WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon gas recovered

  1. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  2. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  3. H2-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, K. David; Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Waggoner, William M.; Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-01-01

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H 2 -rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H 2 may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 . Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H 2 in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically associated with proposed

  4. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  5. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  6. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about$1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received

  7. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  8. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  9. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  10. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  11. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  12. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  14. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  15. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  16. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  17. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Method for depth referencing hydrocarbon gas shows on mud logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identifying hydrocarbon formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: a. measuring hydrocarbon gas in the entrained formation cuttings obtained during drilling operations in which a drilling mud is continually circulated past a drill bit to carry the cuttings to the earth's surface, b. simultaneously measuring natural gamma radiation in the cuttings, c. identifying the depths at which the cuttings were obtained within the borehole, d. measuring natural gamma radiation within the borehole following completion of the drilling operations, e. correlating the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d), and f. identifying the depths within the borehole from which the entrained cuttings containing hydrocarbon gas were obtained during drilling operations when there is correlation between the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d)

  1. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  2. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  3. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  4. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  5. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  6. An apparatus for separating and continuously recovering a particulate material carried by a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.R.; Dada, A.G.; Dehollander, W.R.; Sloat, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of an apparatus adapted to separate and recover a particulate material carried by hot corrosive gases. The apparatus comprises a flow-channel connected to a gas stream source carrying a particulate material, a first and second tubes connected to said flow-channel, filtrating devices, recovery containers and flow-restricting valves. This can be applied to the recovery of uranium oxides generated by flame reactions [fr

  7. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  8. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  9. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were exploration and occurs in a forearc basin. Each of these hydrate-bearing systems overlies and is likely supported by the presence and possible migration of gas from deeper gas-prone petroleum

  10. A unified approach to assess performance of different techniques for recovering exhaust heat from gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carapellucci, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust heat from gas turbines can be recovered externally or internally to the cycle itself. Of the technology options for external recovery, the combined gas-steam power plant is by far the most effective and commonly used worldwide. For internal recovery conventional solutions are based on thermodynamic regeneration and steam injection, while innovative solutions rely on humid air regeneration and steam reforming of fuel. In this paper a unified approach for analysing different exhaust heat recovery techniques is proposed. It has been possible to define a characteristic internal heat recovery plane, based on a few meaningful parameters and to identify an innovative scheme for repowering existing combined cycles. The characteristic plane indicates directly the performance obtainable with the different recovery techniques, showing that performances close to combined cycle plants (external recovery) can only be achieved with combined recovery techniques (humid air regeneration, steam reforming of fuel). The innovative repowering scheme, which requires the addition of a gas turbine and one-pressure level HRSG to an existing combined gas-steam power plant, significantly increases power output with fairly high marginal efficiency.

  11. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  12. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were compositions range from −65.2 to −80.7‰ for methane, −53.1 to −55.2‰ for ethane is consistent with mainly microbial gas sources, although one value recorded of −35.4‰ for propane

  13. Reduction of energy cost and CO2 emission for the furnace using energy recovered from waste tail-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Chih-Ju G.; Wu, Chung-Rung; Lee, Chien-Li

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the waste tail gas emitted from petrochemical processes, e.g. catalytic reforming unit, catalytic cracking unit and residue desulfurization unit, was recovered and reused as a replacement of natural gas (NG). On-site experimental results show that both the flame length and orange-yellowish brightness decrease with more proportion of waste gas fuel added to the natural gas, and that the adiabatic temperature of the mixed fuel is greater than 1800 o C. A complete replacement of natural gas by the recovered waste gas fuel will save 5.8 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, and 3.5 x 10 4 tons of CO 2 emission annually. In addition, the reduction of residual O 2 concentration in flue gases from 4% to 3% will save 1.1 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, reduce 43.0% of NO x emission, and 1.3 x 10 3 tons of CO 2 emission annually. Thus, from the viewpoint of the overall economics and sustainable energy policy, recovering the waste tail gas energy as an independent fuel source to replace natural gas is of great importance for saving energy, reducing CO 2 emission reduction, and lowering environmental impact.

  14. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  15. Characterization of the vadose zone above a shallow aquifer contaminated with gas condensate hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, K.; Duncan, K.; Thoma, G.; Todd, T.

    2002-01-01

    A gas production site in the Denver Basin near Ft. Lupton, Colorado has leaked gas condensate hydrocarbons from an underground concrete tank used to store produced water. The leak has contaminated a shallow aquifer. Although the source of pollution has been removed, a plume of hydrocarbon contamination still remains for nearly 46 m from the original source. An extensive monitoring program was conducted in 1993 of the groundwater and saturated sediments. The objective was to determine if intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurred at the site at a rate that would support remediation. Geochemical indicators of hydrogen biodegradation by microorganisms in the saturated zone included oxygen depletion, increased alkalinity, sulfate depletion, methane production and Fe2+ production associated with hydrogen contamination. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens was also much higher in the contaminated sediments. Degraded hydrocarbon metabolites were found in contaminated groundwater. An extensive characterization of the vadose zone was conducted in which the vadose zone was sample in increments of 15 cm from the surface to the water table at contaminated and non contaminated sites. The samples were tested for individual C3+ hydrocarbons, methane, CO2, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The vadose zone consisted of an active and aerobic bioreactor fueled by condensate hydrocarbons transported into the unsaturated zone by evaporation of hydrocarbons at the water table. It was concluded that the unsaturated zone makes an important contribution to the natural attenuation of gas condensate hydrocarbons in the area. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  16. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  17. Method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.J.; Pritchard, F.R.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of a gas. A gas sample is supplied to a dew-point detector and the temperature of a portion of the sample gas stream to be investigated is lowered progressively prior to detection until the dew-point is reached. The presence of condensate within the flowing gas is detected and subsequently the supply gas sample is heated to above the dew-point. The procedure of cooling and heating the gas stream continuously in a cyclical manner is repeated.

  18. Oil-shale gasification for obtaining of gas for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation); Avakyan, T.; Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of qualified usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. Gasification with further processing of gaseous products is a one of possible ways of their use. Production of synthesis gas with H{sub 2}/CO ratio equal 2 is possible by gasification of oil-shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalyst at temperature from 160 to 210 C at atmospheric pressure. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. (orig.)

  19. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  20. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  1. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of

  2. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm 3 by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  3. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Benjamin L., E-mail: bmcalexander@trihydro.com

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  4. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  5. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  6. Process and apparatus for separating and recovering krypton-85 from exhaust gas of nuclear reactor or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, H.; Kamiya, K.; Murata, T.; Yamaki, H.; Hisatomi, S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for separating and recovering radioactive krypton-85 contained in an exhaust gas of a nuclear reactor or the like, which comprises a plurality of adsorption beds connected in parallel with respect to a passageway for the exhaust gas, each being packed with activated carbon, wherein adsorption and desorption of krypton-85 in each of the beds are alternatively and repeatedly performed by operating valves disposed between each of the beds and means for reducing pressure in the beds to be desorbed in accordance with a predetermined time schedule. The adsorption and concentration efficiencies are markedly increased by combining the above adsorption apparatus and a distillation apparatus

  7. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  8. Natural gas treatment: Simultaneous water and hydrocarbon-dew point-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Rennemann, D. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Schulz, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    Natural gas is a multicomponent mixture of hydrocarbons. The condensation behavior of such mixtures is different from single component systems. The so-called retrograde behavior leads to the observations that saturated vapor (dew point curve) and saturated liquid curve (bubble point curve) are not identical. Between both is a region of saturated phases which even can exist above the critical point. Following this behaviour it is possible that condensation might occur at pressure decrease or at temperature increase, respectively. This phenomenon is undesired in natural gas pipeline networks. Selective removal of higher hydrocarbons by the means of adsorption can change the phase behavior in such a way that condensation does not occur at temperatures and pressures specified for gas distribution. (orig.)

  9. Broadly tunable mid-infrared VECSEL for multiple components hydrocarbon gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J. M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    A new sensing platform to simultaneously identify and quantify volatile C1 to C4 alkanes in multi-component gas mixtures is presented. This setup is based on an optically pumped, broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) developed for gas detection. The lead-chalcogenide VECSEL is the key component of the presented optical sensor. The potential of the proposed sensing setup is illustrated by experimental absorption spectra obtained from various mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons and water vapor. The sensor has a sub-ppm limit of detection for each targeted alkane in a hydrocarbon gas mixture even in the presence of a high water vapor content.

  10. Co-processing of standard gas oil and biocrude oil to hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Mante, O.; McClung, R.; Oyama, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The major obstacle in thermochemical biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using pyrolysis has been the high oxygen content and the poor stability of the product oils, which cause them to solidify during secondary processing. We have developed a fractional catalytic pyrolysis process to convert biomass feedstocks into a product termed “biocrude oils” (stable biomass pyrolysis oils) which are distinct from unstable conventional pyrolysis oils. The biocrude oils are stable, low viscosity liquids that are storable at ambient conditions without any significant increases in viscosity; distillable at both atmospheric pressure and under vacuum without char or solid formation. About 15 wt% biocrude oils containing 20–25% oxygen were blended with 85 wt% standard gas oil and co-cracked in an Advanced Catalyst Evaluation (ACE™) unit using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts to produce hydrocarbon fuels that contain negligible amount of oxygen. For the same conversion of 70% for both the standard gas oil and the biocrude oil/gas oil blends, the product gasoline yield was 44 wt%, light cycle oil (LCO) 17 wt%, heavy cycle oil (HCO) 13 wt%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 16 wt%. However, the coke yield for the standard gas oil was 7.06 wt% compared to 6.64–6.81 wt% for the blends. There appeared to be hydrogen transfer from the cracking of the standard gas oil to the biocrude oil which subsequently eliminated the oxygen in the fuel without external hydrogen addition. We have demonstrated for the first time that biomass pyrolysis oils can be successfully converted into hydrocarbons without hydrogenation pretreatment. -- Highlights: ► The co-processed product had less than 1% oxygen content and contained biocarbons determined by 14 C analysis. ► The co-processing did not affect the yields of gasoline, LCO, and HCO. ► First demonstration of direct conversion of pyrolysis oils into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels.

  11. Origins of hydrocarbon gas seeping out from offshore mud volcanoes in the Nile delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzhofer, Alain; Deville, Eric

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the origin of gas seepages (free gas or dissolved gas in ground water or brine) sampled with the Nautile submarine during the Nautinil cruise at the seafloor of the deep water area of the Nile turbiditic system on different mud volcanoes and brine pools. Generally, the gas is wet and includes C1, C2, C3, iC4, nC4, CO2. These gas samples show no evidence of biodegradation which is not the case of the gas present in the deep hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. It indicates that the gas expelled by the mud volcanoes is not issued from direct leakages from deep gas fields. The collected gas samples mainly have a thermogenic origin and show different maturities. Some samples show very high maturities indicating that these seepages are sourced from great depths, below the Messinian salt. Moreover, the different chemical compositions of the gas samples reflect not only differences in maturity but also the fact that the gas finds its origin in different deep source rocks. Carbon dioxide has an organic signature and cannot result from carbonate decomposition or mantle fluids. The crustal-derived radiogenic isotopes show that the analyzed gas samples have suffered a fractionation processes after the production of the radiogenic isotopes, due either to oil occurrence at depth interacting with the flux of gas, and/or fractionation during the fluid migration.

  12. A pathway to eliminate the gas flow dependency of a hydrocarbon sensor for automotive exhaust applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors will play an essential role in future combustion-based mobility to effectively reduce emissions and monitor the exhausts reliably. In particular, an application in automotive exhausts is challenging due to the high gas temperatures that come along with highly dynamic flow rates. Recently, a thermoelectric hydrocarbon sensor was developed by using materials which are well known in the exhausts and therefore provide the required stability. As a sensing mechanism, the temperature difference that is generated between a catalytically activated area during the exothermic oxidation of said hydrocarbons and an inert area of the sensor is measured by a special screen-printed thermopile structure. As a matter of principle, this thermovoltage significantly depends on the mass flow rate of the exhausts under certain conditions. The present contribution helps to understand this cross effect and proposes a possible setup for its avoidance. By installing the sensor in the correct position of a bypass solution, the gas flow around the sensor is almost free of turbulence. Now, the signal depends only on the hydrocarbon concentration and not on the gas flow. Such a setup may open up new possibilities of applying novel sensors in automotive exhausts for on-board-measurement (OBM purposes.

  13. Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shankar L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels derived from algae biomass and algae lipids might reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents. Results In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS. Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. The freely available software tools AMDIS and SpectConnect enables straightforward data processing. In Botryococcus samples, we identified fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and fatty acid esters and several long chain hydrocarbons. The algae species C. reinhardtii, B. braunii race A and B. braunii race B were readily discriminated using their hydrocarbon phenotypes. Substructure annotation and spectral clustering yielded network graphs of similar components for visual overviews of abundant and minor constituents. Conclusion Pyrolysis-GC-MS facilitates large scale screening of hydrocarbon phenotypes for comparisons of strain differences in algae or impact of altered growth and nutrient conditions.

  14. Hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine cycle for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis in a hydrocarbon production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Qiu, Linyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater reverse osmosis driven by hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine power cycle. • High ambient air and seawater temperatures, and high seawater salinity. • Energy–exergy analysis of power and desalination systems for six organic fluids. • Economic viability of waste heat recovery in subsidized utility pricing context. - Abstract: Despite water scarcity, the use of industrial waste heat for seawater desalination has been limited in the Middle East to date. This study evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of integrating on-site gas turbine power generation and reverse osmosis equipment for the production of both electricity and fresh water in a coastal hydrocarbon production facility. Gas turbine exhaust gas waste heat is recovered using an intermediate heat transfer fluid and fed to an organic Rankine cycle evaporator, to generate mechanical power to drive the reverse osmosis high pressure pump. Six candidate organic working fluids are evaluated, namely toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, n-pentane and R245fa. Thermodynamic and desalination performance are assessed in the harsh climatic and salinity conditions of the Arabian Gulf. The performance metrics considered incorporate electric power and permeate production, thermal and exergy efficiency, specific energy consumption, system size, and permeate quality. Using toluene in the bottoming power cycle, a gain in power generation efficiency of approximately 12% is achieved relative to the existing gas turbine cycle, with an annual average of 2260 m"3/h of fresh water produced. Depending upon the projected evolution of local water prices, the investment becomes profitable after two to four years, with an end-of-life net present value of 220–380 million USD, and internal rate of return of 26–48%.

  15. Intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieg, L.M.; McInerney; Tanner, R.S.; Harris, S.H. Jr.; Sublette, K.L.; Suflita, J.M.; Kolhatkar, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    A study was designed to determine if the intrinsic bioremediation of gas condensate hydrocarbons represented an important fate process in a shallow aquifer underlying a natural gas production site. For over 4 yr, changes in the groundwater, sediment, and vadose zone chemistry in the contaminated portion of the aquifer were interpreted relative to a background zone. Changes included decreased dissolved oxygen and sulfate levels and increased alkalinity, Fe(II), and methane concentrations in the contaminated groundwater, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic respiration depleted oxygen reserves leaving anaerobic conditions in the hydrocarbon-impacted subsurface. Dissolved hydrogen levels in the contaminated groundwater indicated that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were predominant biological processes, corroborating the geochemical findings. Furthermore, 10--1000-fold higher numbers of sulfate reducers and methanogens were enumerated in the contaminated sediment relative to background. Putative metabolites were also detected in the contaminated groundwater, including methylbenzylsuccinic acid, a signature intermediate of anaerobic xylene decay. Laboratory incubations showed that benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and each of the xylene isomers were biodegraded under sulfate-reducing conditions as was toluene under methanogenic conditions. These results coupled with a decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations in contaminated sediment confirm that intrinsic bioremediation contributes to the attenuation of hydrocarbons in this aquifer

  16. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  17. Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigl, W.O.; Chladek, E.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

  18. Thermal soil desorption for total petroleum hydrocarbon testing on gas chromatographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, J.

    1995-01-01

    Testing for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is one of the most common analytical tests today. A recent development in chromatography incorporates Thermal Soil Desorption technology to enable analyses of unprepared soil samples for volatiles such as BTEX components and semi-volatiles such as diesel, PCBs, PAHs and pesticides in the same chromatogram, while in the field. A gas chromatograph is the preferred method for determining TPH because the column in a GC separates the individual hydrocarbons compounds such as benzene and toluene from each other and measures each individually. A GC analysis will determine not only the total amount of hydrocarbon, but also whether it is gasoline, diesel or another compound. TPH analysis with a GC is typically conducted with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Extensive field and laboratory testing has shown that incorporation of a Thermal Soil Desorber offers many benefits over traditional analytical testing methods such as Headspace, Solvent Extraction, and Purge and Trap. This paper presents the process of implementing Thermal Soil Desorption in gas chromatography, including procedures for, and advantages of faster testing and analysis times, concurrent volatile and semi-volatile analysis, minimized sample manipulation, single gas (H 2 ) operation, and detection to the part-per billion levels

  19. Guidelines for Constructing Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines Through Areas Prone to Landslide and Subsidence Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines provide recommendations for the assessment of new and existing natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines subjected to potential ground displacements resulting from landslides and subsidence. The process of defining landslide and s...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  1. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define

  2. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K. L.; Wessling, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2006), s. 1490-1495 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : integrated system * gas separation * polymer membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.612, year: 2006

  3. Non-mine technology of hydrocarbon resources production at complex development of gas and coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginov, A.S.; Adilov, K.N.; Akhmetbekov, Sh.U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-mine technology of coal gas seams exploitation is new geological technological method of complex exploitation of coal gas deposits. The method allows sequentially to extract hydrocarbon resources in technological aggregative-mobile condensed states. According to natural methane content in seams the technology includes: methane extraction from sorption volume where it is bounded up with coal; gas output intensification of coal is due to structural changes of substance at the cost of physico-chemical treatment of seam; increase of seam permeability by the methods of active physical and physico-chemical actions on coal seam (hydro-uncovering, pneumatic hydro action etc.). Pilot testing shows efficiency of well mastering with help of depth pumps. In this case works of action of pumping out of operating liquid and gas extraction from coal seam are integrated

  4. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  5. WAG (water-alternating-gas) as a method for petroleum advanced recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campozana, Fernando P.; Mato, Luiz F.

    2000-01-01

    Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) injection is an oil recovery method that has been more and more applied worldwide. Oil recovery has been increased up to 20 % (over conventional waterflooding) in field-scale WAG projects. This additional recovery has been attributed to improved sweep and areal efficiency as well as microscopic displacement efficiency. Field results have shown that not only WAG method combines the advantages of gas and water injection but also leads to more stable fronts and better mobility control. Moreover, three-phase flow usually leads to a lower residual oil saturation when compared to that of two-phase flow. In this study, we show some theoretical aspects of WAG as well as some results obtained from numerical simulation of a pilot project to be implemented in Aracas field, Bahia, Brazil. (author)

  6. Tailoring gas-phase CO2 electroreduction selectivity to hydrocarbons at Cu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Garcia, I.; Albo, J.; Irabien, A.

    2018-01-01

    Copper-based surfaces appear as the most active catalysts for CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons, even though formation rates and efficiencies still need to be improved. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the continuous gas-phase CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons (i.e. ethylene and methane) at copper nanoparticulated-based surfaces, paying attention to particle size influence (ranging from 25-80 nm) on reaction productivity, selectivity, and Faraday efficiency (FE) for CO2 conversion. The effect of the current density and the presence of a microporous layer within the working electrode are then evaluated. Copper-based gas diffusion electrodes are prepared by airbrushing the catalytic ink onto carbon supports, which are then coupled to a cation exchange membrane (Nafion) in a membrane electrode assembly. The results show that the use of smaller copper nanoparticles (25 nm) leads to a higher ethylene production (1148 μmol m-2 s-1) with a remarkable high FE (92.8%), at the same time, diminishing the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction in terms of FE. This work demonstrates the importance of nanoparticle size on reaction selectivity, which may be of help to design enhanced electrocatalytic materials for CO2 valorization to hydrocarbons.

  7. The features of oil & gas complex's strategic management and hydrocarbon products transportation at developing marine oil & gas fields in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeev А. М.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical issues of strategic management of oil and gas complex at the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic offshore. The analysis of existing approaches in process and project management of oil and gas complex has been carried out taking into account characteristics of offshore projects in the Arctic zone. Considerable attention has been paid to the history and evolution of strategic management as an economic category, functional areas of strategic management at different levels of management have been proposed. The analysis of existing scientific works dedicated to the projects on the Arctic shelf, has shown insufficient development of the strategic management's theory and practice. In particular, the biggest part of the scientific studies is focused on studying issues of the management at the corporate level, at the same time questions at the level of the oil and gas complex are not considered. In existing studies, the project and process approaches to management are often opposed to each other, and according to the authors it is incorrect in relation to the management of the oil and gas complex on the Arctic shelf. The oil and gas complex is a complex and multilevel system that implements unprecedentedly difficult projects in terms of technology. The beginning of hydrocarbon production on the Arctic shelf is inextricably linked with the transportation of extracted raw materials to the processing and marketing sites; it complements the strategic management of the oil and gas complex by the features of organizing efficient transport and logistics solutions.

  8. Electrochemical cell with integrated hydrocarbon gas sensor for automobile exhaust gas; Elektrochemische Zelle mit integriertem Kohlenwasserstoff-Gassensor fuer das Automobilabgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biskupski, D.; Moos, R. [Univ. Bayreuth (Germany). Bayreuth Engine Research Center, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionsmaterialien; Wiesner, K.; Fleischer, M. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT PS 6, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the future sensors will be necessary to control the compliance with hydrocarbon limiting values, allowing a direct detection of the hydrocarbons. Appropriate sensor-active functional materials are metal oxides, which have a hydrocarbon sensitivity but are also dependent on the oxygen partial pressure. It is proposed that the gas-sensing layer should be integrated into an electrochemical cell. The authors show that the integration of a resistive oxygen sensor into a pump cell allows a defined oxygen concentration level at the sensor layer in any exhaust gas.

  9. Hydrocarbon and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Natural Gas Well Pad Soils and Surrounding Soils in Eastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Seth N; Watkins, Cody; Jones, Colleen P; Mansfield, Marc L; McKinley, Michael; Kenney, Donna; Evans, Jordan

    2017-10-17

    We measured fluxes of methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from natural gas well pad soils and from nearby undisturbed soils in eastern Utah. Methane fluxes varied from less than zero to more than 38 g m -2 h -1 . Fluxes from well pad soils were almost always greater than from undisturbed soils. Fluxes were greater from locations with higher concentrations of total combustible gas in soil and were inversely correlated with distance from well heads. Several lines of evidence show that the majority of emission fluxes (about 70%) were primarily due to subsurface sources of raw gas that migrated to the atmosphere, with the remainder likely caused primarily by re-emission of spilled liquid hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon fluxes during summer were only 39 (16, 97)% as high as during winter, likely because soil bacteria consumed the majority of hydrocarbons during summer months. We estimate that natural gas well pad soils account for 4.6 × 10 -4 (1.6 × 10 -4 , 1.6 × 10 -3 )% of total emissions of hydrocarbons from the oil and gas industry in Utah's Uinta Basin. Our undisturbed soil flux measurements were not adequate to quantify rates of natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Uinta Basin.

  10. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  11. Hydrocarbons in sediments adjacent to a gas and condensate development and production platform in northwestern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    In northwestern Australia during the period of 1983 to 1991, 23 wells were drilled from a gas/condensate production platform to the producing formation approximately 3000 m below the sea bed. Low toxicity water-based drilling muds formulated with hydrogenated kerosenes were used, with the resultant formation cuttings being legally discharged into the ocean. To study the fate of hydrocarbons associated with the cuttings, sea-floor samples were collected along two perpendicular transects from the platform. The first extended 10 km in the prevailing direction of the current and the other to 1.2 km. Subsequently, samples have been collected from one of these sites on two occasions, first one year and secondly two years after the initial collection. Samples collected from directly under the platform cuttings chute contained the highest hydrocarbon concentrations, determined gravimetrically, of 75000 mg/kg, decreasing to approximately 40 mg/kg within 800 m in the direction of the prevailing current. Concentrations in the more remote samples were determined by GC and decreased gradually to be barely discernible above background at less than 0.01 mg/kg at 10 km from the platform. This suite of samples provided an excellent opportunity to study the progress of hydrocarbon biodegradation as it occurs in the marine environment. Analysis by GC-FID, GC-MS and GC-FTIR revealed a number of features. For example, the extent of biodegradation and weathering with increasing distance from the platform, and the half life for biodegradation of total hydrocarbons appears to be approximately one year. The hydrocarbon components of the sediments are mainly from the drilling mud with minor contributions from the formation fluids

  12. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  13. Some technical subjects on production of hydrocarbon fuel from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1987-06-20

    Since fuel oil meeting the requirements of current petroleum products can be produced by SASOL F-T synthetic process, the manufacturing process of hydrocarbon fuel oil from the coal-derived synthesis gas, downstream processes are being successively investigated. Mobile M-gasoline, MTG, process which produces gasoline from the natural gas-derived synthesis gas through methanol went into commercial operation in New Zealand in 1986. Although the gasoline suffices the quality of commercial gasoline by both fixed bed and fluidized bed systems, the price and service life of catalyst and control of by-product durene must be improved. Any STG processes have not been completed yet and the yield and quality of gasoline are inferior to those of gasoline produced by the MTG process. Applying two-stage process, the STG process will be more economically effective.(21 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs)

  14. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  15. Assessment of natural hydrocarbon bioremediation at two gas condensate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.; Trent, G.L.; Brown, D.R.; Sublette, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Condensate liquids are present in soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver-Julesburg Basin operated by Amoco. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores strongly suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction

  16. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M E [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M A [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  17. Reduction of energy cost and CO{sub 2} emission for the furnace using energy recovered from waste tail-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, Chih-Ju G.; Wu, Chung-Rung; Lee, Chien-Li [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung 811 (China)

    2010-03-15

    In this research, the waste tail gas emitted from petrochemical processes, e.g. catalytic reforming unit, catalytic cracking unit and residue desulfurization unit, was recovered and reused as a replacement of natural gas (NG). On-site experimental results show that both the flame length and orange-yellowish brightness decrease with more proportion of waste gas fuel added to the natural gas, and that the adiabatic temperature of the mixed fuel is greater than 1800 C. A complete replacement of natural gas by the recovered waste gas fuel will save 5.8 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of natural gas consumption, and 3.5 x 10{sup 4} tons of CO{sub 2} emission annually. In addition, the reduction of residual O{sub 2} concentration in flue gases from 4% to 3% will save 1.1 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of natural gas consumption, reduce 43.0% of NO{sub x} emission, and 1.3 x 10{sup 3} tons of CO{sub 2} emission annually. Thus, from the viewpoint of the overall economics and sustainable energy policy, recovering the waste tail gas energy as an independent fuel source to replace natural gas is of great importance for saving energy, reducing CO{sub 2} emission reduction, and lowering environmental impact. (author)

  18. Near-critical and supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of soil by hazardous and toxic organic pollutants is an ever-growing problem facing the global community. One particular family of contaminants that are of major importance are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are the result of coal gasification and high-temperature processes. Sludges from these town gas operations were generally disposed of into unlined pits and left there for eventual biodegradation. However, the high levels of PAH contained in the pits prevented the occurrence of biodegradation. PAH contaminated soil is now considered hazardous and must be cleaned to environmentally acceptable standards. One method for the remediation is extraction with supercritical water. Water in or about its critical region exhibits enhanced solvating power toward most organic compounds. Contaminated soil containing 4% by mass of hydrocarbons was ultra-cleaned in a 300-cm 3 semicontinuous system to an environmentally acceptable standard of less than 200 ppm residual hydrocarbon concentration. The effects of subcritical or supercritical extraction, solvent temperature, pressure, and density have been studied, and the discerning characteristics of this type of fluid have been identified. The efficiencies of subcritical and supercritical extraction have been discussed from a process engineering standpoint

  19. Can hydrocarbons entrapped in seep carbonates serve as gas geochemistry recorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Schlömer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The geochemistry of seep gases is useful for an understanding of the local petroleum system. Here it was tested whether individual light hydrocarbons in seep gases are representatively entrapped in authigenic carbonates that formed near active seep sites. If applicable, it would be possible to extract geochemical information not only on the origin but also on the thermal maturity of the hydrocarbon source rocks from the gases entrapped in carbonates in the past. Respective data could be used for a better understanding of paleoenvironments and might directly serve as calibration point for, amongst others, petroleum system modeling. For this approach, (sub)-recent seep carbonates from the Black Sea (Paleodnjepr region and Batumi seep area), two sites of the Campeche Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Venere mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea) were selected. These seep carbonates derive from sites for which geochemical data on the currently seeping gases exist. During treatment with phosphoric acid, methane and higher hydrocarbons were released from all carbonates, but in low concentrations. Compositional studies demonstrate that the ratio of methane to the sum of higher hydrocarbons (C1/(C2+C3)) is (partly strongly) positively biased in the entrapped gas fraction. δ13C values of C1 were determined for all samples and, for the samples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, also of C2 and C3. The present dataset from six seep sites indicates that information on the seeped methane can be—although with a scatter of several permil—recorded in seep carbonate matrices, but other valuable information like the composition and δ13C of ethane and propane appears to be modified or lost during, for example, enclosure or at an early stage of diagenesis.

