drilling data and seismic data, this paper establishes a model to evaluate the hydrocarbon-generation depressions in the deepwater area of Qiongdongnan Basin. First of all, by using the method of seismic-facies model analysis, the distribution of sedimentary facies was determined. Then, the sedimentary facies were correlated with the organic facies, and the distribution of organic facies was predicted. Meanwhile, the thickness of source rocks for all the depressions was calculated on the basis of a quantitative analysis of seismic velocity and lithology. The relationship between mudstone porosity and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) was used to predict the maturity of source rocks. Second, using the parameters such as thickness and maturity of source rocks, the quantity and intensity of gas generation for Yacheng and Lingshui Formations were calculated. Finally, in combination with the identified hydrocarbon resources, the quantity and intensity of gas generation were used as a guide to establish an evaluation standard for hydrocarbon-generation depressions, which was optimized for the main depressions in the Central Depression Belt. It is proposed that Lingshui, Ledong, Baodao and Changchang Depressions are the most abundant hydrocarbon depressions, whilst Songnan and Beijiao Depressions are rich hydrocarbon depressions. Such an evaluation procedure is beneficial to the next stage of exploration in the deep-water area of Qiongdongnan Basin.

  6. Mechanisms behind the generation of protonated ions for polyaromatic hydrocarbons by atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Choi, Cheol Ho; Choi, Myoung Choul; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-17

    In this study, the mechanism behind the generation of protonated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ions without heteroatoms by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is investigated. Comparing data obtained by APPI of anthracene dissolved either in toluene or perdeuterated toluene suggests that toluene acts as a source of protons and that breakage of C-H bonds in the toluene molecule is important for the overall protonation reaction. Our data describing an Arrhenius-type temperature-dependent relationship between the signal intensities of molecular and protonated ions suggest a mechanistic relation between the generated molecular and protonated ions. The APPI protonation mechanism that best explains the observed phenomena is composed of two reactions: electron transfer followed by hydrogen transfer. This two-step mechanism for APPI was originally suggested by Syage (Syage, J. A. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15 , 1521-1533). Further quantum mechanical study shows that an energetically favorable ion-molecular complex can be generated as a result of electron transfer from toluene to PAH, which subsequently facilitates hydrogen transfer. This suggests that both electron transfer and hydrogen transfer can occur as a "concerted" reaction through the ion-molecular complex precursor state, which is consistent with experimental results. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that the dynamic nature of the APPI process is clearly revealed by combined experimental and quantum mechanical studies.

  7. Does Pelvic Organ Prolapse Relate with Expulsion of Intrauterine Devices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çınar

    2016-08-01

    CONCLUSION: As interestingly; we found that POP-Q assessment should be a promising marker in predicting IUD expulsion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with a such result, therefore POP-Q evaluation should be a useful parameter for future IUD expulsion.

  8. Liquid hydrocarbon generation potential from Tertiary Nyalau Formation coals in the onshore Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah

    2013-01-01

    Tertiary coals exposed in the north-central part of onshore Sarawak are evaluated, and their depositional environments are interpreted. Total organic carbon contents (TOC) of the coals range from 58.1 to 80.9 wt. % and yield hydrogen index values ranging from 282 to 510 mg HC/g TOC with low oxygen index values, consistent with Type II and mixed Type II-III kerogens. The coal samples have vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.47-0.67 Ro %, indicating immature to early mature (initial oil window). T max values range from 428 to 436 °C, which are good in agreement with vitrinite reflectance data. The Tertiary coals are humic and generally dominated by vitrinite, with significant amounts of liptinite and low amounts of inertinite macerals. Good liquid hydrocarbons generation potential can be expected from the coals with rich liptinitic content (>35 %). This is supported by their high hydrogen index of up to 300 mg HC/g TOC and Py-GC ( S 2) pyrograms with n-alkane/alkene doublets extending beyond C30. The Tertiary coals are characterised by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes ( n-C23 to n-C33), high Pr/Ph ratio (6-8), high T m / T s ratio (8-16), and predominant regular sterane C29. All biomarkers parameters clearly indicate that the organic matter was derived from terrestrial inputs and the deposited under oxic condition.

  9. Gas expulsion vs gas retention in young stellar clusters II: effects of cooling and mass segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2018-05-01

    Gas expulsion or gas retention is a central issue in most of the models for multiple stellar populations and light element anti-correlations in globular clusters. The success of the residual matter expulsion or its retention within young stellar clusters has also a fundamental importance in order to understand how star formation proceeds in present-day and ancient star-forming galaxies and if proto-globular clusters with multiple stellar populations are formed in the present epoch. It is usually suggested that either the residual gas is rapidly ejected from star-forming clouds by stellar winds and supernova explosions, or that the enrichment of the residual gas and the formation of the second stellar generation occur so rapidly, that the negative stellar feedback is not significant. Here we continue our study of the early development of star clusters in the extreme environments and discuss the restrictions that strong radiative cooling and stellar mass segregation provide on the gas expulsion from dense star-forming clouds. A large range of physical initial conditions in star-forming clouds which include the star-forming cloud mass, compactness, gas metallicity, star formation efficiency and effects of massive stars segregation are discussed. It is shown that in sufficiently massive and compact clusters hot shocked winds around individual massive stars may cool before merging with their neighbors. This dramatically reduces the negative stellar feedback, prevents the development of the global star cluster wind and expulsion of the residual and the processed matter into the ambient interstellar medium. The critical lines which separate the gas expulsion and the gas retention regimes are obtained.

  10. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  11. Medical expulsive treatment of distal ureteral stone using tamsulosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Azim, W.; Akmal, M.; Murtaza, B.

    2015-01-01

    Many minimally invasive interventional techniques as well as expectant treatments exist for the management of lower ureteric calculi. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin as an expulsive pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of distal ureteral stone. Methods: This randomized control trial included 100 patients over 18 years of age with stone Size = 8mm in distal 1/3 of ureter. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B). Group A Patients were given Capsule Tamsulosin 0.4 mg, 1 daily up to 4 weeks while group B patients were given placebo, 1 Capsule daily up to 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was expulsion rate. A written informed consent was taken from all the patients. Expulsion time, need for analgesics, need for hospitalization and drug side effects were secondary endpoints. Results: A total of 49 patients in group A and 48 patients in group B reported back, therefore 97 out of 100 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 36.34 years (range 18-57 years). Mean stone size was 5.78 mm (range 4-8 mm) in greatest dimension. A stone expulsion rate of 85.71% (42 patients) was noted in group A and 54.20% (26 patients) in group B. Group A revealed a statistically significant advantage in term of stone expulsion rate (p=0.032). Considering expulsion time in days group A showed statistically significant advantage (p=0.015). Regarding age, sex, stone size and stone lateralization (right/left), there was no significant difference between the group A and B. No drug side effects were noted in both the groups. Conclusion: By using tamsulosin a higher stone expulsion rates can be achieved in a shorter time. More randomized control trials are required to establish tamsulosin as a standard medical expulsive treatment for small distal ureteric calculus. (author)

  12. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peñ a, Gerardo D.J.; Alrefaai, Mhd Maher; Yang, Seung Yeon; Raj, Abhijeet; Brito, Joaquin L.; Stephen, Samuel; Anjana, Tharalekshmy; Pillai, Vinu; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  13. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peña, Gerardo D.J.

    2016-07-23

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  14. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  15. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)

    2001-07-01

    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  16. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: tamsulosin versus silodosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Imperatore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin and silodosin in the context of medical expulsive therapy (MET of distal ureteric stones. Patients and methods: Observational data were collected retrospectively from patients who received silodosin (N = 50 or tamsulosin (N = 50 as MET from January 2012 to January 2013. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radiopaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and the vesico-ureteric junction. Stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use, incidence of side effects were compared. Results: Stone-expulsion rate in the silodosin and in the tamsulosin groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (p not significant. Mean expulsion times were 6.7 and 6.5 days in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Mean number of pain episodes were 1.6 and 1.7 in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. The mean number of analgesic requirement was 0.84 and 0.9 for the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant. Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly lower mean expulsion times and pain episodes in patients with stones ≤ 5 mm in both groups. Conclusions: Tamsulosin and silodosin are equally effective as MET for distal ureteric stones sized 10 mm or smaller. MET with silodosin is associatd with a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation but an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation when compared to tamsulosin.

  17. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: tamsulosin versus silodosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatore, Vittorio; Fusco, Ferdinando; Creta, Massimiliano; Di Meo, Sergio; Buonopane, Roberto; Longo, Nicola; Imbimbo, Ciro; Mirone, Vincenzo

    2014-06-30

    To compare the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin and silodosin in the context of medical expulsive therapy (MET) of distal ureteric stones. Observational data were collected retrospectively from patients who received silodosin (N = 50) or tamsulosin (N = 50) as MET from January 2012 to January 2013. Inclusion criteria were: patients aged ≥ 18 years with a single, unilateral, symptomatic, radiopaque ureteric stone of 10 mm or smaller in the largest dimension located between the lower border of the sacroiliac joint and the vesico-ureteric junction. Stone expulsion rate, stone expulsion time, number of pain episodes, need for analgesics use, incidence of side effects were compared. Stone-expulsion rate in the silodosin and in the tamsulosin groups were 88% and 82%, respectively (p not significant). Mean expulsion times were 6.7 and 6.5 days in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). Mean number of pain episodes were 1.6 and 1.7 in the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). The mean number of analgesic requirement was 0.84 and 0.9 for the silodosin and tamsulosin group, respectively (p not significant). Overall, incidence of side effects was similar in both groups. Patients taking silodosin experienced an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation but a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation when compared to patients taking tamsulosin. Subgroup analysis demonstrated significantly lower mean expulsion times and pain episodes in patients with stones ≤ 5 mm in both groups. Tamsulosin and silodosin are equally effective as MET for distal ureteric stones sized 10 mm or smaller. MET with silodosin is associatd with a lower incidence of side effects related to peripheral vasodilation but an higher incidence of retrograde ejaculation when compared to tamsulosin.

  18. Honig v. Doe: the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, M L

    1989-09-01

    Public Law 94-142 provides for a free appropriate public education for all handicapped children, but does not address the issue of disciplining handicapped students. The result has been confusion and uncertainty, particularly concerning expulsion and suspension. The courts have been forced into this vacuum, acting as arbiters. The Supreme Court's ruling in Honig v. Doe will help to delineate the proper role of educators in the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students. This article examines that role and offers recommendations for school policies regarding the discipline of handicapped students.

  19. Estimation of subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China: implications for hydrocarbon generation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaowen; Lei, Xiao; Feng, Changge; Hao, Chunyan

    2016-07-01

    Subsurface formation temperature in the Tarim Basin, northwest China, is vital for assessment of hydrocarbon generation and preservation, and of geothermal energy potential. However, it has not previously been well understood, due to poor data coverage and a lack of highly accurate temperature data. Here, we combined recently acquired steady-state temperature logging data with drill stem test temperature data and measured rock thermal properties, to investigate the geothermal regime and estimate the subsurface formation temperature at depth in the range of 1000-5000 m, together with temperatures at the lower boundary of each of four major Lower Paleozoic marine source rocks buried in this basin. Results show that heat flow of the Tarim Basin ranges between 26.2 and 66.1 mW/m2, with a mean of 42.5 ± 7.6 mW/m2; the geothermal gradient at depth of 3000 m varies from 14.9 to 30.2 °C/km, with a mean of 20.7 ± 2.9 °C/km. Formation temperature estimated at the depth of 1000 m is between 29 and 41 °C, with a mean of 35 °C, while 63-100 °C is for the temperature at the depth of 3000 m with a mean of 82 °C. Temperature at 5000 m ranges from 97 to 160 °C, with a mean of 129 °C. Generally spatial patterns of the subsurface formation temperature at depth are basically similar, characterized by higher temperatures in the uplift areas and lower temperatures in the sags, which indicates the influence of basement structure and lateral variations in thermal properties on the geotemperature field. Using temperature to identify the oil window in the source rocks, most of the uplifted areas in the basin are under favorable condition for oil generation and/or preservation, whereas the sags with thick sediments are favorable for gas generation and/or preservation. We conclude that relatively low present-day geothermal regime and large burial depth of the source rocks in the Tarim Basin are favorable for hydrocarbon generation and preservation. In addition, it is found that the

  20. Development of a Hemispherical Metal Diaphragm for Single-Cycle Liquid-Metal Positive Expulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorland, Sol

    1965-01-01

    This report presents experimental results pertaining to the design and development of a metallic expulsion diaphragm for single-cycle positive expulsion of high-temperature liquid in an agravity condition...

  1. Gas expulsion in highly substructured embedded star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, J. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Smith, R.; Domínguez, R.; Dabringhausen, J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the response of initially substructured, young, embedded star clusters to instantaneous gas expulsion of their natal gas. We introduce primordial substructure to the stars and the gas by simplistically modelling the star formation process so as to obtain a variety of substructure distributed within our modelled star-forming regions. We show that, by measuring the virial ratio of the stars alone (disregarding the gas completely), we can estimate how much mass a star cluster will retain after gas expulsion to within 10 per cent accuracy, no matter how complex the background structure of the gas is, and we present a simple analytical recipe describing this behaviour. We show that the evolution of the star cluster while still embedded in the natal gas, and the behaviour of the gas before being expelled, is crucial process that affect the time-scale on which the cluster can evolve into a virialized spherical system. Embedded star clusters that have high levels of substructure are subvirial for longer times, enabling them to survive gas expulsion better than a virialized and spherical system. By using a more realistic treatment for the background gas than our previous studies, we find it very difficult to destroy the young clusters with instantaneous gas expulsion. We conclude that gas removal may not be the main culprit for the dissolution of young star clusters.

  2. Stellar Wind Retention and Expulsion in Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2018-05-01

    Mass and energy injection throughout the lifetime of a star cluster contributes to the gas reservoir available for subsequent episodes of star formation and the feedback energy budget responsible for ejecting material from the cluster. In addition, mass processed in stellar interiors and ejected as winds has the potential to augment the abundance ratios of currently forming stars, or stars which form at a later time from a retained gas reservoir. Here we present hydrodynamical simulations that explore a wide range of cluster masses, compactnesses, metallicities and stellar population age combinations in order to determine the range of parameter space conducive to stellar wind retention or wind powered gas expulsion in star clusters. We discuss the effects of the stellar wind prescription on retention and expulsion effectiveness, using MESA stellar evolutionary models as a test bed for exploring how the amounts of wind retention/expulsion depend upon the amount of mixing between the winds from stars of different masses and ages. We conclude by summarizing some implications for gas retention and expulsion in a variety of compact (σv ≳ 20 kms-1) star clusters including young massive star clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≲ 500 Myrs), intermediate age clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≈ 1 - 4 Gyrs), and globular clusters (105 ≲ M/M⊙ ≲ 107, age ≳ 10 Gyrs).

  3. Multiple expulsions. Affective and material evictions in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ansaloni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available If we regard expulsions as the abrupt interruption along the territorialisation process of any body in search of refuge, we could see displaced people and migrants as those figures that have to cope with multiple expulsions until they can build a less vulnerable and precarious territory. Drawing on an ethnographic fieldwork in the makeshift camp of Calais known as the Jungle, I outline a relentless movement of expulsion-inclusion, which is both material and affective and operates on different dimensions. In the Jungle of Calais, from March 2015 to October 2016 lived thousands of people coming mainly from Afghanistan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Pakistan, who created a city-like system together with volunteers from UK and France. Both the French state and the aid groups built their own territories by establishing different kind of relations with the residents of the Jungle, thus contributing to (at least temporarily stabilise or destabilise their search for a territory of their own and engaging in less visible practices of expulsion.

  4. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  5. Rates of chemical reaction and atmospheric heating during core debris expulsion from a pressurized vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockman, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1986-01-01

    Core debris may be expelled from a pressurized reactor vessel during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Experimental studies of core debris expulsion from pressurized vessels have established that the expelled material can be lofted into the atmosphere of the reactor containment as particulate 0.4 to 2 mm in diameter. These particles will vigorously react with steam and oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Data on such reactions during tests with 80 kg of expelled melt will be reported. A model of the reaction rates based on gas phase mass transport will be described and shown to account for atmospheric heating and aerosol generation observed in the tests

  6. NEW MATERIAL NEEDS FOR HYDROCARBON FUEL PROCESSING: Generating Hydrogen for the PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrauto, R.; Hwang, S.; Shore, L.; Ruettinger, W.; Lampert, J.; Giroux, T.; Liu, Y.; Ilinich, O.

    2003-08-01

    The hydrogen economy is fast approaching as petroleum reserves are rapidly consumed. The fuel cell promises to deliver clean and efficient power by combining hydrogen and oxygen in a simple electrochemical device that directly converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Hydrogen, the most plentiful element available, can be extracted from water by electrolysis. One can imagine capturing energy from the sun and wind and/or from the depths of the earth to provide the necessary power for electrolysis. Alternative energy sources such as these are the promise for the future, but for now they are not feasible for power needs across the globe. A transitional solution is required to convert certain hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen. These fuels must be available through existing infrastructures such as the natural gas pipeline. The present review discusses the catalyst and adsorbent technologies under development for the extraction of hydrogen from natural gas to meet the requirements for the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The primary market is for residential applications, where pipeline natural gas will be the source of H2 used to power the home. Other applications including the reforming of methanol for portable power applications such as laptop computers, cellular phones, and personnel digital equipment are also discussed. Processing natural gas containing sulfur requires many materials, for example, adsorbents for desulfurization, and heterogeneous catalysts for reforming (either autothermal or steam reforming) water gas shift, preferential oxidation of CO, and anode tail gas combustion. All these technologies are discussed for natural gas and to a limited extent for reforming methanol.

  7. Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry

  8. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  9. Micrinite maceral evidence of hydrocarbon generation in cretaceous coal measures of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Ukpabio, E. J.; Funtua, I. I.

    1999-01-01

    Maceral analysis on samples from the coal and coal-bearing strata of the Awgu Formation in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria allows the subdivision of the coal beds and inter seam sediments into three different petrographic/coal facies, namely: a vitrinite-fusinite coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, poor in liptinite, with variable amounts of inertinite and low mineral matter content; a trimaceritic coal facies which is rich in vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite with low mineral matter content; and a shaley coal facies which, expectedly, is dominated by mineral matter and has variable amounts of vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Micrinite macerals constitute 8.2% and 4.5 on mineral matter-counted basis in samples from the trimaceritic and shaley coal facies respectively. These amounts, in both cases, are considered to be very high. They occur as finely particulate, rounded grains approximately I um in diameter. Most of the micrinite are closely associated with highly reflecting, almost unrecognizable liptinite. The nature and origin of micrinite and its significance to oil and gas generation have been studied extensively. As secondary macerals, they are generally believed to be relics of oil generation from oil-prone macerals, mainly liptinitic and vitrinitic macerals with which they are closely associated. Reflectance measurements on the associated vitrinite macerals indicate a thermal maturity range of 0.74 - 1.25 % Rm. This range corresponds to the zone of oil generation in most minerogenic oil source rocks. In the study area, however, only the trimaceritic coal facies and some parts of the shaley coal facies that are rich in liptinite alongside the associated micrinite macerals are considered to have generated oil. The vitrinite-fusinite coal facies with its high content of humic organic matter (vitrinite + Inertinite) can only generate gas (wet + dry) within the given thermal maturity range

  10. Regional assessments of the hydrocarbon generation potential of selected North American proterozoic rock sequences. Progress report, September 1989--April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, M.H.; Elmore, R.D.

    1990-04-01

    Our primary research objectives for the first year of this grant are nearing completion. This includes comprehensive sedimentologic/organic geochemical studies of two depositionally distinct, unmetamorphosed units, the Nonesuch Formation ({approximately}1.1 Ga lacustrine rift deposit) and the Dripping Spring Quartzite ({approximately}1.3 Ga marine shelf deposit). As discussed in this progress report, an attempt has been made to (1) identify source rocks by quantification and characterization of constituent organic matter, (2) recognize depositional/diagenetic/catagenetic factors that may have influenced source rock quality and (3) evaluate the possibility of previous or current hydrocarbon generation and migration. Organic petrology and geochemical analyses suggest important differences between kerogens in the Michigan (MI) and Wisconsin (WI) Nonesuch Formation study areas. When considered within a geographic/stratigraphic framework, the Nonesuch Formation in the MI study area exhibits superior source rock potential. It is suggested that sedimentary organic matter in the WI area was subject to more extensive microbial alteration during early diagenesis. It is also possible that thermal maturity levels were slightly to moderately higher in WI than MI. Petrologic evidence for migrated bitumens and the stable isotope composition of late vein carbonates suggest, furthermore, that oil generation and migration may have actually been more extensive in the WI study area.

  11. MAGNETIC FLUX EXPULSION IN STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bo; Li Zhiyun; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of magnetized molecular clouds. If the magnetic flux threading the cores is dragged into the stars, the stellar field would be orders of magnitude stronger than observed. This well-known 'magnetic flux problem' demands that most of the core magnetic flux be decoupled from the matter that enters the star. We carry out the first exploration of what happens to the decoupled magnetic flux in three dimensions, using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) version of the ENZO adaptive mesh refinement code. The field-matter decoupling is achieved through a sink particle treatment, which is needed to follow the protostellar accretion phase of star formation. We find that the accumulation of the decoupled flux near the accreting protostar leads to a magnetic pressure buildup. The high pressure is released anisotropically along the path of least resistance. It drives a low-density expanding region in which the decoupled magnetic flux is expelled. This decoupling-enabled magnetic structure has never been seen before in three-dimensional MHD simulations of star formation. It generates a strong asymmetry in the protostellar accretion flow, potentially giving a kick to the star. In the presence of an initial core rotation, the structure presents an obstacle to the formation of a rotationally supported disk, in addition to magnetic braking, by acting as a rigid magnetic wall that prevents the rotating gas from completing a full orbit around the central object. We conclude that the decoupled magnetic flux from the stellar matter can strongly affect the protostellar collapse dynamics.

  12. Generation of volatile hydrocarbons as a measure of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, C R; Kumar, K S; Weiss, J F; Catravas, G N [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Using gas chromatography techniques, pentane production from microsomes could be detected at gamma radiation doses as low as 50 Gy, but definite increases were observed only with the addition of the peroxidation promoter ADP-Fe. There was a small but linear increase in pentane production, and presumably lipid peroxidation, when nonirradiated microsomes alone were incubated. The addition of ADP-Fe induced a further production of pentane which was linear with incubation time. Radiation alone (700 and 2000 Gy) also induced pentane production, but the highest levels were observed with the combination of ADP-Fe and radiation. In microsomes irradiated with 700 Gy, the rate of pentane production was greatest during the first 100 min post-irradiation. In comparing radiation-induced pentane generation to the enzymatic-induced system, it was seen that pentane production was much greater in the latter system.

