WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon fuel spill

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body residues and lysosomal membrane destabilization in mussels exposed to the Dubai Star bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380) spill in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Stanton, Beckye; McBride, Toby; Anderson, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Following the spill of bunker fuel oil (intermediate fuel oil 380, approximately 1500-3000 L) into San Francisco Bay in October 2009, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussels from moderately oiled areas increased up to 87 554 ng/g (dry wt) and, 3 mo later, decreased to concentrations found in mussels collected prior to oiling, with a biological half-life of approximately 16 d. Lysosomal membrane destabilization increased in mussels with higher PAH body burdens.

  2. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from aviation fuel spill site at Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R C; Essien, J P; Akpan, S B; Okpokwasili, G C

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from aviation fuel contaminated soil at Inua Eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria. PAH-degrading bacteria in the contaminated soil were isolated by enrichment culture technique. Isolates with high PAH degrading potential characterized by their extensive growth on PAH-supplemented minimal salt medium were screened for their naphthalene, phenanthrene and chrysene degradability. The screening medium which contained selected PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy showed that Micrococcus varians AFS-2, Pseudomonas putida AFS-3 and Alcaligenes faecalis AFS-5 exhibited a concentration-dependent growth in all the PAH-compounds tested. There were visible changes in the color of growth medium suggesting the production of different metabolites. Their acclimation to different PAH substrates was also evident as A. faecalis AFS-5 isolated from chrysene grew well on other less complex aromatic compounds. The isolate exhibited best growth (0.44 OD(600)) when exposed to 10 ppm of chrysene for 5 days and could utilize up to 90 ppm of chrysene. This isolate and others with strong PAH-degrading potentials are recommended for bioremediation of PAHs in aviation fuel-contaminated sites in the tropics.

  4. Investigation of the presence of toxic components of petroleum hydrocarbons in Guanabara Bay, Brazil following the 2000 PETROBRAS fuel oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Catia Maria [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Licenciamento de Petroleo e Nuclear; Vleet, Edward S. Van

    2003-07-01

    On January 18, 2000, approximately 340,000 gallons of marine fuel 380 oil were released into Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a consequence of a pipeline transfer accident at the Duque de Caxias Refinery (PETROBRAS). Two years after the spill, the present investigation (sponsored by Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance - College of Public Health - University of South Florida) was conducted to assess the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on samples of water, sediments and edible tissue of the fishes (Mullet - Mugilliza and Croaker - Micropogonias furnieri) collected using two types of device (nets and fish traps) from the spill area in July and August 2002. The fishes samples collected in both months were considered to range from being not contaminated to being moderately contaminated by PAHs. Among all the sediments, only one (Point 10, July 2002) showed a total PAH concentration representing highly contaminated conditions. Except for Point 10, all other sediments could be considered minimally to moderately contaminated. Dissolved PAH concentrations found in the water samples were considered to range from minimally to moderately contaminated. (author)

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills.

  6. Response of meiofauna to petroleum hydrocarbon of three fuel oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.; Badesab, S.

    Oil spills are recurrent problem in marine system. Effects of oil pollution are many. The present paper evaluates the effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbon of three fuel oils on metazoan meiofauna. The results suggest significant variations in the toxic...

  7. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  8. Assessing risks of hydrocarbon spills in tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Negri, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing pressure of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical northern Australia. This is due to increasing population and industrial activities, such as oil and gas extraction, ship traffic, and related planned (e.g. wastewater) and accidental (e.g. spills) discharges. Through close collaboration between AIMS and AECOM, a novel, integrated approach to spill risk assessments has been developed. The approach links outcomes of a semi-quantitative risk assessment methodology to results of spill weathering and trajectory numerical modelling and to emerging tropical toxicological data. The risk assessment is based on triple bottom line concept and uses a multi-disciplinary expert panel to assess the probabilities and consequential impacts associated with potential risk events, such as accidental hydrocarbon spills. The probability assessments of spills are based on the type of operations being assessed and historical spill data available for the area and region. Quantifying the impacts of hydrocarbon spills requires an understanding of the impact extents as well as of the sensitivity of relevant tropical species to both hydrocarbons and dispersants. The quantification of impacts for certain operations and areas may only rely on the known nature of hydrocarbons, while spill volumes and extents of slick propagation are highly variable. Critical ecotoxicity data for tropical environments are scarce. Consequentially, assessments of probabilities and impacts may differ dramatically depending on the ambient conditions taken into consideration, level of understanding of properties of spilled hydrocarbon, and numerical models and techniques employed for simulating oil weathering and slick trajectories and thicknesses, as well as the available ecotoxicology thresholds of affected species. The outcomes of the combined risk and impact assessments for the first time provide industry and regulators with advanced pre-spill information thus vastly improving the