  20. Direct Measurement of Trace Elemental Mercury in Hydrocarbon Matrices by Gas Chromatography with Ultraviolet Photometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim; Shellie, Robert A

    2015-11-17

    We introduce a technique for the direct measurement of elemental mercury in light hydrocarbons such as natural gas. We determined elemental mercury at the parts-per-trillion level with high precision [photometric detection (GC-UV) at 254 nm. Our approach requires a small sample volume (1 mL) and does not rely on any form of sample preconcentration. The GC-UV separation employs an inert divinylbenzene porous layer open tubular column set to separate mercury from other components in the sample matrix. We incorporated a 10-port gas-sampling valve in the GC-UV system, which enables automated sampling, as well as back flushing capability to enhance system cleanliness and sample throughput. Total analysis time is 98% over this range.

  1. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  2. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  3. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  4. An experimental study of the enhanced heating capacity of an electric heat pump (EHP) using the heat recovered from a gas engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Min; Chang, Se Dong [HAC R and D Laboratory, LG Electronics, 327-23 Gasan-Dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-802 (Korea); Lee, Jaekeun; Hwang, Yujin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Changjeon-Dong, Keumjeong-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the effect of recovered heat on the heating capacity of an Electric Heat Pump (EHP), which is supplied with electric power and recovered heat from a gas engine generator system. Two methods of supplying recovery heat are examined: (i) to the refrigerant with the discharge line heat exchanger (HEX), and (ii) to the refrigerant of the evaporator with the sub-evaporator. Heating capacity, input power and coefficient of performance (COP) were investigated and compared for each heat recovery method. Conclusively, we found that the second method was most reasonable to recover wasted heat and increased system COP by 215%. (author)

  5. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  6. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation

  8. Sales gas hydrocarbon dew point control with a refrigeration plant; Konditionierung des Kohlenwasserstofftaupunktes im Verkaufsgas mittels einer Kaelteanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konieczny, J.; Scsepka, H. [OMV Aktiengesellschaft, Exploration and Production, Gaenserndorf (Austria)

    2004-11-01

    A new refrigeration plant was put on stream in the gas plant Aderklaa, Austria in the fall 2003. The quality criteria inherent to hydrocarbon dew point of the sales gas have already been accomplished. The contract (Allgemeinen Netzzugangsbedingungen) defines the hydrocarbon dew point at the value of 0 C with a pressure ranging 0-70 bar(g). Process facilities are a gas/gas-heat exchanger and a low-temperature-separator flanged to the chiller. A propane cycle produces the required cooling energy. The propane cycle consists of two propane compressors, one of them as back up, a condenser, an accumulator and an evaporator. About 50,000 m{sup 3} (V{sub n}) sales gas per hour are produced at a working pressure of 65 bar(g). Process gas coming from the sweetening plant Aderklaa I is lowered to a temperature of -14 C, where approx. 250 litres liquid hydrocarbons per hour are separated and saved. When the refrigeration plant was designed, attention was given to the operating costs to keep them low. This could be achieved by maximising surface area for heat transfer in the gas/gas-heat exchanger. After commissioning and start-up, full operability of the new plant was tested and documented. The pre-set project goals were accomplished, with respect to both the technical point of view and the economic aspects. (orig.)

  9. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R; Govers, Harrie A J

    2006-11-24

    A gas chromatographic method using Kováts retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P(i)), enthalpy of vaporization (DeltaH(i)) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (DeltaC(i)) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group consists of 19 unsubstituted, methylated and sulphur containing PAHs. Differences in log P(i) of -0.04 to +0.99 log units at 298.15K were observed between experimental values and data from effusion and gas saturation studies. These differences in log P(i) have been fitted with multilinear regression resulting in a compound and temperature dependent correction. Over a temperature range from 273.15 to 423.15K, differences in corrected log P(i) of a training set (-0.07 to +0.03 log units) and a validation set (-0.17 to 0.19 log units) were within calculated error ranges. The corrected vapour pressures also showed a good agreement with other GC determined vapour pressures (average -0.09 log units).

  11. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  12. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused solica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silice capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (author). 3 figs., 17 refs

  14. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  15. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons; Separacion por cromatografia de gases de alta eficiencia de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos, (PAH) y alifaticos (AH) ambientales, empleado como fases estacionarias OV-1 y SE-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  18. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Riser drilling enabled sampling and real-time monitoring of drilling mud gas with an onboard scientific drilling mud gas monitoring system ("SciGas"). A second, independent system was provided by Geoservices, a commercial mud logging service. Both systems allowed the determination of (non-) hydrocarbon gas, while the SciGas system also monitored the methane carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)CCH4). The hydrocarbon gas composition was predominated by methane (> 1%), while ethane and propane were up to two orders of magnitude lower. δ(13)CCH4 values suggested an onset of thermogenic gas not earlier than 1600 meter below seafloor. This study aims on evaluating the onboard data and subsequent geological interpretations by conducting shorebased analyses of drilling mud gas samples. During shipboard monitoring of drilling mud gas the SciGas and Geoservices systems recorded up to 8.64% and 16.4% methane, respectively. Ethane and propane concentrations reached up to 0.03 and 0.013%, respectively, in the SciGas system, but 0.09% and 0.23% in the Geoservices data. Shorebased analyses of discrete samples by gas chromatography showed a gas composition with ~0.01 to 1.04% methane, 2 - 18 ppmv ethane, and 2 - 4 ppmv propane. Quadruple mass spectrometry yielded similar results for methane (0.04 to 4.98%). With δD values between -171‰ and -164‰, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of methane showed little downhole variability. Although the two independent mud gas monitoring systems and shorebased analysis of discrete gas sample yielded different absolute concentrations they all agree well with respect to downhole variations of hydrocarbon gases. The data point to predominantly biogenic methane sources but suggest some contribution from thermogenic sources at depth, probably due

  19. Determination of C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water by purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Retention time data and 70 eV mass spectra were obtained for benzene and all 35 C7-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons. With optimized chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection, benzene and 33 of the 35 alkylbenzenes can be identified and measured in a 45-min run. Use of a flame ionization detector permits the simultaneous determination of benzene and 26 alkylbenzenes.

  20. And if France had oil, gas and ideas at the same time... Contribution to the debate on shale hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This report aims at gathering available information on shale hydrocarbons in order to show that shale gas exploitation is possible in France in order to meet energy needs. After a brief presentation of these hydrocarbons and of potential resources in the world and in France, the report addresses the different stages from exploration (how to obtain a research permit, to locate potential resources, assessment of available quantities and of the economic potential of an oil field), to production (drilling, stimulation, extraction, management on a large scale and on the long term), and to site restitution (industrial site rehabilitation, economic restructuring)

  1. Multidimensional gas chromatography for the characterization of permanent gases and light hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Cortes, H J; Shellie, R A

    2013-01-04

    An integrated gas chromatographic system has been successfully developed and implemented for the measurement of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbons in one single analysis. These analytes are frequently encountered in critical industrial petrochemical and chemical processes like catalytic cracking of naphtha or diesel fuel to lighter components used in gasoline. The system employs a practical, effective configuration consisting of two three-port planar microfluidic devices in series with each other, having built-in fluidic gates, and a mid-point pressure source. The use of planar microfluidic devices offers intangible advantages like in-oven switching with no mechanical moving parts, an inert sample flow path, and a leak-free operation even with multiple thermal cycles. In this way, necessary features such as selectivity enhancement, column isolation, column back-flushing, and improved system cleanliness were realized. Porous layer open tubular capillary columns were employed for the separation of hydrocarbons followed by flame ionization detection. After separation has occurred, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were converted to methane with the use of a nickel-based methanizer for detection with flame ionization. Flow modulated thermal conductivity detection was employed to measure oxygen and nitrogen. Separation of all the target analytes was achieved in one single analysis of less than 12 min. Reproducibility of retention times for all compounds were found to be less than 0.1% (n=20). Reproducibility of area counts at two levels, namely 100 ppm(v) and 1000 ppm(v) over a period of two days were found to be less than 5.5% (n=20). Oxygen and nitrogen were found to be linear over a range from 20 ppm(v) to 10,000 ppm(v) with correlation coefficients of at least 0.998 and detection limits of less than 10 ppm(v). Hydrocarbons of interest were found to be linear over a range from 200 ppb(v) to 1000 ppm(v) with correlation

  2. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-11-01

    In this dissertation, the metathesis route of metal chalcogenide aerogel synthesis was expanded by conducting systematic studies between polysulfide building blocks and the 1st-row transition metal linkers. Resulting materials were screened as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated. The effect of the presence of different counter-ion within chalcogel frameworks on the adsorption capacity of the chalcogels was studied on AFe3Zn3S17 (A= K, Na, and Rb) chalcogels. The highest adsorption capacity toward hydrocarbons and gases was observed on Rb based chalcogels. Adopting a new building block [BiTe3]3- with the 1st-row transition metal ions results in the formation of three high BET surface area chalcogels, KCrBiTe3, KZnBiTe3, and KFeBiTe3. The resulting chalcogels showed preferential adsorption of toluene vapor, and remarkable selectivity of CO2, indicating the potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes. The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 are also reported. Rare earth metal ions react with the thiostannate clusters in formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Obtained chalcogels have high BET surface areas, and showed notable adsorption capacity toward CO2 and toluene vapor. These chalcogels have also been engaged in the absorption of different organic molecules. The results reveal the ability of the chalcogels to distinguish among organic molecules on their electronic structures; hence, they could be used as sensors. Furthermore, the synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 and Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2- chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3

  4. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman, Gabriel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Arthur W. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Worton, David R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kimmel, Joel R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Nah, Theodora [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hohaus, Thorsten [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gonin, Marc [Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Goldstein, Allen H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  5. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  6. Magnetic solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometrical analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; NguyenVan, Manh; Wang, Lijia; Cai, Qingyun

    2015-08-07

    Fluorenyl functionalized superparamagnetic core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, Fe3O4@SiO2@Flu) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The MNPs having an average diameter of 200nm were then used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples designated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The main influencing parameters, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, sample volume and extraction time were optimized. Analyses were performed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels. Limit of detection ranging from 0.5 to 4.0ng/L were obtained. The repeatability was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 13.1%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in water samples with the recoveries in the range of 96.0-106.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  8. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  10. Shallow Gas Migration along Hydrocarbon Wells-An Unconsidered, Anthropogenic Source of Biogenic Methane in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielstädte, Lisa; Haeckel, Matthias; Karstens, Jens; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Steinle, Lea; Wallmann, Klaus

    2017-09-05

    Shallow gas migration along hydrocarbon wells constitutes a potential methane emission pathway that currently is not recognized in any regulatory framework or greenhouse gas inventory. Recently, the first methane emission measurements at three abandoned offshore wells in the Central North Sea (CNS) were conducted showing that considerable amounts of biogenic methane originating from shallow gas accumulations in the overburden of deep reservoirs were released by the boreholes. Here, we identify numerous wells poking through shallow gas pockets in 3-D seismic data of the CNS indicating that about one-third of the wells may leak, potentially releasing a total of 3-17 kt of methane per year into the North Sea. This poses a significant contribution to the North Sea methane budget. A large fraction of this gas (∼42%) may reach the atmosphere via direct bubble transport (0-2 kt yr -1 ) and via diffusive exchange of methane dissolving in the surface mixed layer (1-5 kt yr -1 ), as indicated by numerical modeling. In the North Sea and in other hydrocarbon-prolific provinces of the world shallow gas pockets are frequently observed in the sedimentary overburden and aggregate leakages along the numerous wells drilled in those areas may be significant.

  11. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  12. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs

  13. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai

    2010-01-01

    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm oil mill effluent by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fairolzukry Ahmad Rasdy; Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Ahmedy Abu Naim

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from palm oil mill effluent based on gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Extraction of spiked PAHs (napthalene, fluorene phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in palm oil waste was carried out by Soxhlet extraction using hexane-dichloromethane (60:40 v/v) as the solvent. Excellent separations were achieved using temperature programmed GC on Ultra-1 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 250 μm ID), carrier gas helium at a flow rate of 1 mL/ min. (author)

  15. Problems of hydrocarbon resources development in new bedding zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.; Koszhanov, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exploring geological surveying works were carried out for revealing of fuel resources in South Kazakhstan. Number of complex gas deposits - Ajrakty, Amangel'dy, Kumyrly and others as well as Northern Usharly and Usharal-Kemirtobe deposits of nitrogen-helium gas are recovered. Introduction its into operation has significant importance in consequence of urgent fuel deficit in region. Basic way of guaranteed gas supply to industry and population of South Kazakhstan is connected with own hydrocarbon fields development

  16. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (R shoot ) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (g s ) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψ s ). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s ); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (K plant ), canopy (K canopy ), shoot (K shoot ) and leaf (K leaf ) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψ s , leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨ l ), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨ l increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (K root ) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between K plant , K canopy and Ψ s , K canopy and leaf gas exchange, K leaf and Ψ s , and K leaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψ s recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, K canopy recovered rather

  17. Origin and in situ concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Schleicher, Anja M.; Horiguchi, Keika; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exp. 319 of IODP was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud gas monitoring. • Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud. • Chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. • Absolute CH 4 concentrations in the formation reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment . - Abstract: NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud circulation through a riser. Drilling mud was pumped through the drill string and returned to the drill ship through the riser pipe during drilling of hole C0009A from 703 to 1604 mbsf (meter below sea floor) and hole enlargement from 703 to 1569 mbsf. During riser drilling, gas from returning drilling mud was continuously extracted, sampled and analyzed in real time to reveal information on the gas composition and gas concentrations at depth. Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud and reached up to 14 vol.% of methane and 48 ppmv of ethane. The chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. Hydrocarbons released from drilling mud and cuttings correlate with visible allochthonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. At greater depth, addition of small but increasing amounts of hydrocarbons probably from low-temperature thermal degradation of organic matter is indicated. The methane content is also tightly correlated with several intervals of low Poisson’s ratio from Vp/Vs observed in sonic velocity logs, suggesting that the gas is situated in the pore space of the rock as free gas. The gas concentrations in the formation, determined from drilling mud gas monitoring, reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment for methane in hole C0009A, in line with gas concentrations from interpreted downhole sonic logs

  18. [Simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Yibin; Wang, Weiwei; Ji, Houwei; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Fucheng; Liu, Jian

    2017-10-08

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[ a ]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b ]fluoranthene, benzo[ k ]fluoranthene, benzo[ a ]pyrene, dibenzo[ a,h ]anthracene, benzo[ g,h,i ]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- c,d ]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) ranged from 0.9914 to 0.9999. The average recoveries of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 81.6%-109.6% at low, middle and high spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%, except that the relative standard deviation of fluorene at the low spiked level was 19.2%. The limits of detection of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 0.02 to 0.24 ng/filter, and the limits of quantification were 0.04 to 0.80 ng/filter. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible. It is suitable for the quantitative analysis of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filters.

  19. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  20. Geomechanical, Hydraulic and Thermal Characteristics of Deep Oceanic Sandy Sediments Recovered during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Cha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the geomechanical, hydraulic and thermal characteristics of natural sandy sediments collected during the Ulleung Basin gas hydrate expedition 2, East Sea, offshore Korea. The studied sediment formation is considered as a potential target reservoir for natural gas production. The sediments contained silt, clay and sand fractions of 21%, 1.3% and 77.7%, respectively, as well as diatomaceous minerals with internal pores. The peak friction angle and critical state (or residual state friction angle under drained conditions were ~26° and ~22°, respectively. There was minimal or no apparent cohesion intercept. Stress- and strain-dependent elastic moduli, such as tangential modulus and secant modulus, were identified. The sediment stiffness increased with increasing confining stress, but degraded with increasing strain regime. Variations in water permeability with water saturation were obtained by fitting experimental matric suction-water saturation data to the Maulem-van Genuchen model. A significant reduction in thermal conductivity (from ~1.4–1.6 to ~0.5–0.7 W·m−1·K−1 was observed when water saturation decreased from 100% to ~10%–20%. In addition, the electrical resistance increased quasi-linearly with decreasing water saturation. The geomechanical, hydraulic and thermal properties of the hydrate-free sediments reported herein can be used as the baseline when predicting properties and behavior of the sediments containing hydrates, and when the hydrates dissociate during gas production. The variations in thermal and hydraulic properties with changing water and gas saturation can be used to assess gas production rates from hydrate-bearing deposits. In addition, while depressurization of hydrate-bearing sediments inevitably causes deformation of sediments under drained conditions, the obtained strength and stiffness properties and stress-strain responses of the sedimentary formation under drained loading conditions

  1. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  2. Alternatives for recovering metals from spent catalysts for hydrotreating of heavy hydrocarbons: a case study; Alternativas para la recuperacion de metales a partir de catalizadores gastados del hidrotratamiento de hidrocarburos pesados: un caso de estudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Fernando; Ramirez, Sergio; Ancheyta, Jorge; Mavil, Martha [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jancheyt@imp.mx

    2008-05-15

    The increasing production of spent hydrotreating catalysts used for processing heavy hydrocarbons and the problems related to their disposal are described in this work. These catalysts contain important amounts of heavy metals such as molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and vanadium (V), which can be recovered and hence an economical benefit may be obtained. The results of experimental tests for alkaline leaching (NaOH) to recover V and Mo, and the effect of operating conditions on metal recovery are also presented. The results show that, in general, the highest recovery of Mo is obtained at pH 8.5 and leaching time of 12 hours, while in the case of V, the highest recovery is observed at pH 9.0 and 8 hours. In both cases, the leaching solution contained 10 wt % alkaline. Based on the experimental information and data from a commercial plant, a preliminary economy study was developed, in which the expected economical benefits of metals recovery from spent catalysts used for hydrotreating heavy hydrocarbon are estimated. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se describe la problematica de la creciente produccion de catalizadores gastados de los procesos de hidrotratamiento de hidrocarburos pesados. Estos catalizadores contienen cantidades importantes de metales pesados como molibdeno (Mo), niquel (Ni), cobalto (Co) y vanadio (V), que son susceptibles de recuperarse y obtener con ello un beneficio economico. Tambien se presentan resultados de pruebas experimentales de lixiviacion alcalina (NaOH) para la recuperacion de V y Mo, y el efecto de las variables de operacion sobre la recuperacion de metales. En general, se encontro que las mejores recuperaciones de Mo fueron a pH de 8.5 y 12 h, mientras que para el V fueron a pH de 9.0 y 8 h, ambos a una concentracion del agente lixiviante de 10% en peso. Con base en la informacion experimental obtenida y datos de una planta industrial se presenta un estudio economico preliminar, en el que se estiman los beneficios

  3. Hydrate dissociation conditions for gas mixtures containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons using SAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaosen; Wu Huijie; Li Yigui; Feng Ziping; Tang Liangguang; Fan Shuanshi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, a molecular thermodynamic model based on statistical mechanics, is employed to predict the hydrate dissociation conditions for binary gas mixtures with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons in the presence of aqueous solutions. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state is employed to characterize the vapor and liquid phases and the statistical model of van der Waals and Platteeuw for the hydrate phase. The predictions of the proposed model were found to be in satisfactory to excellent agreement with the experimental data

  4. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  5. Pulse radiolysis of alkanes in the gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions and neutralization mechanisms of hydrocarbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, P.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the fate of unreactive hydrocarbon ions in various selected gaseous systems. It is shown that experiments performed with the high radiation dose rates obtained in pulse radiolysis experiments have several advantages over conventional low dose rate experiments for the elucidation of the mechanism of homogeneous neutralization of unreactive hydrocarbon ions. This is so because the charged species has a much shorter lifetime with respect to neutralization under high dose rate (pulse radiolysis) conditions, so that the reaction of the ions with minor impurities or accumulated products is much less probable than in low dose rate experiments. It is further shown through a few examples, that quantitative information about the rate contants of neutralization events and ion-molecule reactions can be obtained when the dose rate is high enough for neutralization and chemical reaction to be in competition. Once reliable rate constants for neutralization and ion-molecule reactions are derived, one can obtain a quantitative evaluation of the products which will by formed in the pulse radiolysis of a hydrocarbon gas mixture from a computer calculation. (author)

  6. Microbiological studies on petroleum and natural gas. I. Determination of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H; Komagata, K

    1964-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were isolated from oil-brine, soils etc. sampled in oil fields in Japan during 1956, and the following species were identified: Corynebacterium hydrocarboclastus nov. sp., 11 strains; Pseudomonas nitroreducens nov. sp., 1 strain; Pseudomonas maltophila Hugh and Ryschenkow, 5 strains: Brevibacterium lipolyticum (Huss) Breed, 2 strains; Pseudomonas desmolytica Gray and Thornton, 5 strains; Flavobacterium ferrugineum Sickles and Shaw, 1 strain; and Alcaligenes faecalis Chastellani and Chalmers, 1 strain. One difference between Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was described on the basis of the ability of assimilating hydrocarbons.

  7. Hydro-mechanical properties of pressure core sediments recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Oshima, M.; Kida, M.; Kato, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Waite, W. F.; Jang, J.; Kumar, P.; Tenma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pressure coring and analysis technology allows for gas hydrate to be recovered from the deep seabed, transferred to the laboratory and characterized while continuously maintaining gas hydrate stability. For this study, dozens of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediment subsections recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02 were tested with Pressure Core Non-destructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) through a collaboration between Japan and India. PNATs, originally developed by AIST as a part of the Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI) conducted permeability, compression and consolidation tests under various effective stress conditions, including the in situ stress state estimated from downhole bulk density measurements. At the in situ effective stress, gas hydrate-bearing sediments had an effective permeability range of 0.01-10mD even at pore-space hydrate saturations above 60%. Permeability increased by 10 to 100 times after hydrate dissociation at the same effective stress, but these post-dissociation gains were erased when effective stress was increased from in situ values ( 1 MPa) to 10MPa in a simulation of the depressurization method for methane extraction from hydrate. Vertical-to-horizontal permeability anisotropy was also investigated. First-ever multi-stage loading tests and strain-rate alternation compression tests were successfully conducted for evaluating sediment strengthening dependence on the rate and magnitude of effective confining stress changes. In addition, oedometer tests were performed up to 40MPa of consolidation stress to simulate the depressurization method in ultra-deep sea environments. Consolidation curves measured with and without gas hydrate were investigated over a wide range of effective confining stresses. Compression curves for gas hydrate-bearing sediments were convex downward due to high hydrate saturations. Consolidation tests show that

  8. The application of precision gas chromatography to the identification of types of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramers, C.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Pacakova, V.; Ribeiro de Andrade, I.

    1970-01-01

    It appears that under precisely controlled conditions retention indices of apolar substances on apolar stationary phases can be reproduced to 0.03 units. This permits the accurate measurement of the temperature coefficients of the K index for different classes of hydrocarbons. In this way classes of

  9. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  10. Innovative Approaches to the Solution of Searching Hydrocarbons in Deep Horizons of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Trofimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to the problem of hydrocarbon exploration in deep horizons, which is especially important for the old oil and gas bearing provinces, in particular, for the Volga-Ural province. The example of Riphean-Vendian deposits shows that the solution of this problem is possible if we use not only data of the structural plans of the studied horizons, but also the presence in the immediate vicinity of the identified structures of the oil feeding channels (faults allocated by the high-depth CDP seismic survey. Based on a comparative analysis of the structure of the White Tiger field (Vietnam and Zhigulev arch, it was concluded that they are very similar and that it is expedient to set up, within the last tectonic element, purposeful studies to explore the prospects of oil and gas potential of the Precambrian basement.

  11. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  12. Short- and Long-Term Dynamics of Gas Hydrate at GC600: A Gulf of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Johansen, C.; Silva, M.; Daneshgar, S.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Shedd, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The GC600 hydrocarbon seep is located at 1200 m in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Satellite data show it to be one of the most prolific sources of natural oil slicks in the entire GOM. We mapped its seafloor oil and gas vents with 3-D seismic, swath-bathymetry acoustics and submersible observations, documenting gas hydrate deposits, brine pools, benthic fauna, and authigenic carbonates. Geophysical profiles show subbottom locations of salt bodies and migration conduits. We deployed time-lapse imaging systems focused on individual vents to quantify release rates. Oil and gas flow upward along the flanks of an allochthonous salt body from source rocks at 10,000 m and migrate to the seafloor from faults emanating from the salt. Venting to the water column and surface consists of oily bubbles and occurs in two fields separated by ~1 km. The NW vent field (Megaplume) appears to be a more recent expression and hosts about three highly active vents; while the SE vent field (Birthday Candles) hosts more than 10 vents that are generally slower. We measured discharge rates of 2.6 cm3 s-1 and Megaplume and 0.09 cm3 s-1 at Birthday Candles. Although surface deposits of gas hydrate were evident at both vent fields, the Birthday Candles area featured dozens of conical mounds formed by gas hydrate that were dark brown due to large amounts of liquid oil perfused throughout the deposits. Large brine pools indicated gas hydrate formation at the seafloor. Venting occurred in horizontal fissures on the mounds, in which oil and hydrate combined to form short-lived chimneys and balloon-like structures. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola) were extremely abundant in burrows extending from the sediment into the gas hydrate. Proceeding farther to the SE, venting is reduced and absent, but surface carbonate deposits suggest relict gas hydrate mounds. We propose that the NW to SE trend at GC600 encompasses the progressive development of a biogeochemical filter that sequesters and

  13. Estimating Emissions of Toxic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Production Sites in the Barnett Shale Region of Northern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Lyon, David R; Tsai, Tracy R; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2016-10-04

    Oil and natural gas operations have continued to expand and move closer to densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples collected downwind of oil and gas sites revealed enhancements in several potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when compared to background values. Molar emissions ratios relative to methane were determined for hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX compounds). Using methane leak rates measured from the Picarro mobile flux plane (MFP) system and a Barnett Shale regional methane emissions inventory, the rates of emission of these toxic gases were calculated. Benzene emissions ranged between 51 ± 4 and 60 ± 4 kg h -1 . Hexane, the most abundantly emitted pollutant, ranged from 642 ± 45 to 1070 ± 340 kg h -1 . While observed hydrocarbon enhancements fall below federal workplace standards, results may indicate a link between emissions from oil and natural gas operations and concerns about exposure to hazardous air pollutants. The larger public health risks associated with the production and distribution of natural gas are of particular importance and warrant further investigation, particularly as the use of natural gas increases in the United States and internationally.