  13. Hydrocarbon reforming catalysts and new reactor designs for compact hydrogen generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Schwab, E.; Urtel, H. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Farrauto, R. [BASF Catalysts LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A hydrogen based future energy scenario will use fuel cells for the conversion of chemically stored energy into electricity. Depending upon the type of fuel cell, different specifications will apply for the feedstock which is converted in the cell, ranging from very clean hydrogen for PEM-FC's to desulfurized methane for SOFC and MCFC technology. For the foreseeable future, hydrogen will be supplied by conventional reforming, however operated in compact and dynamic reformer designs. This requires that known catalyst formulations are offered in specific geometries, giving flexibility for novel reactor design options. These specific geometries can be special tablet shapes as well as monolith structures. Finally, also nonhydrocarbon feedstock might be used in special applications, e.g. bio-based methanol and ethanol. BASF offers catalysts for the full process chain starting from feedstock desulfurization via reforming, high temperature shift, low temperature shift to CO fine polishing either via selective oxidation or selective methanation. Depending upon the customer's design, most stages can be served either with precious metal based monolith solutions or base metal tablet solutions. For the former, we have taken the automobile catalyst monolith support and extended its application to the fuel cell hydrogen generation. Washcoats of precious metal supported catalysts can for example be deposited on ceramic monoliths and/or metal heat exchangers for efficient generation of hydrogen. Major advantages are high through puts due to more efficient heat transfer for catalysts on metal heat exchangers, lower pressure drop with greater catalyst mechanical and thermal stability compared to particulate catalysts. Base metal tablet catalysts on the other hand can have intrinsic cost advantages, larger fractions of the reactor can be filled with active mass, and if produced in unconventional shape, again novel reactor designs are made possible. Finally, if it comes to

  14. Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2014-04-23

    Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry on the flame kernel propagation is the main aim of this work for natural gas (NG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). In addition the minimum ignition laser energy (MILE) has been investigated for both fuels. Moreover, the flame stability maps for both fuels are also investigated and analyzed. The flame kernels are generated using Nd:YAG pulsed laser and propagated in a partially premixed turbulent jet. The flow field is measured using 2-D PIV technique. Five cases have been selected for each fuel covering different values of Reynolds number within a range of 6100-14400, at a mean equivalence ratio of 2 and a certain level of partial premixing. The MILE increases by increasing the equivalence ratio. Near stoichiometric the energy density is independent on the jet velocity while in rich conditions it increases by increasing the jet velocity. The stability curves show four distinct regions as lifted, attached, blowout, and a fourth region either an attached flame if ignition occurs near the nozzle or lifted if ignition occurs downstream. LPG flames are more stable than NG flames. This is consistent with the higher values of the laminar flame speed of LPG. The flame kernel propagation speed is affected by both turbulence and chemistry. However, at low turbulence level chemistry effects are more pronounced while at high turbulence level the turbulence becomes dominant. LPG flame kernels propagate faster than those for NG flame. In addition, flame kernel extinguished faster in LPG fuel as compared to NG fuel. The propagation speed is likely to be consistent with the local mean equivalence ratio and its corresponding laminar flame speed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. The influence of shale depositional fabric on the kinetics of hydrocarbon generation through control of mineral surface contact area on clay catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur M.; Kennedy, Martin; Löhr, Stefan; Dewhurst, David N.; Sherwood, Neil; Yang, Shengyu; Horsfield, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Accurately assessing the temperature and hence the depth and timing of hydrocarbon generation is a critical step in the characterization of a petroleum system. Clay catalysis is a potentially significant modifier of hydrocarbon generation temperature, but experimental studies of clay catalysis show inconsistent or contradictory results. This study tests the hypothesis that source rock fabric itself is an influence on clay mineral catalysis as it controls the extent to which organic matter and clay minerals are physically associated. Two endmember clay-organic fabrics distinguish the source rocks studied: (1) a particulate fabric where organic matter is present as discrete, >5 μm particles and (2) a nanocomposite fabric in which amorphous organic matter is associated with clay mineral surfaces at sub-micron scale. High-resolution electron imaging and bulk geochemical characterisation confirm that samples of the Miocene Monterey Formation (California) are representative of the nanocomposite source rock endmember, whereas samples from the Permian Stuart Range Formation (South Australia) represent the particulate source rock endmember. Kinetic experiments are performed on paired whole rock and kerogen isolate samples from these two formations using open system, non-isothermal pyrolysis at three different heating rates (0.7, 2 and 5 K/min) to determine the effects of the different shale fabrics on hydrocarbon generation kinetics. Extrapolation to a modelled geological heating rate shows a 20 °C reduction in the onset temperature of hydrocarbon generation in Monterey Formation whole rock samples relative to paired kerogen isolates. This result is consistent with the Monterey Formations's nanocomposite fabric where clay catalysis can proceed because reactive clay minerals are intimately associated with organic matter. By contrast, there is no significant difference in the modelled hydrocarbon generation temperature of paired whole rock and kerogen isolates from the

  16. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  17. Expulsion of swimming bacteria by a circular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Aronson, Igor

    Macroscopic shear flow alters swimming trajectories in a highly nontrivial way and results in dramatic reduction of viscosity and heterogeneous bacterial distributions. We report on experimental and theoretical studies of rapid expulsion of microswimmers, such as motile bacteria, by a circular flow created by a rotating microparticle. We observed a formation of a macroscopic depletion area in a high-shear region, in the vicinity of a microparticle. The rapid migration of bacteria from the shear-rich area is caused by a circular structure of the flow rather than intrinsic random fluctuations of bacteria orientations, in stark contrast to planar shear flow. Our mathematical model revealed that expulsion is a combined effect of motility and alignment by a vortical flow. Our findings offer a novel approach for manipulation of motile microorganisms and shed new light on bacteria-flow interactions. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science And Engineering, under Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Non-Invasive Airway Cleansing with Application of Expulsion Effect of HFJV (High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hermely

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of expulsion and impulsion nozzle high frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing respiratory system during long-term mechanical ventilation. Material and methods. Retrospective study. In the group of 198 patients presenting its own procedures and the application of inpulsive and expulsive effect of the nozzle frequency ventilation (VFDV for cleansing and maintaining a patent airway. They used high frequency jet ventilation with the possibility of expulsion and epulsion programming and assessed a total of over 8000 expulsion procedures. Changes in lung mechanics, hemodynamics, effectiveness of expulsion and the need for suction beforeexpulsion and in regular application of VFDV were monitored. Results. We statistically compared and evaluated the effectiveness of expulsion in the VFDV group of 198 patients on long-term UVP, which was effective in average of 94.9% of patients. The impact of expulsion regime on circulatory, ventilation systems and gas exchange in the lungs, including lung mechanics, were analyzed. The authors found that the application of VFDV had a substantial and statistically significant effect on hemodynamics. Application of expulsion and lavage (a technique is described statistically significantly reduced airway resistance Raw (p<0.01 and improved the levels of lung static compliance (p<0.01 compared with the prior expulsion. Changes in blood gases during the expulsion itself did not have a major impact on gas exchange in the lungs or on the pH in this group, but there was a statistically significant increase in PaO2 (p<0.05. A key finding was that when comparing the number of manipulations in the airways (suction, a radical reduction in the number of pumping was observed, if expulsion was used regularly. A statistically significant difference in the application of expulsion was detected when compared to most groups of patients (p<0.01. The number of

  19. Study of higher hydrocarbon production during ethylacetylene pyrolysis using laser-generated vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.; Pfefferle, L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-04-19

    Higher hydrocarbon formation during the pyrolysis of ethylacetylene in a microjet reactor was studied by vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. At the wavelength employed, this ionization technique allows for the simultaneous detection of both stable and intermediate polyatomic species with ionization potentials below 10.49 eV, including most hydrocarbons with two or more carbon atoms. Minimal fragmentation simplifies the determination of parent species and allows identification of probable reaction pathways involving hydrocarbon radicals as well as stable species. The pyrolysis of ethylacetylene was carried out in the fast-flow microjet reactor (residence times 1-2 ms) at temperatures from 300 to 1,600 K.

  20. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  1. Use of extinction and reinforcement to increase food consumption and reduce expulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, D A; Babbitt, R L; Williams, K E; Hajimihalis, C; Snyder, A M; Ballard, C; Efron, L A

    1997-01-01

    Extinction and reinforcement contingencies were used to treat 2 children with feeding disorders. Positive reinforcement and avoidance extinction effectively increased food acceptance but also increased food expulsion. Reduced expulsion and increased swallowing were achieved by repeated presentation of expelled food, a second extinction component

  2. Vulnerability and the Right to Respect for Private Life as an Autonomous Source of Protection against Expulsion under Article 8 ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Da Lomba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on settled migrants and calls for the construction of the right to respect for private life as an autonomous source of protection against expulsion under Article 8 ECHR. I contend that, as a core part of human existence, private life warrants meaningful protection. I posit that the fact that all settled migrants have established private life in the host State brings it to the fore of Article 8 expulsion cases. This argument finds strong support in the concept of belonging and transnational migration theory; both tell us that settled migrants’ host State has become their ‘own country’. Drawing on earlier work, I reclaim vulnerability as a foundation and tool of International Human Rights Law with a view to recognising migrants within the jurisdiction of ECHR States as fully-fledged ECHR subjects and making the European Court of Human Rights responsive to their vulnerability. I make the case for absolute protection against expulsion for second (and subsequent-generation migrants and settled migrants who have spent most of their adult life in the host State. In respect of other settled migrants, I argue that the minimum protection standard should be that expulsion is only justifiable in exceptional circumstances.

  3. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon generation in the northwestern part of the Nile Delta and its facing offshore area (Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, T.

    1990-01-01

    Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) as physical parameter beside depths to both Pliocene and Miocene sections are used in this study. Temperature analysis is based on Hood, Gutjahr and Heacock's and Gretener and Curtis' methods. The results have thrown light on the interrelation between the different rock units forming both Pliocene and Miocene sections as well as their hydrocarbon potential. It is found that, only three wells namely, Abu Qir-1, NAF-1 and Sidi Salim can be hydrocarbon producing, and Abu Madi formation can be classified to be of Upper Miocene as the underlying Quawasim formation for their lithologic similarity. (orig.).

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  5. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  6. Summary report of project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-12-01

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear) has evaluated the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and to move these captured materials to a space destination for proper disposal. The use of systems external to a satellite allows multiple attempts to prevent the nuclear materials from reentering the atmosphere. SIREN also has investigated means to prevent the breakup of nuclear-powered systems already in space. The SIREN project has determined that external means can be used reliably to prevent nuclear materials from reentering the terrestrial environment, prepared a computer model that can be used to evaluate the means to dispose of radioactive materials, assessed the hazards from existing nuclear power systems in space, and in discussions with Russian Federation representatives determined interest in joint activities in this area

  7. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  8. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. (AGIP SPA, San Donato Milanese (Italy))

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  9. Can tamsulosin facilitate expulsion of ureteral stones? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Yang, Deyong; Wang, Jianbo; Che, Xiangyu; Li, Xiancheng; Wang, Lina; Chen, Feng; Wang, Tiezheng; Song, Xishuang

    2013-08-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of the adrenergic alpha-antagonist tamsulosin in facilitating ureteral stones expulsion. A literature search was carried out using the PubMed database, Medline via Ovid, Embase and the Cochrane Library database to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficiency of tamsulosin in the treatment of ureteral stones. Meta-analysis and forest plots were carried out by use of Review Manager version 5.1 software (Cochrane Collaboration). Compared with the control group, the tamsulosin group had an increase in expulsion rate of 51% and a decrease in expulsion time of 2.63 days. Furthermore, tamsulosin was found to reduce the risk of ureteral colic during treatment by 40% and also the risk of requirement of auxiliary procedures during follow up by 60%. In terms of safety, the tamsulosin group had a 117% increase in the incidence of side-effects compared with the control group, especially for incidence of dizziness. Tamsulosin facilitates the expulsion of ureteral calculi by providing a higher expulsion rate, a shorter expulsion time, a lower incidence of ureteral colic during treatment and a lower requirement of auxiliary procedures. However, the incidence of dizziness occurring during tamsulosin treatment is significantly higher in this setting. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  11. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    findings indicate that hydrocarbon solubility does not exert a strong influence on hydrocarbon behavior in the systems studied. Other factors such as coal composition and maceral content, surface processes (physisorption), or other molecular interactions appear to affect the partitioning of hydrocarbons within the coal–supercritical CO2 system. Resolving the extent to which these factors might affect hydrocarbon behavior under different geological settings is important to efforts seeking to model petroleum generation, fractionation and expulsion from coal beds and to delineate potential hydrocarbon fate and transport in geologic CO2 sequestration settings.

  12. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R

    2009-11-01

    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  13. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  14. Symbiosis regulation in a facultatively symbiotic temperate coral: zooxanthellae division and expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, J.; Carrington, E.

    2008-09-01

    Zooxanthellae mitotic index (MI) and expulsion rates were measured in the facultatively symbiotic scleractinian Astrangia poculata during winter and summer off the southern New England coast, USA. While MI was significantly higher in summer than in winter, mean expulsion rates were comparable between seasons. Corals therefore appear to allow increases in symbiont density when symbiosis is advantageous during the warm season, followed by a net reduction during the cold season when zooxanthellae may draw resources from the coral. Given previous reports that photosynthesis in A. poculata symbionts does not occur below approximately 6°C, considerable zooxanthellae division at 3°C and in darkness suggests that zooxanthellae are heterotrophic at low seasonal temperatures. Finally, examination of expulsion as a function of zooxanthellae density revealed that corals with very low zooxanthellae densities export a significantly greater proportion of their symbionts, apparently allowing them to persist in a stable azooxanthellate state.

  15. The expulsion of Jesuits from Nueva Granada in 185Oas key for understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Cortés Guerrero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the confrontation between the liberal ideology of the mid nineteenth century and the conservative positions of the time as a result of the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Nueva Granada. The expulsion of the Jesuits encapsulates several key aspects of liberal ideology: the need to break with the colonial past; progress and civilization as attainable objectives; education as a neutral in terms of religious instruction; and the separation of the Catholic Church from the State as an important factor for reaching modernization and modernity. With the expulsion of the Jesuits one can also see the aligning of the nascent political parties, some defended the expulsión, others opposed it vehemently.

  16. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  17. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  18. A comparison of nifedipine and tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy for the management of lower ureteral stones without ESWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dehong; Yang, Lu; Liu, Liangren; Yuan, Haichao; Qian, Shenqiang; Lv, Xiao; Han, Pin; Wei, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Administration of nifedipine or tamsulosin has been suggested to augment stone expulsion rates. We aimed to compare the stone expulsion rates and adverse effects associated with the use of nifedipine or tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the management of lower ureteral stones (LUS) without extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) via a literature review and meta-analysis. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases. Finally, a total of 7 RCTs with 3897 patients were included. Our meta-analysis showed that tamsulosin could significantly increase the stone expulsion rate relative to nifedipine in patients with LUS (random-effects model; risk ratio [RR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75–0.88; P tamsulosin was more effective than nifedipine in patients with LUS, as evidenced by the higher stone expulsion rate. Tamsulosin treatment should therefore be considered for patients with LUS. PMID:24919112

  19. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody [Hyperion Power Generation, Inc., 369 Montezuma Ave, Suite 508, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining

  20. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash generated in Coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    The burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants results in huge quantity of coal ash of varying properties. Because of the increase in electricity production, the amount of ash produced will increase proportionally. A large percentage of coal fly ash is comprised of relatively inert materials, such as silica and other trace and toxic elements. The coal ash also contain organic constituents of potential environmental concern. So far, very few studies on characterization of organic constituents in fly ash have been reported in the literature. In the present study, the fly ashes generated from the power stations are investigated regarding the distribution of 14 PAHs. The total amount of PAHs in the fly ash samples varied between 45.8 ng/g and 257.7 ng/g. Lower molecular weight (MW) PAHs, were found to be predominant in the fly ash samples. The concentration of Benzo(a)pyrene, which is the most potent carcinogenic PAH was found to vary between 0.8 ng/g to 6.3 ng/g with a mean concentration of 2.5 ng/g. (author)

  1. A Study of the Effectiveness of a Saturday School in Reducing Suspension, Expulsion, and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winborn, John Douglas

    Lack of proper discipline in schools has long been a major concern of the public. Proposals on how to improve discipline have ranged from the bizarre to the cruel. Educators and administrators must devise alternative punishments to replace traditional methods, such as corporal punishment, suspension, and expulsion, that are frequently ineffective.…

  2. Expulsion of the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene

    demonstrating the potential use of its eggs as immunomodulators, treating patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. The immune response induced by T. suis in its host and particularly, the resulting expulsion of worms is the focus of this thesis. Whipworms...

  3. Responses to the 1983 Expulsion of Aliens from Nigeria: A Critique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts a critique of this plethora of criticisms and submits that the Nigerian government of Shehu Shagari acted in conformity with the Nigerian immigration law of 1963 as informed by the exigencies of national interest. Government should therefore be exonerated from all the said criticisms. Keywords: Expulsion ...

  4. Medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones: where do we go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somani, Bhaskar K.; Aboumarzouk, Omar; Traxer, Olivier; Baard, Joyce; Kamphuis, Guido; de la Rosette, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Despite two decades of clinical use, the effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the noninvasive management of patients with ureteral stones has, in the past year, been called into in question. The primary aim of MET is to expedite stone passage, although it has also shown effectiveness

  5. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  6. Efficacy and safety of tamsulosin as a medical expulsive therapy for stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein A; Shaker, Hossam; Saifelnasr, Mohammed; Gaber, Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin for promoting ureteric stone expulsion in children, based on the confirmed efficacy of tamsulosin as a medical expulsive therapy in adults. From February 2010 to July 2013, 67 children presenting with a distal ureteric stone of <1 cm as assessed on unenhanced computed tomography were included in the study. The patients were randomised into two groups, with group 1 (33 patients) receiving tamsulosin 0.4 mg and ibuprofen, and group 2 (34) receiving ibuprofen only. They were followed up for 4 weeks. Endoscopic intervention was indicated for patients with uncontrolled pain, recurrent urinary tract infection, hypersensitivity to tamsulosin and failure of stone passage after 4 weeks of conservative treatment. Sixty-three patients completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in patient age, body weight and stone size, the mean (SD) of which was 6.52 (1.8) mm in group 1 vs. 6.47 (1.79) mm in group 2 (P = 0.9). The mean (SD) time to stone expulsion in group 1 was 7.7 (1.9) days, vs. 18 (1.73) days in group 2 (P < 0.001). The analgesic requirement (mean number of ketorolac injections) in group 1 was significantly less than in group 2, at 0.55 (0.8) vs. 1.8 (1.6) (P < 0.001). The stone-free rate was 87% in group 1 and 63% in group 2 (P = 0.025). Tamsulosin used as a medical expulsive therapy for children with ureteric stones is safe and effective, as it facilitates spontaneous expulsion of the stone.

  7. Tamsulosin versus tadalafil as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Hari Bahadur; Shrestha, Anil; Acharya, Ganesh Bhakta; Basnet, Robin Bahadur; Shah, Arvind Kumar; Shrestha, Parash Mani

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones. This prospective randomized study was conducted at the Department of Urology of Bir Hospital over a period of 12 months in patients with distal ureteral stones sized 5 to 10 mm. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A received tamsulosin 0.4 mg and group B received tadalafil 10 mg at bedtime for 2 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, number of ureteric colic episodes and pain score, analgesic requirements, and adverse drug effects were noted in both groups. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student t-test and chi-square test. Altogether 85 patients, 41 in group A and 44 in group B, were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 31.72±12.63 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Demographic profiles, stone size, and baseline investigations were comparable between the 2 groups. The stone expulsion rate was significantly higher in the tadalafil group than in the tamsulosin group (84.1% vs. 61.0%, p=0.017). Although the occurrence of side effects was higher with tadalafil, this difference was not significant (p=0.099). There were no serious adverse effects. Tadalafil has a significantly higher stone expulsion rate than tamsulosin when used as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones sized 5-10 mm. Both drugs are safe, effective, and well tolerated with minor side effects.

  8. Comparison of silodosin to tamsulosin for medical expulsive treatment of ureteral stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Scheffbuch, Nicolas; Kallidonis, Panagiotis

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at comparing the success rates of silodosin to the most commonly used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) tamsulosin for the management of ureteral stones. A systematic review using the search string: "silodosin AND (ston* OR calcu* OR expul*)" was conducted on Pubmed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register. The Primary endpoint was the stone expulsion rate. Secondary endpoint was the time to stone expulsion. Two authors independently screened the studies depending on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis and forest-plot figures were calculated with the software Review Manager (RevMan 5.3.5). Variations were evaluated with the χ 2 statistical method and heterogeneity with I 2 index. After screening of 39 publications obtained by the initial search, three randomized controlled trials were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis. 407 patients were pooled. Favorable results were observed for silodosin in terms of stone expulsion rates with a risk ratio of 1.33 (95 % CI 1.17-1.50) (I 2  = 0 %). Similarly, faster stone expulsion times were observed with silodosin when compared with tamsulosin. Mean difference -2.49 (95 % CI -3.40 to 1.58) (I 2  = 89 %). This meta-analysis showed significantly higher stone expulsion rates and faster expulsion times in favor of silodosin when compared to tamsulosin.