  9. Source identification of hydrocarbons following spill events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Centre of Excellence (Canada)], email: eib.birkholz@alsglobal.com

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with revealing the sources of hydrocarbon contamination as a part of the forensic effort in reclamation and remediation. The goal is to show the importance of such information for assessing oil contamination levels and cleanup costs. This study deals with three particular cases where hydrocarbon levels were exceeded in soil samples. As part of the investigation process, a report on the source, age, and nature of the contamination was generated. The chemical investigation consisted of many steps, including mixing and equilibrating the samples with other chemicals, and scanning for oil biomarkers. After the analysis was finished, it was concluded that the fuels in the soil samples were from 14.7 to 15.6 years old, with a 2 year margin of error; however, a different methodology yielded a higher range, 20 to 24 years. Regarding the type of fuel, due to traces of alkylated benzenes and sesquiterpanes that were found, it was believed that the source of the oil was western Canada.

  10. Forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons in a methanogenic environment-Mandan, ND and Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, F.D.; Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Cao, W.; Bekins, B.A.; Rostad, C.E.; Kulpa, C.F.; Laursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades forensic fingerprinting of oil-spill hydrocarbons has emerged as an important tool for correlating oils and for evaluating their source and character. Two long-term hydrocarbon spills, an off-road diesel spill (Mandan, ND) and a crude oil spill (Bemidji, MN) experiencing methanogenic biodegradation were previously shown to be undergoing an unexpected progression of homologous n-alkane and n-alkylated cyclohexane loss. Both exhibited degradative losses proceeding from the high-molecular-weight end of the distributions, along with transitory concentration increases of lower-molecular-weight homologs. Particularly in the case of the diesel fuel spill, these methanogenic degradative patterns can result in series distributions that mimic lower cut refinery fuels or admixture with lower cut fuels. Forensic fingerprinting in this long-term spill must therefore rely on more recalcitrant series, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon or drimane sesquiterpane profiles, to prove if the spilled oil is single-sourced or whether there is verifiable admixture with other extraneous refinery fuels. Degradation processes impacting n-alkanes and n-alkylated ring compounds, which make these compounds unsuitable for fingerprinting, nevertheless are of interest in understanding methanogenic biodegradation. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  15. Bioremediation of an area contaminated by a fuel spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, B; Izquierdo, A; Blasco, R; Pérez del Campo, P; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-06-01

    In order to decontaminate a large area of restricted access contaminated by a fuel spill, laboratory and field studies were developed in two steps: (a) monitoring of the laboratory experiment on bacterial growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with and without addition of nutrients; and (b) use of the best conditions obtained in (a) for the decontamination of the soil. A hydraulic barrier was installed both to clean the aquifer and to avoid migration of hydrocarbons as a consequence of their solution in the groundwater and subsequent displacement. The objective was to create an ideal environment for the treatment of the affected area that favoured the growth of the indigenous bacteria (Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter) that biodegrade the hydrocarbons. Monitoring of the changes in the total concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil subjected to bacterial action was performed by gas chromatography. In a field study, the progress of biodegradation of hydrocarbons was evaluated in situ by changes in subsurface CO2/O2 levels by means of an analyser equipped with an infrared detector. Biostimulation and oxygen were the most influential factors for the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The use of bioventing of the soil was shown as an excellent technology to promote in situ bioremediation of the polluted area.

  16. Oil spills and gas leaks: environmental response, prevention, and cost recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Testa, Stephen M; Jacobs, James, A

    2013-01-01

    Oil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel extraction methods, the unintended consequences when disasters occur, spill behavior, and environmental impact mitigation...