  14. Analytical method validation of GC-FID for the simultaneous measurement of hydrocarbons (C2-C4) in their gas mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Oman Zuas; Harry budiman; Muhammad Rizky Mulyana

    2016-01-01

    An accurate gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of light hydrocarbons (C2-C4) in their gas mixture. The validation parameters were evaluated based on the ISO/IEC 17025 definition including method selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), and ruggedness. Under the optimum analytical conditions, the analysis of gas mixture revealed that each target comp...

  15. Four-Wire Impedance Spectroscopy on Planar Zeolite/Chromium Oxide Based Hydrocarbon Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Impedometric zeolite hydrocarbon sensors with a chromium oxide intermediatelayer show a very promising behavior with respect to sensitivity and selectivity. Theunderlying physico-chemical mechanism is under investigation at the moment. In order toverify that the effect occurs at the electrode and that zeolite bulk properties remain almostunaffected by hydrocarbons, a special planar setup was designed, which is very close to realsensor devices. It allows for conducting four-wire impedance spectroscopy as well as two-wire impedance spectroscopy. Using this setup, it could be clearly demonstrated that thesensing effect can be ascribed to an electrode impedance. Furthermore, by combining two-and four-wire impedance measurements at only one single frequency, the interference of thevolume impedance can be suppressed and an easy signal evaluation is possible, withouttaking impedance data at different frequencies.

  16. Investigations on the carbon contaminations on the alkali cells of DPAL with hydrocarbon buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Tan, Rongqing; Wang, Yujie; Ye, Qing; Bian, Jintian; Huang, Wei; Li, Hui; Han, Gaoce

    2017-10-01

    Diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) with hydrocarbon buffer gases has the features of low threshold and high efficiency. The chemical reaction between alkali and hydrocarbon gases affects the life time of DPAL. In this paper, a method based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Lambert-Beer law is adopted to find a safe temperature at which DPAL runs for a long term. A theoretical model is established to figure out ways to reduce the peak temperature in the cell window. The results indicates that 170 °C is a safe temperature. Although the absorbance of the cell window to the pump light and alkali laser is lower, there is temperature increase. Small light-transmitting area and air blowing on the windows can reduce the peak temperature effectively. Cooling the cell window is essential and critical in a long-term running DPAL.

  17. Performance of an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator operating in gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode with nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudath Nayak, H.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2009-07-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of auto refrigerant cascade (ARC) refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures. Both flammable and non-flammable refrigerant mixtures can be used in these systems. The performance of an ARC system with optimum nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon mixtures between 90 and 160 K is presented in this paper.

  18. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples

  19. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  20. Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  1. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  2. Performance Evaluations and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras That Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical gas imaging (OGI) cameras have the unique ability to exploit the electromagnetic properties of fugitive chemical vapors to make invisible gases visible. This ability is extremely useful for industrial facilities trying to mitigate product losses from escaping gas and fac...

  3. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in irradiated fish and prawns by means of on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bogl, K.W.; Schreiberg, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were analyzed in a fatty (halibut) and a lean fish (cod) as well as in a prawn species by on-line coupled liquid chromatography (LC) -gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry. In irradiated halibut which is known to contain mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all expected radiolytic alkanes, alkenes, and alkadienes could be detected. The yields of the C(n-1) and C(n-2:1) hydrocarbons were comparable to those found in irradiated lipids of terrestrial animals and plants. However, in cod and prawns which contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the C(n-1) hydrocarbons were found in concentrations which were up to 10 times higher whereas the C(n-2:1) products were again comparable to those of terrestrial animals and plants. The identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in fish lipids was achieved by transfer of the hydrocarbons from the LC column to the gas chromatographic column in fractions differing in their degree of unsaturation. For the first time, radiation-induced hydrocarbons with more than four double bonds generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4 omega 6 and 20:5 omega 3) could be identified

  4. Analytical method validation of GC-FID for the simultaneous measurement of hydrocarbons (C2-C4 in their gas mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Zuas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of light hydrocarbons (C2-C4 in their gas mixture. The validation parameters were evaluated based on the ISO/IEC 17025 definition including method selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ, and ruggedness. Under the optimum analytical conditions, the analysis of gas mixture revealed that each target component was well-separated with high selectivity property. The method was also found to be precise and accurate. The method linearity was found to be high with good correlation coefficient values (R2 ≥ 0.999 for all target components. It can be concluded that the GC-FID developed method is reliable and suitable for determination of light C2-C4 hydrocarbons (including ethylene, propane, propylene, isobutane, and n-butane in their gas mixture. The validated method has successfully been applied to the estimation of hydrocarbons light C2-C4 hydrocarbons in natural gas samples, showing high performance repeatability with relative standard deviation (RSD less than 1.0% and good selectivity with no interference from other possible components could be observed.

  5. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  6. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W. [BgVV - Federal Inst. for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author).

  7. Interlaboratory tests to identify irradiation treatment of various foods via gas chromatographic detection of hydrocarbons, ESR spectroscopy and TL analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.; Schulzki, G.; Linke, B.; Spiegelberg, A.; Mager, M.; Boegl, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons (HC) and 2-alkylcyclobutanones, the ESR spectroscopic detection of radiation-specific radicals and the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis of silicate mineral are the most important methods for identification of irradiated foods. After successful performance in interlaboratory studies on meat products, fish, spices, herbs and shells of nuts, all or some of these methods have been approved by national authorities in Germany and the United Kingdom. Recently, draft European Standards have been elaborated for approval by member states of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Several research laboratories have shown that these methods can be applied to various foods not yet tested in collaborative studies. However, for an effective application in food control it is necessary to prove their suitability in interlaboratory studies. Therefore, in 1993/94, various interlaboratory tests were organised by the BgVV. In an ESR spectroscopic test, shrimps and paprika powder were examined. Shrimps were also the subject of examination in a TL test. Finally, GC detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the fat fraction of foods was used in another test to identify irradiated Camembert, avocado, papaya and mango. In the following paper, results of the interlaboratory tests are summarised. Detailed reports are published by this institute. (author)

  8. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  9. Mechanism of hydrocarbon reduction using multiple injection in a natural gas fuelled/micro-pilot diesel ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklow, G.J.; Gong, W. [University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Research has shown that a large amount of natural gas (NG) is unburned at light loads in an NG fuelled/micro-pilot diesel compression ignition engine. A mechanism of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) reduction using multiple injections of micro-pilot diesel has been proposed in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for a dual-fuel engine based on a modified CAT3401 engine configuration. The computations show that a split injection with a small percentage (e.g. 30 per cent of diesel in the second injection pulse) can significantly reduce HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. Based on parax metric studies to optimize the timing of both of the injection pulses, HC emissions could be reduced by 90 per cent, with a reduction in CO emissions of 50 per cent and NO{sub x} emissions of 70 per cent in comparison to a singlex injection pulse-base case configuration. (author)

  10. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar contaminated soil at manufactured gas plant sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.S.

    1998-04-01

    One of EPRI's goals regarding the environmental behavior of organic substances consists of developing information and predictive tools to estimate the release potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils at manufactured gas (MGP) plant sites. A proper assessment of the distribution of contaminants under equilibrium conditions and the potential for mass-transfer constraints is essential in evaluating the environmental risks of contaminants in the subsurface at MGP sites and for selecting remediation options. The results of this research provide insights into estimating maximum release concentrations of PAHs from MGP soils that have been contaminated by direct contact with the tar or through years of contact with contaminated groundwater. Attention is also given to evaluating the use of water-miscible cosolvents for estimating aqueous phase concentrations, and assessing the role of mass-transfer constraints in the release of PAHs from MGP site soils

  11. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  12. Quantitative analysis of higher hydrocarbons in natural gas using coupled solid-phase extraction / supercritiacal fluid extraction with on-line GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Meulen-Kuijk, van der L.; Smit, A.L.C.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Characterisation of natural gas with respect to the hydrocarbon content is a challenging analytical problem due to the extremely low concentrations and the complexity of the matrix. In this publication a method is described for fully on-line preconcentration and analysis of n-nonane and higher

  13. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of deepwater natural gas mixtures with heavy hydrocarbon content at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago; Ejaz, Saquib; Zhou, Jingjun; Al-Marri, Mohammed; Holste, James J.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes high-accuracy density measurements and phase envelopes for deepwater natural gas mixtures. Mixtures primarily consist of (0.88 and 0.94) mole fraction methane and both mixtures includes heavy components (C 6+ ) more than 0.002 mole fraction. Experimental density and phase envelope data for deep and ultra-deep reservoir mixtures are scarce in literature and high accuracy measurements for such parameters for such natural gas-like mixtures are essential to validate the benchmark equations for custody transfer such as AGA8-DC92 and GERG-2008 equation of states (EOS). Thus, in this paper we report density and phase envelope experimental data via compact single-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter and isochoric apparatuses. Such data help gas industry to avoid retrograde condensation in natural gas pipelines

  15. Temperature-modulated direct thermoelectric gas sensors: thermal modeling and results for fast hydrocarbon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettig, Frank; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Direct thermoelectric gas sensors are a promising alternative to conductometric gas sensors. For accurate results, a temperature modulation technique in combination with a regression analysis is advantageous. However, the thermal time constant of screen-printed sensors is quite large. As a result, up to now the temperature modulation frequency (20 mHz) has been too low and the corresponding principle-related response time (50 s) has been too high for many applications. With a special design, respecting the physical properties of thermal waves and the use of signal processing similar to a lock-in-amplifier, it is possible to achieve response times of about 1 s. As a result, direct thermoelectric gas sensors with SnO 2 as a gas-sensitive material respond fast and are reproducible to the propane concentration in the ambient atmosphere. Due to the path-independent behavior of the thermovoltage and the temperature, the measured thermopower of two sensors is almost identical

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-01-01

    as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated

  17. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ANIONS WITH MOLECULES OF INTERSTELLAR RELEVANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang Zhibo; Martinez, Oscar; Wehres, Nadine; Bierbaum, Veronica M.; Snow, Theodore P.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied reactions of small dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anions with neutral species of interstellar relevance. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K for the reactions of phenide (C 6 H – 5 ), naphthalenide (C 10 H – 7 ), and anthracenide (C 14 H – 9 ) with atomic H, H 2 , and D 2 using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube instrument. Reaction rate constants of phenide with neutral molecules (CO, O 2 , CO 2 , N 2 O, C 2 H 2 , CH 3 OH, CH 3 CN, (CH 3 ) 2 CO, CH 3 CHO, CH 3 Cl, and (CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 O) are also measured under the same conditions. Experimental measurements are accompanied by ab initio calculations to provide insight into reaction pathways and enthalpies. Our measured reaction rate constants should prove useful in the modeling of astrophysical environments, particularly when applied to dense regions of the interstellar and circumstellar medium.

  18. Gas-phase Reactions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions with Molecules of Interstellar Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang, Zhibo; Martinez, Oscar; Wehres, Nadine; Snow, Theodore P.; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2012-02-01

    We have studied reactions of small dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anions with neutral species of interstellar relevance. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K for the reactions of phenide (C6H- 5), naphthalenide (C10H- 7), and anthracenide (C14H- 9) with atomic H, H2, and D2 using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube instrument. Reaction rate constants of phenide with neutral molecules (CO, O2, CO2, N2O, C2H2, CH3OH, CH3CN, (CH3)2CO, CH3CHO, CH3Cl, and (CH3CH2)2O) are also measured under the same conditions. Experimental measurements are accompanied by ab initio calculations to provide insight into reaction pathways and enthalpies. Our measured reaction rate constants should prove useful in the modeling of astrophysical environments, particularly when applied to dense regions of the interstellar and circumstellar medium.

  19. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  1. Measurements of gas and particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air at urban, rural and near-roadway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. C.; Herbrandson, C.; Krause, M. J.; Schmitt, C.; Lippert, C. J.; McMahon, C. R.; Ellickson, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas and particle phases over two years using high volume samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters and XAD-4 at a rural site, an urban site, and a site adjacent to a heavily trafficked roadway. Overall results were generally as expected, in that concentrations increased from rural to urban to near-roadway sites, and PAHs with high vapor pressures (liquid subcooled, PoL) and low octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were mainly in the gas phase, while those with low PoL and high Koa were predominantly in the particle phase. Intermediate PAHs existed in both phases with the phase distribution following a seasonal pattern of higher gas phase concentrations in summer due to temperature effects. The overall pattern of phase distribution was consistent with PAH properties and ambient conditions and was similar at all three sites. The particle-bound fraction (ϕ) was well-described empirically by nonlinear regressions with log Koa and log PoL as predictors. Adsorption and absorption models underestimated the particle-bound fraction for most PAHs. The dual aerosol-air/soot-air model generally represented the gas-particle partitioning better than the other models across all PAHs, but there was a tendency to underestimate the range in the particle-bound fraction seen in measurements. There was a statistically insignificant tendency for higher PAHs in the particle phase at the near roadway site, and one piece of evidence that PAHs may be enriched on ultrafine particles at the near roadway site. Understanding the phase and particle size distributions of PAHs in highly polluted, high exposure microenvironments near traffic sources will help shed light on potential health effects.

  2. Fractionation of Hydrocarbons Between Oil and Gas Phases Fractionnement des hydrocarbures entre les phases huile et gaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffier-Meray V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of hydrocarbon fractionation between oil and gas phases is of interest for several purposes in reservoir exploitation. In reservoir geochemistry, the evolution of light hydrocarbon fractions of oils may explain some migration phenomena. In gas injection projects, the preferred dissolution of some components in gas may alter the composition as well as the properties of the oil. Underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoirs may also be concerned by these problems. Results of several IFP studies are described here to illustrate and to quantify the phenomenon. Two of them, using real reservoir fluids, concern reservoir geochemistry, while the third, which is a swelling test, aimed to study gas injection, investigated a synthetic reservoir fluid with hydrocarbon components up to C30. Two pieces of equipment were used: a sapphire cell with a maximum pressure rating of 400 bar and a high pressure apparatus called Hercule with a maximum pressure of 1500 bar. For each fluid, the saturation pressure was measured. For various pressure levels below saturation, the coexisting liquid and gas phases were sampled at constant pressure, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. In the gas injection study, sampling was repeated with different quantities of injection gas. Compared to a n-paraffin with the same number of carbon atoms, aromatic hydrocarbons appear to stay preferentially in the liquid phase, as do cycloalkanes to a lesser extent. The gaseous phase is slightly enriched in isoalkanes. These fractionation effects are less pronounced near the critical region. These phenomena have been modeled with a cubic equation of state combined with a group contribution mixing rule. L'étude du fractionnement des hydrocarbures légers entre les phases gazeuses et liquides intéresse plusieurs domaines dans le cadre de l'exploitation des gisements. En géochimie de réservoir l'évolution de la composition de la fraction légère peut

  3. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  4. Adsorption isotherms of some alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons and surface energies on partially dealuminated Y faujasite zeolite by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondor, Anett; Dallos, András

    2014-10-03

    Adsorption isotherm data of some alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene) measured in the temperature range of 423-523K on a partially dealuminated faujasite type DAY F20 zeolite by inverse gas chromatography are presented in this work. The temperature dependent form of Tóth's equation has been fitted to the multiple temperature adsorption isotherms of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene with standard deviations of 4.6, 5.0, 5.9, 4.3, 5.1 and 6.3mmolkg(-1) and coefficients of determinations (r(2)) of 0.977, 0.971, 0.974, 0.975, 0.991 and 0.991, respectively. The gas-solid equilibria and modeling were interpreted on the basis of the interfacial properties of the zeolite, by dispersive, specific and total surface energy heterogeneity profiles and distributions of the adsorbent measured by surface energy analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in liquid water alter nutrient bioavailability and gas diffusion in frozen antarctic soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Bioremediation has been used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated sites in polar regions; however, limited knowledge exists in understanding how frozen conditions influence factors that regulate microbial activity. We hypothesized that increased liquid water (θ(liquid) ) would affect nutrient supply rates (NSR) and gas diffusion under frozen conditions. If true, management practices that increase θ(liquid) should also increase bioremediation in polar soils by reducing nutrient and oxygen limitations. Influence of θ(liquid) on NSR was determined using diesel-contaminated soil (0-8,000 mg kg(-1)) from Casey Station, Antarctica. The θ(liquid) was altered between 0.007 and 0.035 cm(3) cm(-3) by packing soil cores at different bulk densities. The nutrient supply rate of NH 4+ and NO 3-, as well as gas diffusion coefficient, D(s), were measured at two temperatures, 21°C and -5°C, to correct for bulk density effects. Freezing decreased NSR of both NH 4+ and NO 3-, with θ(liquid) linked to nitrate and ammonia NSR in frozen soil. Similarly for D(s), decreases due to freezing were much more pronounced in soils with low θ(liquid) compared to soils with higher θ(liquid) contents. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between degradation rates and θ(liquid) under frozen conditions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Detection and identification of radiation induced hydrocarbons in meets with the use of gas chromatography as one of methods for the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Results of the determination of the content of radiation induced hydrocarbons in meat samples (chicken, pork, beef) as well as proportion between the concentration of individual hydrocarbons in relation to the content of fatty acids in a given product are presented. The measurements have been done with the use of a Perkin Elmer model 8700 gas chromatograph equipped with a FID detector. The present study is a preliminary work on the implementation of a routine method for the detection of irradiation in foods that contain fats. (author)

  7. Determination of basic azaarenes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter by gas chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben; Clausen, Peraxel; Jensen, Finn Palmgren

    1986-01-01

    phase (adjusted to pH 14 with potassium hydroxide) with dichloromethane, and determined by capillary gas chromatography (g.c.) with a nitrogen-sensitive detector. The PAH in the toluene phase are isolated by means of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction...

  8. Determination of adsorption isotherms of chlorinated hydrocarbons on halloysite adsorbent by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, K; Słomkiewicz, P M

    2013-05-03

    Inverse gas chromatographic methods of isotherm determination peak maximum (PM) and peak division (PD) were compared. These methods were applied to determine adsorption isotherms of dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on acid-activated halloysite and adsorption enthalpy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of an anti-knock index and hydrocarbon emissions of various natural gas blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The North American rail industry is examining the use of natural gas to reduce fuel costs for locomotives that are powered by dual : fuel engines. This report evaluates the ability of an existing methane number algorithm to predict rapid combustion i...

  10. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Roberts, William L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.

    2012-01-01

    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C

  11. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar at manufactured-gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.C.; Rao, P.S.C.; Lee, L.S.; Okuda, I.

    1992-08-01

    One component of the EPRI's research on Envirorunental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) consists of developing information and models to predict releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at MGP sites. The results of this report focus primarily on release of PAHs from coal tars. There are at least two approaches to predicting the release of organic chemicals from coal tar to water. The simplest method to estimate aqueous concentrations is to assume that water solubility of a PAH compound released from the tar can be defined by equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions. Application of Raoult's law is another method to predict aqueous concentrations, which requires the assumption of ''ideal'' behavior for partitioning of PAHs between the tar and water phases. To evaluate the applicability of these two methods for predicting PAH releases, laboratory experiments were conducted with eight coal tar samples from former MGP sites across the country. Migration of chemicals in the environment and resulting contaminant plumes in groundwater are determined by leachate concentrations of the chemicals. The use of equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions will usually result in an overestimation of PAH concentrations in the leachate from a coal tar source, and thus the resulting PAH concentrations in groundwater. Raoult's law appears to be a more accurate approach to predicting the release of several PAHs from coal tars. Furthermore, if nonequilibrium conditions prevail, aqueous-phase PAH concentrations will be even lower than those predicted using Raoult's law

  12. Multi-metallic oxides as catalysts for light alcohols and hydrocarbons from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Miguel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, L; Galindo, H de J; Dominguez, J. M; Salmon, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A series of Cu-Co-Cr oxides doped with alkaline metals (M), were prepared by the coprecipitation method with metal nitrates (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) and (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} in aqueous solution. The calcined products were used as catalysts for the Fisher-Tropsch synthesis in a stainless-steel fixed bed microreactor. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, and the specific surface area, pore size and nitrogen adsorption-desorption properties were also determined. The alkaline metals favored the methanol synthesis and prevent the dehydration reactions whereas the hydrocarbon formation is independent to these metals. [Spanish] Una serie de oxidos Cu-Co-Cr soportados con metales alcalinos (M), fueron preparados por el metodo con nitratos metalicos (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) y (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} en soluciones acuosas. Los productos calcinados fueron usados como catalizadores para la sintesis de Fisher-tropsch en la superficie fija de un microreactor de acero inoxidable. El material fue caracterizado por difraccion de rayos X y el area de superficie especifica, el tamano de poro y propiedades de absorcion-desorcion de nitrogeno fueron determinadas. Los metales alcalinos favorecieron la sintesis de metanol y previnieron las reacciones de deshidratacion, mientras que la formacion de hidrocarburos es independiente de estos metales.

  13. Catalytic reduction of methane/unburned hydrocarbons in smoke from lean-burn gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, Jan de.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been: To describe the flue gas conditions of typical stationary gas engines for cogeneration; To evaluate the predominant causes of deactivation of oxidation catalysts under realistic operation conditions; To develop improved long-term stable oxidation catalysts; To evaluate alternative catalyst-based methane reduction technologies. Most gas engines for stationary purposes are efficient lean-burn gas engines. Both the high efficiency and the very lean operation lead to low exhaust temperatures. However, there is now a tendency to design engines with un-cooled exhaust manifolds. This leads to higher shaft efficiency and increases the exhaust temperature. Exhaust gas composition and temperatures during continuous operation and start/stops are given in this report. Analyses have been made of catalyst samples to find predominant causes for oxidation catalyst deactivation. The analyses have shown that the presence of sulphur dioxide in the flue gas causes sulphur poisoning on the active catalyst surface. This effect is dependent on both the catalyst formulation and the catalyst support material composition. Neither sintering, nor other poisoning components than sulphur have been on the examined catalyst samples. The sulphur dioxide in the exhaust is a result of the sulphur in the odorisation additive used in the natural gas (approx. 10 mg/n 3 m THT) and of the sulphur present in combusted lubrication oil. These sources leads to a level of approx. 0.3 - 0.6 ppm (vol) SO 2 in the exhaust gas. Based on a large number of laboratory tests, a new oxidation catalyst formulation has been developed and successfully tested over 5000 hours of operation at a commercial cogeneration plant. This long-term testing has been additionally supplemented by short-term testings at test sites to see performance under other operation conditions. It has been shown that a rise in flue gas temperature (from e.g. 450 deg. C) will significantly reduce the necessary

  14. Gas-particle phase partitioning and particle size distribution of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Hongbo; Yang, Lili; Wu, Xiaolin; Xu, Yang; Liu, Guorui

    2017-12-01

    Chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br-PAHs) are emerging semi-volatile organic pollutants in haze-associated particulate matter (PM). Their gas-particle phase partitioning and distribution among PM fractions have not been clarified. Clarification would increase understanding of atmospheric behavior and health risks of Cl/Br-PAHs. In this study, samples of the gas phase and 4 PM phases (aerodynamic diameters (d ae ) > 10 μm, 2.5-10 μm, 1.0-2.5 μm, and <1.0 μm) were collected simultaneously during haze events in Beijing and analyzed. Normalized histogram distribution indicated that the Cl/Br-PAHs tended to adhere to fine particles. Over 80% of the Cl-PAHs and 70% of the Br-PAHs were associated with fine PM (d ae  < 2.5 μm). The gas-particle phase partitioning and PM distribution of Cl/Br-PAHs when heating of buildings was required, which was associated with haze events, were obviously different from those when heating was not required. The relationship between the logarithmic geometric mean diameters of the Cl/Br-PAH congeners and reciprocal of the temperature (1/T) suggested that low air temperatures during the heating period could lead to high proportions of Cl/Br-PAHs in the fine particles. Increased coal burning during the heating period also contributed to high Cl/Br-PAH loads in the fine particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  16. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladford, J.

    1996-07-18

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. (author) figs.

  17. Multidimensional High-Resolution Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Various Turbine Engine Fuel Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    time were spurious transits observed during the recording of the chromatographic output data. *Packaged gas purification filters supplied by Alltech ... Alltech ) that were needed for these unusual installations. When the column diameters were small and of comparable size, the assembly attach- ments at...into an MDGC system has definite advantages as separations can be made faster and with greater detectability. However, specific precautions must be

  18. Real Gas Effects on the Performance of Hydrocarbon-fueled Pulse Detonation Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results for a single-pulse detonation tube wherein the effects of high temperature dissociation and the subsequent recombination influence the sensible heat release available for providing propulsive thrust. The study involved the use of ethylene and air at equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 1.0. The real gas effects on the sensible heat release were found to be significantly large so as to have an impact on the thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of a PDE.

  19. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  20. Monitoring of Hydrocarbons in Sediment and Biota Related to Oil and Gas Development in Near- and Off-Shore Areas of the Arctic Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, G.; Hardin, J.; Libby, S.