  9. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  10. Petroleum systems and hydrocarbon accumulation models in the Santos Basin, SP, Brazil; Sistemas petroliferos e modelos de acumulacao de hidrocarbonetos na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung Kiang; Assine, Mario Luis; Correa, Fernando Santos; Tinen, Julio Setsuo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Estudos de Bacias]. E-mails: chang@rc.unesp.br; assine@rc.unesp.br; fscorrea@rc.unesp.br; jstinen@rc.unesp.br; Vidal, Alexandre Campane; Koike, Luzia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo]. E-mails: vidal@ige.unicamp.br; luzia@iqm.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The Santos Basin was formed by rifting process during Mesozoic Afro-American separation. Sediment accumulation initiated with fluvial-lacustrine deposits, passing to evaporitic stage until reaching marginal basin stages. The analysis of hydrocarbon potential of Santos Basin identified two petroleum systems: Guaratiba-Guaruja and Itajai-Acu-Ilhabela. The Guaratiba Formation is less known in the Santos Basin because of small number of wells that have penetrated the rift section. By comparison with Campos Basin, hydrocarbons are of saline lacustrine origin deposited in Aptian age. Analogous to Campos Basin the major source rock is of saline-lacustrine origin, which has been confirmed from geochemical analyses of oil samples recovered from the various fields. These analyses also identified marine source rock contribution, indicating the Itajai-Acu source rock went through oil-window, particularly in structural lows generated by halokynesis. Models of hydrocarbon accumulation consider Guaratiba Formacao as the major source rock for shallow carbonate reservoirs of Guaruja Formacao and for late Albian to Miocene turbidites, as well as siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs of the rift phase. Migration occurs along salt window and through carrier-beds. The seal rock is composed of shales and limestones intercalated with reservoir facies of the post-rift section and by thick evaporites overlying rift section, especially in the deeper water. In the shallow portion, shale inter-tongued with reservoir rocks is the main seal rock. The hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the central-north portion of the basin is caused by overburden of a thick Senonian section. Traps can be structural (rollovers and turtle), stratigraphic (pinch-outs) and mixed origins (pinch-outs of turbidites against salt domes). (author)

  11. The thermal evolution and timing of hydrocarbon generation in the Maritimes Basin of eastern Canada: evidence from apatite fission track data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grist, A.M.; Zentilli, M.

    1995-01-01

    Sandstone drill core and/or cuttings from six wells in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and cabot Strait have been analyzed using the apatite fission track (AFT) method. Measured AFT ages for the late Paleozoic sandstones range from 26 ±7 to 184 ±28 Ma (2-σ errors). The AFT data indicate that most Maritimes Basin strata were heated to temperatures in excess of 100-150 o C very soon after their deposition. The strata also attained significant vitrinite reflectance (R 0 ) levels (i.e., reaching the oil window) early in the burial history. These findings imply the generation of hydrocarbons and coalbed methane in the early basin history (pre-250 Ma). In the Maritimes Basin AFT and R 0 data provide complementary information about the integrated thermal history, including maximum burial temperatures (from R 0 data), and information on the subsequent cooling history from AFT analysis. The present study also supports the proposal made previously by others that substantial erosion of the Eastern Canadian margin (up to 4 km) has occurred since the Permian and extends the AFT evidence for this erosional event to include the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence area. Thermal models of the AFT data demonstrate that they are consistent with a history of exhumation of basin strata since late Permian time. The model-predicted AFT age and track length histograms closely correspond to the measured AFT parameters. AFT analysis also indicates present-day geothermal gradients of less than 40 o C/km. (author). 42 refs.,3 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menshawy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs. In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.

  13. A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Gary-Tounkara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria has been quietly expelling more and more immigrants from Niger, Mali, Chad and Cameroon. These foreigners – migrant workers or small traders – face the reinforcement of migration control and the blind fight of the government against Boko Haram. Despite its political instability, Nigeria remains a major immigration destination in West Africa. In this article, I analyze the “undocumented” expulsion of aliens in 1983, officially three million people. I argue that the expulsion was due to the economic crisis but also to a nationalist revenge against Ghana and a political calculation of President Shagari. This implies the exclusion of foreigners from the national labour market and the weakening of the supposed electoral base of his opponents.

  14. The Expulsion of "Pernicious" Foreigners in Colombia in Recent Years of Conservative Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pita Pico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early twentieth century occurred in Colombia increased influx of foreigners but also increased political control in the entry and stay of these individuals. As part of social history and documentaries based on archival sources, this paper analyzes the process of expulsion of undocumented aliens and "pernicious" at the end of the presidential government of Miguel Abadía Mendez (1926-1930. This article aims to examine the reasons for these deportations, the measures taken against women prostitutes, the fate of the escapees and absolved and, finally, the complications that revolved around expulsion proceedings. This concern of the government by the presence of foreigners "pernicious" was in the interest of achieving national security through a social model in which were seriously questioned practices such as vagrancy, begging, theft, fraud, prostitution and seditious political activities.

  15. Saskia Sassen, Expulsions. Brutalité et complexité dans l’économie globale

    OpenAIRE

    Henrio, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Dans Expulsions, la sociologue et économiste Saskia Sassen, spécialiste de la mondialisation, auteure notamment de Global City, où elle faisait déjà le constat d’une polarisation des inégalités sociales et économiques dans les villes mondiales, poursuit sa réflexion et émet l’hypothèse que « sous les aspects nationaux des diverses crises globales se manifestent des tendances systémiques émergentes, formées par une dynamique fondamentale élémentaire » (p. 19). L’« expulsion » serait l’expressi...

  16. Posterior Uterine Rupture Causing Fetal Expulsion into the Abdominal Cavity: A Rare Case of Neonatal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Navaratnam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine rupture is a potentially catastrophic complication of vaginal birth after caesarean section. We describe the sixth case of posterior uterine rupture, with intact lower segment scar, and the first neonatal survival after expulsion into the abdominal cavity with posterior rupture. Case Presentation. A multiparous woman underwent prostaglandin induction of labour for postmaturity, after one previous caesarean section. Emergency caesarean section for bradycardia revealed a complete posterior uterine rupture, with fetal and placental expulsion. Upon delivery, the baby required inflation breaths only. The patient required a subtotal hysterectomy but returned home on day 5 postnatally with her healthy baby. Discussion. Vaginal birth after caesarean section constitutes a trial of labour, and the obstetrician must be reactive to labour events. Posterior uterine rupture is extremely rare and may occur without conventional signs. Good maternal and fetal outcome is possible with a prompt, coordinated team response.

  17. Late Complication after Superficial Femoral Artery (SFA) Aneurysm: Stent-graft Expulsion Outside the Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Felice, E-mail: felicepecoraro@libero.it; Sabatino, Ermanno R.; Dinoto, Ettore; Rosa, Giuliana La; Corte, Giuseppe; Bajardi, Guido [University of Palermo, Vascular Surgery Unit (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A 78-year-old man presented with a 7-cm aneurysm in the left superficial femoral artery, which was considered unfit and anatomically unsuitable for conventional open surgery for multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with stent-graft [Viabhan stent-graft (WL Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ)]. Two years from stent-graft implantation, the patient presented a purulent secretion and a spontaneous external expulsion through a fistulous channel. No claudication symptoms or hemorrhagic signs were present. The pus and device cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Patient management consisted of fistula drainage, systemic antibiotic therapy, and daily wound dressing. At 1-month follow-up, the wound was closed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of stent-graft complication presenting with external expulsion.

  18. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  19. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  20. Flux expulsion and trapping in rotating discs of type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, R.; Leblanc, M.A.R.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic flux rotating in step with a type II superconducting disc is measured with orthogonal pick up coils for various previous magnetic histories vs H 0 applied at right angles to the axis of rotation. For some initial magnetic states, flux expulsion, independent of the rate of rotation, occurs during the initial rotation. A simple model where flux lines leave the specimen against the magnetic pressure in the active region accounts for the observations. (author)

  1. Partial spontaneous anal expulsion of the right colon lipoma: An exceptional diagnostic circumstance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Hamila

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are most common benign tumors of the colon. They are asymptomatic and fortuitously discovered on a morphological examination. Rarely, they cause complications such as acute intussusception. In this article, we reported an exceptional discovery mode of right colon lipoma. Case presentation: A 54-year-old woman has consulted for acute abdominal pain relieved by the anus emission of a fat ball that she brought back with her. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed the remaining part of a lipoma developed in her right colon. Laparoscopic right colonic resection was performed. Discussion: Colic lipomas are usually asymptomatic and surgical indication in these cases is debated, but it is indicated whenever complications occur such as acute intestinal intussusception. In this case, discovery mode was not considered as a complication because lipoma evacuation could have been complete. Radiological explorations and colonoscopy could evaluate the lesional state. When surgery is decided, intersecting therapeutic strategy of a short colonic resection guided by a colonization during colonoscopy should be considered. Conclusion: The spontaneous expulsion of a colonic lipoma is very rare. Our observation showed that this expulsion may be partial. +The changes that the lipoma undergoes can evoke a malignant cause. a supplement to take care of this eventuality is necessary. Keywords: Colonic lipoma, Spontaneous expulsion, Colectomy

  2. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    < 0.47. The burial history modeling revealed that the potential source rock in the Alamein basin is the marine shale source rock of the Middle Jurassic (Khatatba Formation). The Khatatba shale has mixed kerogen types II-III and entered the mid- mature stage of oil generation window at vitrinite reflectance measurements 0.9 Ro% at approximately 90 million years ago (Early Cenomanian). These similarities in geologic occurrences and biomarker characteristics suggest the possibility that the hydrocarbon expulsion would have been initiated from deeply buried Jurassic source rocks and trapped in the Pre-Laramide structures of Bahariya Formation throughout the extensional faults. (orig.)

  3. Tamsulosin versus tamsulosin plus tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for lower ureteric stones: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayant, Kumar; Agrawal, Rajendra; Agrawal, Swati

    2014-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of tamsulosin versus tamsulosin plus tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for lower ureteric stones. Between January 2013 and December 2013, 244 patients presenting with distal ureteric stones (size 5-10 mm) were randomized equally to tamsulosin (group A) or tamsulosin plus tadalafil (group B). Therapy was given for a maximum of 4 weeks. Stone expulsion rate, time to stone expulsion, analgesic use, number of hospital visits for pain, follow up, endoscopic treatment and adverse effects of drugs were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using Student's t-test and the χ(2) -test. There was a statistically significant higher expulsion rate in group B compared with group A (83.6% vs 65.5%; P-value = 0.031) and a shorter time to expulsion (14.9 ± 4.4 days vs 16.7 ± 4.8 days; P-value = 0.003). Statistically significant differences were noted in terms of the number of hospital visits and analgesic requirement in favor of group B. There was no serious adverse event. An improvement in erectile function was noted in patients of group B compared with those of group A. Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones using tamsulosin plus tadalafil is safe, effective and well tolerated. Furthermore, tadalafil provides the additional advantage of improving erectile dysfunction when this condition coexists with a lower ureteric stone. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  5. Uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of fibroids or vaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Nack Keun; Lee, Mee Hwa [Pochon CHA University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Sang-Wook [Pochon CHA University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Park, Won Kyu [Yeungnam University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyongson, Dyongbuk (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The aim of our study is to present our experience with uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or transvaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization (UAE) and to determine its safety and outcome. One hundred and twenty-four women (mean age, 40.3 years; age range, 29-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were included in this retrospective study. We performed arterial embolization with poly(vinyl alcohol) particles (250-710 {mu}m). Clinical symptoms and follow-up information for each patient were obtained through medical records. At an average of 3.5 months (range, 1-8 months) after embolization, magnetic resonance imaging examinations with T1- and T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for all patients. The mean follow-up duration was 120 days (90-240 days). Eight (6.5%) patients experienced uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or spontaneous transvaginal expulsion. The locations of the leiomyomas were submucosal (n=5), intramural (n=2) and transmural (n=1). The maximum diameter of the fibroids ranged from 3.5 to 18.0 cm, with a mean of 8.4 cm. The time interval from embolization to the uterine restoration was 7-150 days (mean 70.5 days). The clinical symptoms before and during vaginal sloughing or expulsion were lower abdominal pain (n=4), vaginal discharges (n=3), infection of necrotic myomas (n=2) and cramping abdominal pain (n=1). Gentle abdominal compression (n=1) and hysteroscopic assistance (n=1) were required to remove the whole fibroid. No other clinical sequelae, either early or delayed, were documented. Magnetic resonance images revealed the disappearance of leiomyomas, intracavitary rupture resulting in transformation of intramural or transmural myomas into submucosal myomas and localized uterine wall defects. Although the small size of this study precludes a strict conclusion, there appear to be few serious complications directly related to vaginal

  6. Uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of fibroids or vaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Nack Keun; Lee, Mee Hwa; Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Park, Won Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study is to present our experience with uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or transvaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization (UAE) and to determine its safety and outcome. One hundred and twenty-four women (mean age, 40.3 years; age range, 29-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were included in this retrospective study. We performed arterial embolization with poly(vinyl alcohol) particles (250-710 μm). Clinical symptoms and follow-up information for each patient were obtained through medical records. At an average of 3.5 months (range, 1-8 months) after embolization, magnetic resonance imaging examinations with T1- and T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for all patients. The mean follow-up duration was 120 days (90-240 days). Eight (6.5%) patients experienced uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or spontaneous transvaginal expulsion. The locations of the leiomyomas were submucosal (n=5), intramural (n=2) and transmural (n=1). The maximum diameter of the fibroids ranged from 3.5 to 18.0 cm, with a mean of 8.4 cm. The time interval from embolization to the uterine restoration was 7-150 days (mean 70.5 days). The clinical symptoms before and during vaginal sloughing or expulsion were lower abdominal pain (n=4), vaginal discharges (n=3), infection of necrotic myomas (n=2) and cramping abdominal pain (n=1). Gentle abdominal compression (n=1) and hysteroscopic assistance (n=1) were required to remove the whole fibroid. No other clinical sequelae, either early or delayed, were documented. Magnetic resonance images revealed the disappearance of leiomyomas, intracavitary rupture resulting in transformation of intramural or transmural myomas into submucosal myomas and localized uterine wall defects. Although the small size of this study precludes a strict conclusion, there appear to be few serious complications directly related to vaginal

  7. Heating of a fully saturated darcian half-space: Pressure generation, fluid expulsion, and phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical solutions are developed for the pressurization, expansion, and flow of one- and two-phase liquids during heating of fully saturated and hydraulically open Darcian half-spaces subjected to a step rise in temperature at its surface. For silicate materials, advective transfer is commonly unimportant in the liquid region; this is not always the case in the vapor region. Volume change is commonly more important than heat of vaporization in determining the position of the liquid-vapor interface, assuring that the temperatures cannot be determined independently of pressures. Pressure increases reach a maximum near the leading edge of the thermal front and penetrate well into the isothermal region of the body. Mass flux is insensitive to the hydraulic properties of the half-space. ?? 1984.

  8. Evolution of a fracture network in an elastic medium with internal fluid generation and expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobchenko, Maya; Hafver, Andreas; Jettestuen, Espen; Renard, François; Galland, Olivier; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Meakin, Paul; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    2014-11-01

    A simple and reproducible analog experiment was used to simulate fracture formation in a low-permeability elastic solid during internal fluid/gas production, with the objective of developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the dynamics of fracturing, fracture opening and closing, and fluid transport. In the experiment, nucleation, propagation, and coalescence of fractures within an elastic gelatin matrix, confined in a Hele-Shaw cell, occurred due to CO2 production via fermentation of sugar, and it was monitored by optical means. We first quantified how a fracture network develops, and then how intermittent fluid transport is controlled by the dynamics of opening and closing of fractures. The gas escape dynamics exhibited three characteristic behaviors: (1) Quasiperiodic release of gas with a characteristic frequency that depends on the gas production rate but not on the system size. (2) A 1 /f power spectrum for the fluctuations in the total open fracture area over an intermediate range of frequencies (f ), which we attribute to collective effects caused by interaction between fractures in the drainage network. (3) A 1 /f2 power spectrum was observed at high frequencies, which can be explained by the characteristic behavior of single fractures.

  9. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  10. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  11. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  12. Insight into the process of product expulsion in cellobiohydrolase Cel6A from Trichoderma reesei by computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Houhou; Han, Fei; Guan, Shanshan; Qian, Mengdan; Wan, Yongfeng; Shan, Yaming; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Song

    2018-03-24

    Glycoside hydrolase cellulase family 6 from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) is an important cellobiohydrolase to hydrolyze cellooligosaccharide into cellobiose. The knowledge of enzymatic mechanisms is critical for improving the conversion efficiency of cellulose into ethanol or other chemicals. However, the process of product expulsion, a key component of enzymatic depolymerization, from TrCel6A has not yet been described in detail. Here, conventional molecular dynamics and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) were applied to study product expulsion from TrCel6A. Tyr103 may be a crucial residue in product expulsion given that it exhibits two different posthydrolytic conformations. In one conformation, Tyr103 rotates to open the -3 subsite. However, Tyr103 does not rotate in the other conformation. Three different routes for product expulsion were proposed on the basis of the two different conformations. The total energy barriers of the three routes were calculated through SMD simulations. The total energy barrier of product expulsion through Route 1, in which Tyr103 does not rotate, was 22.2 kcal·mol -1 . The total energy barriers of product expulsion through Routes 2 and 3, in which Tyr103 rotates to open the -3 subsite, were 10.3 and 14.4 kcal·mol -1 , respectively. Therefore, Routes 2 and 3 have lower energy barriers than Route 1, and Route 2 is the thermodynamically optimal route for product expulsion. Consequently, the rotation of Tyr103 may be crucial for product release from TrCel6A. Results of this work have potential applications in cellulase engineering.

  13. Comparative efficacy of tamsulosin versus tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Suresh Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Pandey, Himanshu; Chhabra, Mahaveer Kumar; Aggarwal, Satinder Pal; Bhat, Amilal

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones. This was a prospective study performed between December 2014 and February 2016. A total of 123 adult patients (>18 years of age) presenting with distal ureteric stones sized 6-10 mm were randomized to treatment with tamsulosin 0.4 mg once daily (Group A) or tadalafil10 mg once daily (Group B). Therapy was given for a maximum of 4 weeks. The stone expulsion rate was the primary endpoint. Time to stone expulsion, number of colic episodes, analgesic use, number of hospital visits for pain, endoscopic treatment, and adverse effects of the drugs were noted. Statistical analyses were done using Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test. A total of 61 patients were included in tamsulosin group and 62 patients in tadalafil group. A statistically insignificant difference was found for stone clearance rate between both groups as a whole (Group A-73.77%, Group B-69.35%, P = 0.690) as well as when we considered both subgroups (A1-78.05%, B1-75.0%, P = 0.802; A2-65.0%, B2-55.6%, P = 0.741). All the primary and secondary outcome measures were more in favour of stones ≤8 mm size than stones >8 mm size. No statistical difference was found for adverse drug effects except for retrograde ejaculation, which was significantly high in tamsulosin group ( P tamsulosin is more effective for stone clearance than tadalafil, but this difference was not significant ( P = 0.690).

  14. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-04-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, 2 h and 12 h after lambing. The results were compared among and within treatment groups. They indicate that the physiological increase in peripheral PGFM levels starts two days before lambing and that the level peaks at lambing. The normal decrease after parturition is emphasized by NSAI injections as detected 1 h and 2 h posttreatment (p NSAI drug is short-acting as revealed by the lower PGFM levels in twice-treated animals 2 h after birth compared to once treated animals and the similar low levels in all three groups 12 h after birth. The fetal membranes were expelled normally in all treated and nontreated animals, but the time needed for placental expulsion in ewes injected with two doses of NSAI was longer than in controls (p < 0.05). A negative correlation (p < 0.05) was found between plasma PGFM levels measured two hours after lambing and the time needed for fetal membrane expulsion. PgF2 alpha appears to have a role in placental release in the ewe.

  15. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    OpenAIRE

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-01-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, ...

  16. A comparison of nifedipine and tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy for the management of lower ureteral stones without ESWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dehong; Yang, Lu; Liu, Liangren; Yuan, Haichao; Qian, Shenqiang; Lv, Xiao; Han, Pin; Wei, Qiang

    2014-06-11

    Administration of nifedipine or tamsulosin has been suggested to augment stone expulsion rates. We aimed to compare the stone expulsion rates and adverse effects associated with the use of nifedipine or tamsulosin as medical expulsive therapy (MET) for the management of lower ureteral stones (LUS) without extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) via a literature review and meta-analysis. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases. Finally, a total of 7 RCTs with 3897 patients were included. Our meta-analysis showed that tamsulosin could significantly increase the stone expulsion rate relative to nifedipine in patients with LUS (random-effects model; risk ratio [RR] = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.88; P < 0.00001). The subgroup analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between the drugs with regard to minor or major adverse effects (fixed-effect model; RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.91-1.54, P = 0.20; and RR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.22-11.82, P = 0.63, respectively). This meta-analysis demonstrated that tamsulosin was more effective than nifedipine in patients with LUS, as evidenced by the higher stone expulsion rate. Tamsulosin treatment should therefore be considered for patients with LUS.

  17. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  18. Inducer expulsion in Streptococcus pyogenes: properties and mechanism of the efflux reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrina, S.L.; Reizer, J.; Saier, M.H Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Expulsion of preaccumulated methyl-β-D-thiogalactoside-phosphate (TMG-P) from Streptococcus pyogenes is a two-step process comprising intracellular dephosphorylation of TMG-P followed by rapid efflux of the intracellularly formed free galactoside. The present study identifies the mechanism and the order and characterizes the temperature dependency of the efflux step. Unidirectional efflux of the intracellularly formed [ 14 C]TMG was only slightly affected when measured in the presence of unlabeled TMG (25 to 400 mM) in the extracellular medium. In contrast, pronounced inhibition of net efflux was observed in the presence of relatively low concentrations (1 to 16 mM) of extracellular [ 14 C]TMG. Since net efflux was nearly arrested when the external concentration of [ 14 C]TMG approached the intracellular concentration of this sugar, we propose that a facilitated diffusion mechanism is responsible for efflux and equilibration of TMG between the intracellular and extracellular milieus. The exit reaction was markedly dependent upon temperature, exhibited a high energy of activation (23 kcal [ca. 96 kJ] per mol), and followed first-order kinetics, indicating that the permease mediating this efflux was not saturated under the conditions of expulsion employed

  19. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  20. Saskia Sassen, Expulsions. Brutalités et complexité dans l’économie globale

    OpenAIRE

    Lecadet, Clara

    2018-01-01

    Avec cet ouvrage, la sociologue américaine Saskia Sassen donne à la notion d’expulsion, généralement employée pour désigner les renvois d’étrangers en situation irrégulière ou les expulsions locatives, une portée générique. Les expulsions ont un sens à la fois politique, économique, social et écologique, constitutif d’une « limite systémique » (p. 281). L’auteure situe dans les années 1980 la phase de transition entre un modèle de type keynésien, qui avait permis l’essor à la fois de l’État-p...