  17. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  18. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi; Kohno, Kumiko

    2004-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and recovery characteristics in some organisms after the Nakhodka oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi [Kagoshima University (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Kohno, Kumiko [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Following the oil spill from the Russian tanker Nakhodka in 1997 in the Sea of Japan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were monitored for three years in some molluscs from the Mikuni-cho shore in Japan. Total PAH concentrations in marine organisms except for spiny top shell, ranged from 5.3 to 32.7 ng/g wet weight, but no trends were evident. Total PAH concentration in spiny top shell (Turbo cornutus) was 44 ng/g w.w. in the first month after the oil spill. However, it rapidly decreased to less than 5.4 ng/g w.w. from the second month. Spiny top shell, which was exposed to dietary Nakhodka heavy fuel oil, concentrated benzo(a)pyrene to 17.1 ng/g w.w. after two weeks of exposure and then rapidly eliminated it during an elimination phase. These results suggest that spiny top shell accumulates PAHs because of their low ability to metabolize PAH, but it can excrete parent PAHs rapidly when removed from the source of contamination. Thus it is suitable as an indicator organism in monitoring oil contamination. It can also be inferred from these field and laboratory investigations that, in three years, organisms from the Mikuni-cho shore seem to have adequately recovered from the Nakhodka oil spill contamination. (author)

  1. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asphalt pavements, the Cantabro abrasion test was performed on 200 test samples after applying controlled oil spills. Three different types of binders were used: conventional bitumen, polymer-modified bitumen and special fuel-resistant bitumen. After analyzing the results, it was concluded that the most suitable bitumen to protect against oil leakages is the polymer-modified one, which is far better than the other two types of bitumen tested.

  2. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  4. Vacuum extraction based response equipment for recovery of fresh fuel spills from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmemies, Sakari; Gröndahl, Siri; Arffman, Mika; Nenonen, Keijo; Tuhkanen, Tuula

    2003-02-28

    Accidental overturns of fuel tankers can have, depending on soil types, severe consequences. This applies, particularly in areas of shallow soils where the groundwater is located 2-4m below the ground surface. By rapid, vacuum extraction based recovery emergency services, which would normally be the first to arrive on the scene, could minimize consequences of fresh fuel spills and even prevent groundwater contamination, the primary purpose of emergency response. Powerful vacuum extraction-based response (PER), equipment has been developed to recover freshly spilt volatile fuels from the soil, primary by emergency services, but also by other trained responders. The main components of mobile PER-equipment are perforated extraction pipes, a recovery vacuum tank, a vacuum pump and an incinerator. The PER-equipment has been tested in summer and sub-zero winter conditions, and in both cases 50-80% of fresh gasoline spilled into sandy soil was recovered during the first 2h of operation. Gasoline was recovered in both liquid and vapor form, and hydrocarbon vapors were destroyed by controlled incineration at a safe distance from the spill. Recovery of less volatile diesel oil is not so effective from the sandy soil, but about 30% of it could be pumped from a fresh pool directly after a seepage time of 15 min.

  5. Characterisation of the effect of a simulated hydrocarbon spill on diazotrophs in mangrove sediment mesocosm

    OpenAIRE

    Taketani,Rodrigo Gouvêa; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado,Alexandre Soares

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of an oil spill on mangrove sediments was carried out by contamination of mesocosms derived from two different mangroves, one with a history of contamination and one pristine. The association between N2 fixers and hydrocarbon degradation was assessed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the genes rrs and nifH, nifH clone library sequencing and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) quantification using gas chromatography. TPH showed that the microbial communities of both man...

  6. Microbial community response to a simulated hydrocarbon spill in mangrove sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvea; Franco, Natalia Oliveira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the microbial communities in mangrove sediments with different chemical and historical characteristics respond differently to the disturbance of a hydrocarbon spill. Two different mangrove sediments were sampled, one close to an oil refinery that had su

  7. A multivariate approach to oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting and spill source identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    of the available data. A framework (integrated multivariate oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting - IMOF) for the use of chemometric approaches in tiered oil spill fingerprinting is presented in this chapter. It consists of four main steps where a suite of analytical instruments, data preprocessing and multivariate...