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing interest in extracting oil and gas from offshore environments of Alaska. The Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in Development Area (ANIMIDA) project, started in 1999, has been producing information to evaluate potential effects of oil and gas activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. ANIMIDA was preceded by the Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program. Monitoring has mostly been in pre-drilling locations, but also during development and production periods. Surveys were conducted to assess bottom sediment, sediment cores, suspended sediment, and biota for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons, biological and petroleum markers, and geophysical parameters. The concentrations measured in sediments and biota were at or near background throughout most of the Beaufort Sea. There were no significant differences between exploration, production, and background locations, and the concentrations were consistently below those of ecological concern. For instance, TPAH in sediment ranged from below 100 to about 1,000 µg/kg and were controlled primarily by sediment characteristics (e.g., grain size and organic carbon). Hydrocarbons in sediments were from petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic sources. Small areas with indications of input of anthropogenic chemicals were identified by sensitive diagnostic analysis techniques and are possibly associated with historic exploratory drilling and vessels. Sediment cores indicate a uniform historical deposition of hydrocarbons, although some evidence of past drilling activities were observed. Fish, amphipods, and clams contained background levels of hydrocarbons and showed no evidence of effects from accumulation of contaminants; TPAH concentrations were below 100 µg/kg in most biota. Noteworthy interannual fluctuations were observed for PAH concentrations in sediment and biota, likely due to winnowing of sediment fines by large storms and annual variations in river discharges. Significant natural sources

  1. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  2. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  3. Comparison of photoacoustic radiometry to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic radiometry (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise

  4. Evaluation of the performance and response of the bacharach TLV sniffer and H-Nu photoionization gas analyzer to common hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, C F; Zakraysek, N; Lautner, G M; Confer, R G

    1983-10-01

    Two direct reading instruments, the H-Nu PI 101 photoionization analyzer and the J.W. Bacharach TLV Sniffer, were evaluated under laboratory conditions to determine their performance characteristics when challenged by vapors of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures. Each instrument was evaluated against the manufacturer's recommended test solvent for rise time, fall time, noise, span drift, zero drift, position sensitivity, battery life, and recharge time. The precision, accuracy, and operating linear range were also determined for the test solvents and some petroleum solvent mixtures which are common refinery products. For these latter mixtures, correction factors are presented which allow for an improved estimate of ambient concentrations when monitoring with each of these instruments. All tests except operating humidity range were performed by challenging each instrument with a known concentration of hydrocarbon generated by evaporating calculated liquid volumes into a static chamber. Humidity tests were performed using a dynamic dilution apparatus generating a fixed concentration of hydrocarbon while relative humidity was varied. Concentrations in both systems were verified by gas injection into gas chromatograph. Each instrument performed well when challenged by manufacturers' recommended test solvents. Humidity was shown to influence each instrument's readings. Also, the instruments were shown to have application as monitors of airborne concentrations of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures.

  5. ABOUT THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF HYDROCARBON LAKES IN THE ORIGIN OF TITAN'S NOBLE GAS ATMOSPHERIC DEPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, D.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebonnois, S.; Lavvas, P.; Lobo, L. Q.; Ferreira, A. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    An unexpected feature of Titan's atmosphere is the strong depletion in primordial noble gases revealed by the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer aboard the Huygens probe during its descent on 2005 January 14. Although several plausible explanations have already been formulated, no definitive response to this issue has yet been found. Here, we investigate the possible sequestration of these noble gases in the liquid contained in lakes and wet terrains on Titan and the consequences for their atmospheric abundances. Considering the atmosphere and the liquid existing on the soil as a whole system, we compute the abundance of each noble gas relative to nitrogen. To do so, we make the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and the atmosphere, the abundances of the different constituents being determined via regular solution theory. We find that xenon's atmospheric depletion can be explained by its dissolution at ambient temperature in the liquid presumably present on Titan's soil. In the cases of argon and krypton, we find that the fractions incorporated in the liquid are negligible, implying that an alternative mechanism must be invoked to explain their atmospheric depletion.

  6. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Origin of natural gas; Tennen gas no kigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y. [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-20

    Natural gas, which is a general term of flammable hydrocarbon gases such as methane, is classified by origin into the following categories : (1) oil field gas (oil gas), (2) aquifers (bacteria-fermented methane), (3) coal gas (coal field gas), and (4) abiogenetic gas. The natural gas which has (1-4) origins and is now used as resource in a large quantity is (1) oil field gas. This gas is a hydrocarbon gas recovered in the production process of petroleum and contains components such as ethane, propane and butane. To the contrary, (2) aquifers and (3) coal gas have methane as main component. As (4) abiogenetic methane, there are gas formed in inorganic reaction in activities of submarine volcanos and deep gas (earth origin gas). Oil field gas has kerogen origin. Aquifers were formed by fermentation of organic matters. Coal gas was formed by coalification of vitrinite. As abiogenetic methane, there are inorganic reaction formation gas and deep gas, the latter of which exists little as resource. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles modified with polyfuran for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons prior to their determination by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Amirhassan; Baghayeri, Mehdi; Kashmari, Milad

    2016-01-01

    We describe magnetite nanoparticles modified with polyfuran (PFu/Fe 3 O 4 ) and their use as adsorbents for the solid-phase extraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene from water and urine samples. The PFu/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The adsorbent was magnetically separated from the sample, extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracts were submitted to gas chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection. The amount of adsorbent, adsorption and desorption time, salt addition and desorption solvent were optimized. The method displays detection limits (at an S/N ratio of 3) in the range from 5 to 20 pg mL −1 , and the limits of quantification (at an S/N ratio of 10) are between 20 and 50 pg mL −1 . Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precision are 4.1–5.6, and 5.3–6.5 %, respectively. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by extracting and determining PAHs in (spiked) real water and urine samples. (author)

  9. A study on the separation and extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water sample by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Park, Song Ja; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, In Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The separation and sample extraction methods of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH S ) in water samples were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and some ex-traction methods involved liquid-liquid extraction, disk extraction and solid-phase extraction methods. The separation of 19 PAH s was possible by partial variation of oven temperature of GC/MS in temperature range 80∼310.deg.C. Extraction procedures of PAH s in water samples were somewhat modified and com-pared as extraction recoveries and the simplicity of methods. Extraction recoveries of PAH s were 71.3∼109.5% by liquid-liquid extraction method. By using disk extraction, good extraction recoveries (80.7∼94.9%) were obtained in case of C 1 8 disk extraction method by filtration. And extraction recoveries of PAH s by C 1 8 solid-phase were in the range of 51.8∼77.9%. Method detection limits (S/N=5) of 19 PAH s were in the range of 0.25∼6.25 ppb by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction and 0.05∼1.25 ppb by disk extraction methods

  10. Modeling solubility of CO2/hydrocarbon gas in ionic liquid ([emim][FAP]) using Aspen Plus simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Bishwadeep; Sati, Sushmita; Shilapuram, Vidyasagar

    2017-08-01

    The Peng-Robinson equation of state with quadratic van der Waals (vdW) mixing rule model was chosen to perform the thermodynamic calculations in Flash3 column of Aspen Plus to predict the solubility of CO 2 or any one of the hydrocarbons (HCs) among methane, ethane, propane, and butane in an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]). Bubble point pressure, solubility, bubble point temperature, fugacity, and partial molar volume at infinite dilution were obtained from the simulations, and enthalpy of absorption, Gibbs free energy of solvation, and entropy change of absorption were estimated by thermodynamic relations. Results show that carbon chain length has a significant effect on the bubble point pressure. Methane has the highest bubble point pressure among all the considered HCs and CO 2 . The bubble point pressure and fugacity variation with temperature is different for CO 2 as compared to HCs for mole fractions above 0.2. Two different profiles are noticed for enthalpy of absorption when plotted as a function of mole fraction of gas soluble in IL. Partial molar volume of CO 2 decreases with increase in temperature in [emim][FAP], while it is increased for HCs. Bubble point temperature decreases with increase in the mole fraction of the solute. Entropy of solvation increases with temperature till a particular value followed by a decrease with further increase in temperature. Gibbs free energy change of solvation showed that the process of solubility was spontaneous.

  11. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Kim, Chong Hyeak

    2018-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic compounds formed by at least two condensed aromatic rings, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. PAHs have been classified as carcinogenIC to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, because they can bind to DNA, causing mutations. Therefore, the levels of PAHs in human urine can be used as an indicator for potential carcinogenesis and cell mutation. An analytical method was developed for the accurate measurement of PAHs in urine using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Urine samples were extracted by an Oasis HLB extraction cartridge after enzymatic hydrolysis with a β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase cocktail. The 18 PAHs were separated using an Agilent DB-5 MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and monitored by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Under the optimized method, the linearity of calibration curves was >0.994. The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 10-100 ng/L. The coefficients of variation were in the range of 0.4-9.0%. The present method was highly accurate for simultaneous determination of 18 PAHs in human urine and could be applied to monitoring and biomedical investigations to check exposure of PAHs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Magnetic solid phase extraction and static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; Wang, Lijia; NguyenVan, Manh; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-01-15

    A magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) protocol combining a static headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method has been developed for extraction, and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and modified by cholesterol chloroformate. Transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the cholesterol-functionalized sorbents, and the main parameters affecting the extraction as well as HS sampling, such as sorbent amount, extraction time, oven temperature and equilibration time have been investigated and established. Combination with HS sampling, the MSPE procedure was simple, fast and environmentally friendly, without need of any organic solvent. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels obtaining the limit of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 0.20 to 7.8 ng/L. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs ≤ 9.9%). The proposed method was successfully applied to drinking water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the formation and properties of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Imre, Dan G. [Imre Consulting; USA; Wilson, Jacqueline [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Bell, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Suski, Kaitlyn J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Shrivastava, Manish [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Beránek, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Alexander, M. Lizabeth [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; USA; Kramer, Amber L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Chemistry; Oregon State University; USA; Environmental and Molecular Toxicology; Oregon State University

    2017-01-01

    When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to ‘pure’ SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  15. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  16. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-01-01

    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C 18 aswell as a few C 16, C 20, C 22, and C 24 FFA, was fed into the boiling zone, evaporated, carriedby hydrogen flow at the rate of 0.5-20 ml/min, and reacted with the 5% Pd/C catalystin the reactor. Reactions were conducted atmospherically at 380-450 °C and the products,qualified and quantified through gas chromatography-flame ionization detector(GC-FID), showed mostly n-heptadecane and a few portion of n-C 15, n-C 19, n-C 21, n-C 23 as well as some cracking species. Results showed that FFA conversion increased withincreasing reaction temperatures but decreased with increasing FFA feed rates and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. The reaction rates were found to decrease with higher temperatureand increase with higher H 2 flow rates. Highly selective heptadecane was achieved byapplying higher temperatures and higher H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. From the results, ascatalyst loading and FFA feed rate were fixed, an optimal reaction temperature of 415 °C as well as H 2-to-FFA molar ratio of 4.16 were presented. These results provided goodbasis for studying the kinetics of decarboxylation process. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  17. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  18. Process for gasification of heavy hydrocarbons or salvaged oil. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1978-09-14

    The invention refers to the separation of solids which are carried over during evaporation of salvaged oil (oil recovered from used oil or fat). They are removed by exposing the oil vapour to an acceleration of 500 g to 20,000g in a hot gas cyclone. Subsequently the cleaned gas is converted to fission gas in a fission gas generator using an air-water gas mixture and is taken to the combustion equipment. By this process salvaged oil and heavy hydrocarbons can be used for burning in Diesel engines without previous refining.

  19. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-03-01

    Lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA, were characterized to assess the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the concentration-dependent effects of a residual oil tar phase on sorption mechanism and availability of PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated similar aromaticity for both lampblack carbon and the oil tar phase, with pronounced resonance signals in the range of 100 to 150 ppm. Scanning-electron microscopic images revealed a physically distinct oil tar phase, especially at high concentrations in lampblack, which resulted in an organic-like film structure when lampblack particles became saturated with the oil tar. Sorption experiments were conducted on a series of laboratory-prepared lampblack samples to systematically evaluate influences of an oil tar phase on PAH sorption to lampblack. Results indicate that the sorption of PAHs to lampblack exhibits a competition among sorption phases at low oil tar contents when micro- and mesopores are accessible. When the oil tar content increases to more than 5 to 10% by weight, this tar phase fills small pores, reduces surface area, and dominates PAH sorption on lampblack surface. A new PAH partitioning model, Kd = KLB-C(1 - ftar)alpha + ftarKtar (alpha = empirical exponent), incorporates these effects in which the control of PAH partitioning transits from being dominated by sorption in lampblack (KLB-C) to absorption in oil tar (Ktar), depending on the fraction of tar (ftar). This study illustrates the importance of understanding interactions among PAHs, oil tar, and lampblack for explaining the differences in availability of PAHs among site soils and, consequently, for refining site-specific risk assessment and establishing soil cleanup levels.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Size distribution characteristics and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2012-07-01

    Size distributions of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in the range of 0.01-18 μm were measured using a nano Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) in an urban location in Guangzhou, China in July 2006. PAH size distributions were fit with five modes and the respective mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) are: Aitken mode (MMAD: ˜0.05 μm), three accumulation modes AMI, AMII, AMIII (MMAD: 0.13-0.17 μm, 0.4-0.45 μm, and 0.9-1.2 μm, respectively), and coarse mode (MMAD: 4-6 μm). Seven-ring PAH was mainly in AMII and AMIII. Five- and six-ring PAHs were found to be abundant in all the three AM. Three- and four-ring PAHs had a significant presence in the coarse mode in addition to the three AM. Size-resolved gas-particle partition coefficients of PAHs (Kp) were estimated using measured EC and OC data. The Kp values of a given PAH could differ by a factor of up to ˜7 on particles in different size modes, with the highest Kp associated with the AMI particles and the lowest Kp associated with the coarse mode particles. Comparison of calculated overall Kp with measured Kp values in Guangzhou by Yang et al. (2010) shows that adsorption on EC appeared to be the dominant mechanism driving the gas-particle partitioning of three- and four-ring PAHs while absorption in OM played a dominant role for five- and six-ring PAHs. The calculated equilibrium timescales of repartitioning indicate that five- to seven-ring PAHs could not achieve equilibrium partitioning within their typical residence time in urban atmospheres, while three- and four-ring PAHs could readily reach new equilibrium states in particles of all sizes. A partitioning flux is therefore proposed to replace the equilibrium assumption in modeling PAH transport and fate.

  1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives in Diesel soot by gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remberg, G.

    1998-11-01

    Periodical monitoring of the exposure levels towards chemical hazards is an important issue of occupational safety and health. Some constituents of diesel exhaust emissions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives, have attracted special attention due to their carcinogenic and partly mutagenic properties. Therefore, the present work focused on the development of new methodical aspects for the determination of these substances in diesel particulate matter. In the first stage of this study the essential gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric characteristics of 51 authentic PAH and NPAH single standards have been investigated. A retention index system on DB-5 type capillary columns has been established in order to facilitate the identification of these target compounds in complex matrices. Before choosing proper MID quantification ions the full scan (+)EI- and ECNCI-mass spectra of all standards were acquired. The GC-(+)EI-MS detection limits of three NPAH were determined with different mass spectrometric modes (i.e. LR/full scan, LR/MID and HR/MID), being in the range of a few picograms in the latter mode. The use of large volume injection in conjunction with a PTV for PAH/NPAH trace analysis was studied and optimized for an injection volume of up to nine microliters. Extraction of diesel soot with dichloromethane was performed in accordance with US EPA method 3545 by means of accelerated solvent extraction, which takes significantly less than one hour. Gas chromatographic investigations on such extracts with various detectors of different selectivity (i.e. FID, LRMS and HRMS) showed the exclusive capability of high mass spectral resolution (about R ∼10000) to differentiate between analytes and matrix components. On the basis of these preliminary results an operating procedure was proposed. Its key-elements are accelerated solvent extraction of the sample and analysis of the resulting solution by means of GC-(+)EI-HRMS followed by

  2. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of novel activated carbon fiber solid-phase, microextraction to the analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tonghua; Jia Jinping; Fang Nenghu; Wang Yalin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of activated carbon fiber (ACF) used as extraction fiber for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and its application for analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. By means of evaluating scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, specific surface area, pore volume, pore distribution, and properties of adsorption and desorption, the optimal active concentration of phosphoric acid has been determined. Coupled with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ACF-SPME is suitable for determination chlorinated hydrocarbons in water with headspace. Experimental parameters such as adsorption and desorption conditions were studied. The optimized method has an acceptable linearity, good precision, with R.S.D. values <10% for each compound. Compared with commercial fibers, ACF has many advantages such as better resistance to organic solvents, better endurance to high temperature and longer lifetime

  4. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  5. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  6. Chapter 3. Determination of semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Burbank, Teresa L.; Olson, Mary C.; Iverson, Jana L.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 38 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semivolatile organic compounds in solid samples is described. Samples are extracted using a pressurized solvent extraction system. The compounds of interest are extracted from the solid sample twice at 13,800 kilopascals; first at 120 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (50:50, volume-to-volume ratio), and then the sample is extracted at 200 degrees Celsius using a water/isopropyl alcohol mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio). The compounds are isolated using disposable solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges containing divinylbenzene-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer resin. The cartridges are dried with nitrogen gas, and then sorbed compounds are eluted from the SPE material using a dichloromethane/diethyl ether mixture (80:20, volume-to-volume ratio) and passed through a sodium sulfate/Florisil SPE cartridge to remove residual water and to further clean up the extract. The concentrated extract is solvent exchanged into ethyl acetate and the solvent volume reduced to 0.5 milliliter. Internal standard compounds are added prior to analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Comparisons of PAH data for 28 sediment samples extracted by Soxhlet and the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method described in this report produced similar results. Extraction of PAH compounds from standard reference material using this method also compared favorably with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of PAHs less than molecular weight 202 (pyrene or fluoranthene) are higher by up to 20 percent using this ASE method, whereas the recoveries of PAHs greater than or equal to molecular weight 202 are equivalent. This ASE method of sample extraction of solids has advantages over conventional Soxhlet extraction by increasing automation of the extraction process, reducing extraction time, and using less solvent. Extract cleanup also is greatly simplified because SPE replaces

  7. Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-06-27

    Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis.

  8. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  9. Method for the simultaneous determination of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial effluents using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoś, Patrycja; Fernandes, André; Boczkaj, Grzegorz

    2018-02-23

    We present a new method for simultaneous determination of 22 monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters including the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH, salting out effect, extraction, and centrifugation time were optimized. The low detection limit ranging from 0.36 to 28 μg/L, limit of quantitation (1.1-84 μg/L), good reproducibility, and wide linear ranges, as well as the recoveries ranging from 71.74 to 114.67% revealed that the new method allows the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons at low concentration levels in industrial effluents having a very complex composition. The developed method was applied to the determination of content of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of raw postoxidative effluents in which 15 compounds were identified at concentrations ranging from 1.21 to 1017.0 μg/L as well as in effluents after chemical treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN BANGLADESHI VEHICLES EXHAUST TAR BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A more sensitive GC-MS method has been established for the determination of some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vehicles exhaust tar samples. The tar samples were extracted using dichloromethane (DMC: n-hexane solvent mixture. A multi-layer clean-up (silica gel/sodium sulphate column was used, followed by glass fiber filter (GFF paper. The method was successfully applied to determine a number of PAHs present in exhaust tar sample of different vehicles of the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.   Keywords: Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, vehicles tar samples, identification, GC-MS/MS

  11. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  12. An alternate mathematical approach to recover hydrogen with high permeate purity from gas streams of small-medium level oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M.; Hussain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas separation processes play a vital role in many industries like hydrogen recovery, air separation, natural gas dehydration. Membrane based gas separation processes offer a great potential for these industrial applications because of their environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and ease of scale up. Mathematical modeling of membrane based gas separation process can help to predict the performance of such separation processes. In this study, a numerical method is proposed by comparing different numerical techniques which are used to solve model equations of co-current flow. Numerical methods such as Bogacki-Shampine method, Dormand-Prince method, Adams-Bashforth-Moulton method, numerical differentiation formulas, modified Rosenbrock formula of order 2, Trapezoidal rule with free interpolant and Trapezoidal rule with backward difference formula of order 2 are used to solve the system of coupled nonlinear differential equations. This approach is used for the first time in a multicomponent membrane based gas separation process. This technique requires least computational time, improved solution stability and has been validated for the separation of hydrogen from multicomponent gas mixture. This numerical technique helps to predict the concentration of hydrogen in reject (retentate) and permeate streams. The simulation results show good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  13. Distribution of Gas Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Selected Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples of Malaysia: a Case Study in Serdang, Selangor and Bachang, Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the gas phase of air from selected indoor and outdoor areas of Selangor and Malacca, Malaysia has been investigated. A locally designed Semi Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD was applied for passive air sampling for 37 days at selected locations. Cleanup was carried out with Gas Purge - Micro Syringe Extraction (GP-MSE and the final analysis was using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. In this study, 6 indoor and 12 outdoor locations were selected for air sampling. A total of 10 compounds of PAHs (Ʃ10PAHs were determined in the range of 0.218 ng/m3 - 1.692 ng/m3 and 0.378 ng/m3 - 1.492 ng/m3 in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. In the outdoor samples, locations such as near a petrol station and heavy traffic showed the maximum levels of Ʃ10PAHs, while rooftop samples showed the lowest Ʃ10PAHs. The distribution of gas phase Ʃ10PAHs was influenced by vehicular emission. Low molecular weight (LMW compounds (2-3 rings were dominant in all samples (>70% indicating that SPMD has successfully sampled the gas phase of the air.

  14. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water from offshore oil and gas production. Test of sample strategy; Aromatiske kulbrinter i produceret vand fra offshore olie- og gas industrien. Test af proevetagningsstrategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.

    2005-07-01

    In co-operation with the Danish EPA, the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has carried out a series of measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water from an offshore oil and gas production platform in the Danish sector of the North Sea as part of the project 'Testing of sampling strategy for aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water from the offshore oil and gas industry'. The measurements included both volatile (BTEX: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and semi-volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: NPD (naphthalenes, phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes) and selected PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). In total, 12 samples of produced water were sampled at the Dan FF production platform located in the North Sea by the operator, Maersk Oil and Gas, as four sets of three parallel samples from November 24 - December 02, 2004. After collection of the last set, the samples were shipped to NERI for analysis. The water samples were collected in 1 L glass bottles that were filled completely (without overfilling) and tightly closed. After sampling, the samples were preserved with hydrochloric acid and cooled below ambient until being shipped off to NERI. Here all samples were analysed in dublicates, and the results show that for BTEX, levels were reduced compared to similar measurements carried out by NERI in 2002 and others. In this work, BTEX levels were approximately 5 mg/L, while similar studies showed levels in the range 0,5 - 35 mg/L. For NPD levels were similar, 0,5 - 1,4 mg/L, while for PAH they seerred elevated; 0,1 - 0,4 mg/L in this work compared to 0,001 - 0,3 mg/L in similar studies. The applied sampling strategy has been tested by performing analysis of variance on the analytical data. The test of the analytical data has shown that the mean values of the three parallel samples collected in series constituted a good estimate of the levels at the time of sampling; thus, the variance between the parallel samples was not

  16. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  17. Sample enrichment for gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water and in organic mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, F.; Furlani, G.; Mangani, F.

    1984-10-19

    Among the extraction and preconcentration steps used for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Soxhlet extraction is largely used for atmospheric dust or other solid material, while liquid-liquid extraction is the method which has been suggested for extraction from water. The use of graphitized carbon black for liquid-solid extraction and preconcentration from water was explored. The properties of different kinds of graphitized carbon black as traps for the extraction and preconcentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from water and mineral oil were determined. The best results were obtained with Carbopack F, eluted with toluene at 100 C. Graphitized carbon black is preferred because of its thermal and chemical stability and its high purity, exhibiting no bleeding and possessing high sensitivity. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Polymeric membrane materials: new aspects of empirical approaches to prediction of gas permeability parameters in relation to permanent gases, linear lower hydrocarbons and some toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykh, O V; Golub, A Yu; Teplyakov, V V

    2011-05-11

    Membrane gas separation technologies (air separation, hydrogen recovery from dehydrogenation processes, etc.) use traditionally the glassy polymer membranes with dominating permeability of "small" gas molecules. For this purposes the membranes based on the low free volume glassy polymers (e.g., polysulfone, tetrabromopolycarbonate and polyimides) are used. On the other hand, an application of membrane methods for VOCs and some toxic gas recovery from air, separation of the lower hydrocarbons containing mixtures (in petrochemistry and oil refining) needs the membranes with preferable penetration of components with relatively larger molecular sizes. In general, this kind of permeability is characterized for rubbers and for the high free volume glassy polymers. Data files accumulated (more than 1500 polymeric materials) represent the region of parameters "inside" of these "boundaries." Two main approaches to the prediction of gas permeability of polymers are considered in this paper: (1) the statistical treatment of published transport parameters of polymers and (2) the prediction using model of ≪diffusion jump≫ with consideration of the key properties of the diffusing molecule and polymeric matrix. In the frames of (1) the paper presents N-dimensional methods of the gas permeability estimation of polymers using the correlations "selectivity/permeability." It is found that the optimal accuracy of prediction is provided at n=4. In the frames of the solution-diffusion mechanism (2) the key properties include the effective molecular cross-section of penetrating species to be responsible for molecular transportation in polymeric matrix and the well known force constant (ε/k)(eff i) of {6-12} potential for gas-gas interaction. Set of corrected effective molecular cross-section of penetrant including noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), permanent gases (H(2), O(2), N(2), CO), ballast and toxic gases (CO(2), NO(,) NO(2), SO(2), H(2)S) and linear lower hydrocarbons (CH(4

  19. Afghan hydrocarbons: a source for development or for conflict? A risk assessment of Norwegian involvement in development of the Afghan oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Arne; Hakim, Mohammad; Newrozi, Sediqa; Sarwari, Akbar; Williams, Aled

    2010-10-22

    Norad has been engaged in capacity building and provision of technical support to the Afghan Ministry of Mines since 2007. A part of this engagement relates to the development of the Afghan Hydrocarbons Law, and commercialization of gas and oil reserves through an international bidding process. The Afghan oil and gas industry has been in production since the mid 1980s, but is in need of major investments. Afghans interviewed are of the opinion that oil and gas reserves are national property, to be used for the benefit of all Afghans. The review has identified a range of risks and challenges to the further process, and Norad is advised to consider: To await further engagement on policy matters until there is further clarity as to how the Government of Afghanistan aims to develop and utilize these resources. But consider to provide: 1) Advice on the political/diplomatic process of negotiating agreements for utilization and division of underground natural resources; 2) Assist in training and development of Afghan technical expertise in oil and gas exploration, production and management; 3) Assist in the further development of the hydro power and alternative energy sector. (AG)

  20. Bi-level CPAP does not improve gas exchange when compared with conventional CPAP for the treatment of neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampland, Andrea L; Plumm, Brenda; Worwa, Cathy; Meyers, Patricia; Mammel, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that short-term application of bi-level nasal continuous positive airway pressure CPAP (SiPAP) compared with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP) at the same mean airway pressure in infants with persistent oxygen need recovering from respiratory distress syndrome would improve CO2 removal with no change in oxygen requirement. Non-blinded, randomised, observational four-period crossover study. Level III NICU; low-birthweight infants requiring CPAP and oxygen while recovering from respiratory distress syndrome. Infants requiring nasal CPAP for >24 h prior to study enrolment, and fraction of inspired oxygen requirement (FiO2) of 0.25-0.5, were randomised to either nCPAP or SiPAP. A crossover design with four 1 h treatment periods was used such that each infant received both treatments twice. Oxygen saturations (SaO2), transcutaneous CO2 (tcCO2) and vital signs were monitored continuously. Polysomnographic recordings were analysed for apnoea, bradycardia and oxygen desaturation. Twenty low-birthweight infants receiving 0.3±0.04% supplemental oxygen on CPAP of 6 cm H2O were studied at an average of 33 days of age (±23 days, SD). There were no differences in tcCO2 or other physiological parameters except mean blood pressure, which was lower during nCPAP (52.3±8.3 vs 54.4±9.1 mm Hg; ±SD; p<0.01). No differences in short or prolonged apnoea, bradycardia or significant desaturation events were observed. At similar mean airway pressures, SiPAP does not improve CO2 removal, oxygenation or other studied physiological parameters with the exception of mean blood pressure, which was not clinically significant. NCT01053455. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Probing the spin multiplicity of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through their infrared emission spectrum: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Cyril; Calvo, Florent; Parneix, Pascal

    2012-08-14

    The anharmonic infrared emission spectrum following an optical excitation has been calculated for a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in their ground singlet electronic state or in their triplet state. The computational protocol relies on second-order perturbation theory and involves a quartic vibrational Hamiltonian, the vibrational quantum numbers being sampled according to a Monte Carlo procedure. In the case of neutral naphthalene, the IR spectrum obtained in the (ground) singlet state differs significantly from the spectrum in the triplet state, especially for out-of-plane CH bending modes. Although not as prominent, spectral differences in larger molecules are still observable.