  1. Essure insert expulsion after 3-month hysterosalpingogram confirmation of bilateral tubal occlusion and bilateral correct placement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amy L; Lewis, Rae M; Sloan, Anita Lee

    2013-01-01

    Essure hysteroscopic sterilization is an effective permanent contraception option for women, with a 99.83% effectiveness rate. To date, more than 600,000 Essure procedures have been performed worldwide. This case report describes bilateral Essure insert placement, after which the left insert was subsequently expelled after hysterosalpingogram (HSG)-confirmed correct bilateral insert placement and bilateral tubal occlusion. Although insert expulsion has been reported before a 3-month post-procedure HSG, this is the first published report of expulsion after a confirmatory 3-month post-procedure HSG. Because there now exists documentation of Essure insert expulsion after a 3-month confirmatory HSG, physicians and patients should be informed of this rare occurrence. Further investigation into the causes of such an event is warranted. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  3. Giant seafloor craters formed by hydrate-controlled large-scale methane expulsion from the Arctic seafloor after ice sheet retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, K.; Hubbard, A.; Patton, H.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Winsborrow, M.; Plaza-Faverola, A. A.; Serov, P.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale methane releases from thawing Arctic gas hydrates is a major concern, yet the processes and fluxes involved remain elusive. We present geophysical data indicating two contrasting processes of natural methane emissions from the seafloor of the northern Barents Sea, Polar North Atlantic. Abundant gas flares, acoustically imaged in the water column reveal slow, gradual release of methane bubbles, a process that is commonly documented from nearby areas, elsewhere in the Arctic and along continental margins worldwide. Conversely, giant craters across the study area indicate a very different process. We propose that these are blow-out craters, formed through large-scale, abrupt methane expulsion induced when gas hydrates destabilized after the Barents Sea Ice Sheet retreated from the area. The data reveal over 100 giant seafloor craters within an area of 440 km2. These are up to 1000 m in diameter, 30 m deep and with a semi-circular to elliptical shape. We also identified numerous large seafloor mounds, which we infer to have formed by the expansion of gas hydrate accumulations within the shallow subsurface, so-called gas hydrate pingos. These are up to 1100 m wide and 20 m high. Smaller craters and mounds < 200 m wide and with varying relief are abundant across the study site. The empirical observations and analyses are combined with numerical modelling of ice sheet, isostatic and gas hydrate evolution and indicate that during glaciation, natural gas migrating from underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs was stored as subglacial gas hydrates. On ice sheet retreat, methane from these hydrate reservoirs and underlying free gas built up and abruptly released, forming the giant mounds and craters observed in the study area today. Petroleum basins are abundant beneath formerly and presently glaciated regions. We infer that episodes of subglacial sequestration of gas hydrates and underlying free gas and subsequent abrupt expulsions were common and widespread throughout

  4. Comparison of three most frequently used alpha blocker agents in medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral calculi, result of a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Buğra Sentürk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we compared the effects of three agents frequently used in daily life for medical expulsive therapy. Materials and methods: A total of 143 patients meeting the criteria were included in the study. Patients were divided into three homogeneous drug groups which were tamsulosin group (n:48, alfuzosin group (n:47 and silodosin group (n:48. The time of stone expulsion, analgesic needs, side effects of the medicine and endoscopic intervention needs of the patients were recorded. Results: The rate of stone expulsion was 70.8% (n:34 in tamsulosin group, 70.2% (n:33 in alfuzosin group, and 75% (n:36 in silodosin group. No significant difference was observed among the rates of stone expulsion in three groups, and the rates of stone expulsion were similar (p = 0.778. The duration of stone expulsion was significantly different in the groups (p = 0.012: the time of stone expulsion for tamsulosin was 2.33 ± 0.78 days longer than for Silodosin, indicating a significant difference. There was no significant difference between tamsulosin-alfuzosin and silodosin-alfuzosin (respectively p = 0.147, p = 0.925. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that medical expulsive therapy by using alpha blocker agents is safe and efficacious. This option must be kept in mind for patients who do not ask for surgery as the first-step treatment for eligible patients.

  5. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  6. La migration des hydrocarbures dans les bassins sédimentaires: aspects géologiques et géochimiques Migration of Hydrocarbons in Sedimentary Basins: Geological and Geochemical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B. P.

    2006-11-01

    expulsion from the source rock where it was formed (primary migration, has long remained one of the least well understood problems in all petroleum geology. The displacement of oil and gas occurs in a separate hydrocarbon phase. Water, which is often considered as the vehicle for oil during migration, effectively plays a negative role. Water saturation must have been sufficiently diminished (by expulsion and hydrocarbon saturation must be sufficiently increased (by generation from kerogen for the flow of a hydrocarbon phase to become possible. The driving force for this expulsion is the pressure gradient. A rise in pressure in the pore volume of source rocks results from three causes (the sedimentary load, the formation of hydrocarbons, and the thermal expansion of water. Microfracturing, which occurs when the internal pressure of fluids exceeds the mechanical strength of the rock, may play an important role. Observations of well documented cases in sedimentary basins are still too rare. In particular, it is difficult to compute the reserves mobilized on the scale of a permit or basin. The numerical modeling of migration combined with that of the formation of oil and gas opens up perspectives in this direction, but it still requires further work. Among the consequences of migration, mention can be made of the possibility of oil/source-rock correlation, the lower content of heavy products in reservoirs than in source rocks, and the role often played by a displacement in which liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons form a single phase that migrates while progressively leaving the heavier fractions behind it, by retrograde condensation.

  7. Sushruta in 600 B.C. introduced extraocular expulsion of lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. Quench pressure, thermal expulsion, and normal zone propagation in internally cooled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    When a nonrecovering normal zone appears in an internally cooled superconductor, the pressure in the conductor rises, helium is expelled from its ends, and the normal zone grows in size. This paper presents a model of these processes that allows calculation of the pressure, the expulsion velocity, and the propagation velocity with simple formulas. The model is intended to apply to conductors such as the cable-in-conduit conductor of the Westinghouse LCT (WH-LCT) coil, the helium volumes of which have very large length-to-diameter ratios (3 /times/ 10 5 ). The predictions of the model agree with the rather limited data available from propagation experiments carried out on the WH-LCT coil. 3 refs., 1 fig

  9. Immune expulsion of Trichuris muris from resistant mice: suppression by irradiation and restoration by transfer of lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Selby, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Lethal irradiation (850 rads of x rays) of mice made resistant to Trichuris muris markedly depressed their ability to expel a challenge infection. Expulsion was restored within 7 to 10 days when MLNC from uninfected mice were transferred on the day of infection, but no significant restoration was evident after transfer of immune serum. Transfer of Bm alone had no restorative effect within 10 days and no synergism was seen when both BM and MLNC were transferred. MLNC from uninfected donors did not restore challenge expulsion when transfer was delayed until day 7 and the mice were killed 3 days later, although MLNC from resistant donors were effective within this time. When irradiated mice were given BM and the challenge infection allowed to continue for 15 days expulsion was restored, as it was when challenge was delayed for 7 days after BM transfer in thymectomized mice. The results confirm that expulsion of T. muris involves both antibody-mediated and lymphoid cell-mediated phases and offer no evidence for the involvement of other cell types. (author)

  10. Preschool Teachers' Responses to Challenging Behavior: The Role of Organizational Climate in Referrals and Expulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shauna; Smith-Bonahue, Tina; Kemple, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behavior in preschool can lead to harmful outcomes for some children. While interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing or eliminating challenging behavior, evidence suggests that young children with challenging behavior are under-identified for services, increasing their risk for expulsion from early childhood programs.…

  11. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  12. Children in Crisis: Special Education Status and Other Stressors in the Lives of Children Removed from School by Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Cady, Cynthia; Hock, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study examines what occurred in the lives of kindergarten through twelfth-grade students who were expelled from school in order to understand possible stressors in their lives. Data were obtained on expulsion cases from a variety of school districts in one midwestern state. The sample (N = 91) consisted of the total…

  13. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  14. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  15. Cross of Lorraine and Cross of Caravaca: new IUD's with low expulsion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, E M; Mascarenhas, M J

    1985-01-01

    The Cross of Caravaca and Cross of Lorraine IUDs with double horizontal bar design were developed in an attempt to reduce expulsion and removal rates for pain and bleeding encountered with other IUDs. The devices were manufactured in radio-opaque plastic bearing copper wire or sleeves on the top arm. The Cross of Lorraine has the upper arm shorter than the lower arm whereas in the Cross of Caravaca the shorter is the lower arm. 748 women had insertion of the Cross of Caravaca and 412 had insertion of the Cross of Lorraine. For the Cross of Caravaca 486 women completed 1 year of use, 392 completed 2 years and 310 completed 3 years. For the Cross of Lorraine, 268 women completed the 1st year, 205 the 2nd, and 150 women completed 3 years of use. The combined number of observed months of use for the 2 devices at the end of 3 years was 24,963. Accidental pregnancy rates at the end of 3 years were 1.13% for Caravaca and 3.48% for Lorraine. Expulsion rates at the end of 3 years were nil for the Cross of Lorraine and 1.16% for the Cross of Caravaca. Pain and bleeding were the most common causes of termination for medical reasons, bleeding accounting for termination in 1.66% of Lorraine users at the end of 3 years of use and 2.75% of Caravaca users. Pain accounted for termination in 3.14% of Caravaca users and 2.02% of Lorraine users. Incidence of infection was 0.42% and nil for Caravaca and Lorraine users respectively. Total discontinuation rates at the end of 3 years were 25.39% for Caravaca and 16.67% for Lorraine.

  16. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  17. Modelling the petroleum generation and migration of the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaowen; He, Sheng; Liu, Keyu; Shi, Zhongsheng; Bachir, Sani

    2011-01-01

    The mudstones in the third member of the Shahejie Formation (Es3) are the primary source rocks in the Banqiao Depression of Bohai Bay Basin. They are rich in organic matter with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content up to 3.5%. The sandstones in the Es3 member are the deepest proven hydrocarbon reservoir rocks with measured porosity and permeability values ranging from 3.6% to 32.4% and from 0.01 md to 3283.7 md, respectively. One, two and three-dimensional basin modelling studies were performed to analyse the petroleum generation and migration history of the Es3 member in the Banqiao Depression based on the reconstruction of the burial, thermal and maturity history in order to evaluate the remaining potential of this petroleum province. The modelling results are calibrated with measured vitrinite reflectance ( R o), borehole temperatures and some drilling results of 63 wells in the study area. Calibration of the model with thermal maturity and borehole temperature data indicates that the present-day heat flow in the Banqiao Depression varies from 59.8 mW/m 2 to 61.7 mW/m 2 and the paleo-heat flow increased from 65 Ma to 50.4 Ma, reached a peak heat-flow values of approximately 75 mW/m 2 at 50.4 Ma and then decreased exponentially from 50.4 Ma to present-day. The source rocks of the Es3 member are presently in a stage of oil and condensate generation with maturity from 0.5% to 1.8% R o and had maturity from 0.5% to 1.25% R o at the end of the Dongying Formation (Ed) deposition (26 Ma). Oil generation (0.5% R o) in the Es3 member began from about 37 Ma to 34 Ma and the peak hydrocarbon generation (1.0% R o) occurred approximately from 30 Ma to 15 Ma. The modelled hydrocarbon expulsion evolution suggested that the timing of hydrocarbon expulsion from the Es3 member source rocks began from 31 Ma to 10 Ma with the peak hydrocarbon expulsion shortly after 26 Ma. Secondary petroleum migration pathways in the Es3 member of the Banqiao Depression are modelled based on the

  18. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  20. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  1. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  2. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  3. Achievement of high diode sensitivity via spin torque-induced resonant expulsion in vortex magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunegi, Sumito; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Kubota, Hitoshi

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the spin-torque diode effect in a magnetic tunnel junction with FeB free layer. Vortex-core expulsion was observed near the boundary between vortex and uniform states. A high diode voltage of 24 mV was obtained with alternative input power of 0.3 µW, corresponding to huge diode sensitivity of 80,000 mV/mW. In the expulsion region, a broad peak in the high frequency region was observed, which is attributed to the weak excitation of uniform magnetization by thermal noise. The high diode sensitivity is of great importance for device applications such as telecommunications, radar detectors, and high-speed magnetic-field sensors.

  4. Uptake and expulsion of sup 14 C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A. (Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of {sup 14}C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The {sup 14}C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as {sup 14}C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as {sup 14}C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author).

  5. Uptake and expulsion of 14C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of 14 C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The 14 C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as 14 C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as 14 C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author)

  6. One-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow Modeling Toward Interpreting Motor Slag Expulsion Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum oxide slag accumulation and expulsion was previously shown to be a player in various solid rocket motor phenomena, including the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) pressure perturbation, or "blip," and phantom moment. In the latter case, such un ]commanded side accelerations near the end of burn have also been identified in several other motor systems. However, efforts to estimate the mass expelled during a given event have come up short. Either bulk calculations are performed without enough physics present, or multiphase, multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic analyses are performed that give a snapshot in time and space but do not always aid in grasping the general principle. One ]dimensional, two ]phase compressible flow calculations yield an analytical result for nozzle flow under certain assumptions. This can be carried further to relate the bulk motor parameters of pressure, thrust, and mass flow rate under the different exhaust conditions driven by the addition of condensed phase mass flow. An unknown parameter is correlated to airflow testing with water injection where mass flow rates and pressure are known. Comparison is also made to full ]scale static test motor data where thrust and pressure changes are known and similar behavior is shown. The end goal is to be able to include the accumulation and flow of slag in internal ballistics predictions. This will allow better prediction of the tailoff when much slag is ejected and of mass retained versus time, believed to be a contributor to the widely-observed "flight knockdown" parameter.

  7. Anomalous water expulsion from carbon-based rods at high humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, Satish K.; Lao, David B.; Heldebrant, David J.; Liu, Jian; Olszta, Matthew J.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Whyatt, Greg; Clayton, Chris; Gotthold, David W.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2016-09-01

    Three water adsorption-desorption mechanisms are common in inorganic materials: chemisorption, which can lead to the modification of the first coordination sphere; simple adsorption, which is reversible; and condensation, which is irreversible. Regardless of the sorption mechanism, all known materials exhibit an isotherm in which the quantity of water adsorbed increases with an increase in relative humidity. Here, we show that carbon-based rods can adsorb water at low humidity and spontaneously expel about half of the adsorbed water when the relative humidity exceeds a 50-80% threshold. The water expulsion is reversible, and is attributed to the interfacial forces between the confined rod surfaces. At wide rod spacings, a monolayer of water can form on the surface of the carbon-based rods, which subsequently leads to condensation in the confined space between adjacent rods. As the relative humidity increases, adjacent rods (confining surfaces) in the bundles are drawn closer together via capillary forces. At high relative humidity, and once the size of the confining surfaces has decreased to a critical length, a surface-induced evaporation phenomenon known as solvent cavitation occurs and water that had condensed inside the confined area is released as a vapour.

  8. The Expulsion of South Africa and Rhodesia from the Commonwealth Medical Association, 1947–70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    2017-01-01

    In 1970 the medical associations of South Africa and Rhodesia (now, Zimbabwe) were expelled from the Commonwealth Medical Association. The latter had been set up, as the British Medical Commonwealth Medical Conference, in the late 1940s by the British Medical Association (BMA). These expulsions, and the events leading up to them, are the central focus of this article. The BMA’s original intention was to establish an organisation bringing together the medical associations of the constituent parts of the expanding Commonwealth. Among the new body’s preoccupations was the relationship between the medical profession and the state in the associations’ respective countries. It thus has to be seen as primarily a medico-political organisation rather than one concerned with medicine per se. Although, there were also tensions from the outset regarding the membership of the Southern African medical associations. Such stresses notwithstanding, these two organisations remained in the BMA-sponsored body even after South Africa and Rhodesia had left the Commonwealth. This was not, however, a situation which could outlast the growing number of African associations which joined in the wake of decolonisation; and hardening attitudes towards apartheid. The article therefore considers: why the BMA set up this Commonwealth body in the first place and what it hoped to achieve; the history of the problems associated with South African and Rhodesian membership; and how their associations came to be expelled. PMID:28901869

  9. The Expulsion of South Africa and Rhodesia from the Commonwealth Medical Association, 1947-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    2017-10-01

    In 1970 the medical associations of South Africa and Rhodesia (now, Zimbabwe) were expelled from the Commonwealth Medical Association. The latter had been set up, as the British Medical Commonwealth Medical Conference, in the late 1940s by the British Medical Association (BMA). These expulsions, and the events leading up to them, are the central focus of this article. The BMA's original intention was to establish an organisation bringing together the medical associations of the constituent parts of the expanding Commonwealth. Among the new body's preoccupations was the relationship between the medical profession and the state in the associations' respective countries. It thus has to be seen as primarily a medico-political organisation rather than one concerned with medicine per se. Although, there were also tensions from the outset regarding the membership of the Southern African medical associations. Such stresses notwithstanding, these two organisations remained in the BMA-sponsored body even after South Africa and Rhodesia had left the Commonwealth. This was not, however, a situation which could outlast the growing number of African associations which joined in the wake of decolonisation; and hardening attitudes towards apartheid. The article therefore considers: why the BMA set up this Commonwealth body in the first place and what it hoped to achieve; the history of the problems associated with South African and Rhodesian membership; and how their associations came to be expelled.

  10. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  11. Single-Cell Biomolecular Analysis of Coral Algal Symbionts Reveals Opposing Metabolic Responses to Heat Stress and Expulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina Petrou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of corals in nutrient poor environments is largely attributed to the symbiosis between the cnidarian host and its intracellular alga. Warm water anomalies have been shown to destabilize this symbiosis, yet detailed analysis of the effect of temperature and expulsion on cell-specific carbon and nutrient allocation in the symbiont is limited. Here, we exposed colonies of the hard coral Acropora millepora to heat stress and using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy measured the biomolecular profiles of individual in hospite and expelled symbiont cells at an acute state of bleaching. Our results showed symbiont metabolic profiles to be remarkably distinct with heat stress and expulsion, where the two effectors elicited opposing metabolic adjustments independent of treatment or cell type. Elevated temperature resulted in biomolecular changes reflecting cellular stress, with relative increases in free amino acids and phosphorylation of molecules and a concomitant decline in protein content, suggesting protein modification and degradation. This contrasted with the metabolic profiles of expelled symbionts, which showed relative decreases in free amino acids and phosphorylated molecules, but increases in proteins and lipids, suggesting expulsion lessens the overall effect of heat stress on the metabolic signature of the algal symbionts. Interestingly, the combined effects of expulsion and thermal stress were additive, reducing the overall shifts in all biomolecules, with the notable exception of the significant accumulation of lipids and saturated fatty acids. This first use of a single-cell metabolomics approach on the coral symbiosis provides novel insight into coral bleaching and emphasizes the importance of a single-cell approach to demark the cell-to-cell variability in the physiology of coral cellular populations.

  12. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glambek, Mats; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large.

  13. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large. PMID:25475094

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Alfuzosin as Medical Expulsive Therapy for Ureteral Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenli Liu

    Full Text Available Alfuzosin has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis, and is claimed to be a selective agent for the lower urinary tract with low incidence of adverse side-effects and hypotensive changes. Recently, several randomized controlled trials have reported using Alfuzosin as an expulsive therapy of ureteral stones. Tamsulosin, another alpha blocker, has also been used as an agent for the expulsive therapy for ureteral stones. It is unclear whether alfuzosin has similar efficacy as Tamsulosin in the management of ureteral stones.To perform a systematic review and analysis of literatures comparing Alfuzosin with Tamsulosin or standard conservative therapy for the treatment of ureteral stones less than 10 mm in diameter.A systematic literature review was performed in December 2014 using Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases to identify relevant studies. All randomized and controlled trials were included. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing Alfuzosin with control therapy on the management of distal ureteral stones.Alfuzosin provided a significantly higher stone-free rate than the control treatments (RR: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.55; p<0.001, and a shorter stone expulsion time (Weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.20 d, 95%CI, -6.19 to -2.21; p<0.001, but it has a higher complication rate (RR: 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15; p<0.01. When Alfuzosin was compared to Tamsulosin, there was no significant difference in terms of stone-free rate (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79-1.02; p = 0.09 as well as the stone expulsion time (WMD: 0.52 d, 95%CI, -1.61 to 2.64; p = 0.63. The adverse effects of Alfuzosin were similar to those of Tamsulosin (RR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61-1.26; p = 0.47.Alfuzosin is a safe and effective agent for the expulsive therapy of ureteral stones smaller than 10 mm in size. It is more effective than therapeutic regiment without alpha blocker. It is equivalent to Tamsulosin in its effectiveness and

  16. Application of fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Marshallsea, S.; Tingate, P.; Laslett, G.M.; Hegarty, K.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature range over which fission tracks in apatite show observable annealing effects coincides with that responsible for the maximum generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Work is currently in progress in a number of Australian and overseas sedimentary basins, applying Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) to investigate the thermal evolution of these hydrocarbon prospective regions

  17. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  18. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  19. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  20. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  1. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin in Medical Expulsive Therapy for Distal Ureteral Stones with Renal Colic: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhangqun; Zeng, Guohua; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaochun; Li, Hong; Li, Weibing; Wu, Zhong; Chen, Lingwu; Chen, Xingfa; Liu, Xiankui; Deng, Yaoliang; Pan, Tiejun; Xing, Jinchun; Wang, Shusheng; Cheng, Yue; Gu, Xiaojian; Gao, Wenxi; Yang, Jianggen; Zhang, Yonghai; Mi, Qiwu; Qi, Lin; Li, Jiongming; Hu, Weilie; Liang, Peiyu; Sun, Zhaolin; Xu, Changbao; Long, Yongfu; Liao, Yongbin; Liu, Siping; Liu, Guoqing; Xu, Xun; He, Wei; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xu, Hua

    2017-11-12

    Recent large high-quality trials have questioned the clinical effectiveness of medical expulsive therapy using tamsulosin for ureteral stones. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for distal ureteral stones compared with placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3296 patients with distal ureteral stones, across 30 centers, to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) into tamsulosin (0.4mg) or placebo groups for 4 wk. The primary end point of analysis was the overall stone expulsion rate, defined as stone expulsion, confirmed by negative findings on computed tomography, over a 28-d surveillance period. Secondary end points included time to stone expulsion, use of analgesics, and incidence of adverse events. Among 3450 patients randomized between September 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013, 3296 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Tamsulosin benefits from a higher stone expulsion rate than the placebo (86% vs 79%; ptamsulosin for the treatment of large distal ureteral stones (>5mm). Considering the secondary end points, tamsulosin-treated patients reported a shorter time to expulsion (ptamsulosin use benefits distal ureteral stones in facilitating stone passage and relieving renal colic. Subgroup analyses find that tamsulosin provides a superior expulsion rate for stones >5mm, but no effect for stones ≤5mm. In this report, we looked at the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin for the treatment of distal ureteral stones. We find that tamsulosin significantly facilitates the passage of distal ureteral stones and relieves renal colic. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  4. Rule-based programming and strategies for automated generation of detailed kinetic models for gas phase combustion of polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules; Programmation par regles et strategies pour la generation automatique de mecanismes de combustion d'hydrocarbures polycycliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanescu, L.