  8. Microbial community response to a simulated hydrocarbon spill in mangrove sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvea; Franco, Natalia Oliveira; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the microbial communities in mangrove sediments with different chemical and historical characteristics respond differently to the disturbance of a hydrocarbon spill. Two different mangrove sediments were sampled, one close to an oil refinery that had

  9. Characterisation of the effect of a simulated hydrocarbon spill on diazotrophs in mangrove sediment mesocosm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taketani, R.G.; dos Santos, H.F.; van Elsas, J.D.; Rosado, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of an oil spill on mangrove sediments was carried out by contamination of mesocosms derived from two different mangroves, one with a history of contamination and one pristine. The association between N(2) fixers and hydrocarbon degradation was assessed using quantitative

  10. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  11. Life in oil :Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial mineralization in oil spill-polluted marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which an oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites.One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2,1997.This paper describes the three main processes of the Nakhodka oil spill,including:(1) the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas)and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years;(2) the laboratory-scale biodegradation of the Nakhodka oil spill over a 429-day period;and (3) the bioavailability of kaolinite clay minerals and the role they play in seawater polluted with the Nakhodka oil spill.Upon the slow evaporation of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year weathering,the dendritic crystal growth of paraffin (a mixture of alkanes) occurred in the oil crust under natural conditions.Heavy metals were obtained in the original heavy oil samples of three seashores in the Sea of Japan.Si,S,Ti,Cr,Ni,Cu,and Zn were found in the original Nakhodka oil spill samples whereas these heavy metals and S were no longer present after 9 years.The anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus-type bacteria associated with halite.The hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.A biodegradation process of heavy oil from the Nakhodka oil spill by indigenous microbial consortia was monitored over 429 days in the laboratory.The indigenous microbial consortia consisted of bacteria and fungi as well as the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Atake seashore,Ishikawa Prefecture,Japan.Both bacteria and fungi had a significant role in the observed biodegradation of heavy oil during the 429-day bioremediation with respect to the pH of the solution.Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria had a tendency to

  12. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo-clays--implications for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Onuma; Frost, Ray; Xi, Yunfei; Kokot, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Organo-clays synthesised by the ion exchange of sodium in Wyoming Na-montmorillonite (SWy-2-MMT) with three surfactants: (a) octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA), formula C(21)H(46)NBr; (b) dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDDMA), formula C(22)H(48)BrN; and (c) di(hydrogenated tallow)dimethylammonium chloride were tested for hydrocarbon adsorption. Using diesel, hydraulic oil, and engine oil an evaluation was made of the effectiveness of the sorbent materials for a range of hydrocarbon products that are likely to be involved in land-based oil spills. It was found that the hydrocarbon sorption capacity of the organo-clays depended upon the materials and surfactants used in the organo-clay synthesis. Greater adsorption was obtained if the surfactant contained two or more hydrocarbon long chains. Extensive utilisation of chemometrics principally with the aid of MCDM methods, produced models which consistently ranked the organo-clays well above any of the competitors including commercial benchmark materials. Thus, the use of organo-clays for cleaning up oil spills is feasible due to its many desirable properties such as high hydrocarbon sorption and retention capacities, hydrophobicity. The negative effects of the use of organo-clays for oil-spill cleanup are the cost, the biodegradability, and recyclability of the organo-clays.

  14. FUEL CONSERVATION BY THE APPLICATION OF SPILL PREVENTION AND FAILSAFE ENGINEERING (A GUIDELINE MANUAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7;289,163 gallons of oil were accident~y discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a n~vigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Fe~eral workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the documen~ is offered as a spill prevention guide. The'manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or traqe association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  15. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811 K. Results indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700 K. No improvements were obtained when deoxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. Results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, lating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  16. Combustion characteristics of thermally stressed hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Colin William

    Liquid propelled propulsion systems, which range from rocket systems to hypersonic scramjet and ramjet engines, require active cooling in order to prevent additional payload requirements. In these systems, the liquid fuel is used as a coolant and is delivered through micro-channels that surround the combustion chambers, nozzles, as well as the exterior surfaces in order to extract heat from these affected areas. During this process, heat exchange occurs through phase change, sensible heat extraction, and endothermic reactions experienced by the liquid fuel. Previous research has demonstrated the significant modifications in fuel composition and changes to the fuel's physical properties that can result from these endothermic reactions. As a next step, we are experimentally investigating the effect that endothermic reactions have on fundamental flame behavior for real hydrocarbon fuels that are used as rocket and jet propellants. To achieve this goal, we have developed a counter-flow flame burner to measure extinction limits of the thermally stressed fuels. The counter-flow flame system is to be coupled with a high pressure reactor, capable of subjecting the fuel to 170 atm and 873 K, effectively simulating the extreme environment that cause the liquid fuel to experience endothermic reactions. The fundamental flame properties of the reacted fuels will be compared to those of unreacted fuels, allowing us to determine the role of endothermic reactions on the combustion behavior of current hydrocarbon jet and rocket propellants. To quantify the change in transport properties and chemical kinetics of the reacting mixture, simultaneous numerical simulations of the reactor portion of the experiment coupled with a counterflow flame simulation are performed using n-heptane and n-dodecane.