  2. Graphene oxide bonded fused-silica fiber for solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jubai; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel chemically bonded graphene oxide/fused-silica fiber was prepared and applied in solid-phase microextraction of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples coupled with gas chromatography. It exhibited high extraction efficiency and excellent stability. Effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, stirring rate and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized in our work. Detection limits to the six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were less than 0.08 μg/L, and their calibration curves were all linear (R(2)≥0.9954) in the range from 0.05 to 200 μg/L. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 6.13 and 15.87%, respectively. This novel fiber was then utilized to analyze two real water samples from the Yellow River and local waterworks, and the recoveries of samples spiked at 1 and 10 μg/L ranged from 84.48 to 118.24%. Compared with other coating materials, this graphene oxide-coated fiber showed many advantages: wide linear range, low detection limit, and good stability in acid, alkali, organic solutions and at high temperature. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and beverages using membrane-assisted solvent extraction in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Schellin, Manuela; Popp, Peter

    2007-09-07

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) was applied for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. The MASE conditions were optimized for achieving high enrichment of the analytes from aqueous samples, in terms of extraction conditions (shaking speed, extraction temperature and time), extraction solvent and composition (ionic strength, sample pH and presence of organic solvent). Parameters like linearity and reproducibility of the procedure were determined. The extraction efficiency was above 65% for all the analytes and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for five consecutive extractions ranged from 6 to 18%. At optimized conditions detection limits at the ng/L level were achieved. The effectiveness of the method was tested by analyzing real samples, such as river water, apple juice, red wine and milk.

  4. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  5. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons between the Particulate and the Gas Phase of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke in Relation to Cigarette Technological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzoglou M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Particulate- and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in the mainstream smoke (MSS of 59 manufactured cigarette brands (commercially available brands of unknown tobacco and blend type with variable ‘tar’ yields and physical/technological characteristics. Depending on the existence/absence of filter, the ‘tar’ yield indicated on the packet, and the cigarette length and diameter, the examined cigarette brands were classified into 15 groups: non filter (NF, high (H, medium (M, light (L, super light (SL, ultra light (UL, one-tar yields (O, 100 mm long cigarettes (H-100, L-100, SL-100, UL-100, O-100, and slim cigarettes (SL-SLIM, UL-SLIM, O-SLIM. Cigarettes were smoked in a reference smoking machine equipped with glass fibre filters for collection of PAHs bound to total particulate matter (TPM, and polyurethane foam plugs (PUF for collection of gas-phase PAHs. The relationships of gas- and particulate-phase concentrations of PAHs (ng/cig with the contents of typical MSS components, such as TPM, ‘tar’, nicotine and carbon monoxide were investigated. In addition, the phase partitioning of PAHs in MSS was evaluated in relation to the technological characteristics of cigarettes.

  7. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  8. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three- to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2 to 107.4 ng m-2 d-1, and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logKp) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure, with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling Kp for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logKp and logKoa (logKsa) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign.

  9. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafidz Yusoff; Zaini Assim; Samsur Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen surface sediment samples collected from South China Sea off Kuching Division, Sarawak were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were recovered from sediment by Soxhlet extraction method and then analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/ MS). Total concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from South China Sea off Kuching division are ranged from 35.6 μg/ g to 1466.1 μg/ g dry weights. The sediments collected from Bako Bay, Kuching showed high concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons. Several molecular indices were used to predict the predominant sources of hydrocarbons. Carbon preference index (CPI) value revealed widespread anthropogenic input in this study area (CPI= 0 to 4.1). The ratio of C 31 / C 19 and C 29 / C 31 indicated that major input of aliphatic hydrocarbon mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements. Generally, the concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment from South China Sea off Kuching division are generally higher compare to other area in the world. (author)

  10. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns; Analisis de Hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos. I. Determinacion por cromatografia de gases con columnas capilares de vidrio de silice fundida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M M; Gonzalez, D

    1987-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs.

  11. Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. Pt. 1: Experimental investigations in pelitic sediment rocks. - Pt. 2: Geochemical investigations on redistribution of volatile hydrocarbons in the overburden of natural gas reservoirs; Gas sealing efficiency of cap rocks. T. 1: Experimentelle Untersuchungen in pelitischen Sedimentgesteinen. - T.2: Geochemische Untersuchungen zur Umverteilung leichtfluechtiger Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten von Erdgaslagerstaetten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leythaeuser; Konstanty, J.; Pankalla, F.; Schwark, L.; Krooss, B.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Schloemer, S.

    1997-09-01

    New methods and concepts for the assessment of sealing properties of cap rocks above natural gas reservoirs and of the migration behaviour of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins were developed and tested. The experimental work comprised the systematic assesment of gas transport parameters on representative samples of pelitic rocks at elevated pressure and temperature conditions, and the characterization of their sealing efficiency as cap rocks overlying hydrocarbon accumulations. Geochemical case histories were carried out to analyse the distribution of low molecular-weight hydrocarbons in the overburden of known natural gas reservoirs in NW Germany. The results were interpreted with respect to the sealing efficiency of individual cap rock lithologies and the type and extent of gas losses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Beurteilung der Abdichtungseigenschaften von Caprocks ueber Gaslagerstaetten und des Migrationsverhaltens niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in Sedimentbecken wurden neue Methoden und Konzepte entwickelt und angewendet. In experimentellen Arbeiten erfolgte die systematische Bestimmung von Gas-Transportparametern an repraesentativen Proben pelitischer Gesteine unter erhoehten Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen und die Charakterisierung ihrer Abdichtungseffizienz als Deckschicht ueber Kohlenwasserstofflagerstaetten. In geochemischen Fallstudien wurde die Verteilung niedrigmolekularer Kohlenwasserstoffe in den Deckschichten ueber bekannten Erdgaslagerstaetten in NW-Deutschland analysiert und im Hinblick auf die Abdichtungseffizienz einzelner Caprock-Lithologien bzw. Art und Ausmass von Gasverlusten interpretiert. (orig.)

  12. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  13. Modification of Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Fluid Hydrocarbons. Research of Gas-Dynamic Duct Cooling Using Planar and Framework Catalysts (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuranov, Alexander L

    2005-01-01

    .... One way of fuel conversion is the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbon. This reaction has a large heat capacity and gives maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen among known reactions of hydrocarbons...

  14. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  15. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols by Using One-Dimensional and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometric Method: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gyong Ahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced separation technology paired with mass spectrometry is an ideal method for the analysis of atmospheric samples having complex chemical compositions. Due to the huge variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources of organic compounds, simultaneous quantification and identification of organic compounds in aerosol samples represents a demanding analytical challenge. In this regard, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS has become an effective analytical method. However, verification and validation approaches to quantify these analytes have not been critically evaluated. We compared the performance of gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS and GC×GC-TOFMS for quantitative analysis of eighteen target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The quantitative obtained results such as limits of detection (LODs, limits of quantification (LOQs, and recoveries of target PAHs were approximately equivalent based on both analytical methods. Furthermore, a larger number of analytes were consistently identified from the aerosol samples by GC×GC-TOFMS compared to GC-qMS. Our findings suggest that GC×GC-TOFMS would be widely applicable to the atmospheric and related sciences with simultaneous target and nontarget analysis in a single run.

  16. Use of nitrogen to remove solvent from through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface during analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by large volume injection in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áragón, Alvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-04-25

    The through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface allows large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography and the on-line coupling of liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (LC-GC), enabling the LC step to be carried out in normal as well as in reversed phase. However, large amounts of helium, which is both expensive and scarce, are necessary for solvent elimination. We describe how slight modification of the interface and the operating mode allows nitrogen to be used during the solvent elimination steps. In order to evaluate the performance of the new system, volumes ranging from 20 to 100μL of methanolic solutions of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were sampled. No significant differences were found in the repeatability and sensitivity of the analyses of standard PAH solutions when using nitrogen or helium. The performance using the proposed modification was similar and equally satisfactory when using nitrogen or helium for solvent elimination in the TOTAD interface. In conclusion, the use of nitrogen will make analyses less expensive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2015-02-11

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores with nitrogen donor moieties offers potential to evaluate/elucidate the structure–adsorption property relationship. Two MOF platforms, eea-MOF and rtl-MOF, based on pillaring of kgm-a or sql-a layers with heterofunctional 3-connected organic building blocks were targeted and constructed to purposely introduce and expose the desired amide or amine functionalities. Interestingly, gas adsorption properties of eea-MOF-4 (1) and eea-MOF-5 (2) showed that by simply altering the nitrogen donor position within the ligand, it is possible to relatively reduce the pore size of the related eea-MOF material and subsequently increase the associated CO2 uptake. The slightly confined pore space in 2, relative to 1, has enabled an enhancement of the pore local charge density and thus the observed relative increase in the CO2 and H2 isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst). In addition, light hydrocarbon adsorption studies revealed that 2 is more selective toward C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 than 1, as exemplified for C2H6 : CH4 (5 : 95) or C3H8 : CH4 (5 : 95) binary gas mixtures.

  18. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  19. Thermal behaviour of agitated gas-liquid reactors with a vaporizing solvent/air oxidation of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Crombeen, P.R.J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many highly exothermic gas-liquid reactions are carried out with a vaporizing solvent, which after condensation is returned to the reactor. In this way the liberated reaction heat for a large part is absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the condenser. In order to determine the influence of

  20. Quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in barbecued meat sausages by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, P; Parisod, V; Turesky, R J

    2000-04-01

    A method is described for the analysis of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) prioritized by the USA EPA in meat sausages grilled under common barbecue practices. Quantification was done by GC-MS using perdeuterated internal standards (IS). Validation was done by spiking the matrix at the 0.5 and 1.0 microg/kg levels. The average of expected values ranged from 60 to 134% (median 84%) at the 0.5 microg/kg level and from 69 to 121% (median 96%) at the 1.0 microg/kg level. The median of the limits of detection and quantification were 0.06 and 0.20 microg/kg, respectively, for a 4-g test portion. The carcinogenic PAHs were below the quantification limit in all products except one lamb sausage. Comparison of estimates when either 1, 5, or 16 perdeuterated PAHs were used as IS showed that the most accurate determination of PAHs required that each compound be quantified against its corresponding perdeuterated analogue.

  1. Seasonal atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea: Implications for source-sink processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuqing; Lin, Tian; Wu, Zilan; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhongxia; Guo, Zhigang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, air samples and surface seawater samples covering four seasons from March 2014 to January 2015 were collected from a background receptor site in the YRE to explore the seasonal fluxes of air-sea gas exchange and dry and wet deposition of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source-sink processes at the air-sea interface. The average dry and wet deposition fluxes of 15 PAHs were estimated as 879 ± 1393 ng m-2 d-1 and 755 ± 545 ng m-2 d-1, respectively. Gaseous PAH release from seawater to the atmosphere averaged 3114 ± 1999 ng m-2 d-1 in a year round. The air-sea gas exchange of PAHs was the dominant process at the air-sea interface in the YRE as the magnitude of volatilization flux of PAHs exceeded that of total dry and wet deposition. The gas PAH exchange flux was dominated by three-ring PAHs, with the highest value in summer and lowest in winter, indicating a marked seasonal variation owing to differences in Henry's law constants associated with temperature, as well as wind speed and gaseous-dissolved gradient among seasons. Based on the simplified mass balance estimation, a net 11 tons y-1 of PAHs (mainly three-ring PAHs) were volatilized from seawater to the atmosphere in a ∼20,000 km2 area in the YRE. Other than the year-round Yangtze River input and ocean ship emissions, the selective release of low-molecular-weight PAHs from bottom sediments in winter due to resuspension triggered by the East Asian winter monsoon is another potential source of PAHs. This work suggests that the source-sink processes of PAHs at the air-sea interface in the YRE play a crucial role in regional cycling of PAHs.

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). gas chromatographic method; Determinazione degli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA). Metodo gascaromatografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichini, E; Viviano, G [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-12-01

    The method enables the determination of 4- to 6- ring PAHs and particularly of carcinogenic PAHs regulated in Italy. This revision is based on the results of a national collaborative study. Sample extract, obtained by a method described in a previous report (Rapporto ISTISAN: 90/33) is cleaned up by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography; identification is confirmed by mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory quality control program is described.

  3. Kinetic Models Study of Hydrogenation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vacuum Gas Oil and Basrah Crude Oil Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibraheem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available             The aim of this research is to study the kinetic reaction models for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic content for Basrah crude oil (BCO and vacuum gas oil (VGO derived from Kirkuk crude oil which has the boiling point rang of (611-833K.            This work is performed using a hydrodesulphurization (HDS pilot plant unit located in AL-Basil Company. A commercial (HDS catalyst cobalt-molybdenum (Co-Mo supported in alumina (γ-Al2O3 is used in this work. The feed is supplied by North Refinery Company in Baiji. The reaction temperatures range is (600-675 K over liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV range of (0.7-2hr-1 and hydrogen pressure is 3 MPa with H2/oil ratio of 300 of Basrah Crude oil (BCO, while the corresponding conditions for vacuum gas oil (VGO are (583-643 K, (1.5-3.75 hr-1, 3.5 MPa and 250  respectively .            The results showed that the reaction kinetics is of second order for both types of feed. Activation energies are found to be 30.396, 38.479 kJ/mole for Basrah Crude Oil (BCO and Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO respectively.

  4. Air-sea exchange and gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Role of East Asian continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Jiang, Yuqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    We measured 15 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmosphere and water during a research cruise from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) in the spring of 2015 to investigate the occurrence, air-sea gas exchange, and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs with a particular focus on the influence of East Asian continental outflow. The gaseous PAH composition and identification of sources were consistent with PAHs from the upwind area, indicating that the gaseous PAHs (three-to five-ring PAHs) were influenced by upwind land pollution. In addition, air-sea exchange fluxes of gaseous PAHs were estimated to be -54.2-107.4 ng m -2 d -1 , and was indicative of variations of land-based PAH inputs. The logarithmic gas-particle partition coefficient (logK p ) of PAHs regressed linearly against the logarithmic subcooled liquid vapor pressure (logP L 0 ), with a slope of -0.25. This was significantly larger than the theoretical value (-1), implying disequilibrium between the gaseous and particulate PAHs over the NWP. The non-equilibrium of PAH gas-particle partitioning was shielded from the volatilization of three-ring gaseous PAHs from seawater and lower soot concentrations in particular when the oceanic air masses prevailed. Modeling PAH absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto soot carbon revealed that the status of PAH gas-particle partitioning deviated more from the modeling K p for oceanic air masses than those for continental air masses, which coincided with higher volatilization of three-ring PAHs and confirmed the influence of air-sea exchange. Meanwhile, significant linear regressions between logK p and logK oa (logK sa ) for PAHs were observed for continental air masses, suggesting the dominant effect of East Asian continental outflow on atmospheric PAHs over the NWP during the sampling campaign. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  6. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  7. Associations between immune function in yearling beef cattle and airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM1.0 near oil and natural gas field facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Daniel G; Waldner, Cheryl L; Wickstrom, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers determined the potential associations between exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (ie, particulate matter that is PM1.0) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immune system function in beef cattle by using blood samples collected from yearling cattle in 22 herds in the spring of 2002. The herds were located at variable distances from industry field facilities in the major oil- and gas-producing areas of western Canada. The researchers evaluated immune system competence by measuring populations of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte subtypes (CD4, CD8, gammadelta, and WC1) in peripheral circulation (n = 469), and systemic antibody production in response to vaccine administration (n = 446). They used particulate air monitors to estimate the exposure of the cattle to airborne contaminants by determining mean monthly concentrations of PM1.0 and 24 different PAHs from January to June. The mean concentration of PAHs measured in the ambient air of herds monitored in this study was low, with naphthalene being present in the highest concentration (geometric mean = 5.6 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 38), followed by 1-methylnaphthalene (geometric mean = 2.2 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 12). The geometric mean monthly exposure to PM1.0 was 7.1 microg/m3 (geometric standard deviation = 1.5) for the same period. The researchers detected no significant plausible associations between exposure to any measured airborne contaminants and immune system function.

  8. Studies on the applicability of biomarkers in estimating the systematic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured gas plant tar-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganti, A.; Spina, D.A.; Rozett, K.; Ma, B.-L.; Weyand, E.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The systematic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from ingested soils containing manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar was evaluated in mice. Soil and organic extract of each soil were incorporated into a diet and fed to mice for two weeks. 1-Hydroxypyrene levels in urine and chemical:DNA adduct levels in lungs were used as biomarkers of PAH systematic bioavailability. Estimates of PAH relative bioavailability were determined by comparing the bioavailability observed between each soil and corresponding organic extract. In all but one case, bioavailiablity estimates based on 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine indicate that the presence of MGP tar on soil results in a considerable decrease in PAH systemic bioavailablity (9-75%). Similarly, PAH bioavailability estimates based on chemical:DNA adduct formation ranged from nondetectable to 76%. These results clearly indicate that the bioavailiablity of PAH is less than 100% when soil contaminated with MGP tar is ingested by nice. In addition, the experimental methods employed in this study appear suitable for evaluating the effects of soil on the gastrointestinal absorption and systemic bioavailability of PAH from soil containing complex organic mixtures. 44 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction as a predictor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and toxicity by earthworms in manufactured-gas plant site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitinger, Joseph P; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Neuhauser, Edward F; Alexander, Martin; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    The toxicity and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by earthworms were measured in soil samples collected from manufactured-gas plant sites having a wide range in PAH concentrations (170-42,000 mg/kg) and soil characteristics. Samples varied from vegetated soils to pure lampblack soot and had total organic carbon contents ranging from 3 to 87%. The biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) observed for individual PAHs in field-collected earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were up to 50-fold lower than the BSAFs predicted using equilibrium-partitioning theory. Acute toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida was unrelated to total PAH concentration: Mortality was not observed in some soils having high concentrations of total PAHs (>42,000 mg/kg), whereas 100% mortality was observed in other soils having much lower concentrations of total PAHs (1,520 mg/kg). Instead, toxicity appeared to be related to the rapidly released fraction of PAHs determined by mild supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). The results demonstrate that soils having approximately 16,000 mg rapidly released total PAH/kg organic carbon can be acutely toxic to earthworms and that the concentration of PAHs in soil that is rapidly released by SFE can estimate toxicity to soil invertebrates.

  10. Cork as a new (green) coating for solid-phase microextraction: determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriana Neves; Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Carasek, Eduardo

    2013-04-15

    A new fiber for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was prepared employing cork as a coating. The morphology and composition of the cork fiber was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The proposed fiber was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river water samples by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). A central composite design was used for optimization of the variables involved in the extraction of PAHs from water samples. The optimal extraction conditions were extraction time and temperature of 60 min and 80°C, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 0.03 and 0.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values were between 70.2 and 103.2% and the RSD was ≤15.7 (n=3). The linear range was 0.1-10 μg L(-1) with r≥0.96 and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility showed RSD≤18.6% (n=5). The efficiency of the cork fiber was compared with commercially available fibers and good results were achieved, demonstrating the applicability and great potential of cork as a coating for SPME. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiresidue analysis of multiclass pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in fatty fish by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and evaluation of matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri S; Utture, Sagar; Banerjee, Kaushik; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Kamble, Narayan; Mathew, Suseela; Ashok Kumar, K

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a selective and sensitive method for multiresidue determination of 119 chemical residues including pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in high fatty fish matrix. The novel sample preparation method involved extraction of the target analytes from homogenized fish meat (5 g) in acetonitrile (15 mL, 1% acetic acid) after three-phase partitioning with hexane (2 mL) and the remaining aqueous layer. An aliquot (1.5 mL) of the acetonitrile layer was aspirated and subjected to two-stage dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup and the residues were finally estimated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring (GC-MS/MS). The co-eluted matrix components were identified on the basis of their accurate mass by GC with quadrupole time of flight MS. Addition of hexane during extraction and optimized dSPE cleanup significantly minimized the matrix effects. Recoveries at 10, 25 and 50 μg/kg were within 60-120% with associated precision, RSD<11%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Laura [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Milan and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: laura.campo@unimi.it; Mercadante, Rosa; Rossella, Federica; Fustinoni, Silvia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Milan and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2009-01-12

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants in both living and working environments. The aim of this study was the development of a headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-IDMS) method for the simultaneous quantification of 13 PAHs in urine samples. Different parameters affecting PAHs extraction by HS-SPME were considered and optimized: type/thickness of fiber coatings, extraction temperature/time, desorption temperature/time, ionic strength and sample agitation. The stability of spiked PAHs solutions and of real urine samples stored up to 90 days in containers of different materials was evaluated. In the optimized method, analytes were absorbed for 60 min at 80 deg. C in the sample headspace with a 100 {mu}m polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The method is very specific, with linear range from the limit of quantification to 8.67 x 10{sup 3} ng L{sup -1}, a within-run precision of <20% and a between-run precision of <20% for 2-, 3- and 4-ring compounds and of <30% for 5-ring compounds, trueness within 20% of the spiked concentration, and limit of quantification in the 2.28-2.28 x 10{sup 1} ng L{sup -1} range. An application of the proposed method using 15 urine samples from subjects exposed to PAHs at different environmental levels is shown.

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and smoked rice samples after solid-phase microextraction using multiwalled carbon nanotube loaded hollow fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad

    2014-12-29

    A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL(-1)) and (40.0-150.0ngkg(-1))] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatability and scale-up protocols for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation of manufactured-gas-plant soils. Final report, September 1987-July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sanseverino, J.

    1991-07-01

    The report describes activities to develop a framework to reliably scale-up and apply challenging bioremediation processes to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils. It includes: a discussion of the accuracy needed for competitive application of bioremediation; a framework and examples for treatability and scale-up protocols for selection, design and application of these processes; both batch and continuous testing protocols for developing predictive rate data; and special predictive relationships that may be used in process selection/scale-up. The work, coupled with subsequent work (as recommended) to develop an MGP soil desorption/diffusion protocol and new scale-up methods, and with subsequent scale-up testing should lead to the capability for improved selection of MGP sites for bioremediation and improved performance, success, and reliability of field applications. With this greater predictive reliability, bioremediation will be used more often in the field on the most favorable applications and its cost advantages over other remediation options will be realized

  15. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - gas-particle partitioning, mass size distribution, and formation along transport in marine and continental background air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Mulder, Marie D.; Shahpoury, Pourya; Kukučka, Petr; Lišková, Hana; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Wotawa, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) are ubiquitous in polluted air but little is known about their abundance in background air. NPAHs were studied at one marine and one continental background site, i.e. a coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea (summer 2012) and a site in the central Great Hungarian Plain (summer 2013), together with the parent compounds, PAHs. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model was used to track air mass history. Based on Lagrangian particle statistics, the urban influence on samples was quantified for the first time as a fractional dose to which the collected volume of air had been exposed. At the remote marine site, the 3-4-ring NPAH (sum of 11 targeted species) concentration was 23.7 pg m-3 while the concentration of 4-ring PAHs (6 species) was 426 pg m-3. The most abundant NPAHs were 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFLT) and 3-nitrophenanthrene. Urban fractional doses in the range of air are the lowest ever reported and remarkably lower, by more than 1 order of magnitude, than 1 decade before. Day-night variation of NPAHs at the continental site reflected shorter lifetime during the day, possibly because of photolysis of some NPAHs. The yields of formation of 2NFLT and 2-nitropyrene (2NPYR) in marine air seem to be close to the yields for OH-initiated photochemistry observed in laboratory experiments under high NOx conditions. Good agreement is found for the prediction of NPAH gas-particle partitioning using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free-energy relationship. Sorption to soot is found to be less significant for gas-particle partitioning of NPAHs than for PAHs. The NPAH levels determined in the south-eastern outflow of Europe confirm intercontinental transport potential.

  16. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic species using gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper describes a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the determination of eight PAHs in aquatic species. The influence of various parameters on the PAH extraction efficiency was carefully examined. At 75 C and for an extraction time of 60 min, a polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber coating was found to be most suitable. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits ranged from 8 to 450 pg g{sup -1}, depending on the compound and the sample matrix. The repeatability varied between 7 and 15% (RSD). Accuracy was tested using the NIST SRM 1974b reference material. The method was successfully applied to different samples, and the studied PAHs were detected in several of the samples. (orig.)

  17. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenshan Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  18. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO(2) and C(2)H(4) using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of development of the technologies for recovering and utilizing carbon dioxide using coal and natural gas; 2000 nendo sekitan tennen gas katsuyogata nisanka tanso kaishu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development project for converting the gas, produced by reacting carbon dioxide and water with coal and natural gas using solar ray and heat, into methanol. A solar furnace operating with solar energy, composed of a simulated solar ray collector (5kW), CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), molten salt furnace and coal gasifier, is designed, fabricated and installed. The motion in the molten salt furnace is simulated to analyze the heat flux. The wet and dry type coal gasification processes are simulated with Taiheiyo-coal as the basis. For the natural gas reforming solar furnace, various types of technical information on methane reforming and oxidation catalysts are pigeonholed. The catalytic reaction testing system is fabricated. The information of carbon dioxide separation technologies, e.g., membrane-aided separation, absorption, and membrane/absorption hybrid, is collected. The treatment test with the polyimide-based separation membrane is conducted. The information is pigeonholed and evaluated for development of the elementary techniques and optimization of the total system. The preliminary study on economic viability indicates that methanol production cost is 30 yen/kg-methanol or less, on the basis of releasing no carbon dioxide in the production step. (NEDO)

  20. Receptor modeling of C2─C7 hydrocarbon sources at an urban background site in Zurich, Switzerland: changes between 1993─1994 and 2005─2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reimann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hourly measurements of 13 volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C7 were performed at an urban background site in Zurich (Switzerland in the years 1993–1994 and again in 2005–2006. For the separation of the volatile organic compounds by gas-chromatography (GC, an identical chromatographic column was used in both campaigns. Changes in hydrocarbon profiles and source strengths were recovered by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Eight and six factors could be related to hydrocarbon sources in 1993–1994 and in 2005–2006, respectively. The modeled source profiles were verified by hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The source strengths were validated by independent measurements, such as inorganic trace gases (NOx, CO, SO2, methane (CH4, oxidized hydrocarbons (OVOCs and meteorological data (temperature, wind speed etc.. Our analysis suggests that the contribution of most hydrocarbon sources (i.e. road traffic, solvents use and wood burning decreased by a factor of about two to three between the early 1990s and 2005–2006. On the other hand, hydrocarbon losses from natural gas leakage remained at relatively constant levels (−20%. The estimated emission trends are in line with the results from different receptor-based approaches reported for other European cities. Their differences to national emission inventories are discussed.