    2004-06-15

    The primary objective of this thesis is to explore the approach of using rule-based systems and strategies, for a complex problem of chemical kinetic: the automated generation of reaction mechanisms. The chemical reactions are naturally expressed as conditional rewriting rules. The control of the chemical reactions chaining is easy to describe using a strategies language, such as the one of the ELAN system, developed in the Protheo team. The thesis presents the basic concepts of the chemical kinetics, the chemical and computational problems related to the conception and validation of a reaction mechanism, and gives a general structure for the generator of reaction mechanisms called GasEI. Our research focuses on the primary mechanism generator. We give solutions for encoding the chemical species, the reactions and their chaining, and we present the prototype developed in ELAN. The representation of the chemical species uses the notion of molecular graphs, encoded by a term structure called GasEI terms. The chemical reactions are expressed by rewriting rules on molecular graphs, encoded by a set of conditional rewriting rules on GasEI terms. The strategies language of the ELAN system is used to express the reactions chaining in the primary mechanism generator. This approach is illustrated by coding ten generic reactions of the oxidizing pyrolysis. Qualitative chemical validations of the prototype show that our approach gives, for acyclic molecules, the same results as the existing mechanism generators, and for polycyclic molecules produces original results.

  5. Rule-based programming and strategies for automated generation of detailed kinetic models for gas phase combustion of polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules; Programmation par regles et strategies pour la generation automatique de mecanismes de combustion d'hydrocarbures polycycliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanescu, L

    2004-06-15

    The primary objective of this thesis is to explore the approach of using rule-based systems and strategies, for a complex problem of chemical kinetic: the automated generation of reaction mechanisms. The chemical reactions are naturally expressed as conditional rewriting rules. The control of the chemical reactions chaining is easy to describe using a strategies language, such as the one of the ELAN system, developed in the Protheo team. The thesis presents the basic concepts of the chemical kinetics, the chemical and computational problems related to the conception and validation of a reaction mechanism, and gives a general structure for the generator of reaction mechanisms called GasEI. Our research focuses on the primary mechanism generator. We give solutions for encoding the chemical species, the reactions and their chaining, and we present the prototype developed in ELAN. The representation of the chemical species uses the notion of molecular graphs, encoded by a term structure called GasEI terms. The chemical reactions are expressed by rewriting rules on molecular graphs, encoded by a set of conditional rewriting rules on GasEI terms. The strategies language of the ELAN system is used to express the reactions chaining in the primary mechanism generator. This approach is illustrated by coding ten generic reactions of the oxidizing pyrolysis. Qualitative chemical validations of the prototype show that our approach gives, for acyclic molecules, the same results as the existing mechanism generators, and for polycyclic molecules produces original results.

  6. The Use of Medical Expulsive Therapy During Pregnancy: A Worldwide Perspective Among Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Granville L; Lim, Amy; Hamoui, Nabeel; Nakada, Stephen Y; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2016-03-01

    Medical expulsive therapy (MET) is a pharmacologic approach thought to augment the spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi. The usage of MET pharmacologics for presumed ureteral calculi during pregnancy has not been studied and their safety and utility are unknown. We sought to characterize the worldwide usage of MET in the setting of pregnancy with presumed ureteral calculus (P-MET), as well as factors associated with physician use. Experts in stone management were specifically sought. A nine-question survey was delivered through society-administered e-mail. Questions gathered physician's worldwide region, degree of specialization in stone disease, practice type, interval since training, and willingness to use both MET and P-MET. We assessed drugs of choice in those using P-MET and reasons for avoidance in non-P-MET users. Finally, we assessed the impact of physician-perceived medicolegal risk on usage of P-MET. Five hundred sixty-five responses were recorded. Sixty-three percent were US-based practitioners and the remaining represented a worldwide distribution. Worldwide usage of MET was 97.6%, and tamsulosin was globally preferred by over 90% of urologists. P-MET was endorsed by only 44.3%. 23.6% of European practitioners used this strategy compared with 51.1% of US physicians. Time from training and practice type did not significantly interact with adoption of P-MET; experts were less likely to use P-MET. Physician nonuse of MET during pregnancy was adverse outcome related: 76.7% reported either the fear of legal risk (52.8%) or concerns about safety (23.9%). Respondents report impressive worldwide adoption of MET. P-MET is less trusted, and fears of legal risk and safety far outweigh questions about effectiveness. The effectiveness of drugs during pregnancy-induced ureteral dilation is unknown. Still, 44% of global respondents embrace usage of this drug strategy despite a paucity of evidence supporting either safety or effectiveness during pregnancy.

  7. Use of medical expulsive therapy in children: An assessment of nationwide practice patterns and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S.; Merguerian, Paul A.; Fu, Benjamin C.; Holt, Sarah K.; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Gore, John L.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2018-01-01

    Summary Introduction Early data support the use of medical expulsive therapy (MET) in children. However, little is known regarding use or outcomes associated with MET outside of pediatric-specific practices. Using a national administrative dataset, we sought to characterize utilization patterns of MET as well as assess outcomes associated with MET exposure. Study design We interrogated the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database to identify children under the age of 18 presenting to the emergency department (ED) with any diagnosis of upper urinary tract calculi (UUTC, including renal and ureteral calculi). MET exposure was defined as having a prescription filled for a MET agent within 1 week of the ED encounter. Characteristics of children receiving MET were defined and outcomes compared between children with and without MET exposure. Results Of 1325 children included in the study, 13.2% received MET, including 15.4% of children with a diagnosis of “calculus of the ureter.” MET use increased significantly throughout the study period (p = 0.004), although only 30.4% of children considered potential MET candidates received MET in the final year of the study (2013). Among all patients, receipt of MET was associated with male gender, presence of comorbidity, provider-type (urologist), and year of diagnosis, although among those with a specific diagnosis of “calculus of the ureter,” only year of diagnosis remained a significant factor. Rates of unplanned physician visits and surgical interventions were similar between groups. Children receiving MET were more likely to receive follow-up imaging, although only 46% of children with ureteral calculi had appropriate follow-up imaging within 90 days, regardless of MET exposure. Odds ratios of factors and outcomes associated with MET exposure are shown in the Table. Discussion Although early data support safety and efficacy MET in children, nationwide use in children is low among potential candidates for

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  9. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram

    2013-11-01

    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  11. Performance estimation of ejector cycles using heavier hydrocarbon refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Jacek; Gil, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. with thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbons was prepared. Investigation was focused on nine hydrocarbons: propane, butane, iso-butane, pentane, iso-pentane, hexane, heptane and octane. A series of calculations was carried out for the generator temperature between 70 and 200 °C, with assumed temperatures of evaporation 10 °C and condensation 40 °C. Calculation results show that none of the hydrocarbons enables high efficiency of a cycle in a wide range of temperature. Each hydrocarbon has its own maximal entrainment ratio at its individual temperature of optimum. Temperatures of entrainment ratios optimum increase according to the hydrocarbon heaviness with simultaneous increase of entrainment ratio peak values. Peak values of the COP do not increase according to the hydrocarbons heaviness. The highest COP = 0.32 is achieved for iso-butane at 102 °C and the COP = 0.28 for pentane at 165 °C. Heptane and octane can be ignored. - Highlights: • Advantages of use of higher hydrocarbons as ejector refrigerants were presumed. • Computer software basing on theoretical model of Huang et al. (1999) was prepared. • Optimal temperature range of vapor generation for each hydrocarbon was calculated

  12. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kumaresan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred cows with mummified fetus were utilized for the study. The cows weresubjected togynecologicalexamination and based on the findings the cases were diagnosed asmummified fetus. The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 μg cloprostenoland were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and othersigns related to fetal expulsion. The time duration between treatment and starting of cervicaldilatation ranged from 48 to 58h (53.00 ± 2.08 hr. Complete dilatation of cervix was observedafter 70.00 ± 2.94 hr post treatment (Range = 64-76 hr. The mean fetalcrown-rump length(CRL was 31.5 cm, which ranged from 27.5 to 38 cm. The number of cotyledons in pregnanthorn also showed wide variation (Range 24-38 numbers with mean ± SE of 30.3 ± 3.07numbers. In the placenta of three animals irregular shaped large adventitious cotyledons wereobserved in the inter-cotyledonary areas. Out of the four animals treated, three animals wereconceived within three estrous cycles and one animal had cystic ovary in the next cycle and wasnot conceived even after four cycles. It was concluded that the estradiolandprostaglandin F2α(PGF2αcombinationtherapy was effective for expulsion of mummified fetus in crossbred cowswithout affecting much on future fertility.

  14. Impaction and Prediction: Does Ureteral Wall Thickness Affect the Success of Medical Expulsive Therapy in Pediatric Ureteral Stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerxun, Aierken; Batuer, Abudukahaer; Erturhan, Sakip; Eryildirim, Bilal; Camur, Emre; Sarica, Kemal

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of ureteral wall thickness (UWT) and stone-related parameters for medical expulsive therapy (MET) success with an alpha blocker in pediatric upper ureteral stones. A total of 35 children receiving MET ureteral stones (Hounsfield unit), degree of hydronephrosis, and UWT were evaluated with patient demographics and recorded. The possible predictive value of these parameters in success rates and time to stone expulsion were evaluated in a comparative manner between the 2 groups. The overall mean patient age and stone size values were 5.40 ± 0.51 years and 6.24 ± 0.28 mm, respectively. Regarding the predictive values of these parameters for the success of MET, while stone size and UWT were found to be highly predictive for MET success, patients age, body mass index, stone density, and degree of hydronephrosis had no predictive value on this aspect. Our findings indicated that some stone and anatomical factors may be used to predict the success of MET in pediatric ureteral stones in an effective manner. With this approach, unnecessary use of these drugs that may cause a delay in removing the stone will be avoided, and the possible adverse effects of obstruction as well as stone-related clinical symptoms could be minimized. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Technical Evaluation Summary of the In Situ Vitrification Melt Expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, was prepared at the request of the Department of Energy as a supporting reference document for the Final Unusual Occurrence Report to fully explore the probable causes that lead to the subject incident. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the technical information on the performance of the in situ vitrification treatability study operations at ORNL pit 1 up to and including the time of the melt expulsion incident. This document also attempts to diagnose the causes of the melt expulsion event the consequent damages to equipment the radiological impacts of the event, and the equipment design modifications and procedural changes necessary for future safe ISV operations

  16. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  17. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  18. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  19. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  20. Role of alpha-1 blocker in expulsion of stone fragments after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, A.J.; Anwar, A.; Javed, A.; Memon, I.; Mohammad, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Renal stone disease is a significant and worldwide health problem. Recent advances in stone management have allowed kidney stones to be treated using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), uretero-renoscopy (URS), and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL). Recently, medical expulsion therapy (MET) has been investigated as a supplement to observation in an effort to improve spontaneous stone passage rates. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, prospective study to determine whether the administration of Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists as an adjunctive medical therapy, increases the efficacy of ESWL to treat renal stones. Sixty patients with renal stones of 0.5-1.5 Cm in size (average size 1.2 Cm) were included in this study underwent ESWL followed by administration of Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor antagonists at department of Urology Liaquat National Hospital Karachi from Feb 2008 to Sept 2008. This was a comparative study and patients were divided into two groups. In group A patients received conventional treatment Diclofenac sodium, Anti Spasmodic (Drotaverine HCl) as required and Proton Pump inhibitor (Omeprazole 20 mg) once daily after shock wave lithotripsy. In group B patients received alpha-1 blocker, Alfuzosin HCl 5 mg twice daily in addition to conventional treatment. All patients were instructed to drink a minimum of 2 litres water daily. Ultrasound guided Dornier Alpha Impact Lithotripter was utilised for shock wave lithotripsy. Results: Of the 60 patients, 76.7% of those receiving Alfuzosin and 46.7% of controls had achieved clinical success at 1 month (p=0.01). The mean cumulative diclofenac dose was 485 mg per patient in the Alfuzosin group and 768 mg per patient in the control group (p=0.002). This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Alfuzosin therapy as an adjunctive medical therapy after ESWL is more effective than lithotripsy alone for the treatment of patients with large renal

  1. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  2. Radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbon production in platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, E.; Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Generation of volatile hydrocarbons (ethane, pentane) as a measure of lipid peroxidation was followed in preparations from platelet-rich plasma irradiated in vitro. The hydrocarbons in the headspace of sealed vials containing irradiated and nonirradiated washed platelets, platelet-rich plasma, or platelet-poor plasma increased with time. The major hydrocarbon, pentane, increased linearly and significantly with increasing log radiation dose, suggesting that reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation result in lipid peroxidation. Measurements of lipid peroxidation products may give an indication of suboptimal quality of stored and/or irradiated platelets

  3. MIGRATION AND CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS IN MAZATLAN. SINCE ARRIVING IN MID- NINETEENTH CENTURY UNTIL THEIR EXPULSION IN 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arturo Román Alarcón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the retail trade, which was the domain of national merchants. The commercial importance of the Chinese was one of the causes of the hostility of Mexican traders, which coupled with the counter-arguments raised by the Labor Law, Health Code, the culmination of the Treaty with China and the effects of the 1929 crisis, served as sustenance for their expulsion in 1932.

  4. The counterfeit nephew of the Pope. A plot against the Bishop of Puebla during the expulsion of the Jesuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Torres Puga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1767, an ex-Jesuit and an Italian adventurer met in the Episcopal jail in Puebla. The grievances of the former, a staunch critic of Bishop Francisco Fabián y Fuero, found a means of expression in the illusions of the latter, who pretended to be the Pope’s nephew. The result was a strange plan that took on a “seditious” character as it combined with the gossip surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits. This article uses a variety of legal documents and secret investigations to reconstruct this history of lies, intrigue and the desire for critical expression, providing an opportunity to reflect on the dissent of the American clergy during a time in which royalty and censorship were being redefined.

  5. Seabed fluid expulsion along the upper slope and outer shelf of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Ruppel, C.; Kluesner, J.W.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, J.D.; Hill, J.C.; Andrews, B.D.; Flores, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the spatial distribution of seabed fluid expulsion features is crucial for understanding the substrate plumbing system of any continental margin. A 1100 km stretch of the U.S. Atlantic margin contains more than 5000 pockmarks at water depths of 120 m (shelf edge) to 700 m (upper slope), mostly updip of the contemporary gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). Advanced attribute analyses of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data reveal gas-charged sediment and probable fluid chimneys beneath pockmark fields. A series of enhanced reflectors, inferred to represent hydrate-bearing sediments, occur within the GHSZ. Differential sediment loading at the shelf edge and warming-induced gas hydrate dissociation along the upper slope are the proposed mechanisms that led to transient changes in substrate pore fluid overpressure, vertical fluid/gas migration, and pockmark formation.

  6. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  7. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  8. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  9. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  10. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  11. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  12. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  13. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  14. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  15. Indications of Hydrocarbons in the Tjörnes Basin, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Detrick, R.; Helgadóttir, G.; Kjartansson, E.; Gunnarsson, K.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Tjörnes basin, located within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) was initiated during the Miocene (7-9 Ma), following an eastward jump of the spreading axis in N-Iceland. The roughly 150 km long (EW) and 50 km wide (NS) basin has since accumulated a 0.5-4 km thick sedimentary sequence within three extensional grabens, Eyjafjardaráll, Skjálfandadjúp and Öxarfjördur. The transtensional Húsavík-Flatey fault defines the southern margin of the basin. The hangingwalls within the westernmost and deepest graben (Eyjafjardaráll) are transected by series of synthetic and antithetic listric faults. These structures are affiliated with a crustal-scale, listric east- to north-easterly dipping master fault which soles out in the lower crust, at about 7500 m depth. Near shore sediments are exposed on the Tjörnes peninsula, at the eastern margin of the central graben, where a basal unit of Tertiary lava flows, up to 10 Ma old is overlain by 500 m thick Miocene-Pliocene sediments (Tjörnes Beds). Several lignite layers are present within this predominantly marine succession. Multichannel Seismic data show that the Tjörnes Beds extend westwards into the Skjálfandi Bay. In 1989, gas emissions of thermogenic hydrocarbons were detected during a core-drilling in the easternmost basin, Öxarfjördur. Analyses of natural gas-emissions within the geothermal areas at Skógarlón and Skógar in Öxarfjördur also revealed hydrocarbons (methane-hexane) in high concentrations. These gasses probably originate from marine sediments and lignites similar to those found in the Tjörnes Beds. The Tjörnes Beds, as seen in the Tjörnes horst, are thermally immature with respect to petroleum generation. However, based on the tectonic history, this is probably a minimum-maturity indication as organic geochemical analysis and maturation simulations indicate that high geothermal gradient enhances the formation of dry and wet gasses and waxy oil. In 2001 a sidescan sonar imaging was

  16. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  17. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  18. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  19. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  20. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  1. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  2. The path to high Q-factors in superconducting accelerating cavities: Flux expulsion and surface resistance optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Martina

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  4. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  5. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  6. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  7. Complete Expulsion of Testicular Prosthesis via the Scrotum: A Case-Based Review of the Preventive Surgical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular prostheses are regularly used in urological surgery and are important for postoperative psychological well-being in many patients undergoing orchiectomy. One of the recognised complications of this procedure is graft extrusion, which can result in significant morbidity for patients and require operative reintervention. Whilst most cases of extrusion involve upward graft migration to the external inguinal ring or direct displacement through the scrotal skin, we present an unusual case of complete expulsion of testicular implant three weeks postoperatively through a previously healthy scrotum. During surgical insertion of testicular prostheses, the urological surgeon must carefully consider the different surgical strategies at each step of the operation to prevent future extrusion of the graft. A stepwise review of the preventive surgical strategies to reduce the risk of graft extrusion encompasses the choice of optimal surgical incision, the technique of dissection to create the receiving anatomical pouch, the method of fixation of the implant within the receiving hemiscrotum, and the adoption of good postoperative care measures in line with the principles of sound scrotal surgery.

  8. Gas expulsions and biological activity recorded offshore Molene Island, Brittany (France): video supervised recording of OBS data and analogue modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Géli, L.; Dellong, D.; Evangelia, B.; Tary, J. B.; Bayrakci, G.; Lantéri, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Chen, Y. F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) commonly record signals from Short Duration Events (SDEs), having characteristics that are very different from those produced by tectonic earthquakes, e.g.: durations Brittany within the field of view of the EMSO-Molene underwater observatory, at a water depth of 12 m. The camera images and the recordings reveal the presence of crabs, octopus and several species of fish. Other acoustic signals can be related to the presence of moving algae or the influence from bad weather. Tides produce characteristic curves in the noise recorded on the geophones. SDEs have been recorded on both instruments, that may well have been caused by gas expulsions from the seabed into the water. In order to verify this hypothesis, an aquarium was filled with water overlying an even grain-sized quartz sand layer. A constant air supply through a narrow tube produced gas bubbles in a regular manner and an immersed ocean bottom geophone recorded the resulting acoustic signals. The bubbles tend to have a uniform size and to produce a waveform very close to those found on the OBSs. By comparing the number of SDEs and the volume of escaped air, estimates can be made regarding the volume of gas escaping the seafloor in different environments.

  9. Technical evaluation of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 p.m., approximately 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (approximately 1600 degrees C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci of 137 Cs) at a field site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The melt expulsion was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than by the desired path around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification (ISV) to convert it from porous, leachable soil into a monolithic, impermeable vitreous waste form. Approximately 2 MW of electrical power was being delivered to the molten body, which was contained in the ground and covered with a stainless steel hood maintained under negative pressure to collect, filter, scrub, and monitor off-gas. Off-gas into the hood was rapidly heated by the melt expulsion from a typical operating temperature of 250 degrees C to over 1000 degrees C with an associated surge of pressure sufficient to lift the 15,000-lb hood approximately 12 in. off the ground. A small pool of molten glass was able to flow up to 3 ft outside the hood while it was raised off the ground. The escaping hot off-gas and molten glass ignited several small fires in combustible components near or attached to the external hood frame (e.g, wire insulation, plastic hose, fiberglass trays). Fire department personnel responded to the emergency notification within minutes but were not needed because the small fires self-extinguished within an hour. Four project personnel were performing tasks at the site at the time of the melt expulsion; none were injured or contaminated during the melt expulsion incident. Air samples taken from the hood perimeter near the small fires failed to detect any airborne contamination

  10. Left ventricle function in patients with ischemic cardiopathy: determination of the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle with gated-SPECT. Experience in the CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, L.; Puente, A.; Hernandez, T.; Jimenez, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to correlate the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle (FEVI) obtained by means of g-SPECT and other diagnostic methods: ECO 2D and ventriculography for heart catheterization (CTT). (Author)

  11. When to stop pushing: effects of duration of second-stage expulsion efforts on maternal and neonatal outcomes in nulliparous women with epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ray, Camille; Audibert, François; Goffinet, François; Fraser, William

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the duration of active second-stage labor on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Secondary analysis of the Pushing Early Or Pushing Late with Epidural trial that included 1862 nulliparous women with epidural analgesia who were in the second stage of labor. According to duration of active second-stage labor, we estimated the proportion of spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) with a newborn infant without signs of asphyxia (5-minute Apgar score > or =7 and arterial pH >7.10). We also analyzed maternal and neonatal outcomes according to the duration of expulsive efforts. Relative to the first hour of expulsive efforts, the chances of a SVD of a newborn infant without signs of asphyxia decreased significantly every hour (1- to 2-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.6; 2- to 3-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.09-0.2; >3-hour adjusted odds ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.05). The risk of postpartum hemorrhage and intrapartum fever increased significantly after 2 hours of pushing. Faced with a decreasing probability of SVD and increased maternal risk of morbidity after 2 hours, we raise the question as to whether expulsive efforts should be continued after this time.