  17. Sorbent biomaterials for cleaning up hydrocarbon spills on soil and bodies of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Ortíz González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at identifying and evaluating natural organic materials which could be used as sorbents in clean-up operations following hydrocarbons spills on both soils and bodies of water. The sorption capacity of three materials (sugarcane fibre, coco fibre and water Eichornia crassipies was evaluated with three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API and two types of water (distilled and artificial marine water adopting the ASTM F-726 standard and following the methodology suggested in the “Oil spill sorbents: testing protocol and certification listing programme” Canadian protocol. It was found that the three materials being evaluated had a sorption capacity equal to or greater than that of the commercial material to which they were compared. It was observed that sorption capacity results depended on some variables such as hydrocarbon viscosity, granulometry (particle size in Tyler sieve and the structure of the material. Sugarcane fibre sorption in water showed the greatest hydrophobicity, different to Eichornia crassipies which is extremely hydrophilic. The materials’ sorption kinetics were determined and modelled with the three hydrocarbons (35°, 30° and 25°API. It was found that the materials became saturated in less than a minute, leading to a rapid alternative for cleaning-up and controlling hydrocarbon spills. Materials were also thermally treated for improving their hydrophobicity and behaviour during spills on bodies of water. Sugarcane fibre was the material which presented the best results with the thermal treatment, followed by water Eichornia crassipies. Coco fibre did not present any significant change in its hydrophobicity.

  18. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  19. Modelling fate and effects of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon fractions following hypothetical oil spills in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Amand, A.; Mazzocco, P.; Stephenson, M. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Numerical oil spill models have generally focused on the transport and fate of oil following a spill through processes such as advection, evaporation, spreading dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, biodegradation and sedimentation. These models provide information regarding the trajectory, location and size of the oil slick, as well as the location where the slick will touch shorelines. The models normally treat the spilled hydrocarbon as a single product or group of representative compounds which is not very useful in evaluating toxicological risks to aquatic biota. For that reason, Stantec developed a model that simultaneously evaluates the likely fate and co-toxicity of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in water following an oil spill in a marine environment. Compounds currently considered in the model include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, BTEX compounds, (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) and the Canada-Wide Standard hydrocarbon fractions. The fate of these hydrocarbons in the marine environment was simulated using a mass-balance compartment approach in which specific states of the oil and relevant environmental media were considered. At each time step following the hydrocarbon release, the model updated physical properties such as the density and viscosity of the spilled mixtures. When predicting the fate of the mixture, environmental conditions such as wind speed and wave height were taken into account to determine whether droplets of the spilled product remained entrained in the water column or if they resurfaced and possibly emulsified. Two hypothetical spill scenarios were investigated based on assumed spill volumes, assumed product compositions representing a distilled product and crude oil, and assumed environmental and meteorological conditions. The key outputs of the model were the dissolved concentrations of toxicologically relevant hydrocarbon compounds and fractions in the water

  20. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  1. Volatile Fuel Hydrocarbons and MTBE in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I. M.; Baehr, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons that result from petroleum products such as oil, gasoline, or diesel fuel) are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. Volatile hydrocarbons are the lighter fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons and, together with fuel oxygenates, are most often released from crude oil and liquid petroleum products produced from crude oil. The demand for crude oil stems from the world's ever-growing energy need. From 1970 to 1999, primary energy production of the world grew by 76% (Energy Information Administration, 2001), with fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) accounting for ˜85% of all energy produced worldwide (Figure 1). World crude oil production reached a record 68 million barrels (bbl) per day (1.08×1010 L d-1) in 2000. The world's dependence on oil as an energy source clearly is identified as contributing to global warming and worsening air and water quality. (7K)Figure 1. World primary energy production by source from 1970 to 1999 (Energy Information Administration, 2001). Petroleum products are present in Earth's subsurface as solids, liquids, or gases. This chapter presents a summary of the environmental problems and issues related to the use of liquid petroleum, or oil. The focus is on the sources of volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates and the geochemical behavior of these compounds when they are released into the environment. Although oxygenates currently in commercial use include compounds other than methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), such as ethanol (ETOH), most of the information presented here focuses on MTBE because of its widespread occurrence. The environmental impact of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons that also originate from petroleum products is described in (Chapter 9.13, Abrajano et al.).Crude oil occurs within the Earth and is a complex mixture of natural compounds composed largely of hydrocarbons containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms. The minor

  2. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the δ(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply.