  1. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  2. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  3. Development of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection system with a single column and liquid nitrogen-free for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Mu, Yujing; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Sheng, Jiujiang; Quan, Jiannong

    2016-01-04

    A liquid nitrogen-free GC-FID system equipped with a single column has been developed for measuring atmospheric C2-C12 hydrocarbons. The system is consisted of a cooling unit, a sampling unit and a separation unit. The cooling unit is used to meet the temperature needs of the sampling unit and the separation unit. The sampling unit includes a dehydration tube and an enrichment tube. No breakthrough of the hydrocarbons was detected when the temperature of the enrichment tube was kept at -90 °C and sampling volume was 400 mL. The separation unit is a small round oven attached on the cooling column. A single capillary column (OV-1, 30 m × 0.32 mm I.D.) was used to separate the hydrocarbons. An optimal program temperature (-60 ∼ 170 °C) of the oven was achieved to efficiently separate C2-C12 hydrocarbons. There were good linear correlations (R(2)=0.993-0.999) between the signals of the hydrocarbons and the enrichment amount of hydrocarbons, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppbv for sampling volume of 400 mL. Field measurements were also conducted and more than 50 hydrocarbons from C2 to C12 were detected in Beijing city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gulf operations still recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that reports of damage caused by Hurricane Andrew were leveling off last week at the U.S. Minerals Management Service as Gulf of Mexico operators pressed ahead with repairs. The hurricane struck South Florida Aug. 4, churned west into the gulf, then swung north and hit the South Louisiana coast Aug. 5. By the close of business Sept. 8 MMS had received damage reports covering 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. MMS last week estimated about 500 MMcfd of gas production had been restored in the gulf and 100,000-150,000 b/d of oil. Production still lost as a result of Andrew was estimated at 2-2.5 bcfd of gas and 90,000-120 b/d of oil. MMS estimates Gulf of Mexico wells before the storm were producing about 12.5-13 bcfd of gas and 750,000 b/d of oil

  5. Dissolution of Hydrocarbon Gas Hydrates in Seawater at 1030-m; Effects of Porosity, Structure, and Compositional Variation as Determined by High-Definition Video and SEM Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Peltzer, E. T.; Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.; Brewer, P. G.; Circone, S.; Rehder, G.

    2002-12-01

    We compare dissolution rates of pure, porous, compacted, and oil-contaminated sI methane hydrate and sII methane-ethane hydrate to rates measured previously on pure, compacted, sI methane hydrate and sI carbon dioxide hydrate (Rehder et al., Fall AGU 2001). Laboratory-synthesized test specimens were used in both studies, allowing characterization of test materials prior to their transport and exposure to seawater at 1030-meter depth on the Monterey Canyon seafloor, off coastal Moss Landing, CA. Although pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions at this site are within the nominal P-T equilibrium fields of all gas hydrates tested here, the seawater is undersaturated with respect to the hydrate-forming gas species. Hence, samples dissolve with time, at a rate dependent on water current flow. Four samples were deployed in this second experiment: (1) pure, 30% porous methane hydrate; (2) pure, compacted methane hydrate; (3) pure methane hydrate compacted and then contaminated with a low-T mineral oil; and (4) pure, compacted sII methane-ethane hydrate with methane:ethane molar ratio 0.72. Samples were transferred by pressure vessel at 0 ° C and 15 MPa to the seafloor observatory via the MBARI remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Samples were then exposed to the deep ocean environment and monitored by HDTV camera for several hours at the beginning and end of a 25-hour period. Local current speed and direction were also measured throughout the experiment. Those samples that did not undergo complete dissolution after 25 h were successfully recovered to the laboratory for subsequent analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Previously, video analysis showed dissolution rates corresponding to 4.0 +/- 0.5 mmole CO2/m2 s for compacted CO2 hydrate samples, and 0.37 +/- 0.03 mmole CH4/m2s for compacted methane hydrate samples (Rehder et al, AGU 2001). The ratio of dissolution rates fits a simple diffusive boundary layer model that incorporates relative gas solubilities

  6. Recovering bituminous matter from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1922-08-29

    A process is described for obtaining valuable hydro-carbons from bituminous solids such as shale and the like, which comprises digesting a mixture of such a bituminous solid with a hydro-carbon liquid, the digestion being conducted at temperature high enough to effectively liquefy heavy bituminous matter contained in the solid but insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy bituminous matter, separating a resultant liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from the residue of such bituminous solid and refining the liquid mixture.

  7. Uranium oxide recovering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Teramae, Naoki; Onoue, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates containing uranium nitrate are charged in a molten salt electrolytic vessel, and a heat treatment is applied to prepare molten salts. An anode and a cathode each made of a graphite rod are disposed in the molten salts. AC voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode to conduct electrolysis of the molten salts. Uranium oxides are deposited as a recovered product of uranium, on the surface of the anode. The nitrates containing uranium nitrate are preferably a mixture of one or more nitrates selected from sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and magnesium nitrate with uranium nitrate. The nitrates may be liquid wastes of nitrates. The temperature for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably from 150 to 300degC. The voltage for the electrolysis of the molten salts is preferably an AC voltage of from 2 to 6V, more preferably from 4 to 6V. (I.N.)

  8. Process for recovering uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  9. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  10. The analysis of semi-volatile and non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in a soil/sediment matrix by capillary column gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.E. III; Thoma, J.J.; Hastings, M.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis for semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons can be achieved by a solvent extraction/concentration techniques that will effectively extract these high molecular weight fractions from a soil matrix. The prepared extract is then injected directly into a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and flame ionization detector. This technique applies to the following types of commercially available petroleum hydrocarbons: Diesel Nos. 2,4,5, and 6, fuel oils and several grades of lubrication oil. The identification of a particular petroleum hydrocarbon is determined visually by comparison of the samples with known hydrocarbon standards. Accurate quantitation of the chromatograms is possible by using peak area summation and the presence of an internal standard. The practical quantitation limit for the method is 10 mg/Kg for most fuel types. This paper presents a method for determining the concentration of these fuel types in soil. Data will be presented only on 10W40 lubrication oil in terms of method validation, calibration, percent recovery, and method detection limits. A discussion of the quatitation techniques used will also be included

  11. Optimization of two different dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysis in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Chi; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-01

    Novel sample preparation methods termed "up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME)" and "water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (WLSEME)" coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed for the analysis of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. For UDSA-DLLME, an up-and-down shaker-assisted emulsification was employed. Extraction was complete in 3min. Only 14 μL of 1-heptanol was required, without a dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were in the range 0.022-0.060 µg L(-1). The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 392 to 766. Relative recoveries were between 84% and 113% for river, lake, and field water. In WLSEME, 9 μL of 1-nonanol as extraction solvent and 240 μL of 1 mg L(-1) Triton X-100 as surfactant were mixed in a microsyringe to form a cloudy emulsified solution, which was then injected into the samples. Compared with other surfactant-assisted emulsion methods, WLSEME uses much less surfactant. The linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were 0.022-0.13 µg L(-1). The EFs ranged from 388 to 649. The relative recoveries were 86-114% for all three water specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cork as a new (green) coating for solid-phase microextraction: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Adriana Neves; Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Carasek, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cork as a new coating for solid-phase microextraction was proposed. ► Good results were achieved, demonstrating the applicability of the cork as coating for SPME. ► The efficiency of cork fiber was very similar to commercially available fibers. -- Abstract: A new fiber for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was prepared employing cork as a coating. The morphology and composition of the cork fiber was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The proposed fiber was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river water samples by gas chromatography–selected ion monitoring–mass spectrometry (GC–SIM–MS). A central composite design was used for optimization of the variables involved in the extraction of PAHs from water samples. The optimal extraction conditions were extraction time and temperature of 60 min and 80 °C, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 0.03 and 0.1 μg L −1 , respectively. The recovery values were between 70.2 and 103.2% and the RSD was ≤15.7 (n = 3). The linear range was 0.1–10 μg L −1 with r ≥ 0.96 and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility showed RSD ≤ 18.6% (n = 5). The efficiency of the cork fiber was compared with commercially available fibers and good results were achieved, demonstrating the applicability and great potential of cork as a coating for SPME

  13. Chemical and isotopic signature of bulk organic matter and hydrocarbon biomarkers within mid-slope accretionary sediments of the northern Cascadia margin gas hydrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanori; Shingai, Hiroshi; Pohlman, John W.; Naraoka, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) from two mid-slope sites of the northern Cascadia margin were investigated during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311 to elucidate the organic matter origins and identify potential microbial contributions to SOM. Gas hydrate is present at both locations (IODP Sites U1327 and U1328), with distinct patterns of near-seafloor structural accumulations at the cold seep Site U1328 and deeper stratigraphic accumulations at the slope-basin Site U1327. Source characterization and evidence that some components of the organic matter have been diagenetically altered are determined from the concentrations and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbon biomarkers, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total sulfur (TS). The carbon isotopic compositions of TOC (δ13CTOC = −26 to −22‰) and long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31, δ13C = −34 to − 29‰) suggest the organic matter at both sites is a mixture of 1) terrestrial plants that employ the C3 photosynthetic pathway and 2) marine algae. In contrast, the δ15NTN values of the bulk sediment (+ 4 to + 8‰) are consistent with a predominantly marine source, but these values most likely have been modified during microbial organic matter degradation. The δ13C values of archaeal biomarker pentamethylicosane (PMI) (− 46.4‰) and bacterial-sourced hopenes, diploptene and hop-21-ene (− 40.9 to − 34.7‰) indicate a partial contribution from methane carbon or a chemoautotrophic pathway. Our multi-isotope and biomarker-based conclusions are consistent with previous studies, based only on the elemental composition of bulk sediments, that suggested a mixed marine-terrestrial organic matter origin for these mid-slope sites of the northern Cascadia margin.

  14. Highly sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J.; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Khan, Muntazir S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2010-08-15

    A method based on solid-phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed to determine five probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecularly imprinted poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was chosen as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for PAHs. The conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example surface properties, concentration of PAHs, and equilibration times were evaluated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, pre-concentration factors for MIP-SPE ranged between 80 and 93 for 10 mL ambient air dust leachate. PAHs recoveries from MIP-SPE after extraction from air dust were between 85% and 97% and calibration graphs of the PAHs showed a good linearity between 10 and 1000 ng L{sup -1} (r=0.99). The extraction efficiency of MIP for PAHs was compared with that of commercially available SPE materials - powdered activated carbon (PAC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD) - and it was shown that the extraction capacity of the MIP was better than that of the other two SPE materials. Organic matter in air dust had no effect on MIP extraction, which produced a clean extract for GC-MS analysis. The detection limit of the method proposed in this article is 0.15 ng L{sup -1} for benzo[a]pyrene, which is a marker molecule of air pollution. The method has been applied to the determination of probable carcinogenic PAHs in air dust of industrial zones and satisfactory results were obtained. (orig.)

  15. Highly sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after molecularly imprinted polymer extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Khan, Muntazir S

    2010-08-01

    A method based on solid--phase extraction with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed to determine five probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air dust by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecularly imprinted poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was chosen as solid-phase extraction (SPE) material for PAHs. The conditions affecting extraction efficiency, for example surface properties, concentration of PAHs, and equilibration times were evaluated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, pre-concentration factors for MIP-SPE ranged between 80 and 93 for 10 mL ambient air dust leachate. PAHs recoveries from MIP-SPE after extraction from air dust were between 85% and 97% and calibration graphs of the PAHs showed a good linearity between 10 and 1000 ng L(-1) (r = 0.99). The extraction efficiency of MIP for PAHs was compared with that of commercially available SPE materials--powdered activated carbon (PAC) and polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD)--and it was shown that the extraction capacity of the MIP was better than that of the other two SPE materials. Organic matter in air dust had no effect on MIP extraction, which produced a clean extract for GC-MS analysis. The detection limit of the method proposed in this article is 0.15 ng L(-1) for benzo[a]pyrene, which is a marker molecule of air pollution. The method has been applied to the determination of probable carcinogenic PAHs in air dust of industrial zones and satisfactory results were obtained.

  16. Analysis of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Adler, Heidi; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The limits of detection of the system for the quantification standards were in the range of 0.25-0.57 ng, while the limits of determinations for filter samples varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng m -3 (24 h sampling). The linearity was excellent from 5 to 300 ng ( R2>0.967). The analysis could be carried out in a closed system without tedious manual sample pretreatment and with no risk of errors by contamination or loss of the analytes. The results of the SFE-LC-GC-MS method were comparable with those for Soxhlet and shake-flask extractions with GC-MS. The new method was applied to the analysis of PAHs collected by high-volume filter in the Helsinki area to study the seasonal trend of the concentrations. The individual PAH concentrations varied from 0.015 to more than 1 ng m -3, while total PAH concentrations varied from 0.81 to 5.68 ng m -3. The concentrations were generally higher in winter than in summer. The mass percentage of the total PAHs in total suspended particulates ranged from 2.85×10 -3% in July to 15.0×10 -3% in December. Increased emissions in winter, meteorological conditions, and more serious artefacts during the sampling in summer season may explain the concentration profiles.

  17. Effect of limestone addition on chlorine compound emissions in grate and fluidized-bed combustion of recovered fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, R.; Ruuskanen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim was to verify the positive results of laboratory experiments concerning the reducing effect of limestone addition on emissions of organic chlorine compounds and acidifying compounds (HCl, HF, SO 2 ) in grate and fluidized-bed combustion of recovered fuels in commercial boilers. The final aim is to develop a cheap and practical way of reducing emissions of organic chlorine compounds in co-combustion of recovered fuels. Pellets produced from the mixture of recovered fuel and limestone is a product ready for use in plants without any need of additional employees or equipment for limestone feed. Pellets produced by Ewapower Oy are used as recovered fuel and Gotland limestone of Partek Nordkalk Oyj Abp as limestone. Ewapower Oy produces pellets by feeding a certain proportion of limestone among recovered fuel at the production stage. Experiments are carried out in one grate-combustion plant and in one or two fluidized-bed plants. The first experiments were carried out in a 3 MWth BioGrate boiler at the new heating station of Pielavesi municipality in autumn 1999. The flue gases are cleaned with a cyclone (FinCleaner). The main fuel was a mixture of bark and sawdust (3:1) from a sawmill. Ewapower pellets with an addition of Gotland limestone were used as recovered fuel. The experiments were carried out at about 2 MW boiler output. Temperatures of the furnace and flue gas, pressure and fuel gas composition were measured continuously. For determining the composition of gas, O 2 , CO, CO 2 , hydrocarbons and N 2 O(FTIR), NO x and SO 2 were measured continuously. HCl, heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols and PCB were measured as one-shot determinations. Fuel and ash samples were also collected during the experiments. The organic compounds were analyzed by the Department of Environmental Science of the University of Kuopio, which is

  18. Phase behaviour in water/hydrocarbon mixtures involved in gas production systems; etude des equilibres des systemes: eau-hydrocarbures-gaz acides dans le cadre de la production de gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapoy, A.

    2004-11-15

    Inside wells, natural gases frequently coexist with water. The gases are in equilibrium with the sub-adjacent aquifer. Many problems are associated with the presence of water during the production, transport and processing of natural gases. Accurate knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the water/hydrocarbon and water-inhibitor/hydrocarbon equilibria near the hydrate forming conditions, at sub-sea pipeline conditions and during the transport is crucial for the petroleum industry. An apparatus based on a static/analytic method combined with a dilutor apparatus to calibrate on the gas chromatograph (GC) detectors with water was used to measure the water content of binary systems (i.e.: water - methane, ethane - water, nitrogen - water...) as well of a synthetic hydrocarbon gas mixture (i.e.: 94% methane, 4% ethane and 2% n-butane) with and without inhibitor. This same apparatus was also used generate data of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and nitrogen solubility in water and also the solubilities of a synthetic mixture in water. In-house software has been developed in order to fit and model the experimental data. (author)

  19. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  20. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D. W.; Hencken, K. R.; Johnsen, H. A.; Ross, J. R.; Walsh, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 (micro)m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 (micro)g/m 3 . The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 (micro)g/m 3 , respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine

  1. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcharoen, E.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  2. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  3. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  4. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  5. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate and gas phase from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tzu-Ting, E-mail: d89844001@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shaw-Tao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, No. 200 Chung-Chi Rd., Salu Dist., Taichung City 43301, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tser-Sheng [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National United University, 2 Lien Da, Maioli 360, Taiwan (China); Chung, Hua-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-15

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in particulate and gas phases generated from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios were examined. Five types of mosquito coils were burned in a test chamber with a total airflow rate of 8.0 L/min at a constant relative humidity and temperature. The concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using the GC/MS technique. Among the used mosquito coils, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total mass, gaseous, and particulate PAH emission factors of 28.17–78.72 mg/g, 26,139.80–35,932.98 and 5735.22–13,431.51 ng/g, respectively. The various partitions of PAHs in the gaseous and particulate phases were in the ranges, 70.26–83.70% and 16.30–29.74% for the utilized mosquito coils. The carcinogenic potency of PAH emissions in the particulate phase (203.82–797.76 ng/g) was approximately 6.92–25.08 times higher than that of the gaseous phase (26.27–36.07 ng/g). Based on the analyses of PAH emissions, mosquito coils containing the lowest H/C ratio, a low oxygen level, and additional additives (i.e., CaCO{sub 3}) are recommended for minimizing the production of total PAH emission factors and carcinogenic potency. - Highlights: • PAHs emissions are influenced by mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios. • The PAHs generated by burning mosquito coils mainly occur in the gaseous phase. • Total TEQ emission factors of PAHs mainly consisted of the particulate phase (> 87%). • The BaP and BaA accounted for 71.13–77.28% of the total TEQ emission factors. • Special PAH ratios were regarded as characteristic ratios for burning mosquito coil.

  6. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  7. Direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to fast gas chromatography mass spectrometry as a purification step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Picardo, Massimo; Barp, Laura; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-09-13

    The aim of the present work was to optimize a preparation step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a fatty extract. Solid-phase microextraction is an easy preparation technique, which allows to minimize solvent consumption and reduce sample manipulation. A Carbopack Z/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, particularly suitable for extraction of planar compounds, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a hexane solution obtained after a previous extraction with acetonitrile from oil, followed by a liquid-liquid partition between acetonitrile and hexane. The proposed method was a rapid and sensitive solution to reduce the interference of triglycerides saving the column life and avoiding frequent cleaning of the mass spectrometer ion source. Despite the non-quantitative extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil using acetonitrile, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly improved obtaining a limit of detection largely below the performance criteria required by the European Union legislation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  9. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  11. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  12. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  13. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  14. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  15. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  16. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  18. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  19. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline , kerosene , furniture polish , paint thinner, or other oily ... Arterial blood gas monitoring Breathing support, including oxygen, inhalation treatment, breathing tube and ventilator (machine), in severe ...

  20. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  1. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  2. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  3. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  4. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  5. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  6. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  9. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  10. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas; Panorama 2010: Un point sur les ressources en hydrocarbures. 2 - Le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-07-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm{sup 3} by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  11. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING THE INCINERATION OF RECOVERED CFC-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICS) during "recovered" trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) incineration. Tests involved burning the recovered CFC-11 in a propane gas flame. combustion gas samples were taken and an...

  13. Measurements of mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophene, alcohols, water, ethers, and ketones in hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004, using inverse gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Zolek-Tryznowska, Zuzanna

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004 (B-H2004), were investigated by inverse gas chromatography with 42 different solvents: n-alkanes (C 5 -C 10 ), cycloalkanes (C 5 -C 8 ), alkenes (C 5 -C 8 ), alkynes (C 5 -C 8 ), aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylene, thiophene), alcohols (C 1 -C 5 ), water, ethers (tetrahydrofuran (THF), methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE), diethyl-, di-n-propyl-, di-n-butyl ether), and ketones (acetone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, cyclopentanone) at the temperatures from (308.15 to 348.15) K using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The density and thermophysical properties of polymer were described. The specific retention volume (V g ), the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution (Ω 13 ∞ ), the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ 13 ∞ ), the molar enthalpy of sorption in the polymer (Δ s H), the partial molar excess enthalpy at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ), the molar enthalpy of vaporization to the ideal-gas state for the pure solutes (Δ vap H 0 ), the partial molar Gibbs excess energy at infinite dilution (ΔG 1 E,∞ ), and the solubility parameter of the polymer (δ 3 ), were calculated. The UNIFAC-FV model was used to predict the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution for different solutes in the B-H2004 polymer.

  14. Process of recovering bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A modification of the process covered by German Patent 389,393 for recovering bituminous materials from oil shale by extraction is disclosed consisting, in place of or besides wood spirit oil, of acetone oil, suitably of boiling point 80 to 130/sup 0/C, being used as the extraction medium.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  16. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  17. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  19. Field survey of Canadian background soils: Implications for a new mathematical gas chromatography-flame ionization detection approach for resolving false detections of petroleum hydrocarbons in clean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2014-08-01

    The reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil provides laboratories with methods for generating accurate and reproducible soil analysis results. The CWS PHC tier 1 generic soil-quality guidelines apply to 4 carbon ranges/fractions: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). The methods and guidelines were developed and validated for soils with approximately 5% total organic carbon (TOC). However, organic soils have much higher TOC levels because of biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) originating from sources such as plant waxes and fatty acids. Coextracted BOCs can have elevated F2-F4 concentrations, which can cause false exceedances of PHC soil guidelines. The present study evaluated false PHC detections in soil samples collected from 34 background sites. The list of analytes included soil type, TOC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), F2, F3, F4, F3a (C16-C22), and F3b (C22-C34). Soils with 3% to 41% TOC falsely exceeded the CWS PHC 300 mg/kg F3 coarse soil guideline. It was previously demonstrated that clean peat had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, while crude oil spiked peat and spiked sand had higher ratios of greater than 0.10. In the present background study, all of the clean organic soils with at least 300 mg/kg F3 had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, which indicated false guideline exceedances. Clean inorganic soils had low F3 concentrations, resulting in high F2:F3b ratios of greater than 0.10. Validation field studies are required to determine if the F2:F3b 0.10 PHC presence versus absence threshold value is applicable to crude oil- and diesel-contaminated sites. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  1. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  2. Simulation of a thermoelectric gas sensor that determines hydrocarbon concentrations in exhausts and the light-off temperature of catalyst materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ritter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalyst materials can be characterized with a thermoelectric gas sensor. Screen-printed thermopiles measure the temperature difference between an inert part of the planar sensor and a part that is coated with the catalyst material to be analyzed. If the overall sensor temperature is modulated, the catalytic activity of the material can be varied. Exothermic reactions that occur at the catalyst layer cause a temperature increase that can then be measured as a sensor voltage due to the Seebeck coefficient of the thermopiles. This mechanism can also be employed at stationary conditions at constant sensor temperature to measure gas concentrations. Then, the sensor signal changes linearly with the analyte concentration. Many variables influence the sensing performance, for example, the offset voltage due to asymmetric inflow and the resulting inhomogeneous temperature distributions are an issue. For even better understanding of the whole sensing principle, it is simulated in this study by a 3-D finite element model. By coupling all influencing physical effects (fluid flow, gas diffusion, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and electrical properties a model was set up that is able to mirror the sensor behavior precisely, as the comparison with experimental data shows. A challenging task was to mesh the geometry due to scaling problems regarding the resolution of the thin catalyst layer in the much larger gas tube. Therefore, a coupling of a 3-D and a 1-D geometry is shown. This enables to calculate the overall temperature distribution, fluid flow, and gas concentration distribution in the 3-D model, while a very accurate calculation of the chemical reactions is possible in a 1-D dimension. This work does not only give insight into the results at stationary conditions for varying feed gas concentrations and used substrate materials but shows also how various exhaust gas species behave under transient temperature modulation.

  3. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  6. Determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection - Evaluation of automated removal strategies for biogenic olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-07-07

    The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible. Therefore, removal of these olefins is necessary before subjection of the sample to LC-GC-FID. Epoxidation of olefins to increase their polarity proved to be a valuable tool in the past. Precision and trueness of the results as shown in a collaborative trial, however, are relying on exact reaction conditions. Additionally, it is known that certain MOAH are oxidized during epoxidation and therefore get lost. In the scope of this work, hydroboration, bromohydrin reaction, and epoxidation were examined for their potential for derivatization of unsaturated hydrocarbons with increased robustness and higher recovery of MOAH. Epoxidation by meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) delivered the best removal of olefins. Factors influencing this reaction were enlightened. Adaption of the reaction conditions and time-controlled automation increased the recovery of polycyclic MOAH. Good precision (RSD r oils spiked with a lubricating mineral oil (at 24.5mg/kg of MOAH). The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing collaborative trial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in the fish samples from the Bangsai river of Bangladesh by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, was detected and quantified in the selected varieties of fishes collected from the Bangsai river, one of the contaminated rivers located at Savar near the Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ, Bangladesh, during the period October 2009. Naphthalene, a carcinogenic compound, was analyzed by GC–MS as it was in the mixture of dichloromethane–hexane (1:1 crude extract of the flesh of fish samples collected from the aforesaid river. A suitable and reliable procedure for the extraction of naphthalene from the fish sample has been developed. A multi-layer clean-up (silica gel column was used, followed by glass fiber filter (GFF paper to eliminate the interfering organic compounds as well as the lipids and fat. It was observed that PAHs deposition on the samples takes place in different morphological parts of the biological materials. The PAH, naphthalene, was found in almost all of the fish samples and the concentration of which was in the range 0.030–1.004 μg/g. Recovery studies with fortified samples indicated that the recovery efficiency for naphthalene was about 79.14%. This concentration is within the range of values reported for other comparable regions of the world.