  12. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  13. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  14. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  15. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  16. Terapia Expulsiva Medicamentosa na Litíase Ureteral: Revisão de Literatura/ Medicamental Expulsive Therapy in Ureteral Lithiasis: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Maeda Missima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A terapia expulsiva medicamentosa na litíase ureteral tem ganhado importante espaço na prática clínica, visto que é um método não invasivo e de grande eficácia. Como se trata de uma afecção comum, de alta incidência e custo, a terapia expulsiva possibilita um manejo clínico menos dispendioso e invasivo, quando comparada a procedimentos intervencionistas. Há consenso na literatura que a terapia expulsiva medicamentosa é efetiva e deve ser utilizada em cálculos com cerca de 5 milímetros de diâmetro, visto que as drogas utilizadas aumentam a taxa e diminuem o tempo de expulsão, além de diminuir a dor e o número de internações. O tamanho e localização do cálculo são de extrema relevância para que se possa considerar o manejo conservador. As drogas que obtém as melhores taxas expulsivas são os bloqueadores dos receptores alfa-adrenérgicos e os bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio. Analgésicos também são utilizados para o alívio da dor e o uso de corticoides ainda é questionado. Medicamental expulsive therapy for ureteral stones has gained important place in clinical practice, because it is a noninvasive and highly effective method. As it is a common disorder with high incidence and cost, expulsive therapy provides a less costly and invasive clinical management when compared to interventional procedures. There is a consensus that the medicamental expulsive therapy is effective and should be used in calculations with about 5 millimeters in diameter, since the drugs used increase rate and decrease the time of expulsion, in addition to reducing the pain and the number of hospitalizations. The size and location of the calculi are very important for it to be considered conservative management. The drugs that get the best expulsive rates are alpha - adrenergic receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers. Analgesics are also used for pain relief and the use of corticosteroids is still questioned.

  17. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  18. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  19. Controls on methane expulsion during melting of natural gas hydrate systems. Topic area 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemings, Peter [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-14

    1.1. Project Goal The project goal is to predict, given characteristic climate-induced temperature change scenarios, the conditions under which gas will be expelled from existing accumulations of gas hydrate into the shallow ocean or directly to the atmosphere. When those conditions are met, the fraction of the gas accumulation that escapes and the rate of escape shall be quantified. The predictions shall be applicable in Arctic regions and in gas hydrate systems at the up dip limit of the stability zone on continental margins. The behavior shall be explored in response to two warming scenarios: longer term change due to sea level rise (e.g. 20 thousand years) and shorter term due to atmospheric warming by anthropogenic forcing (decadal time scale). 1.2. Project Objectives During the first budget period, the objectives are to review and categorize the stability state of existing well-studied hydrate reservoirs, develop conceptual and numerical models of the melting process, and to design and conduct laboratory experiments that dissociate methane hydrate in a model sediment column by systematically controlling the temperature profile along the column. The final objective of the first budget period shall be to validate the models against the experiments. In the second budget period, the objectives are to develop a model of gas flow into sediment in which hydrate is thermodynamically stable, and conduct laboratory experiments of this process to validate the model. The developed models shall be used to quantify the rate and volume of gas that escapes from dissociating hydrate accumulations. In addition, specific scaled simulations characteristic of Arctic regions and regions near the stability limit at continental margins shall be performed. 1.3. Project Background and Rationale The central hypothesis proposed is that hydrate melting (dissociation) due to climate change generates free gas that can, under certain conditions, propagate through the gas hydrate stability

  20. Structures of BmrR-Drug Complexes Reveal a Rigid Multidrug Binding Pocket And Transcription Activation Through Tyrosine Expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, K.J.; Huffman, J.L.; Miller, M.C.; Vazquez-Laslop, N.; Neyfakh, A.A.; Brennan, R.G.

    2009-05-22

    BmrR is a member of the MerR family and a multidrug binding transcription factor that up-regulates the expression of the bmr multidrug efflux transporter gene in response to myriad lipophilic cationic compounds. The structural mechanism by which BmrR binds these chemically and structurally different drugs and subsequently activates transcription is poorly understood. Here, we describe the crystal structures of BmrR bound to rhodamine 6G (R6G) or berberine (Ber) and cognate DNA. These structures reveal each drug stacks against multiple aromatic residues with their positive charges most proximal to the carboxylate group of Glu-253 and that, unlike other multidrug binding pockets, that of BmrR is rigid. Substitution of Glu-253 with either alanine (E253A) or glutamine (E253Q) results in unpredictable binding affinities for R6G, Ber, and tetraphenylphosphonium. Moreover, these drug binding studies reveal that the negative charge of Glu-253 is not important for high affinity binding to Ber and tetraphenylphosphonium but plays a more significant, but unpredictable, role in R6G binding. In vitro transcription data show that E253A and E253Q are constitutively active, and structures of the drug-free E253A-DNA and E253Q-DNA complexes support a transcription activation mechanism requiring the expulsion of Tyr-152 from the multidrug binding pocket. In sum, these data delineate the mechanism by which BmrR binds lipophilic, monovalent cationic compounds and suggest the importance of the redundant negative electrostatic nature of this rigid drug binding pocket that can be used to discriminate against molecules that are not substrates of the Bmr multidrug efflux pump.

  1. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  2. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  3. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  4. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  5. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  7. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  9. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  10. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  11. Thermal stability of hydrocarbons in nature: Limits, evidence, characteristics, and possible controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    thermal cracking when such patterns may be due to other causes. In the first case, laboratory experiments strongly suggest that the presence of water, increasing fluid pressures, and closed systems (product retention) all suppress OM metamorphic reactions. Conversely, the absence of water, low fluid pressures, and open systems (product escape) all promote OM metamorphic reactions. These experiments also demonstrate that OM metamorphic reactions proceed by reaction kinetics greater than first order. Thus, the effect of geologic time appears to have been over-estimated in OM metamorphism. In the second case, the strong decreases in C15+ HC concentrations in fine-grained rocks with Type III OM over R0 = 0.9-1.35% are most probably due to intense primary migration and loss of HCs to drilling muds during the trip uphole in drilling operations. Data from coals demonstrate that these decreases in HC concentrations cannot be due to C15+ HC thermal destruction. Oil deposits are generally found at shallow depths in basins, and "dry gas" (methane ??? 98% of all HC gases) deposits are found at the greatest depths. This HC distribution pattern would be caused by methane, generated during the late stages of C15+ HC generation, flushing oil (including C2-C4 HC gases condensed into the liquid phase) out of deep basinal traps by Gussow's (1954) principle of differential entrapment. Hence, only "dry gas" deposits are left in the basin deeps. Oil emplacement processes in traps during expulsion and secondary migration could also contribute to the HC distribution pattern observed in petroleum basins. ?? 1993.

  12. Apparatus for utilizing liquid hydrocarbons such as shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorset, M

    1868-02-29

    The hydrocarbon liquids such as petroleum, shale oil, naphtha, cresol, coal tar, or other mineral, animal or vegetable oil are placed in a heater or special generator analogous to ordinary generators for vapors and to which the name vaporizer has been given in the description. This vaporizer is furnished with all kinds of safety devices, such as valves, manometer, float indicating the level, standard stopcock, etc., and is heated by the combustion of the vapors produced by it.

  13. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  15. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  16. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  17. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  20. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  1. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  2. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Kumar, T.; Dayal, A.M.; Sudarshan, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable...

  3. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  4. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  5. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  6. Evaluation des bassins par modélisation intégrée en deux dimensions des transferts techniques, de l'écoulement des fluides, de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures Basin Evaluation by Integrated Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, Hydrocarbon Generation, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenet P. Y.

    2006-11-01

    transfer, compaction and water flow, hydrocarbon generation, and two-phase migration of fluids. The model reproduces the influence of conductivity variations and of transient heat transfer on paleotemperatures. Quantitative verification of the paleotemperature reconstruction and of the kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation may be obtained from present temperatures and geochemical data. Compaction-driven flows and overpressures are described by coupling a compaction law with Darcy's law for water flow and a criterion for natural hydraulic fracturing. This formulation allows modeling of overpressures in young deltalic sequences (e. g. , the Mahakam delta, Indonesia as well as in old rift basins (e. g. , the North Sea. An adapted two-phase Darcy's law reproduces primary and secondary migration. In particular, the model helps investigate the role of overpressures and fault behavior on hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. Our results confirm that basin models contribute to the synthesis of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data consistently. By defining parameters for petroleum evaluations, these models increase exploration efficiency.

  7. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  8. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  10. Temperature-dependent kinetics of charge transfer, hydrogen-atom transfer, and hydrogen-atom expulsion in the reaction of CO+ with CH4 and CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Johnson, Ryan S; Shuman, Nicholas S; Guo, Hua; Viggiano, Albert A

    2014-09-18

    We have determined the rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of CO(+) with CH4 and CD4 in a variable-temperature selected ion flow tube. We find that the rate constants are collisional for all temperatures measured (193-700 K for CH4 and 193-500 K for CD4). For the CH4 reaction, three product channels are identified, which include charge transfer (CH4(+) + CO), H-atom transfer (HCO(+) + CH3), and H-atom expulsion (CH3CO(+) + H). H-atom transfer is slightly preferred to charge transfer at low temperature, with the charge-transfer product increasing in contribution as the temperature is increased (H-atom expulsion is a minor product for all temperatures). Analogous products are identified for the CD4 reaction. Density functional calculations on the CO(+) + CH4 reaction were also conducted, revealing that the relative temperature dependences of the charge-transfer and H-atom transfer pathways are consistent with an initial charge transfer followed by proton transfer.

  11. Expulsion d’etrangers et Convention européenne des droits de l’homme Le risque de mauvais traitements dans l’Etat de destinatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens hasnever been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as aState party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdictionto a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidatingthe sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court ofStrasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant aswell as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  13. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  14. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  15. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  16. Frequency–amplitude range of hydrocarbon microtremors and a discussion on their source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerivani, H; Hafezi Moghaddas, N; Ghafoori, M; Lashkaripour, G R; Haghshenas, E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, some studies have suggested using ambient noise as a tool for hydrocarbon reservoir investigation. This new passive seismic technique, named HyMas, is based on the positive energy anomaly in data spectra between 1 to 6 Hz for microtremor measurements over reservoirs, which are called hydrocarbon microtremors. Despite the acceptable results obtained by the HyMas technique, there are many unknowns, especially concerning the source and generation mechanism of hydrocarbon microtremors and the relations between reservoir characteristics and the attributes of hydrocarbon microtremors. In this study we tried to find the relations between reservoir characteristics, including fluid content and depth, for 12 sites around the world with hydrocarbon microtremor attributes, including peak amplitude and frequency. Based on the power spectral density curves of these 12 reservoirs, a frequency–amplitude range is also proposed as a criterion for separating hydrocarbon microtremors from local noise not related to reservoirs. Finally, the source of the hydrocarbon microtremors is discussed and tidal displacement is suggested as a probable agent for the generation of these anomalies. (paper)

  17. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  18. Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlumani Ndlovu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-13 driven Th2 immunity is indispensable for host protection against infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostronglus brasiliensis. Disruption of CD28 mediated costimulation impairs development of adequate Th2 immunity, showing an importance for CD28 during the initiation of an immune response against this pathogen. In this study, we used global CD28⁻/⁻ mice and a recently established mouse model that allows for inducible deletion of the cd28 gene by oral administration of tamoxifen (CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻+TM to resolve the controversy surrounding the requirement of CD28 costimulation for recall of protective memory responses against pathogenic infections. Following primary infection with N. brasiliensis, CD28⁻/⁻ mice had delayed expulsion of adult worms in the small intestine compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice that cleared the infection by day 9 post-infection. Delayed expulsion was associated with reduced production of IL-13 and reduced serum levels of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE. Interestingly, abrogation of CD28 costimulation in CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice by oral administration of tamoxifen prior to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in impaired worm expulsion, similarly to infected CD28⁻/⁻ mice. This was associated with reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, diminished serum titres of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE and a reduced CXCR5⁺ T(FH cell population. Furthermore, total number of CD4⁺ T cells and B220⁺ B cells secreting Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly reduced in CD28⁻/⁻ mice and tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, interfering with CD28 costimulatory signalling before re-infection impaired the recruitment and/or expansion of central and effector memory CD4⁺ T cells and follicular B cells to the draining lymph node of tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that CD28

  19. Hydrocarbon occurrence in NW Africa's MSGBC area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond, A.; Negroni, P.

    1989-06-01

    The MSGBC (Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Conakry) coastal basin has evolved as a passive margin from Jurassic time up to the present following a period of poorly known rifting of Permian to Middle Jurassic age. Structural configuration of the Paleozoic series is documented by large outcrops and a good number of seismic sections. Based on previous exploration efforts that found significant hydrocarbon shows, a comprehensive study of this African basin's source rocks, maturation evolution and petroleum generation potential was undertaken. About 1,000 geochemical analyses of the Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series identified good source rocks in the Cenomano-Turonian, Silurian, Senonian and Paleocene ages. The parameters used to identify and characterize source rock are: Total organic carbon content (TOC) in percent and source potential (in kg HC/t), representing the amount of hydrocarbon generated per ton of rock and determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.

  20. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  1. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  2. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  3. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  4. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  5. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  6. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  7. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  9. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  10. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  11. Dynamics of a bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent atomic scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.X.; Zhang, Z.D.; Liu, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a family of exact solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation which describes the dynamics of a bright soliton in Bose-Einstein condensates with the time-dependent interatomic interaction in an expulsive parabolic potential. Our results show that, under a safe range of parameters, the bright soliton can be compressed into very high local matter densities by increasing the absolute value of the atomic scattering length, which can provide an experimental tool for investigating the range of validity of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We also find that the number of atoms in the bright soliton keeps dynamic stability: a time-periodic atomic exchange is formed between the bright soliton and the background

  12. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  15. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  16. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  17. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  18. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  19. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Li, Anyin; Soparawalla, Santosh; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  1. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  3. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  4. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  5. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  6. Hydrocarbons prospecting using an integrated approach of petrography, geochemistry and modeling of organic matter transformation. Analysis and reconstitution of the thermal history of the central carboniferous basins of Asturias (Spain) and of the Sabinas - Piedras Negras basin (Coahuila, Mexico); Prospection des hydrocarbures par une approche integree de petrographie, geochimie et modelisation de la transformation de la matiere organique. Analyse et reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des Bassins Carbonifere Central des Asturies (Espagne) et Sabinas - Piedras Negras (Coahuila, Mexique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piedad-Sanchez, N.

    2004-09-01

    Solid knowledge of the transformation and evolution of organic matter during hydrocarbon generation in sedimentary basins serves to improve natural gas exploration. With this geological problem in mind, the thermal influence on organic matter was analyzed in two basins containing different characteristics (age, composition of organic matter, litho-stratigraphy, depth, thickness of the layers of rock, the maturation of organic matter, etc.) in order to understand the natural processes in generating oil and natural gas. With a view to studying this geological phenomenon, this work outlines the study of the chemical and macerals composition, the coal rank and geochemical characteristics of organic matter in these two sedimentary basins for the first time: The Asturian Central Carboniferous Basin (Spain) and Sabinas - Piedras Negras Basin (Mexico). Moreover, an approach to shed light on the thermal history and evolution of organic matter through 1D modeling in the two basins is developed. The Central Carboniferous Basin in Asturias is an important coal mining area where coal types range from bituminous carbons with high content in volatile matter to anthracite. The petrographical and geochemical study in this region has shown that at the moment of oil and gas exploration, the coals correspond to an efficient expulsion of oil and have been formed in an environment of swamp with a facies rich in vitrinite, low in sulfur and ash and varying in mineral content. As regards the paleo-environmental reconstruction, the bio-markers suggest a swamp with a relatively high water table and a humid climate. The coal type, the vitrinite reflectance and the volatile matter content in the basin show a N-S trend which could be correlated to the paleo-temperatures calculated in this study. These data point to the influence of two thermal gradients in the region: A normal thermal gradient of long duration and an oblique thermal gradient of short duration due to a pluton. The evolution of

  7. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  8. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  9. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  10. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  11. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  12. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  13. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  14. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  15. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  16. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  17. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  18. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  19. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  20. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  1. Diagenetic variation at the lamina scale in lacustrine organic-rich shales: Implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Cao, Yingchang; Liu, Keyu; Jiang, Zaixing; Wu, Jing; Hao, Fang

    2018-05-01

    transmission of diagenetic responses. The recrystallization boundaries between calcite laminae act as the main migration pathways for the expulsion of hydrocarbons from these carbonate-rich lacustrine shales. However, because the interaction between diagenetic fluids and the shales themselves is limited to the scale of individual lamina, this system is normally closed. The occurrence of abnormal pressure fractures can open the diagenetic system, however, and cause interactions to occur throughout laminae; in particular, the closed-open (C-O) diagenetic process at this scale is critical to this shale interval. Multi-scale C-O systems are ubiquitous and episodic ranging from the scale of laminae to the whole basin. Observations show that such small-scale systems are often superimposed onto larger ones to constitute the complex diagenetic system seen within the BBB combining fluid transport, material and energy exchange, and solid-liquid and organic-inorganic interactions.

  2. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  3. Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

    1999-02-01

    Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

  4. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  6. Technical evaluation summary of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 PM, about 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (1600 C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci 137 Cs) at an ORNL site. This was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification to convert porous, leachable soil into an impermeable waste form. Analyses revealed that 0.13 μCi of 137 Cs could have been released and would have delivered a hypothetical, unmeasurable dose of 0.02 μrem to the nearest private residence outside the Oak Ridge Reservation. The expelled glass particles, having a uniform specific activity of 1.2E-08 Ci/g, contained no smearable or transferrable activity. Thus, the overall environmental impact was insignificant. Fire damage was completely limited to the off-gas hood. Techniques were identified to minimize the probability of future melt expulsions

  7. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  8. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  9. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  10. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  11. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  12. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  13. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  14. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  15. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche

    2000-07-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  16. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  17. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  18. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  19. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  20. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  1. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  2. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  3. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  4. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thalassografic Inst.); Magazzu, G. (Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology); Puglisi, A. (Mediterranean Oceanological Centre (CEOM), Palermo (Italy)); La Rosa, A. (Air-Survey, Italy s.r.l., Catania (Italy))

    1994-10-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  5. Monitoring of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in surface waters by a direct comparison of fluorescence spectroscopy and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Domenico, L.; Crisafi, E.; La Rosa, A.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution levels were estimated using simultaneous acquisition of data from remote sensing by helicopter and fluorescence spectroscopy on surface samples. Laboratory quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons was used to calibrate remotely sensed data. The data were treated using a computer to generate a colour-coded map not attainable with conventional methods representing seawater pollution. Results were in good agreement and indicated that remotely sensed data together with those achieved by fluorescence spectroscopy are applicable for monitoring hydrocarbon pollution. (author)

  6. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  7. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  8. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  9. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  10. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  11. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  12. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  13. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  14. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  15. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  16. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    the frozen part of the column. However these results were not statistically significant they could proof results from Chuvilin et al. (2001). Who found similar results in sandy and clayey material and presumed the expulsion of petroleum hydrocarbons. Barnes et al. (2004) specified that the exclusion of petroleum hydrocarbons due to freezing is caused by displacement from the pore spaces due to expansion of the ice and the forming of crystalline ice structure. Further experimental approaches to investigate the effect of freezing and thawing of permafrost influenced soils on PAH migration will be discussed. References: Barnes, D. L.; Wolfe, S. M. & Filler, D. M. (2004): Equilibrium distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in freezing ground, Polar Record, 40, 245-251. Börresen M.H., Barnes D.L., Rike A.G. (2007): Repeated freeze-thaw cycles and their effects on mineralization of hexadecane and phenanthrene in cold climate soils. Cold Regions Science and Technology 49, 215-225. Chuvilin, E.; Naletova, N.; Miklyaeva, E.; Kozlova, E. & Instanes, A. (2001): Factors affecting spreadability and transportation of oil in regions of frozen ground. Polar Record 37, 229-238. Curtosi, A.; Pelletier, E.; Vodopivez, C.L.; Mac Cormack, W.P. (2007): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and surface marine sediment near Jubany Station (Antarctica). Role of permafrost as a low-permeability barrier. Science of The Total Environment 383, 1-3, 193-204. Eschenbach, A.; Wienberg, R.; Mahro, B. (2000): Formation, long-term stability and fate of non-extractable 14C-PAH-residues in contaminated soils. In: Wise, D.L.; Trantolo, D.J.; Cichon, E.J.; Inyang, H.J.; Stottmeister, U. (eds): Remediation Engineering of Contaminated Soils, 2nd Edition; Marcel-Dekker, New York, p. 427-446.

  17. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Improved Detection and Mapping of Deepwater Hydrocarbon Seeps: Optimizing Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Marine Seep Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Orange, D.; Gharib, J. J.; Saade, E. J.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration due to recent advances in offshore geophysical and geochemical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and often difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Low to mid-frequency multibeam echosounders (MBES) are an ideal exploration tool to remotely locate and map seafloor features associated with seepage. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are evident in bathymetric datasets (fluid expulsion features), seafloor backscatter datasets (carbonate outcrops, gassy sediments, methane hydrate deposits), and midwater backscatter datasets (gas bubble and oil droplet plumes). Interpretation of these geophysical seep signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component in seep hunting. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a backscatter intensity normalization method and a 2X acquisition technique that can enhance the geologic resolvability within backscatter datasets and assist in interpretation and characterization of seeps. We use GC600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting survey. We analyze the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving geologic features in backscatter data, and determine off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes. GC600's location and robust venting make it a natural laboratory in which to study natural hydrocarbon seepage. The site has been the focus of several near-seafloor surveys as well as in-situ studies using advanced deepwater technologies analyzing fluid flux and composition. These datasets allow for ground-truthing of our remote backscatter measurements prior to commencing exploration within the frontier regions of the Southern Gulf of

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  20. Leaf swallowing and parasite expulsion in Khao Yai white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar), the first report in an Asian ape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Huffman, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Leaf swallowing behavior, known as a form of self-medication for the control of nematode and tapeworm infection, occurs widely in all the African great apes (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. verus, P. t. vellerosus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla graueri), except mountain gorillas. It is also reported to occur in a similar context across a wide array of other animal taxa including, domestic dogs, wolves, brown bears, and civets. Despite long-term research on Asian great and small apes, this is the first report of leaf swallowing in an Asian species, the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, central Thailand. We present the first evidence of leaf swallowing (Gironniera nervosa Planch CANNABACEA) behavior (N = 5 cases) and parasite (Streptopharagus pigmentatus) expulsion (N = 4 cases), recorded during 4,300 hr of direct animal observations during two distinct research projects. We recovered 4-18 rough, hairy, and hispid surfaced leaves from each sample, undigested and folded, from the freshly evacuated feces of five different individuals (2 males, 3 females, 5 to 34+ years old) living in three different social groups, between the hours of 06:00 to 10:30. Based on close inspection of the leaves, as observed in chimpanzees, it was clear that they were taken into the mouth, one at a time, folded and detached from the stem with the teeth before swallowing them whole. All instances occurred during the rainy season, the time when nematode worms were also found in the feces, although they were not found together with leaves in the same feces. These striking similarities in the details of leaf swallowing between white-handed gibbons and African great apes, and other animal species, suggest a similar self-medicative function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Using maya chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy or perineal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Quirós

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article is to present the results obtained from the development of a clinical question about using maya obstetric chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy and perineal tears. In traditional cultures, the women give birth naturally in vertical positions as kneeling, standing, among others. In Western societies, physicians have influenced women will deliver in the supine position, sometimes with legs raised using stirrups. For women of our country is difficult to adopt "alternative" positions that have traditionally been seen as 'normal'. The maya chair is used in the countries of South America, and it appears to be an effective way to prevent perineal tears and the lower incidence of episiotomy duringchildbirth. To carry out this secondary research methodology for clinical practice based on evidence that consists of five steps was used. A question was developed in PICO format (patient, intervention, comparison and observation, then an information search was performed in different databases like Ebsco Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline plus, Embase. 30 articles were found, were analyzed according to the criteria set FCL version 2.0, of which only one was close to answering the clinical question. Information was socialized in a formalpresentation by CIEBE-CR. It is conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the use of maya chair during theexpulsive phase of delivery significantly reduces the risk of perianal tear and lower incidence of episiotomy.