  3. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  4. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  5. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  6. Hydrologic and microbiological factors affecting persistence and migration of petroleum hydrocarbons spilled in a continuous-permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel spills, totaling about 1300 m3, occurred between 1976 and 1978 adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking water source near Barrow, AK. Substantial contamination of soils and groundwater near the lake persists. We examined the magnitude and direction of groundwater flux and the microbial activity at this site to understand the persistence of contamination and its effect on the lake. We found that groundwater flux is small due to shallow permafrost, which restricts the cross-sectional area available for flow, and to the short annual thaw season (ca. 90 days). The small flux and limited depth also constrain contaminant transport and dispersion, resulting in persistent, shallow contamination. The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their laboratory mineralization potentials for benzene (at 10 ??C) were higher in samples from contaminated areas than in reference samples. Benzene mineralization potentials in groundwater samples were comparable to more temperate systems (0.1-0.5 mg of benzene mineralized L-1 day-1) and were stimulated by nutrient additions. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, and sulfide in groundwater provided evidence that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is occurring in situ. Despite evidence of an active microbial population, microbial processes, like contaminant transport, are likely limited at this site by the short annual thaw season.

  7. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthetic terpene production[ED1] represents an energy and carbon-efficient route for hydrocarbon fuel production. Diverse terpene structures also provide the potential to produce next-generation 'drop-in' hydrocarbon fuel molecules. However, it is highly challenging to achieve efficient redire...

  8. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  9. Ceramic Microchannel Development for Compact Fuel Processors of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.-M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doss, E.

    Fuel processing is a bridging technology for faster commercialization of fuel cell system under lack of hydrogen infrastructures. Argonne national laboratory has been developing fuel processing technologies for fuel cell based electric power. We have reported the development of novel catalysts that are active and selective for hydrocarbon reforming reactions. It has been realized, however, that with pellet or conventional honeycomb catalysts, the reforming process is mass transport limited. This paper reports the development of catalyst structures with microchannels that are able to reduce the diffusion resistance and thereby achieve the same production rate within a smaller reactor bed. These microchannel reforming catalysts were prepared and tested with natural gas and gasoline-type fuels in a microreactor (1-cm dia.) at space velocities of up to 250,000 per hour. These catalysts have also been used in engineering-scale reactors (10 kWe, 7-cm dia.) with similar product qualities. Compared to pellet catalysts, the microchannel catalysts enable a nearly 5-fold reduction in catalyst weight and volume.

  10. A device for reforming a hydrocarbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendzi, T.; Ikuo, M.

    1984-03-15

    In order to utilize the heat from the reaction of reforming of a hydrocarbon fuel and the heat scattered from a heater, a design is proposed for a fuel reforming reactor in which the gases entering the reactor first pass inside the reactor along the external wall and are heated by the heat dispersed inside the reactor. Then they go in the opposite direction along a clearance between the interior shell of the reactor and the internal body of the reactor itself with a catalyst (Kt) and a heated electrical cylindrical heater. Then the gases, already heated, go directly into the cavity of the reactor filled with the catalyst where the reforming reaction occurs and then the gases and the vapors of the reformed fuel are discharged, passing through a system of heat exchangers. The layout of such a reactor, which contains a cylindrical shell inside, a cylindrical sleeve coaxial with it and the body of the reactor itself with the heater, is given. A system for attaching the internal sleeve and the body of the reactor to the catalyst is cited. The course of the gases inside the reactor is also given.

  11. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation.

  12. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  13. Investigation of heat sink of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yong-sheng; LIN Rui-sen

    2005-01-01

    Endothermic hydrocarbon fuels are advanced coolants for high-temperature structures of spacecraft. No data of tested-cooling-ability of endothermic fuels have been broadly discussed in literature. In this work a high-temperature flow calorimeter was designed, and the cooling capacity of six different hydrocarbon fuels were measured. Experimental results showed that these hydrocarbon fuels have capacity for cooling high-temperature structures, and that the cooling capacity of fuel N-1 can reach 3.15 M J/kg, which can nearly satisfy the requirement of thermal management for a Mach 3 cruise aircraft, whose heat sink requirement is about 3.5 M J/kg. The endothermic velocity of hydrocarbon fuels was also measured by the calorimeter.