  8. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  9. Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  10. Process for in-situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, D.L.; Heffner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an in situ process for biodegrading hydrocarbons by drawing oxygen into an undisturbed hydrocarbon contaminated zone in a fluid permeable soil. It comprises: establishing a borehole extending from the earth's surface through a hydrocarbon contaminated zone having hydrocarbon degrading microbes therein; lining the borehole with a fluid impermeable liner coaxially spaced and sealingly connected to the inside surface of the borehole and extending from the earth's surface to the hydrocarbon-contaminated zone; the liner including a fluid permeable portion extending from the lower end thereof and through at least a portion of the hydrocarbon contaminated zone, fluidly connecting a source of negative pressure to the fluid impermeable line; evacuating gas from the borehole through the fluid permeable portion of the liner at a rate sufficient to draw air from the earth's surface into the hydrocarbon containing zone; and adjusting the flow rate of the evacuated gas so that the amount of hydrocarbon biodegradation therein is within 50% of the maximum hydrocarbon biodegradation rate as detected by the volume of carbon dioxide in the evacuated gas

  11. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  12. Phenomenology of tremor-like signals observed over hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangel, S.; Schaepman, M.E.; Stoll, E.P.; Carniel, R.; Barzandji, O.; Rode, E.D.; Singer, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We have observed narrow-band, low-frequency (1.5-4 Hz, amplitude 0.01-10 mum/s) tremor signals on the surface over hydrocarbon reservoirs (oil, gas and water multiphase fluid systems in porous media) at currently 15 sites worldwide. These 'hydrocarbon tremors' possess remarkably similar spectral and

  13. Synthetic crystalline ferroborosilicate compositions, the preparation thereof and their use in the conversion of synthesis gas to low molecular weight hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnenkamp, J.A.; Walatka, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A method for the conversion of synthesis gas is described comprising: contacting synthesis gas which comprises hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytically effective amount of a crystalline ferroborosilicate composition, under conversion conditions effective to provide ethane selectivity of at least 40%. The borosilicate composition is represented in terms of mole ratios as follows: (0.2 to 15) M/sub 2/m/O:(0.2 to 10) Z/sub 2/ O /sub 3/: (5 to 1000) SiO/sub 2/: Fe/sub 2/n/O: (0 to 2000) H/sub 2/O wherein M comprises a cation of a quaternary ammonium, metal, ammonium, hydrogen and mixtures thereof, m is the valence of the cation, n is the valence of the iron cation, and Z is boron. The composition contains ion-exchanged palladium or palladium impregnated onto the composition

  14. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  15. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration in the Yurihara oil and gas field, northeast Japan; Akitaken Yurihara gasu den ni okeru MT ho jikken chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Experiment and investigation are conducted in the Yurihara District, Akita Prefecture, to verify that the magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied to oil and gas fields. In the Yurihara district there exist a number of pits dug for exploration or production, and records on seismic surveys conducted, and therefore the geological structure of this district can be explained fairly well. The oil and gas reservoirs belong in the Nishikurosawa stratum overlain by the Onagawa stratum and Funakawa stratum. The Nishikurosawa rocks, basaltic rocks for example, present a resistivity of approximately 5 ohm/m which is higher than that of the other two that is more or less 1 ohm/m. Under the circumstances, experiment and investigation are conducted so as to detect the Nishikurosawa basaltic rocks as a high-resistivity stratum located under low-resistivity strata by use of the MT method. As the result, a high-resistivity stratum corresponding to the Nishikurosawa basaltic stratum is detected under low-resistivity strata, and the three-dimensional structure of the basaltic stratum is disclosed. In this stratum, the resistivity value gradually increases from south toward north with occasional abrupt rises, and it is found that such abrupt rises result from oil and gas producing strata where exploitation is under way. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile hydrocarbons to detect irradiated chicken, pork and beef - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Adam, S.T.; Ammon, J.; Baumann, P.; Brockmann, R.; Baenziger, U.; Delincee, H.; Droz, C.; Estendorfer, S.; Gemperle, C.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kaenzig, A.; Kroells, W.; Matter, L.; Metschies, M.; Mildau, G.; Pfordt, J.; Plaga-Lodde, A.; Punkert, M.; Roennefahrt, B.; Ruge, W.; Stemmer, H.; Vater, N.; Wilmers, K.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a detailed description of an inter-laboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of chicken carcasses, pork and beef using a method suitable for routine application. The 17 participating laboratories determined the quantity of four different radiation-induced hydrocarbons (1-tetradecene, pentadecane, 1,7-hexadecadiene, 8-heptadecene) in coded samples approx. 3 and 6 months after irradiation. The quantities detected were used to identify the samples as irradiated or non-irradiated. The samples of each type of meat to be examined had been supplied by two different producers. The dose range that was tested (approx. 0.6 to 7.5 kGy) included commercially used doses (approx. 1 to 5 kGy). The method employed enable 98.3% of a total of 864 samples to be correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated. This result is remarkable: Although the marker concentrations in the various samples showed a clear dose dependency, the variation was quite marked. The high rate of correct identifications could be achieved by defining a sample only as irradiated if certain quantities of at least 3 of the radiolytic products to be determined had been found. A similar identification rate was achieved if quantification of markers was omitted to identify a sample only as irradiated when all the expected radiolysis products could be clearly detected. For all three types of meat, no significant differences in marker yields could be shown for the products of the respective two producers. Also, in none of the types of meat, any significant difference could be revealed for the quantiatitive results achieved three and six months after irradiation. These results show that irradiation of chicken carcasses, pork and beef in the commerically used dose range can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which products are normally stored and that the method described is suitable for routine analyses in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  17. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile hydrocarbons to detect irradiated chicken, pork and beef - an intercomparison study. A report in English and German

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.A.; Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Adam, S.T.; Ammon, J.; Baumann, P.; Brockmann, R.; Baenziger, U.; Delincee, H.; Droz, C.; Estendorfer, S.; Gemperle, C.; Grabowski, H.U. von; Kaenzig, A.; Kroells, W.; Matter, L.; Metschies, M.; Mildau, G.; Pfordt, J.; Plaga-Lodde, A.; Punkert, M.; Roennefahrt, B.; Ruge, W.; Stemmer, H.; Vater, N.; Wilmers, K.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides a detailed description of an inter-laboratory study to detect irradiation treatment of chicken carcasses, pork and beef using a method suitable for routine application. The 17 participating laboratories determined the quantity of four different radiation-induced hydrocarbons (1-tetradecene, pentadecane, 1,7-hexadecadiene, 8-heptadecene) in coded samples approx. 3 and 6 months after irradiation. The quantities detected were used to identify the samples as irradiated or non-irradiated. The samples of each type of meat to be examined had been supplied by two different producers. The dose range that was tested (approx. 0.6 to 7.5 kGy) included commercially used doses (approx. 1 to 5 kGy). The method employed enable 98.3% of a total of 864 samples to be correctly identified as irradiated or non-irradiated. This result is remarkable: Although the marker concentrations in the various samples showed a clear dose dependency, the variation was quite marked. The high rate of correct identifications could be achieved by defining a sample only as irradiated if certain quantities of at least 3 of the radiolytic products to be determined had been found. A similar identification rate was achieved if quantification of markers was omitted to identify a sample only as irradiated when all the expected radiolysis products could be clearly detected. For all three types of meat, no significant differences in marker yields could be shown for the products of the respective two producers. Also, in none of the types of meat, any significant difference could be revealed for the quantiatitive results achieved three and six months after irradiation. These results show that irradiation of chicken carcasses, pork and beef in the commerically used dose range can be clearly detected throughout the entire period in which products are normally stored and that the method described is suitable for routine analyses in food control laboratories. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New oil and gas contract in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2004-01-01

    The Colombian government has implemented two fundamental changes in the upstream oil and gas industry, Ecopetrol role is now as sole entrepreneur and the national hydrocarbons agency - ANH was created to administer the hydrocarbons resource

  20. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  1. Liquid petroleum gas fracturing fluids for unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Watkins, H.; Attaway, D. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S.; Wilson, L. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented details of a gelled liquid petroleum gas (LPG) based fracturing fluid designed to address phase trapping concerns by replacing water with a mixture of LPG and a volatile hydrocarbon fluid. The system eliminates the need for water, which is a growing concern in terms of its availability. In the application process, up to 100 per cent gelled LPG is used for the pad and flush. Sand slurry stages are comprised of a mixture of up to 90 per cent LPG, with the balance of the volume being a volatile hydrocarbon base fluid. The fluid system is not adversely affected by shear, which ensures that acceptable fluid rheology is delivered. Viscosity can be adjusted during the treatment because the surfactant gellant and crosslinker are run in a 1:1 ratio and have good tolerance to concentration variations. The application ratio also allows for fast and accurate visual checks on amounts pumped during the treatment. A portion of the LPG in the fluid can be reproduced as a gas, while the remaining LPG is dissolved in the hydrocarbon fluid and is produced back as a miscible mixture through the use of a methane drive mechanism. Clean-up is facilitated by eliminating water and having LPG as up to 80-90 per cent of the total fluid system, even when wells have low permeability and reservoir pressure. However, LPG and optimized base oils are more expensive than other fluids. It was concluded that the higher costs of the system can be recovered through eliminating the need for swabbing, coiled tubing and nitrogen. Higher final stabilized productions rates may also offset initial costs. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. The Production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions in Inert Gas Matrices Doped with Alkali Metals. Electronic Absorption Spectra of the Pentacene Anion (C22H14(-))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).

  3. Process of recovering shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1949-01-17

    A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

  4. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  5. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  6. Abiogenic origin of petroleum hydrocarbons: Need to rethink exploration strategies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.

    -depletion of petroleum deposits since long. Considering these strong evidences, it is suggested to explore the onshore and offshore regions characterized by faults, gas escape features, mud diapirs and mud volcanoes for detailed abiogenic hydrocarbon exploration...

  7. Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination Profile of Ochani Stream in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination profile, heavy metals and .... potential conduits for oil and water migrating from the ... by Gas Chromatography: Soil / sediment / sludge ..... fractions contained in the dump pits) which have.

  8. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  9. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  11. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Uranium material removing and recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Shin-ichi.

    1997-01-01

    A uranium material removing and recovering device for use in removing surplus uranium heavy metal (UO 2 ) generated in a uranium handling facility comprises a uranium material removing device and a uranium material recovering device. The uranium material removing device comprises an adsorbing portion filled with a uranium adsorbent, a control portion for controlling the uranium adsorbent of the uranium adsorbing portion by a controlling agent, a uranium adsorbing device connected thereto and a jetting device for jetting the adsorbing liquid to equipments deposited with uranium. The recovering device comprises a recovering apparatus for recovering uranium materials deposited with the adsorbent liquid removed by the jetting device and a recovering tank for storing the recovered uranium materials. The device of the present invention can remove surplus uranium simply and safely, mitigate body's load upon removing and recovering operations, facilitate the processing for the exchange of the adsorbent and reduces the radioactive wastes. (T.M.)

  13. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  14. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  15. Development of a supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the identification of highly polar compounds in secondary organic aerosols formed from biogenic hydrocarbons in smog chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, L; Perraudin, E; Durand-Jolibois, R; Doussin, J F

    2006-11-01

    A new one-step method for the analysis of highly polar components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been developed. This method should lead to a better understanding of SOA formation and evolution since it enables the compounds responsible for SOA formation to be identified. Since it is based on supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it minimizes the analysis time and significantly enhances sensitivity, which makes it suitable for trace-level compounds, which are constituents of SOA. One of the key features of this method is the in situ derivatisation step: an online silylation allowing the measurement of highly polar, polyfunctional compounds, which is a prerequisite for the elucidation of chemical mechanisms. This paper presents the development of this analytical method and highlights its ability to address this major atmospheric issue through the analysis of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of a biogenic hydrocarbon (sabinene). Ozonolysis of sabinene was performed in a 6 m3 Teflon chamber. The aerosol components were derivatised in situ. More than thirty products, such as sabinaketone, sabinic acid and other multifunctional compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxoacids, were measured. Nine of them were identified and quantified. The sensitivity and the linearity (0.91

  16. Synthesis of Hydrocarbons from H2-Deficient Syngas in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Co-Based Catalyst Coupled with Fe-Based Catalyst as Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of metal species in an Fe-based catalyst on structural properties were investigated through the synthesis of Fe-based catalysts containing various metal species such, as Mn, Zr, and Ce. The addition of the metal species to the Fe-based catalyst resulted in high dispersions of the Fe species and high surface areas due to the formation of mesoporous voids about 2–4 nm surrounded by the catalyst particles. The metal-added Fe-based catalysts were employed together with Co-loaded beta zeolite for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from syngas with a lower H2/CO ratio of 1 than the stoichiometric H2/CO ratio of 2 for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS. Among the catalysts, the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst exhibited a high activity for the water-gas shift (WGS reaction with a comparative durability, leading to the enhancement of the CO hydrogenation in the FTS in comparison with Co-loaded beta zeolite alone. Furthermore, the loading of Pd on the Mn-added Fe-based catalyst enhanced the catalytic durability due to the hydrogenation of carbonaceous species by the hydrogen activated over Pd.

  17. A novel headspace solid-phase microextraction method using in situ derivatization and a diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of urinary hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarozzi, M; Musci, M; Careri, M; Mangia, A; Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Bianchi, F

    2009-07-24

    An innovative and simple headspace solid-phase microextraction method using a novel diethoxydiphenylsilane fibre based on in situ derivatization with acetic anhydride was optimized and validated for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of some monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphtalene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxypyrene at trace levels in human urine. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied before derivatization, whereas extraction conditions, i.e. the effects of time and temperature of extraction and salt addition were investigated by experimental design. Regression models and desirability functions were applied to find the experimental conditions providing the highest global extraction response. These conditions were found in correspondence of an extraction temperature of 90 degrees C, an extraction time of 90 min and 25% NaCl added to urine samples. The capabilities of the developed method were proved obtaining limit of quantitations in the 0.1-2 microg/l range, thus allowing the bio-monitoring of these compounds in human urine. A good precision was observed both in terms of intra-batch and inter-batch repeatability with RSD always lower than 14%. Recoveries ranging from 98(+/-3) to 121(+/-1)% and extraction yields higher than 72% were also obtained. Finally, the analysis of urine specimens of coke-oven workers revealed analytes' concentrations in the 2.2-164 microg/l range, proving the exposure to PAHs of the involved workers.

  18. Development of a supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the identification of highly polar compounds in secondary organic aerosols formed from biogenic hydrocarbons in smog chamber experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappini, L.; Perraudin, E.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Doussin, J.F. [Universites Paris, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, UMR CNRS 7583, Creteil (France)

    2006-11-15

    A new one-step method for the analysis of highly polar components of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been developed. This method should lead to a better understanding of SOA formation and evolution since it enables the compounds responsible for SOA formation to be identified. Since it is based on supercritical fluid extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it minimizes the analysis time and significantly enhances sensitivity, which makes it suitable for trace-level compounds, which are constituents of SOA. One of the key features of this method is the in situ derivatisation step: an online silylation allowing the measurement of highly polar, polyfunctional compounds, which is a prerequisite for the elucidation of chemical mechanisms. This paper presents the development of this analytical method and highlights its ability to address this major atmospheric issue through the analysis of SOA formed from the ozonolysis of a biogenic hydrocarbon (sabinene). Ozonolysis of sabinene was performed in a 6 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. The aerosol components were derivatised in situ. More than thirty products, such as sabinaketone, sabinic acid and other multifunctional compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxoacids, were measured. Nine of them were identified and quantified. The sensitivity and the linearity (0.91 < R < 0.98) of the method were both good and detection limits ranged from 1.2 to 6.4 ng for the investigated compounds. (orig.)

  19. Life Cycle Primary Energy and Carbon Analysis of Recovering Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; James Salazar; Robert H. Falk

    2012-01-01

    Recovering wood for reuse in a new house affects energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper finds the energy and emissions for recovering softwood framing lumber and hardwood flooring from an old house for installation in a new house. Recovering wood displaces primary production of new wood products and avoids the end-of-life (EOL) burdens for the old house. We...

  20. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  3. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  5. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  6. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  7. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  8. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  9. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  10. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  11. Extraction of hydrocarbon products from shales and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, V Z

    1918-05-17

    A process is disclosed of extracting hydrocarbon oil matter from petroleum-bearing shales and coals which comprises subjecting a mass of such shale or coal, before distillation to the solvent action of material containing an acid, permitting the solvent material to pass through the mass of shale or coal, and recovering the combined solvent and extracted matter.

  12. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  13. Biofilm population dynamics in a trickle-bed bioreactor used for the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons from waste gas under transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, D; Feuchtinger, A; Stephan, M; Vortmeyer, D

    2004-04-01

    The dynamics of a multispecies biofilm population in a laboratory-scale trickle-bed bioreactor for the treatment of waste gas was examined. The model pollutant was a VOC-mixture of polyalkylated benzenes called Solvesso 100. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to characterise the population composition. The bioreactor was operated under transient conditions by applying pollutant concentration shifts and a starvation phase. Only about 10% of the biofilm mass were cells, the rest consisted of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The average fraction of Solvesso 100-degrading cells during pollutant supply periods was less than 10%. About 60% of the cells were saprophytes and about 30% were inactive cells. During pollutant concentration shift experiments, the bioreactor performance adapted within a few hours. The biofilm population exhibited a dependency upon the direction of the shifts. The population reacted within days after a shift-down and within weeks after a shift-up. The pollutant-degraders reacted significantly faster compared to the other cells. During the long-term starvation phase, a shift of the population composition took place. However, this change of composition as well as the degree of metabolic activity was completely reversible. A direct correlation between the biodegradation rate of the bioreactor and the number of pollutant-degrading cells present in the biofilm could not be obtained due to insufficient experimental evidence.

  14. Contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil of a botanic garden localized next to a former manufacturing gas plant in Palermo (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2010-01-01

    The Botanical Garden lies within the city of Palermo, a few meters away from one of the largest unused Manufacturing Gas Plant in Sicily. The total concentrations of PAHs (23 compounds) in the soil of Botanical Garden ranged from 947 to 18,072 μg/kg. The wide range of PAH concentrations (RSD = 84%) found in the soil samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in the area and this can be explained by considering the different tree distributions which prevents the homogeneous deposition of pollutants on the soil. Soils collected in the Botanical Garden generally showed the highest PAH concentrations, being almost 2-3 times higher than the concentration samples obtained in the urban reference sites and about 20 times higher than those in the rural stations. The total PAH concentrations, in the Botanical Garden soil, resulted higher than the maximum concentrations allowed by the Italian legislation for the green areas. Perylene, was found in all the stations. From a careful study of the isomeric ratios, we can hypothesize that the soils of the Botanical Garden are mainly affected by localized MGP particulate deposition, suggesting that the partitioning between organic matter and PAHs is not the dominant process in the soils with higher organic matter content.

  15. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  16. Predictive Evaluations of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors using a Flamelet-Based 3-D CFD Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian R.; Braman, Kalem; West, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has embarked upon a joint project with the Air Force to improve the state-of-the-art of space application combustion device design and operational understanding. One goal of the project is to design, build and hot-fire test a 40,000 pound-thrust Oxygen/Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2) Oxygen-Rich staged engine at MSFC. The overall project goals afford the opportunity to test multiple different injector designs and experimentally evaluate the any effect on the engine performance and combustion dynamics. To maximize the available test resources and benefits, pre-test, combusting flow, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed on the individual injectors to guide the design. The results of the CFD analysis were used to design the injectors for specific, targeted fluid dynamic features and the analysis results also provided some predictive input for acoustic and thermal analysis of the main Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). MSFC has developed and demonstrated the ability to utilize a computationally efficient, flamelet-based combustion model to guide the pre-test design of single-element Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injectors. Previous, Oxygen/RP-2 simulation models utilizing the Loci-STREAM flow solver, were validated using single injector test data from the EC-1 Air Force test facility. The simulation effort herein is an extension of the validated, CFD driven, single-injector design approach applied to single injectors which will be part of a larger engine array. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional, CFD simulations were performed for five different classes of injector geometries. Simulations were performed to guide the design of the injector to achieve a variety of intended performance goals. For example, two GCSC injectors were designed to achieve stable hydrodynamic behavior of the propellant circuits while providing the largest thermal margin possible within the design envelope. While another injector was designed

  17. Tröger’s Base Ladder Polymer for Membrane-Based Hydrocarbon Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alhazmi, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    The use of polymeric membranes for natural gas separation has rapidly increased during the past three decades, particularly for carbon dioxide separation from natural gas. Another valuable application is the separation of heavy hydrocarbons from

  18. First principles modeling of hydrocarbons conversion in non-equilibrium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminsky, M.A.; Strelkova, M.I.; Durov, S.G.; Jivotov, V.K.; Rusanov, V.D.; Potapkin, B.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Theoretical justification of catalytic activity of non-equilibrium plasma in hydrocarbons conversion process is presented in this paper. The detailed model of highest hydrocarbons conversion includes the gas-phase reactions, chemistry of the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), precursor of soot particles formation, neutral, charged clusters and soot particle formation, ion-molecular gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The results of theoretical analysis are compared with experimental results. (authors)

  19. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  20. Method of removing deterioration product in hydrocarbon type solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoshifumi; Takashina, Toru; Murasawa, Kenji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remarkably reduce radioactive wastes by bringing adsorbents comprising titanium oxide and/or zirconium oxide into contact with hydrocarbon type solvents. Method: In a nuclear fuel re-processing step, an appropriate processing is applied to extraction solvents suffering from radioactive degradation, to separate the hydrocarbon solvents and store them in a solvent tank. Then, titanium oxide and/or zirconium oxide adsorbents are continuously mixed and agitated therewith to adsorb degradation products on the adsorbents. Then, they are introduced with adsorbent separators to recover purified hydrocarbon type solvents. Meanwhile, the separated adsorbents are discharged from pipeways. This enables to regenerate the hydrocarbon type solvents for reuse, as well as remarkably reduce the radioactive wastes. (Takahashi, M.)

  1. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their chlorination by-products in drinking water and the coatings of water pipes by automated solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Hollard, Caroline; Bach, Cristina; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François; Dauchy, Xavier

    2013-11-08

    In this study, an automated method for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their chlorination by-products in drinking water was developed based on online solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main focus was the optimisation of the solid-phase microextraction step. The influence of the agitation rate, type of fibre, desorption time, extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption temperature, and solvent addition was examined. The method was developed and validated using a mixture of 17 PAHs, 11 potential chlorination by-products (chlorinated and oxidised PAHs) and 6 deuterated standards. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/L for all target compounds. The validated method was used to analyse drinking water samples from three different drinking water distribution networks and the presumably coal tar-based pipe coatings of two pipe sections. A number of PAHs were detected in all three networks although individual compositions varied. Several PAH chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also found, their presence correlating closely with that of their respective parent compounds. Their concentrations were always below 100 ng/L. In the coatings, all PAHs targeted were detected although concentrations varied between the two coatings (76-12,635 mg/kg and 12-6295 mg/kg, respectively). A number of chlorination by-products (anthraquinone, fluorenone, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrenone, 3-chlorofluoranthene, and 1-chloropyrene) were also detected (from 40 to 985 mg/kg), suggesting that the reaction of PAHs with disinfectant agents takes place in the coatings and not in the water phase after migration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium Alginate-Caged Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Dispersive Microsolid Phase Extraction Combined With Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection for the Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ayad Sami; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Keyon, Aemi S Abdul; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2018-02-01

    In this study, caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive microsolid phase extraction was described for the first time for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. Fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene were selected as model compounds. The caged calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry analyses. The effective parameters namely desorption solvent, solvent volume, extraction time, desorption time, the mass of adsorbent and sample volume were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the developed method showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL-1 (R2 ≥ 0.996), low limits of detection and quantification (0.42-0.22 ng mL-1) (0.73-1.38 ng mL-1) respectively, good relative recoveries (71.2-104.2%) and reproducibility (RSD 1.8-12.4%, n = 3) for the studied PAHs in water sample. With high enrichment factor (1,000), short extraction time (<30 min), low amounts of adsorbent (100 mg) and low amounts of solvent (0.1 mol) have proven that the microsolid phase extraction method based on calcium alginate-caged multiwalled carbon nanotubes are environmentally friendly and convenient extraction method to use as an alternative adsorbent in the simultaneous preconcentration of PAHs from environmental water samples. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  4. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  5. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  6. Mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.L.; McWhorter, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A growing body of field data demonstrates the enhancement of product recovery that can be achieved by applying a partial vacuum to recovery wells. Typical explanations for the observed improvement in performance invoke an increased slope of the cone of depression created in the water-table surface. Explanations related to water-table slope do not consider the gradient induced in the hydrocarbon by virtue of the airflow. Also, the airflow may induce a gradient in the aqueous phase that is not reflected in a water-table drawdown. The equations for steady-state flow of three immiscible fluids elucidate the fundamental mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery or bioslurping. Airflow to the recovery well causes hydrocarbon to migrate toward the well, independent of any gravity effects that may be created. Also, the relative permeability to hydrocarbon is affected by both water and airflow in the vicinity of the recovery well. Two critical airflow rates delineate the conditions for which only air is recovered, air and hydrocarbon are recovered, and all three phases are recovered

  7. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  8. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  9. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  10. Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. The device is capable of determining hydrocarbon gases in water to the concentration of less than 5 x 10{sup -4} ml/l of water. According to the results of microbiological studies, the plate count technique can be a useful supplementary method for hydrocarbon exploration. This is based on the facts that the average survival rate to hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane) for heterotrophs is higher in the area known as containing considerable hydrocarbon gases than other areas in the Pohang region. However, it is still necessary to develop techniques to treat the bacteria with gaseous hydrocarbons. (author). 2 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of the Trinidad area - 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.

    1978-06-01

    It is recognized that deltaic and associated sands, together with porous marine limestones, form the vast majority of the reservoirs in the major accumulations of hydrocarbons throughout the world. The source of the hydrocarbons is now thought to be kerogen which is generated from the organic content of principally marine shales which are formed in or near the continental shelves. The Trinidad area contains several sedimentary subbasins, most of which consist largely of deltaic and associated sediments. These sediments, like most of the ancient deltas of the world, contain major reserves of oil and gas. Other less important reserves should occur in sporadic (time-wise) porous limestones. The total proven and probable reserves of the Trinidad area are around 5 billion bbl of oil, of which 1.6 billion bbl already have been produced, and over 47 TCF of gas.

  13. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge; Maria-Monika Metallinou; Arjen Kraaijeveld; Torgrim Log

    2017-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation met...

  14. Anomalous dispersion due to hydrocarbons: The secret of reservoir geophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    When P- and S-waves travel through porous sandstone saturated with hydrocarbons, a bit of magic happens to make the velocities of these waves more frequency-dependent (dispersive) than when the formation is saturated with brine. This article explores the utility of the anomalous dispersion in finding more oil and gas, as well as giving a possible explanation about the effect of hydrocarbons upon the capillary forces in the formation. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, B J; Ross, S D [Komex International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gibson, D [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hardisty, P E [Komex Clarke Bond, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Constructed wetlands for treatment of dissolved phase hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.J.; Ross, S.D.; Gibson, D.; Hardisty, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to conventional treatment of condensate-contaminated groundwater was studied. In 1997 a pilot scale wetland was constructed and implemented at the Gulf Strachan Gas Processing Plant to determine its ability in treating extracted groundwater contaminated with natural gas condensates. This paper presented the results of hydrocarbon removal efficiency, hydrocarbon removal mechanisms, winter operation, and the effect of hydrocarbons on vegetation health. The inflow water to the wetland contains 15 to 20 mg/L of C 5 -C 10 hydrocarbons, including 50 per cent BTEX compounds. During the summer months, hydrocarbon removal efficiency was 100 per cent, but decreased to 60 and 30 per cent in the spring and late fall, respectively. The hydrocarbons not removed in the wetland were eventually removed along the outflow channel. Temperature was determined to be an important factor in the variable removal rates, particularly when there is no aeration. The main hydrocarbon removal mechanisms appear to be volatilization, biodegradation and dilution. At present, plant uptake is not a factor. 12 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants in fish using fast, low-pressure gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method for analysis of POPs and novel flame retardants in catfish was developed. ► The method is based on a QuEChERS extraction, d-SPE clean-up and low pressure GC/MS–MS. ► The method validation demonstrated good recoveries and low detection limits. ► The method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market. - Abstract: A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated using fast low pressure gas chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC/MS–MS). The method was based on a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe) extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up with zirconium-based sorbent prior to LP-GC/MS–MS analysis. The developed method was evaluated at 4 spiking levels and further validated by analysis of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1974B and 1947. Sample preparation for a batch of 10 homogenized samples took about 1 h/analyst, and LP-GC/MS–MS analysis provided fast separation of multiple analytes within 9 min achieving high throughput. With the use of isotopically labeled internal standards, recoveries of all but one analyte were between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations less than 20% (n = 5). The measured values for both SRMs agreed with certified/reference values (72–119% accuracy) for the majority of analytes. The detection limits were 0.1–0.5 ng g −1 for PCBs, 0.5–10 ng g −1 for PBDEs, 0.5–5 ng g −1 for select pesticides and PAHs and 1–10 ng g −1 for flame retardants. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of catfish samples from the market.