  2. 1996 good year for the Hydrocarbons sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of the sector in its group to the national development is decisive for a better economic behavior. That yes it is evident it is that, without petroleum, the economy would grow less, according to an analysis of what was the balance of 1996 and what it constitute the main projections for 1997. The activity exporter of Ecopetrol and of the associate companies it will make that the participation of the petroleum is not only the highest in the commercial current of the country, but rather it will contribute to that the scale of payments is less deficit. That of the hydrocarbons is one of the few sectors that in 1996 it was good in the country standing out the following activities: It revived the exploratory activity with the signature of 19 new association contracts and 5 in negotiation. The total number of associate companies and linked operators the country is of 65. The raw production, starting point for the generation of more revenues to the economy and the auto supply, reached significant figures with regard to 1995. It advanced substantially in the gas overcrowding with the construction of the necessary infrastructure for their execution and were discovered new reserves on the part of the associate companies. In refinement a wide program of modernization of the plants prosecution of petroleum is executed with the objective of to elevate its productivity and to guarantee a bigger supply of fuels. In transport the activities are guided to increase their capacity and the internal supply of fuels the same thing that the storage and readiness of exportable surpluses of raw and products

  3. Climate change opportunities in the hydrocarbon sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation described some of the innovative policy, market and technology approaches that are needed to move to a carbon constrained future. The world's primary power consumption is currently 12 trillion watts. Most of the energy (85 per cent) comes from fossil fuels. Climate Change Central (C3) was incorporated as a not-for-profit company in 2000. It includes representatives from major industry sectors, environmental associations, and all levels of government. C3 provides leadership in encouraging action on climate change and developing climate change partnerships and alliances. It also provides strategic intelligence in identifying climate change priorities and appropriate policy frameworks. It helps increase public awareness of the issue. While C3 is focused on reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), it stands neutral in the Kyoto Protocol debate and is working to define emission reduction priorities in partnership with all stakeholders. Priorities include energy efficiency/conservation; emission off-sets development; adaptation; technology and market innovation; and, socio-economic implications. The difficulty in reducing GHGs stems from the fact that carbon emissions, energy use, and economic growth are directly related. In a buoyant, hydrocarbon-based economy, economic growth has meant an increase in energy production, energy use and increased carbon emissions, even while emission intensity decreases significantly. The United States contributes 23 per cent of the world's total carbon emissions, of which 90 per cent comes from energy production and consumption. Many states have implemented policies to control carbon emissions. A range of policy approaches are also underway in Canada to set GHG emission targets, to support the development of GHG off-set and trading systems, and to promote renewable energy source development. Efforts are also underway to develop clean coal or zero emission coal technology, to promote distributed power generation, biofuels, and

  4. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    /operational safety barriers are considered. The initiating events are divided into five main categories; (1) human and operational errors, (2) technical failures, (3) process upsets, (4) external events, and (5) latent failures from design. The development of the hydrocarbon release scenarios has generated new knowledge about causal factors of hydrocarbon releases and safety barriers introduced to prevent the releases. Collectively, the release scenarios cover the most frequent initiating events and the most important safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases. BORA-Release is a new method for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the hydrocarbon release frequency on oil and gas platforms. BORA-Release combines use of barrier block diagrams/event trees, fault trees, and risk influence diagrams in order to analyse the risk of hydrocarbon release from a set of hydrocarbon release scenarios. Use of BORA-Release makes it possible to analyse the effect on the hydrocarbon release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases. Further, BORA-Release may be used to analyse the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors. Thus, BORA-Release may improve today's quantitative risk analyses on two weak points; i) analysis of causal factors of the initiating event hydrocarbon release (loss of containment), and ii) analysis of the effect on the risk of human and organisational factors. The main focus of this thesis is safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases on offshore oil and gas production platforms. Thus, the results are primarily useful for the oil and gas industry in their effort to control and reduce the risk of hydrocarbon releases. The Norwegian oil and gas industry can use the results in their work to fulfil the requirements to safety barriers and risk analyses from the Petroleum Safety Authority. However, the concepts

  5. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  6. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  7. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration determined in smoked fish samples deceased in terms of location according to the order Winneba > Madina > Chorkor > Ada.

  8. Active hydrocarbon (methane) seepage at the Alboran Sea mud volcanoes indicated by specific lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) and pockmark fields are known to occur in the Alboran Basin (Westernmost Mediterranean). These MVs occur above a major sedimentary depocenter that includes up to 7 km thick early Miocene to Holocene sequences. MVs located on the top of diapiric structures that originated from undercompacted Miocene clays and olistostromes. Here we provide results from geochemical data-analyses of four gravity cores acquired in the Northern Mud Volcano Field (north of the 36°N): i.e. Perejil, Kalinin and Schneiderś Heart mud expulsion structures. Extruded materials include different types of mud breccias. Specific lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, hopanes, irregular isoprenoid hydrocarbons and Dialkyl Glycerol Diethers (DGDs) were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Determination of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGTs) by high performance liquid chromatography-spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and analysis of biomarker δ13C values were performed in selected samples. Lipid biomarker analysis from the three MVs revealed similar n-alkane distributions in all mud breccia intervals, showing significant hydrocarbon-derived signals and the presence of thermally immature organic-matter admixture. This suggests that similar strata fed these MVs. The hemipelagic drapes reveal comparable n-alkane distributions, suggesting that significant upward diffusion of fluids occurs. Distributions of GDGTs are generally accepted as usefull biomarkers to locate the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments. However, our GDGT profiles only reflect the marine thaumarchaeotal signature. There seems to be no archaea producing specific GDGTs involved in AOM in the recovered interval. Evidence of recent activity (i.e., methane gas-bubbling and chemosynthetic fauna at the Perejil MV) and the presence of specific lipid biomarker related with methanotropic archaea (Irregular Isoprenoids and DGDs), however, suggest the existence of

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  10. Dynamics of hydrocarbon vents: Focus on primary porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Shedd, W.; Abichou, T.; Pineda-Garcia, O.; Silva, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of hydrocarbon release by monitoring activity of a single vent at a 1215m deep site in the Gulf of Mexico (GC600). An autonomous camera, deployed by the submersible ALVIN, was programmed to capture a close-up image every 4 seconds for approximately 3.5 hours. The images provided the ability to study the gas hydrate outcrop site (that measured 5.2x16.3cm3) in an undisturbed state. The outcrop included an array of 38 tube-like vents through which dark brown oil bubbles are released at a rate ranging from 8 bubbles per minute to 0 bubbles per minute. The average release of bubbles from all the separate vents was 59.5 bubbles per minute, equating the total volume released to 106.38cm per minute. The rate of bubble release decreased toward the end of the observation interval, which coincided approximately with the tidal minimum. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola, Desbruyères & Toulmond, 1998) were abundant at the vent site. The image sequence showed the ice-worms actively moving in and out of burrows in the mound. It has been speculated that Hesiocaeca methanicola contribute to gas hydrate decomposition by creating burrows and depressions in the gas hydrate matrix (Fisher et al, 2000). Ice worm burrows could generate pathways for the passage of oil and gas through the gas hydrate mound. Gas hydrates commonly occur along active and/or passive continental margins (Kennicutt et al, 1988a). The release of oil and gas at this particular hydrocarbon seep site is along a passive continental margin, and controlled primarily by active salt tectonics as opposed to the movement of continental tectonic plates (Salvador, 1987). We propose a descriptive model governing the release of gas and oil from deep sub-bottom reservoirs at depths of 3000-5000m (MacDonald, 1998), through consolidated and unconsolidated sediments, and finally through gas hydrate deposits at the sea floor. The oil and gas escape from the source rock and/or reservoir through

  11. Carbon structures formation in low current high voltage electrical discharge in hydrocarbon vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, A T; Jaworek, A

    2011-01-01

    The properties of carbon fibers and other carbon structures produced from hydrocarbon vapours decomposed in electrically generated plasma at atmospheric pressure are studied in this paper. The electrical discharge was generated between a stainless steel needle and a plate made of nickel alloy. The carbon fiber has grown at the tip of the needle electrode, while other microflower-like deposits were built at the plate. The physical properties of carbon fibers were investigated by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and EDS methods.

  12. Pre-Alleghenian (Pennsylvanian-Permian) hydrocarbon emplacement along Ordovician Knox unconformity, eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    Cores taken during exploration for Mississippi Valley-type lead and zinc ores in the Mascot-Jefferson City zinc district of eastern Tennessee commonly contain hydrocarbon residues in carbonate rocks of the Knox Group immediately below the Lower Ordovician Knox unconformity. The location and number of these residue-bearing strata reveal information about the Paleozoic history of hydrocarbon emplacement in the region. Contour maps, generated from nearly 800 holes covering more than 20 km/sup 2/, indicate that zones with elevated organic content in the uppermost 30 m of the Lower Ordovician Mascot Dolomite show a strong spatial correlation with Middle Ordovician paleotopographic highs. These same zones show no spatial association with present-day structural highs, which were formed during Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghenian tectonism. This suggests that the physical entrapment of hydrocarbons migrating through the upper permeable units of the Mascot must have occurred prior to the principal tectonism of the Alleghenian orogeny. 7 figures, 1 table.

  13. Reactions between 52100 steel and tricresyl phosphate neat and mixed with hydrocarbon oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzo, F.; Moore, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the results from a previous study which showed reactions between iron surfaces (52100 steel) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) dissolved in hydrocarbon oil are discussed in this paper. This study had shown that microscale oxidation of the hydrocarbon oil and preferential adsorption phenomena within the oil system components may result in a desirable phosphate type of coating. This phosphate is organic and it is converted into iron phosphate on argon ion sputtering. Also discussed in this paper are the results of a more recent work which shows the reactivity of neat TCP with an identical 52100 steel surface. The results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis indicate that neat TCP behaves quite differently from TCP diluted in hydrocarbon oil. The phosphate generated on the metal surface by neat TCP yields predominantly a phosphide when subjected to argon ion sputtering. (orig.)

  14. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  18. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  19. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  20. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  1. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  2. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  3. On energetics of hydrocarbon chemical reactions by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Yu.A.; Zaykina, R.F.; Mirkin, G.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present global energy crisis requires the industry to look for technologies that are more effective and, particularly, less energy consuming. The hydrocarbon processing technology based on the electron radiation-induced thermal chemical conversion has a great potential. Comparing the presently predominant thermocatalytic processing, it is much more energy efficient, because chemical conversions go at a minimal processing temperature and pressure. To compare energy consumption by electron irradiation with thermal and thermocatalytic technologies of hydrocarbon processing one must see major differences between them. While traditional thermocatalytic processes are equilibrium and their energetics can be evaluated based on principles of classic thermodynamics, HEET processing is non-equilibrium and this evaluation approach is not valid for it. However, a theoretical description of radiation-chemical conversion using reaction rate constants determined in thermally equilibrium systems is approximately adequate to radiation processes by substituting equilibrium concentrations of reacting particles as their non-equilibrium concentrations under irradiation. In particular, description of radical reactions initiated by radiation requires substitution of thermally equilibrium radical concentration by much higher concentration defined by the dynamic equilibrium of radical radiation generation and their recombination. The paper presents the comparative analysis of energy consumption in different stages of hydrocarbon processing using classic thermal cracking by heating versus radiation induced cracking. It is shown that in the most energy-consuming stage of processing - the chain reaction initiation necessary for concentration of active radicals, irradiation processing has the great advantage compared to thermal cracking by heating and allows cutting down the total energy consumption by approximately 40%

  4. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called intimacy criterion has dictated the maximum distance between the two types of site, beyond which catalytic activity decreases. A lack of synthesis and material-characterization methods with nanometre precision has long prevented in-depth exploration of the intimacy criterion, which has often been interpreted simply as ‘the closer the better’ for positioning metal and acid sites. Here we show for a bifunctional catalyst—comprising an intimate mixture of zeolite Y and alumina binder, and with platinum metal controllably deposited on either the zeolite or the binder—that closest proximity between metal and zeolite acid sites can be detrimental. Specifically, the selectivity when cracking large hydrocarbon feedstock molecules for high-quality diesel production is optimized with the catalyst that contains platinum on the binder, that is, with a nanoscale rather than closest intimacy of the metal and acid sites. Thus, cracking of the large and complex hydrocarbon molecules that are typically derived from alternative sources, such as gas-to-liquid technology, vegetable oil or algal oil, should benefit especially from bifunctional catalysts that avoid locating platinum on the zeolite (the traditionally assumed optimal location). More generally, we anticipate that the ability demonstrated here to spatially organize different active sites at the nanoscale will benefit the further development and optimization of the emerging generation of multifunctional catalysts.

  5. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  6. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  7. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  8. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  9. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  10. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  11. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  12. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  13. Effects of non-thermal plasmas and electric field on hydrocarbon/air flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Biswa

    2009-10-01

    Need to improve fuel efficiency, and reduce emission from hydrocarbon combustor in automotive and gas turbine engines have reinvigorated interest in reducing combustion instability of a lean flame. The heat generation rate in a binary reaction is HQ =N^2 c1c2 Q exp(-E/RT), where N is the density, c1 and c2 are mol fractions of the reactants, Q is the reaction heat release, E is the activation energy, R is the gas constant and T is the average temperature. For hydrocarbon-air reactions, the typical value of E/R ˜20, so most heat release reactions are confined to a thin reaction sheet at T >=1400 K. The lean flame burning condition is susceptible to combustion instability due to a critical balance between heat generation and heat loss rates, especially at high gas flow rate. Radical injection can increase flame speed by reducing the hydrocarbon oxidation reaction activation barrier and it can improve flame stability. Advances in nonequilibrium plasma generation at high pressure have prompted its application for energy efficient radical production to enhance hydrocarbon-air combustion. Dielectric barrier discharges and short pulse excited corona discharges have been used to enhance combustion stability. Direct electron impact dissociation of hydrocarbon and O2 produces radicals with lower fuel oxidation reaction activation barriers, initiating heat release reaction CnHm+O CnHm-1+ OH (and other similar sets of reactions with partially dissociated fuel) below the typical cross-over temperature. Also, N2 (A) produced in air discharge at a moderate E/n can dissociate O2 leading to oxidation of fuel at lower gas temperature. Low activation energy reactions are also possible by dissociation of hydrocarbon CnHm+e -> CnHm-2+H2+e, where a chain propagation reaction H2+ O OH+H can be initiated at lower gas temperature than possible under thermal equilibrium kinetics. Most of heat release comes from the reaction CO+OH-> CO2 +H, nonthermal OH production seem to improve

  14. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-05-15

    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion

  15. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  16. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles[1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H(sub 2) has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H(sub 2)[2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines[3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H(sub 2) from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H(sub 2) for large-scale manufacturing processes

  17. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  18. Final technical report for the Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (an EFRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-11-11

    Greater than 95% of all materials produced by the chemical industry are derived from a small slate of simple hydrocarbons that are derived primarily from natural gas and petroleum, predominantly through oxygenation, C–C bond formation, halogenation or amination. Yet, current technologies for hydrocarbon conversion are typically high temperature, multi-step processes that are energy and capital intensive and result in excessive emissions (including carbon dioxide). The Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (CCHF) brought together research teams with the broad coalition of skills and knowledge needed to make the fundamental advances in catalysis required for next-generation technologies to convert hydrocarbons (particularly light alkanes and methane) at high efficiency and low cost. Our new catalyst technologies offer many opportunities including enhanced utilization of natural gas in the transportation sector (via conversion to liquid fuels), more efficient generation of electricity from natural gas using direct methane fuel cells, reduced energy consumption and waste production for large petrochemical processes, and the preparation of high value molecules for use in biological/medical applications or the agricultural sector. The five year collaborative project accelerated fundamental understanding of catalyst design for the conversion of C–H bonds to functionalized products, essential to achieve the goals listed above, as evidenced by the publication of 134 manuscripts. Many of these fundamental advancements provide a foundation for potential commercialization, as evidenced by the submission of 11 patents from research support by the CCHF.

  19. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  20. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  1. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  2. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  3. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  4. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  5. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  6. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  7. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  8. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  10. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  11. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  12. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  13. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  15. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  16. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  17. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  18. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  19. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  20. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  1. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  2. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  3. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  4. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  5. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  6. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  7. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  8. Hydrocarbon oils from carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J

    1943-01-28

    Carbonaceous material is subjected to gradually increasing temperature in a retort and the gases and vapours are drawn off through four pipes according to their temperature and are passed respectively to a separate bubble tower or a fractionation column. The condensate and overhead from each bubble tower are refluxed in the bubble tower into which the gases and vapours of the next succeeding higher temperature are passed and the condensates and overheads from the bubble tower into which gases and vapours at the highest of the lower temperatures are passed are refluxed in the fractionation column. The waste products of combustion pass to a boiler for generating steam for the fractional plant.

  9. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  10. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  11. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  12. Hydrogen/hydrocarbon explosions in the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The consequences of H 2 /hydrocarbon detonations in the vacuum vessel (torus) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have been studied. The most likely scenario for such a detonation involves a water leak into the torus and a vent of the torus to atmosphere, permitting the formation of an explosive fuel-air mixture. The generation of fuel gases and possible sources of air or oxygen are reviewed, and the severity and effects of specific fuel-air mixture explosions are evaluated. Detonation or deflagration of an explosive mixture could result in pressures exceeding the maximum allowable torus pressure. Further studies to examine the design details and develop an event-tree study of events following a gas detonation are recommended

  13. X-ray excited optical luminescence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, G.J.

    1979-05-01

    X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) coupled with time resolved spectroscopy was employed to analyze polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in n-alkane solvents at 10 K. A pulsed XEOL system which was designed around minicomputer control of a medical x-ray unit was developed. Computer software which generated variable width x-ray pulses, monitored timing reference pulses, controlled data acquisition, and analyzed data was written. Phosphorescence decay constants of several PAHs were determined. Synthetic mixtures of zone refined PAHs were prepared and time resolved with the pulsed XEOL technique. Analytical results obtained from the five component mixtures of PAHs at the part per million level were tabulated. Systematic improvements and further development of the pulsed XEOL method were considered.

  14. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength

  15. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  16. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  17. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  18. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  19. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  20. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  1. Liquid hydrocarbons from coal beds – risk factor for the underground work environment - Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrocarbons from the coal bed and surrounding rocks, besides the stored gases, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide, generate the increase of the risk factor from the occupational health and safety point of view. If for reducing the gas concentrations level and the methane emissions in order to increase the safety in exploitation exist well-known solutions and methods, the oxidation or self-oxidation of the hydrocarbons from the coal bed generate a series of compounds, reaction products over maximum admitted concentrations which give birth to a toxic atmosphere and which is hazardous for workers, at the same time inducing an error in noting the occurrence of a spontaneous combustion phenomena, a major risk for the workers and for the mineral resource. This paper represents a case study performed in one underground mine unit from Jiu Valley and presents the analysis for underground environment factors monitoring and for solutions for diminishing the OHS risk factors.

  2. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  3. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satish Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane were used as surface indicators of petroleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1–C4 and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 = 518 ppb and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (ΣC2+ = 977 ppb were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from −22.5‰ to −30.2‰ PDB, −18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰–32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentrations were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area

  4. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  6. HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

    2006-08-15

    Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

  7. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  8. Desorption and bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the extent and pattern of contaminant biodegradation during bioremediation of four industrially-contaminated soils were examined to determine which factors control the ultimate extent of biodegradation and which limit the success of biological treatment. It was noted that although bioremediation is inexpensive and has low environmental impact, it often fails to completely remove the hydrocarbons in soils because of the complex interactions between contaminants, the soil environment, and the active microorganisms. In this study, the competency of the microorganisms in the soil to degrade the contaminants was examined. The equilibrium partitioning of the contaminants between the soil and the aqueous phase was also examined along with the transport of contaminants out of soil particles. The role of diffusion of compounds in the soil and the importance of direct contact between microorganisms and the hydrocarbons was determined. Methods for selecting suitable sites for biological treatment were also described

  9. Landfill leachate as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Malaysian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Geik, Kho Hiaw; Lee, Wong Yoon; Hayet, Razahidi

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemicals of environmental concern are those with known or potentially deleterious effects on natural resources and humans. These compounds are referred to as micro-organic pollutants. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most important classes of anthropogenic micro-organic pollutants that have long been the interest of environmental chemists. This concern arises primarily from the fact that a small fraction of the PAHs generated and released to environment has been ...

  10. Constitutive Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Keratinocytes Causes Inflammatory Skin Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchi, Masafumi; Hida, Azumi; Negishi, Takaaki; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Noda, Shuhei; Mimura, Junsei; Hosoya, Tomonori; Yanaka, Akinori; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been suggested to provoke inflammatory and/or allergic disorders, including asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. The molecular mechanisms of this PAH-mediated inflammation remain to be clarified. Previous studies implied the involvement of PAHs as irritants and allergens, with the reactive oxygen species generated from the oxygenated PAHs believed to be an exacerbating factor. It is also possible that PAHs con...