  14. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel": an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the "Oil-Spill Snorkel": a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel" consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the "Oil-Spill Snorkel" potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable

  15. The Oil-Spill Snorkel: an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eCruz Viggi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proof-of-concept of the Oil-Spill Snorkel: a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The Oil-Spill Snorkel consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water. The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode, where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing 1 or 3 graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p=0.023, two-tailed t-test in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p=0.040 in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing 3 snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12±1% (p=0.004 and 21±1% (p=0.001 was observed in microcosms containing 1 and 3 snorkels, respectively. Although, the Oil-Spill Snorkel potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable configurations for field

  16. Characterisation of the effect of a simulated hydrocarbon spill on diazotrophs in mangrove sediment mesocosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares

    2009-10-01

    An analysis of the effect of an oil spill on mangrove sediments was carried out by contamination of mesocosms derived from two different mangroves, one with a history of contamination and one pristine. The association between N(2) fixers and hydrocarbon degradation was assessed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the genes rrs and nifH, nifH clone library sequencing and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) quantification using gas chromatography. TPH showed that the microbial communities of both mangroves were able to degrade the hydrocarbons added; however, whereas the majority of oil added to the mesocosm derived from the polluted mangrove was degraded in the 75 days of the experiment, there was only partially degradation in the mesocosm derived from the pristine mangrove. qPCR showed that the addition of oil led to an increase in rrs gene copy numbers in both mesocosms, having almost no effect on the nifH copy numbers in the pristine mangrove. Sequencing of nifH clones indicated that the changes promoted by the oil in the polluted mangrove were greater than those observed in the pristine mesocosm. The main effect observed in the polluted mesocosm was the selection of a single phylotype which is probably adapted to the presence of petroleum. These results, together with previous reports, give hints about the relationship between N(2) fixation and hydrocarbon degradation in natural ecosystems.

  17. Composition and depth distribution of hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay marsh sediments after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer Kırman, Zeynep; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Bianchi, Thomas S; Marcantonio, Franco; Kolker, Alexander S

    2016-07-01

    In 2010, an estimate 4.1 million barrels of oil were accidentally released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill. One and a half years after this incident, a set of subtidal and intertidal marsh sediment cores were collected from five stations in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, and analyzed to determine the spatial and vertical distributions and source of hydrocarbon residues based on their chemical composition. An archived core, collected before the DWH oil spill from the same area, was also analyzed to assess the pre-spill hydrocarbon distribution in the area. Analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and stable carbon isotope showed that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in Barataria Bay was patchy and limited in areal extent. Significant TPH and ΣPAH concentrations (77,399 μg/g and 219,065 ng/g, respectively) were detected in the surface sediments of one core (i.e., core A) to a depth of 9 cm. Based on a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm yr(-1), determined using (137)Cs, the presence of anthropogenic hydrocarbons in these sediment core deposited ca. 50 to 60 years ago. The historical background hydrocarbon concentrations increased significantly at the sediment surface and can be attributed to recent inputs. Although the oil present in the bay's sediments has undergone moderate weathering, biomarker analyses performed on core A samples likely indicated the presence of hydrocarbons from the DWH oil spill. The effects of oiling events on Barataria Bay and other marsh ecosystems in this region remain uncertain, as oil undergoes weathering changes over time.

  18. Aromatic hydrocarbon pathology in fish following a large spill into the Nemadji River, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    On June 30, 1992, a train accident resulted in a rail car releasing 114,000 L of a complex mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons into the Nemadji River, a tributary of Lake Superior near Superior, Wisconsin (Table 1). Although the majority of the spilled material evaporated, damage to aquatic life was extensive. Several thousand fishes were killed and an inestimable number were exposed to low concentrations (exposure to determine the extent of injury when compared to fishes collected from the reference site. The liver, spleen, gill, and head kidney were examined for histopathology. Blood was collected to determine the severity of liver damage reflected by the presence of the serum enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and d - glutamyl transferase).