  18. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  19. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  20. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  1. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  2. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  3. Financial and Organizational Aspects of the Recovery of Hydrocarbon Resource Base in the Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valeryevna Sharf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydrocarbon resource base qualitative and quantitative degrade are reflected in the increase of the share of small and medium−sized deposits, as well as hard−to−recover reserves. This makes the need to update the approaches to the implementation of the geological prospecting programmes. The geological exploration performance differs in oil−producing regions of the Russian Federation due to a number of various factors. The subject matter of the study is the assessment of the strength of these factors in various working, geological, infrastructure and economic conditions to determine the effectiveness of the existing economic model of the recovery of hydrocarbon resource base, as well as to develop the author’s suggestions. The hypothesis of the study proposes to change the economic, as well as financial and tax mechanisms of government regulation of the geological exploration, carried out by small oil producing companies on license areas with one or several fields in order to stimulate the development of hydrocarbon resource base. The method of the study is the correlation analysis of the impact of various factors on geological exploration on mineral resource base recovery. It is carried out utilizing K. Mohn model and the statistical data of three subjects of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Tatarstan, Khanty−Mansiysk Autonomous District and Tomsk region. The results of the study can be applied in the tax and financial legislation, as well as in the management of oil and gas industry in the field of geological exploration. On the basis of the conducted analysis and international experience, the author suggests to introduce reasonable tax incentives and the mechanism of public private partnership in the realization of geological prospecting programmes with the aim to support small oil producing companies at the initial stage of the development of a field.

  4. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  5. Gas, oil, and environmental biotechnology IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, C; Markuszewski, R; Smith, J [eds.; Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Contains 32 papers presented at the 4th international IGT symposium on gas, oil and environmental biotechnology. Topics covered were: hydrocarbon bioremediation; groundwater, soil and explosives bioremediation; gas and oil reservoir souring; and biodesulfurization. 2 papers have been abstracted separately.

  6. Smog chamber studies on the air chemistry of biogenic hydrocarbons in the presence of ozone, NOx and SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolting, F.; Zetzsch, C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of SO 2 on the photochemical degradation processes of the biogenic hydrocarbon α-pinene was studied with respect to the present forest decline. For that purpose premixed air was irradiated with simulated sunlight in laboratory experiments using a modified smog chamber. The performance of a novel semi continuous analyzer for H 2 SO 4 /sulfate was tested for smog chamber studies of the transformation of SO 2 to sulfuric acid and sulfur containing aerosol. An influence of SO 2 on the formation of ozone was not detected. The rates of degradation cannot be described by gas phase reactions alone, and, in addition, they are faster in the presence of humidity. Depending on humidity, 30-50% of the consumed SO 2 can be recovered in the suspended aerosol. In the presence of 60% relative humidity the nearly exclusive product is sulfur aerosol that needs further characterization. (orig.) With 9 figs., 42 refs [de

  7. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch-Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Lakshmi Srinivasa; Madhavi, T.; Srinu, D.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch-Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through n-butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4-291, ethane (C2) from 0-84, propane (C3) from 0-37, i-butane (iC4) from 0-5 and n-butane (nC4) from 0-4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between -42.9‰ to -13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite - PDB) and -21.2‰ to -12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  8. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  9. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. February 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands and allocations of research permits), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  10. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands of research permits; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  11. Information bulletin of the bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - December 2007 no.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  12. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. May 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands of research permits; list of demands under instruction), seismic survey activity, production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  13. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. April 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands of research permit, allocations of concession), geophysical survey activity, drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  14. Information bulletin of the bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - January 2008 no.13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  15. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Process of recovering bitumen from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1918-03-26

    A step in the recovery of bitumen from solids which consists in digesting the solids with heavy oil under the action of heat and agitation at a temperature insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy fractions, but high enough to liquefy heavy hydrocarbons contained in the solids, and then separating solid residual matter, substantially as described.

  17. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  18. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  19. Treatment of heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, M

    1939-02-04

    A process is described for treating heavy hydrocarbons in two operations: The first (operation) consisting of distilling in contact with neutral metals such as iron, copper, nickel, etc., or even stones, according to a known method, without pressure or with only a slight pressure or also by conducting the vapors into a receiver containing the materials mentioned, without pressure or with only a slight pressure, and causing condensation in one or the other ways for cooling by means of a submerged spiral; the second operation consisting in submitting the hydrocarbons recovered from the first operation, or otherwise, to the action of oxygen or ozone for recovering them from the carbon, purifying, desulfurizing, and rendering them inodorous, all these matters constituting the novelty of the invention.

  20. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  1. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  2. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  3. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  4. Evaluation of environmental samples containing heavy hydrocarbon components in environmental forensic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raia, J.C.; Blakley, C.R.; Fuex, A.N.; Villalanti, D.C.; Fahrenthold, P.D. [Triton Anal Corp, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This article presents a procedure to evaluate and characterize environmental samples containing mixtures of hydrocarbons over a wide boiling range of materials that include fuels and other products used in commerce. The range of the method extends to the higher boiling and heavier molecular weight hydrocarbon products in the range of motor oil, bunker fuel, and heavier residue materials. The procedure uses the analytical laboratory technique of high-temperature simulated distillation along with mathematical regression of the analytical data to estimate the relative contribution of individual products in mixtures of hydrocarbons present in environmental samples. An analytical technique to determine hydrocarbon-type distributions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with nitric oxide ionization spectrometry evaluation is also presented. This type of analysis allows complex hydrocarbon mixtures to be classified by their chemical composition, or types of hydrocarbons that include paraffins, cycloparaffins, monoaromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characteristic hydrocarbon patterns for example, in the relative distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are valuable for determining the potential origin of materials present in environmental samples. These methods provide quantitative data for hydrocarbon components in mixtures as a function of boiling range and 'hydrocarbon fingerprints' of the types of materials present. This information is valuable in assessing environmental impacts of hydrocarbons at contaminated sites and establishing the liabilities and cost allocations for responsible parties.

  5. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, E B; Ashton, B M; Miles, M S

    2004-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g(-1)) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both.

  7. The role of fluid migration system in hydrocarbon accumulation in Maichen Sag, Beibuwan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Jinxiu; Wu, Feng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Qianqian

    2018-02-01

    Fluid migration system is of great significance for hydrocarbon accumulation, including the primary migration and secondary migration. In this paper, the fluid migration system is analysed in Maichen Sag using seismic, well logging and core data. Results show that many factors control the hydrocarbon migration process, including hydrocarbon generation and expulsion period from source rocks, microfractures developed in the source rocks, the connected permeable sand bodies, the vertical faults cutting into/through the source rocks and related fault activity period. The spatial and temporal combination of these factors formed an effective network for hydrocarbon expulsion and accumulation, leading to the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution at present. Generally, a better understanding of the hydrocarbon migration system can explain the present status of hydrocarbon distribution, and help select future target zones for oil and gas exploration.

  8. Method for thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-11-13

    In a thermal recovery procedure for hydrocarbons from an underground formation, an oxygen-containing gas is injected through at least one input well into the formation. A part of the hydrocarbons in the formation is then ignited and an oxidation front is created. This front moves under the influence of the injected gas to at least one production well in the formation. The temperature in the burning front is higher than approximately 200/sup 0/C but lower than approximately 350/sup 0/C. (4 claims)

  9. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-04

    Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas-liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  10. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  11. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  12. Age estimation of Calliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, H E; Butcher, J B; Adam, C D; Day, C R; Falko, P D

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1 day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occ...

  13. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  14. Reservoir petrophysics and hydrocarbon occurrences of the Bahariya Formation, Alamein-Yidma fields, Western Desert of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz Younes, Mohamed [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Geology Dept.

    2012-12-15

    The Bahariya Formation of Cenomanian age is considered to be one of the main oil and gas accumulations in most of the fields of the Western Desert basins. The lithostratigraphic succession of the Bahariya Formation is classified into two main sand units (Unit I and Unit III) separated by shalesiltstone (Unit II). The sandstone of unit-I and III is characterized by being highly enriched in shale content especially glauconite in all wells of the Alamein Field, that has an obvious negative effect on the porosity and oil saturation, where the glauconite increases the grain density of sandstone reservoirs from 2.65 g/cm{sup 3} up to 2.71 g/cm{sup 3}. The well logging data and petrophysical characteristics conducted on Alamein well-28 involving analysis of 30 core samples, were used to evaluate the reservoir characterization and hydrocarbon potentialities. The petrophysical parameters indicate that the primary porosity values are between 8.7 and 29.1%. Decreasing porosity is related to the increase of shale content from 9 to 13%, which occurs as a dispersed habitat. The water saturation changes from 43 to 80%, while the hydrocarbon saturation ranges from 12.1 to 37%. Promising hydrocarbon accumulations are displayed by the sandstone of unit-III due to increased hydrocarbon saturation and effective porosity, thus reflecting the high quality reservoir of this unit. The irreducible and movable hydrocarbon distribution shows a general increase at the eastern and western flanks of the faulted anticline in the Alamein-Yidma fields. The biomarker characteristics and stable carbonisotopic composition of the Bahariya crude oils recovered from the Alamein Field show no obvious variations among them. These oils are paraffinic, containing little branched or cyclic materials waxy n-alkanes(C{sub 25}-C{sub 31}) and characterized by high API gravity, low sulfur content, oleanane index < 2% and moderately high pristane/phytaneratio > 1 and CPI > 1 and the canonical variable parameter is

  15. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  16. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  17. Effect of hydrocarbons on plasma treatment of NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Lean burn gasoline engine exhausts contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons in the form of propene. Diesel engine exhausts contain little gaseous hydrocarbon; however, they contain a significant amount of liquid-phase hydrocarbons (known as the volatile organic fraction) in the particulates. The objective of this paper is to examine the fate of NO{sub x} when an exhaust gas mixture that contains hydrocarbons is subjected to a plasma. The authors will show that the hydrocarbons promote the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}, but not the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} is strongly coupled with the hydrocarbon oxidation chemistry. This result suggests that gas-phase reactions in the plasma alone cannot lead to the chemical reduction of NO{sub x}. Any reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} can only be accomplished through heterogeneous reactions of NO{sub 2} with surfaces or particulates.

  18. Waste heat recovering device for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Masanobu; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Yasuhiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable utilization of auxiliary-equipment-cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger as a heat source, as well as prevent radioactive contamination. Constitution: A water warming device for recovering the heat of auxiliary equipment cooling water from a non-regenerative heat exchanger is disposed at the succeeding stage of the heat exchanger. Heat exchange is performed in the water warming device between the auxiliary equipment cooling water and a heat source water set to a higher pressure and recycled through the water warming device. The heat recovered from the auxiliary equipment cooling water is utilized in the heat source water for operating relevant equipments. (Aizawa, K.)

  19. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  20. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  1. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  2. The Attribute for Hydrocarbon Prediction Based on Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermana, Maman; Harith, Z Z T; Sum, C W; Ghosh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon prediction is a crucial issue in the oil and gas industry. Currently, the prediction of pore fluid and lithology are based on amplitude interpretation which has the potential to produce pitfalls in certain conditions of reservoir. Motivated by this fact, this work is directed to find out other attributes that can be used to reduce the pitfalls in the amplitude interpretation. Some seismic attributes were examined and studies showed that the attenuation attribute is a better attribute for hydrocarbon prediction. Theoretically, the attenuation mechanism of wave propagation is associated with the movement of fluid in the pore; hence the existence of hydrocarbon in the pore will be represented by attenuation attribute directly. In this paper we evaluated the feasibility of the quality factor ratio of P-wave and S-wave (Qp/Qs) as hydrocarbon indicator using well data and also we developed a new attribute based on attenuation for hydrocarbon prediction -- Normalized Energy Reduction Stack (NERS). To achieve these goals, this work was divided into 3 main parts; estimating the Qp/Qs on well log data, testing the new attribute in the synthetic data and applying the new attribute on real data in Malay Basin data. The result show that the Qp/Qs is better than Poisson's ratio and Lamda over Mu as hydrocarbon indicator. The curve, trend analysis and contrast of Qp/Qs is more powerful at distinguishing pore fluid than Poisson ratio and Lamda over Mu. The NERS attribute was successful in distinguishing the hydrocarbon from brine on synthetic data. Applying this attribute on real data on Malay basin, the NERS attribute is qualitatively conformable with the structure and location where the gas is predicted. The quantitative interpretation of this attribute for hydrocarbon prediction needs to be investigated further

  3. Department of Defense Recovering Warrior Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    accessible and available to the Veterans Benefits Administration ( VBA ) as soon as possible381; however, because military service records include health...programs are meeting expectations ........................................... 35 Facilitating Access to Health Care...Enduring RW Mission, Facilitating RW Recovery and Transition, and Facilitating Access to Health Care. SUMMARY 2  DoD Recovering Warrior Task Force

  4. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  5. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-20

    A process is described for recovering oil from oil-shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue. It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower.

  6. Recovering uranium from coal in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

  7. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  8. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  9. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  10. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  11. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  12. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  13. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  14. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  15. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  16. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  17. Unconventional hydrocarbons. New prospects for the para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional hydrocarbons represent a significant potential despite complications in extracting them. The International Energy Agency's annual report in 2008 estimated that 9 trillion barrels of liquid hydrocarbons could be produced - a figure to be compared with the current production of 1,1 trillion barrels and the 1,3-1,4 trillion barrels of proven reserves. This estimate includes the potential production from heavy oils, shale oil and tar belts as well as the liquid hydrocarbons obtained by converting coal and natural gas. The IAE's 2009 report estimates resources in gas at more than 850 trillion cubic meters (T m"3), as compared with the 80 T m"3 now being produced and the 187 T m"3 of proven reserves

  18. Recovering of uranium from phosphoric acid produced by the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, A.J.; Lyon, W.L.; Holleman, R.A.; Randell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Process for recovering uranium as from an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid arising from a wet process, with a scrubbing agent essentially composed of a hydrocarbon whose boiling point is situated between 150 0 C and 300 0 C, which reacts with the contaminents formed in the sludge in the phosphoric acid, in an efficient enough quantity to wash the contamination products forming the phosphoric acid sludge, give a sludge phase and a purified phosphoric acid phase, after which the sludge phase is extracted [fr

  19. Evaluation of clean-up agents for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in biota and sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, B.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame

  20. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  1. A review of case histories of induced seismicity caused by hydrocarbon production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo Fernández, L.; Fernández Naranjo, F.J.; Rodríguez Gómez, V.; López Gutiérrez, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we review the stress-strain relationships that take place in the crust during some of the main hydrocarbon production and storage processes: gas extraction; water injection in wells to stimulate the extraction of oil (EOR); unconventional hydrocarbon production by hydraulic fracturing (fracking); disposal of wastewater (saline water) from the extraction of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbons such as saline water return (flowback) of hydraulic fracturing, both with TDS higher than 40000 mg/L. In addition, the type of faults that are more likely to slip and the induced seismicity related to the production and extraction of hydrocarbons are analysed. [es

  2. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  4. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones (Sihwa and Banwal) located in An-san city ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... method (HVAS-Sibata) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. A study of the microbiology and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the drill cuttings from three different oil and gas wells located at Ologbo Community at Edo State with respect to their microbiology and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compositional profile and sources. Isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was carried out using ...

  6. Recovering of images degraded by atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2017-08-01

    Remote sensing images are seriously degraded by multiple scattering and bad weather. Through the analysis of the radiative transfer procedure in atmosphere, an image atmospheric degradation model considering the influence of atmospheric absorption multiple scattering and non-uniform distribution is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed model, a novel recovering method is presented to eliminate atmospheric degradation. Mean-shift image segmentation and block-wise deconvolution are used to reduce time cost, retaining a good result. The recovering results indicate that the proposed method can significantly remove atmospheric degradation and effectively improve contrast compared with other removal methods. The results also illustrate that our method is suitable for various degraded remote sensing, including images with large field of view (FOV), images taken in side-glance situations, image degraded by atmospheric non-uniform distribution and images with various forms of clouds.

  7. Method for recovering uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwochau, K.; Astheimer, L.; Schenk, H.J.; Schmitz, J.

    1977-04-01

    In view of the augmenting uranium demand for energy supply and of the anticipated depletion of the actually assured and economic uranium resources the possibility of recovering uranium from sea water receives increasing attention. It is the purpose of the present report to give a detailed discussion of fundamental problems involved and a critical survey of hitherto proposed processes of recovery and to recommend some general directives for further work. (orig.) [de

  8. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  9. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  10. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  11. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  12. Identifying future directions for subsurface hydrocarbon migration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, J. F.; Luyendyk, B.; Valentine, D.

    Subsurface hydrocarbon migration is important for understanding the input and impacts of natural hydrocarbon seepage on the environment. Great uncertainties remain in most aspects of hydrocarbon migration, including some basic mechanisms of this four-phase flow of tar, oil, water, and gas through the complex fracture-network geometry particularly since the phases span a wide range of properties. Academic, government, and industry representatives recently attended a workshop to identify the areas of greatest need for future research in shallow hydrocarbon migration.Novel approaches such as studying temporal and spatial seepage variations and analogous geofluid systems (e.g., geysers and trickle beds) allow deductions of subsurface processes and structures that remain largely unclear. Unique complexities exist in hydrocarbon migration due to its multiphase flow and complex geometry, including in-situ biological weathering. Furthermore, many aspects of the role of hydrocarbons (positive and negative) in the environment are poorly understood, including how they enter the food chain (respiration, consumption, etc.) and “percolate” to higher trophic levels. But understanding these ecological impacts requires knowledge of the emissions' temporal and spatial variability and trajectories.

  13. Bioremediation: Technology for treating hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Kuntrangwattana, S. [King Mongkut`s Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1996-12-31

    Cutting oil wastewater from an iron and steel factory was applied to the soil windrow. Self-remediation was then compared with remediation with acclimatized indigenous microbes. The incremental reduction rate of the microorganisms and hydrocarbon-degradable microbes was slower in self-remediation than in the latter treatment. Within 30 days, when the acclimatized indigenous microbes were used, there was a significant reduction of the contaminated hydrocarbons, while self-remediation took longer to reduce to the same concentration. Various nitrogen sources were applied to the soil pile, namely, organic compost, chemical fertilizer, ammonium sulfate, and urea. The organic compost induced a high yield of hydrocarbon-degradable microorganisms, but the rate at which the cutting oil in the soil decreased was slower than when other nitrogen sources were used. The results of cutting oil degradation studied by gas chromatography showed the absence of some important hydrocarbons. The increment of the hydrocarbon-degradable microbes in the land treatment ecosystem does not necessarily correspond to the hydrocarbon reduction efficiency. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  15. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  16. Important considerations in the use of carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes to determine the origin of hydrocarbons in groundwater – A case study from pre-shale gas Tioga County

    Science.gov (United States)

    stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositional ranges of methanes (δ13C and δ2H (D)) enable us to distinguish between microbial and thermogenic origin of natural gases. To identify stray gas origins, identify possible gas sources, create baseline, carry out site-specific monitoring, and monitor long-term changes

  17. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  18. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  19. Hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics and enrichment laws of multi-layered reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin represents the earliest area where natural gas is explored, developed and comprehensively utilized in China. After over 50 years of oil and gas exploration, oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in 24 gas-dominant layers in this basin. For the purpose of predicting natural gas exploration direction and target of each layer in the Sichuan Basin, the sedimentary characteristics of marine and continental strata in this basin were summarized and the forms of multi-cycled tectonic movement and their controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation were analyzed. Based on the analysis, the following characteristics were identified. First, the Sichuan Basin has experienced the transformation from marine sedimentation to continental sedimentation since the Sinian with the former being dominant. Second, multiple source–reservoir assemblages are formed based on multi-rhythmed deposition, and multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon accumulation characteristics are vertically presented. And third, multi-cycled tectonic movement appears in many forms and has a significant controlling effect on sedimentation, diagenesis and hydrocarbon accumulation. Then, oil and gas reservoir characteristics and enrichment laws were investigated. It is indicated that the Sichuan Basin is characterized by coexistence of conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs, multi-layered reservoir hydrocarbon supply, multiple reservoir types, multiple trap types, multi-staged hydrocarbon accumulation and multiple hydrocarbon accumulation models. Besides, its natural gas enrichment is affected by hydrocarbon source intensity, large paleo-uplift, favorable sedimentary facies belt, sedimentary–structural discontinuity plane and structural fracture development. Finally, the natural gas exploration and research targets of each layer in the Sichuan Basin were predicted according to the basic petroleum geologic conditions

  20. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  1. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  2. Gas manufacture, processes for: condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1876-11-29

    In the production of illuminating gas from coal, shale, hydrocarbon oil, or other substance used in the production of gas, the volatile products inside the retort are agitated by means of moving pistons or jets of compressed gas, steam, or vapor in order to decompose them into permanent gases, and in some cases to increase the volume of gas by the decomposition of the injected gas, etc. or by blending or carburetting this gas with the decomposition products of the volatile matters. To separate the condensible hydrocarbons from the crude gas it is passed through heated narrow tortuous passages or is caused to impinge on surfaces. If the crude gases are cold these surfaces are heated and vice versa.

  3. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  4. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  5. Process and system for recovering energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a system for heating a room or similar, using a 'dibare' cycle working with a less volatile fluid and a more volatile fluid and employing a coupling between a fractionated separation area working at high pressure and a fractionated mixing zone working at low pressure. The invention relates to the following uses: heating a room or building, drying any material and recovering the thermal discharge from a motive cycle, particularly the recovery of the thermal discharge of an electric nuclear power station to carry out district heating [fr

  6. Apparatus for recovering oil from Posidonien shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-04-13

    Equipment for recovering oil from shale and the like, as well as the distilling of coal is characterized in that a number of chambers provided in a known way with upper and lower air supply are arranged open to the receiver of the oil vapors through removable domes which can be attached to the usual oil-vapor carry-off. Arrangement is characterized in that the domes are movable to the side, so that they can be interchangeably attached to the different chambers.

  7. Process for recovering cesium from cesium alum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cesium is recovered from cesium alum, CsAl(SO 4 ) 2 , by an aqueous conversion and precipitation reaction using a critical stoichiometric excess of a water-soluble permanganate to form solid cesium permanganate (CsMnO 4 ) free from cesium alum. The other metal salts remain in solution, providing the final pH does not cause hydroxides of aluminium or iron to form. The precipitate is separated from the residual solution to obtain CsMnO 4 of high purity

  8. Recovering an obstacle using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2009-05-01

    We consider the inverse problem of recovering the shape, location and surface properties of an object where the surrounding medium is both conductive and homogeneous and we measure Cauchy data on an accessible part of the exterior boundary. It is assumed that the physical situation is modelled by harmonic functions and the boundary condition on the obstacle is one of Dirichlet type. The purpose of this paper is to answer some of the questions raised in a recent paper that introduced a nonlinear integral equation approach for the solution of this type of problem.

  9. Long-term storage of recovered krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    1983-01-01

    Various storage methods for krypton-85 recovered from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are under development in many countries. These methods include:(1) direct storage in pressurized cylinders, (2) storage of krypton adsorbed on charcoal or zeolite in pressurized cylinders and (3) immobilization (encapsulation) in zeolite. A krypton storage facility using pressurized cylinders has been constructed in the krypton recovery pilot plant in Tokaimura and other methods are now under development. These three methods are evaluated and the features of the constructed facility are also reported. (author)

  10. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY BY GREENERY RECOVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мargarita Radomska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principal reasons of chemical pollution caused by the activity of filling stations, namely losses of hydrocarbon material, which takes place at transport operations and exploitation of imperfect equipment, have been analyzed. The primary sources of filling stations negative environmental impacts are shown to be storm waters, which wash off poured out petrochemicals from their territory, while direct environment pollution as a result of emergency overflows of petrochemicals is a rare phenomenon. It is indicated that the negative consequences of filling stations activity spread on atmospheric air, adjoining soils and water objects, including ground and underground water, and it is expressed in contamination of these environment components with petrochemicals and creation of threats for human health.

  12. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  13. Estimating fair-market value for hydrocarbon producing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    The generally accepted appraisal methods used to evaluate hydrocarbon properties and prospects were described. Fair-market-value (FMV) estimates have been used in the petroleum industry in attempts to protect a purchaser against an unwise acquisition, or conversely, to establish a just price to compensate a seller. Four methods were identified for determining FMV for hydrocarbon producing properties. They are: (1) comparative sales, (2) rule of thumb, (3) income forecast, and (4) replacement cost. The differences between oil and gas FMV and real estate FMV were explained

  14. Use of derivatives to assess preservation of hydrocarbon deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, K. A.; Melkishev, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the calculation of derivatives along the surface of a modern and paleostructure map of a Tl2-b formation top used to forecast the preservation of oil and gas deposits in traps according to 3D seismic survey via statistical methods. It also suggests a method to evaluate morphological changes of the formation top by calculating the difference between derivatives. The proposed method allows analyzing structural changes of the formation top in time towards primary migration of hydrocarbons. The comprehensive use of calculated indicators allowed ranking the prepared structures in terms of preservation of hydrocarbon deposits.

  15. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  16. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  17. Detecting chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Rachel Carson's villains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2012-07-01

    In 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring drew the public's attention to the deleterious effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons employed as economic poisons in agriculture. However, she did not discuss how their residues could be routinely identified and quantified. In part, this was because the introduction of instruments for use in environmental analysis had only just begun, and she was probably unaware of their existence. The development of the instrumental methods began in industry, particularly at Dow and Shell, in the mid-1950s. Dow scientists, by combining mass spectrometry with gas chromatography, developed the most powerful technique, then and now, for the separation, quantitation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Shell scientists were no less innovative, particularly with the application of highly sensitive gas chromatography detectors to trace analysis. The first of these detectors, the electron capture detector, was invented by James Lovelock at the National Institute of Medical Research, North London, at the end of the 1950s. Around the same time, Dale Coulson in the USA developed his microcoulometric detector.

  18. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  19. Algerian hydrocarbon magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Algeria is the world's seventh largest gas producer and currently boasts one of the biggest gas fields - Hassi R'Mel -discovered to date. Recording the highest number of oil and gas discoveries anywhere in the world in 1994, the country is proving to be a magnet for foreign oil companies despite its continued political instability and the security risks posed by Islamic fundamentalists. Some 40,000 lives have been lost since Islamic militants began fighting the government in 1992, including a number of foreign journalists and two foreign pipeline workers. (author)

  20. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.