  11. A Monte Carlo simulation method for assessing biotransformation effects on groundwater fuel hydrocarbon plume lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, W.W. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Biotransformation of dissolved groundwater hydrocarbon plumes emanating from leaking underground fuel tanks should, in principle, result in plume length stabilization over relatively short distances, thus diminishing the environmental risk. However, because the behavior of hydrocarbon plumes is usually poorly constrained at most leaking underground fuel tank sites in terms of release history, groundwater velocity, dispersion, as well as the biotransformation rate, demonstrating such a limitation in plume length is problematic. Biotransformation signatures in the aquifer geochemistry, most notably elevated bicarbonate, may offer a means of constraining the relationship between plume length and the mean biotransformation rate. In this study, modeled plume lengths and spatial bicarbonate differences among a population of synthetic hydrocarbon plumes, generated through Monte Carlo simulation of an analytical solute transport model, are compared to field observations from six underground storage tank (UST) sites at military bases in California. Simulation results indicate that the relationship between plume length and the distribution of bicarbonate is best explained by biotransformation rates that are consistent with ranges commonly reported in the literature. This finding suggests that bicarbonate can indeed provide an independent means for evaluating limitations in hydrocarbon plume length resulting from biotransformation. (Author)

  12. Sources of hydrocarbons in urban road dust: Identification, quantification and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummullage, Sandya; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    Among urban stormwater pollutants, hydrocarbons are a significant environmental concern due to their toxicity and relatively stable chemical structure. This study focused on the identification of hydrocarbon contributing sources to urban road dust and approaches for the quantification of pollutant loads to enhance the design of source control measures. The study confirmed the validity of the use of mathematical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for source identification and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model for pollutant load quantification. Study outcomes identified non-combusted lubrication oils, non-combusted diesel fuels and tyre and asphalt wear as the three most critical urban hydrocarbon sources. The site specific variabilities of contributions from sources were replicated using three mathematical models. The models employed predictor variables of daily traffic volume (DTV), road surface texture depth (TD), slope of the road section (SLP), effective population (EPOP) and effective impervious fraction (EIF), which can be considered as the five governing parameters of pollutant generation, deposition and redistribution. Models were developed such that they can be applicable in determining hydrocarbon contributions from urban sites enabling effective design of source control measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons in oily sludge from some Romanian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Dobrota, S.; Voicu, A.; Stefanescu, M.; Sandulescu, L.; Petrisor, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    During oil production and processing activities, significant quantities of oily sludge are produced. The sludge represents not only an environmental pollution source but also occupies big spaces in storage tanks. Romania, an experienced European oil-producing and processing country, is faced with environmental problems generated by oily sludge accumulations. Many such accumulations are to be submitted to bioremediation processes based on the hydrocarbon degradation activity of naturally occurring, selectively isolated bacteria. In this paper the results concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludges from Otesti oil field area, are presented. As a result of the laboratory screening, we selected six natural bacterial consortia (BCSl-I 1 to BCSl-I 6 ) with high ability in degradation of hydrocarbons from paraffinic and non-paraffinic asphaltic oils (between 25.53%-64.30% for non-paraffinic asphaltic oil and between 50.25%-72.97% for paraffinic oil). The laboratory tests proved that microbial degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from Otesti oil field area varied from 16.75% to 95.85% in moving conditions (Erlenmeyers of 750 ml on rotary shaker at 200 rpm) and from 16.85% to 51.85% in static conditions (Petri dishes Oe 10 cm or vessels of 500 ml)

  14. Benthic Bioprocessing of Hydrocarbons in the Natural Deep-Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, N.; MacDonald, I. R.; Bohrmann, G.; Schubotz, F.; Johansen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Science is accustomed to quantifying ecosystem processes that consume carbon from primary production as it drifts downward through the photic zone. Comparably efficient processes operate in reverse, as living and non-living components sequester and re-mineralize a large fraction of hydrocarbons that migrate out of traps and reservoirs to the seafloor interface. Together, they comprise a sink that prevents these hydrocarbons from escaping upward into the water column. Although quantification of the local or regional magnitude of this sink poses steep challenges, we can make progress by classifying and mapping the biological communities and geological intrusions that are generated from hydrocarbons in the deep sea. Gulf of Mexico examples discussed in this presentation extend across a broad range of depths (550, 1200, and 3200 m) and include major differences in hydrocarbon composition (from gas to liquid oil to asphaltene-dominated solids). Formation of gas hydrate is a dynamic process in each depth zone. At upper depths, gas hydrate is unstable at a timescale of months to years and serves as a substrate for microbial consortia and mussel symbiosis. At extreme depths, gas hydrate supports large and dense tubeworm colonies that conserve the material from decomposition. Timescales for biogeochemical weathering of oil and asphalts are decadal or longer, as shown by sequential alterations and changing biological colonization. Understanding these processes is crucial as we prepare for wider and deeper energy exploitation in the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

  15. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  16. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  17. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterisation of unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Mark Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Metadata merged with duplicate record (http://hdl.handle.net/10026.1/666) on 20.12.2016 by CS (TIS). This is a digitised version of a thesis that was deposited in the University Library. If you are the author please contact PEARL Admin () to discuss options. The hydrocarbons of Recent Polluted.., sediments, in-reservoir and laboratory biodegraded crude oils, and certain petroleum products (e. g. lubricating oils) often display "humps" or Unresolved Complex...

  19. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  20. Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Hanus, Robert; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Behrman, E. L.; Bergland, A. O.; Petrov, D.; Cvačka, Josef; Schmidt, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 66-80 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * Drosophila * experimental evolution * spatiotemporal variation * thermal plasticity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jeb.12988/full

  1. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  2. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  3. Continuous process for converting hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-05-01

    A continuous process is disclosed for converting hydrocarbons, liquid, semi-liquid, and solid, of all origins and kinds, into incondensable gases, without carbon deposits, characterized by the fact that an intimate mixture of the material and superheated steam before cracking is passed through a contact mass. The contact mass consists of all metals, metal alloys, and mineral salts which, at the reaction temperature, are fused and do not react with the water vapor or gaseous products.

  4. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  6. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  7. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  8. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  9. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  10. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  11. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  12. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  13. Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells delay expulsion of intestinal nematodes by suppression of IL-9-driven mast cell activation in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Blankenhaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Treg in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3⁺ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in

  14. Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Delay Expulsion of Intestinal Nematodes by Suppression of IL-9-Driven Mast Cell Activation in BALB/c but Not in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenz, Yannick; Eschbach, Marie-Luise; Hartmann, Wiebke; Haben, Irma; Sparwasser, Tim; Huehn, Jochen; Kühl, Anja; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Breloer, Minka

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre) BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3+ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in Treg-depleted C57BL/6

  15. Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells delay expulsion of intestinal nematodes by suppression of IL-9-driven mast cell activation in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenhaus, Birte; Reitz, Martina; Brenz, Yannick; Eschbach, Marie-Luise; Hartmann, Wiebke; Haben, Irma; Sparwasser, Tim; Huehn, Jochen; Kühl, Anja; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Breloer, Minka

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Treg) in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre) BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3⁺ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in Treg-depleted C57BL/6

  16. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator

  17. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting the environmental fate properties of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.; Tucker, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental fate and transport of petroleum products for risk assessment can be evaluated based on the physico-chemical properties of an indicator chemical or a surrogate compound, or the whole mixture. A study was conducted to develop a simple representation of the hydrocarbon mixture as if it contained only few constituents, each of which represents a large number of compounds. The products considered are gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel (JP4). Each petroleum hydrocarbon was characterized as a mixture of six constituents: short chain alkanes, long chain alkanes, short chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, long chain cycloalkanes and alkenes, BTEX, and other aromatics. The carbon number used as a cut-off between short and long chain alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkanes varies with the type of product. Each mixture has different average molecular weight, water solubility, vapor pressure, organic carbon partition coefficient, and air diffusivity. The properties of each constituent of gasoline were derived from the weighted average of all compounds belonging to each constituent group. For diesel fuel and JP4, the properties of each constituent were generated from the properties of the component most representative of the group. Any property that is missing or not available from common literature sources was derived from regression equations developed from the data base for gasoline. These regression equations express the property as function of the number of carbon atoms. The R 2 values of the regression equations range from 0.82--0.92. Some case studies involving petroleum product contamination in which the estimated properties were applied are presented

  19. Latin American electric power developments and hydrocarbon demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy sectors in Latin American countries are undergoing a series of far-reaching changes in institutional arrangements and roles. These changes will have a decisive influence on energy sector evolution in coming decades. The results of two decades of mismanagement in the region's energy sector are outlined, showing stagnation in the electric power and petroleum industries caused by such factors as bureaucratic management, preferential treatment given to public enterprises, the adoption of objectives other than economic profitability, insufficient self-generation of resources due to tariffs not reflecting economic costs, and heavy debt burdens. If forecasts of future energy demand in Latin America are correct, the region's hydrocarbon sector will have to invest ca US$20 billion/y and the electric power sector nearly the same amount. This is considered beyond the capacity of the region's industries. Private sector participation is expected to raise the efficiency level of the hydrocarbon and power industries through such initiatives as privatization (complete or partial), joint government-private ventures, subcontracting, direct investment, and opening of monopolies such as power distribution to third-party competition. The state role in this process will be to create a suitable environment for private enterprise including clear and stable rules and regulatory frameworks. Financing options are discussed along with ways to reduce investment requirements. It is especially possible to reduce such requirements in the power sector through such means as retrofitting of plants with more modern equipment, reducing power losses, improved metering and billing, energy substitution, demand-side management, and energy conservation programs

  20. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  1. High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons as pure model substances and in motor oil samples can be ionized without fragmentation by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Nadim; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-10-15

    High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons are still difficult to detect by mass spectrometry. Although several studies have targeted this problem, lack of good self-ionization has limited the ability of mass spectrometry to examine these hydrocarbons. Failure to control ion generation in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source hampers the detection of intact stable gas-phase ions of non-polar hydrocarbon in mass spectrometry. Seventeen non-volatile non-polar hydrocarbons, reported to be difficult to ionize, were examined by an optimized APCI methodology using nitrogen as the reagent gas. All these analytes were successfully ionized as abundant and intact stable [M-H](+) ions without the use of any derivatization or adduct chemistry and without significant fragmentation. Application of the method to real-life hydrocarbon mixtures like light shredder waste and car motor oil was demonstrated. Despite numerous reports to the contrary, it is possible to ionize high molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons by APCI, omitting the use of additives. This finding represents a significant step towards extending the applicability of mass spectrometry to non-polar hydrocarbon analyses in crude oil, petrochemical products, waste or food. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  3. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro; Juan Fernando Ramírez Quirama

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for cont...

  4. Global climate change due to the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasi, M.; Racz, L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented on the industry's response to the agreements of the Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1987) conventions on climate change, and to other international agreements. The announcements by large petroleum companies on the changes introduced according to the international commitments in order to fight climatic impacts of hydrocarbon fuels. The problems and foreseeable future of the Hungarian hydrocarbon industry with environmental protection are discussed. Finally, emission abatement and control possibilities of hydrocarbon combustion are considered. (R.P.)

  5. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  6. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  7. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  8. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  9. Potential hydrocarbon producing species of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M.; Rajarathinam, K. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Ray, A.K. [Sardar Patel Univ., Anand (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has led to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon production and the type of isoprene compound(s) present. Three species contained more than 3% hydrocarbon. Sarcostemma brevistigma had the highest concentration of hydrocarbon with 3.6%. Seven species contained more than 2% of hydrocarbons among the plant species screened. The hydrocarbon fraction of Ficus elastica (leaf) had a gross heat value of 9834 cal/g (41.17 MJ/kg), which is close to the caloric value of fuel oil. Six hydrocarbon fractions contained gross heat values of more than 9000 cal/g (37.68 MJ/kg). Of the 13 species hydrocarbon fraction analysed, seven species contained cis-polyisoprene compounds, while two species contained trans-polyisoprenes. Cis and trans polyisoprenes are potential alternative energy sources for fuel and/or as industrial raw materials. (author)

  10. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  11. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.R.; Solangi, B.A.; Nadeem, U.; Zehra, B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  12. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  13. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  14. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, Christophe; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.

    2008-01-01

    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrocarbon transport in the laboratory plasma (MAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Tanaka, Satoru

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are admitted in the laboratory plasma in order to investigate the transport processes of carbon - containing molecules in relation to redeposition processes in the fusion boundary plasma. When CH{sub 4} was introduced into the plasma, CH radical band spectra were optically identified, while in the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} introduction, C{sub 2} radicals were also identified in addition to CH radicals. Excitation temperature was determined from CH and C{sub 2} spectra band, which was observed to increase on approaching to the target. (author)

  16. Catalyst for reforming hydrocarbons with water vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklin, T.; Farrington, F.; Whittaker, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The catalyst should reform hydrocarbons with water vapour. It consists of a carrier substance (preferably clay) on whose surface the catalytically active substances are formed. By impregnation one obtains this with a mixture of thermally destructable nickel and uranium compounds and calcination of the impregnated carrier. The catalyst is marked by a definite weight ratio of uranium to nickel (about 0.6 to 1), the addition of barium compounds and a maximum limit of these additives. All details of manufacture and the range of variations are described in detail. (UWI) [de

  17. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Linda S.; Perkins, Patrick; Vollhardt, K.Peter C.

    1980-10-01

    In this report we detail the synthesis catalytic chemistry of polystyrene supported {eta}{sup 5} ~cyclopentadienyl- dicarbonyl cobalt, CpCo(CO){sub 2}. This material is active in the hydrogenation of CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain its "homogeneous", mononuclear character during the course of its catalysis, During ·the course of our work 18% and 20% crosslinked analogs of polystyrene supported CpCo(CO){sub 2} were shown to exhibit limited catalytic activity and no CO activation.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shantanu

    2005-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important com- ponent of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They are being used as probes for understanding of process and conditions of different astrophysical environments. The understanding of their IR spectra and its variations with PAH size and ionization state is useful in characterizing the ISM. Spectral features of model graphene sheets and also that of smaller PAH molecules are reported. The variation of intensity with charge state of the molecule shows that cations give a better correlation with observations. The relationship between changes in charge distribution with intensity changes upon ionization has been probed.

  19. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  20. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  1. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Method of cleansing and refining of liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C A; Nielsen, H

    1934-10-11

    A process is described for cleaning and refining liquid hydrocarbons and derivatives by utilization of acids, followed by washing partly with a basic solution, partly with clean water. The process is characterized by using, in connection with the acid solutions mentioned, a strong solution of a mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.

  4. Bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale treatability investigations, pilot-scale and full-scale bioremediation projects were conducted to evaluate Daramend trademark bioremediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, paraffins, chlorinated phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bench-scale investigations were conducted using glass microcosms. Pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations were conducted at industrial sites and included treatment of excavated soils and sediments in on-site cells constructed using synthetic liners and covered by steel/polyethylene structures as well as in-situ treatment. A total of approximately 5,000 tons of soil was treated. The soil treatment included organic soil amendments, specialized tillage/aeration apparatus, and strict control of soil moisture. The amendments are composed of naturally-occurring organic materials prepared to soil-specific particle size distributions, nutrient profiles, and nutrient-release kinetics. Bench-scale work indicated that in refinery soil containing high concentrations of heavy oils, extractable hydrocarbon concentrations could be rapidly reduced to industrial clean-up criteria, and that the hydrocarbons were fully mineralized with release of CO 2

  5. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  6. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorpe, F.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  7. Studies on the production of hydrocarbon mixtures from waste methyl ethyl ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokitkar, P.B.; Roth, O.B.; Debelak, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large quantities of waste solvents are generated annually around the world in a large number of diverse industries, the paints and plastics industry being the largest consumer. The management of these waste solvents is becoming more and more difficult due to stricter environmental regulations by the EPA. The paint and allied products industry is expected to shift its solvent use from aliphatics and aromatics to oxygenated solvents to meet emissions and disposal standards. Many researchers have studied the dehydration reactions of oxygenated solvents to produce dehydration. However, most researchers have obtained only low molecular weight compounds (C 3 - C 4 hydrocarbons) from C 1 - C 4 alcohols and ketones. The kinetics of this class of reactions are not available in the open literature. The objective of this paper is to investigate the thermodynamic feasibility of this class of reactions and to compare the hydrocarbon products obtained using methylethyl ketone with regular unleaded gasoline

  8. Reaction kinetics and reaction heat on thermal decomposition of solvent containing unstable reactive hydrocarbons with nitric acid at Tomsk-7 reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji; Koike, Tadao; Miyato, Teijiro.

    1996-12-01

    For analyzing a cause of the Tomsk-7 accident at Russian reprocessing plant, it is necessary to determine reaction-rate constant and reaction heat for a thermal decomposition of TBP/kerosine containing unstable reactive hydrocarbons with nitric acid. In JAERI, the rate constant and reaction heat were obtained from data measured with a differential thermal analyzer (DTA) for unstable hydrocarbons such as n-butanol, n-butyl nitrate, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyclic compounds. The safety evaluation of Tomsk tank ruptured by the reaction was carried out by heat balance calculations between heat generation and heat loss in the tank using these rate constants and reaction heats. Consequently, it is clear that the cause of the tank rupture would be due to an exothermic reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons in kerosine made by petroleum with the concentrated nitric acid of 14.2N. (author)

  9. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  10. Importance des phénomènes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures Significance of Vertical Migration Phenomea of Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarelle A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication a pour but de démonter les mécanismes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures et d'en analyser les conséquences, à partir d'exemples concrets choisis sur les domaines d'activité de la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production [SNEA (PJ. Les hydrocarbures, huile et gaz, rassemblés en phase individualisée évoluent dans un milieu poreux, fin, généralement mouillé à l'eau. Dans un tel environnement la migration suppose des pressions capillaires élevées. On démontre que cette condition se realise plus particulièrement sur Ies zones hautes fermées où les élements d'hydrocarbures expulses de la roche mère peuvent se rassembler en amas de taille importante, développant une forte poussee d'Archimède. De même le gaz, du fait de sa masse volumique faible par rapport à celle de l'eau, manifestera une grande aptitude à la migration verticale, ce qui conduira souvent à une redistribution verticale des hydrocarbures non conforme au schéma diagénétique classique : présence d'un gisement de gaz en surface et huile en profondeur. Combinés à l'effet Gussow, phénomène de refoulement de l'huile par le gaz hors de la fermeture critique d'une structure, les processus envisagés ici, où tes accidents tectoniques tiennent une place importante, aboutiront généralement à sil: aerer spatialement l'huile et le gaz. Ces transferts semblent s'accompagner fréquemment de modifications dans la composition chimique des huiles : augmentation des teneurs en soufre, en métaux traces, en hydrocarbures aromatiques, et alourdissement des huiles The purpose of this article is ta described the vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons and to analyze their conséquences, on the basis of concrete examples selected in the fields of activities carried on by Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA. When hydrocarbons (ai( and gas are gathered in a distinct phase, they evolve in a fine porous medium that is usually water wet. In

  11. Crust-mantle branch of the global carbon cycle and origin of deep-seated hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The processes of multi-stage and polycyclic transformation and transfer of carbon in the crust and mantle have been described. The sediments drawn in the plate underthrust zones break down, become transformed and altered by metamorphic events, and part of the newly formed carbon compounds is transferred by the mantle convective currents to rift zones of the mid-oceanic ridges and carried up to the surface as hydrocarbons of various composition and carbon dioxide. This material becomes re-deposited on the sea floor as sediments forming carbonaceous and carbon-bearing units. As a result of multi-stage mechanism of physical and chemical transformations in the crust-mantle areas of the Earth hydrocarbon compounds acquire features of abiogenic origin remaining, in fact, exogenic. The revealed crust-mantle carbon cycle represents part of a global process for the cyclic carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the mantle and back. The scale of its manifestation is likely not so wide, and numerous small (mm and portions of millimeters particles of exogenic substance and dispersed carbon drawn in the plate underthrust zones form a stable geochemical tail of the crustal direction in the mantle propagating in the plane of convective currents motion. The scale of this process may be indirectly suggested by the volumes of hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide de-gassing and hydrogen in the rift systems of the Earth crust. The amount of generated hydrocarbon gases with deep-seated origin cannot form large gas and oil-and-gas fields since their significant part is transferred to the atmosphere. Just some portion of compounds may be deposited in oceanic sediments and generate gas-hydrate pools.

  12. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  14. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in a pelagic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, D.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    For several years data have been accruing on the distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in marine ecosystems. An overall picture of ambient levels in biota, water and sediments is now emerging however, despite the vast amount of data collected to date, questions still arise as to whether certain pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons are indeed magnified through the marine food web. Evidence both for and against trophic concentration of PCB and DDT compounds has been cited. The answer to this question remains unclear due to lack of adequate knowledge on the relative importance of food and water in the uptake of these compounds as well as the fact that conclusions are often confounded by comparing pollutant concentrations in successive links in the food chain sampled at different geographical locations and/or at different points in time. The situation is further complicated by complex prey-predator relationships that exist in many marine communities. In the present study we have tried to eliminate some of these problems by examining PCB and DOT concentrations in species belonging to a relatively well-defined pelagic food chain sampled at one point in space and time

  15. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  16. Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants―A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. KOH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R indusries have come full circle since the beginning of the industrialrevolution. With concern on issues relating to the environment such as the global warming and climate change issues, we should finda better alternative than to continue using these refrigerants that cause global warming and ozone depletion. AC&R industryplayers have blended in by introducing some new equipment and components that are specificallydesigned for hydrocarbon (HC use. Mostnew refrigerators sold in Malaysia are already equipped with isobutane [a hydrocarbon designated as R-600a by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE standards]as refrigerants. Malaysia has ratifiedthe Montreal Protocol and targetted a 10% reduction in hydrochlorofluorocarbon(HCFC consumption, beginning 2016 with the banning of 2.5 horsepower (hp and below in air-conditioning (AC equipment to be used. Instead,hydrofluorocarbon(HFC R-410a was introduced as a replacement for HCFC- 22, whereas in other countries this HFC has been phased down. This article was initiated  because of the difficultin findinga replacement for HCFC. Also, the possibilities of using HC as an alternative to replace HCFC insteadof using HFC as a transitional refrigerant in place of HCFC is reviewed in this article. The performance of HC is very similar to HCFC and flmmability issues could be easily overcome with the use of an effectivedesign. Their use could be facilitated with the adaptation of specific standards and properly enacted legislatio

  17. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  18. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors for Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures 2B Table 2B to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Hydrocarbon Solvent Mixtures Bin Averageboiling point * (degrees F) Criteria Reactivityfactor 1 80-205 Alkanes... + Dry Point) / 2 (b) Aromatic Hydrocarbon Solvents ...

  19. BioDegradation of Refined Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil | Obire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-dioxide production and hydrocarbon degradation of refined petroleum hydrocarbon in soils treated with 5% gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil were investigated. Soil for study was bulked from around a car park in Port Harcourt. Soil samples were collected at weekly intervals for four weeks and subsequently at ...

  20. Studies on hydrocarbon degradation by the bacterial isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon utilizing capability of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1), isolated from oil contaminated soil composts from Western Ghats region of Karnataka was analyzed. In the bioremediation experiment, ONGC heavy crude oil and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilization by the bacterial isolate was studied.