  19. The prestige oil spill. I. Biodegradation of a heavy fuel oil under simulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Sergi; Sabatté, Jordi; Viñas, Marc; Bayona, Josep M; Solanas, Anna M; Albaigés, Joan

    2005-09-01

    In vitro biodegradation of the Prestige heavy fuel oil has been carried out using two microbial consortia obtained by enrichment in different substrates to simulate its environmental fate and potential utility for bioremediation. Different conditions, such as incubation time (i.e., 20 or 40 d), oil weathering, and addition of an oleophilic fertilizer (S200), were evaluated. Weathering slowed down the degradation of the fuel oil, probably because of the loss of lower and more labile components, but the addition of S200 enhanced significantly the extension of the biodegradation. n-Alkanes, alkylcyclohexanes, alkylbenzenes, and the two- to three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were degraded in 20 or 40 d of incubation of the original oil, whereas the biodegradation efficiency decreased for higher PAHs and with the increase of alkylation. Molecular markers were degraded according to the following sequence: Acyclic isoprenoids > diasteranes > C27-steranes > betabeta-steranes > homohopanes > monoaromatic steranes > triaromatic steranes. Isomeric selectivity was observed within the C1- and C2-phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes, providing source and weathering indices for the characterization of the heavy oil spill. Acyclic isoprenoids, C27-steranes, C1- and C2-naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and dibenzothiophenes were degraded completely when S200 was used. The ratios of the C2- and C3-alkyl homologues of fluoranthene/pyrene and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are proposed as source ratios in moderately degraded oils. The 4-methylpyrene and 3-methylchrysene were refractory enough to serve as conserved internal markers in assessing the degradation of the aromatic fraction in a manner similar to that of hopane, as used for the aliphatic fraction.

  20. Weathering of hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments: testing the effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.; Pratt, C. [Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Duke, N.C. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Botany

    1999-07-01

    This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills impacting mangrove habitats. The aim of the chemistry was to determine whether dispersant affected the short- or long-term composition of a medium range crude oil (Gippsland) stranded in a tropical mangrove environment in Queensland, Australia. Sediment cores from three replicate plots of each treatment (oil only and oil plus dispersant) were analyzed for total hydrocarbons and for individual molecular markers (alkanes, aromatics, triterpanes, and steranes). Sediments were collected at 2 days, then 1, 7, 13 and 22 months post-spill. Over this time, oil in the six treated plots decreased exponentially from 36.6 {+-} 16.5 to 1.2 {+-} 0.8 mg/g dry wt. There was no statistical difference in initial oil concentrations, penetration of oil to depth, or in the rates of oil dissipation between oiled or dispersed oil plots. At 13 months, alkanes were > 50% degraded, aromatics were {approx}30% degraded based upon ratios of labile to resistant markers. However, there was no change in the triterpane or sterane biomarker signatures of the retained oil. This is of general forensic interest for pollution events. The predominant removal processes were evaporation ({<=}27%) and dissolution ({>=}56%), with a lag-phase of 1 month before the start of significant microbial degradation ({<=}17%). The most resistant fraction of the oil that remained after 7 months (the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons) correlated with the initial total organic carbon content of the soil. Removal rate in the Queensland mangroves was significantly faster than that observed in the Caribbean and was related to tidal flushing. (author)

  1. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Salt Marsh Sediment Mixing Following Petroleum Hydrocarbon Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. S.; Yeager, K. M.; Brunner, C. A.; Wade, T. L.; Briggs, K. B.; Schindler, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Tidal marshes support valuable ecosystems, but their coastal locations make them susceptible to oil spills. Oil spilled in the ocean is easily transported via tidal and wind-driven currents to the shore and incorporated into sediments. The primary goal of this research was to determine how deeply oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill has penetrated sediments along the Gulf Coast, and whether oil has quantifiably affected benthic ecosystems at these sites. Sediment cores were taken from three marsh environments at sites classified as unoiled, lightly oiled, and heavily oiled based on data from NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA). These classifications have been verified by measurements of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([TPAH] without perylene). Bioturbators, such as polychaetes and oligochaetes, constantly rework sediments as they burrow into them. In this way, bioturbators can play a role in the fate of organic contaminants, either by allowing for natural remediation of contaminants via enhanced microbial degradation, or by mixing oil from the surface deeper into the sediment column. The constant fallout radionuclide 7Be was measured to determine short-term sediment mixing depths. However, there was a conspicuous absence of 7Be at most sites. This could be due to sediment composition constraints on 7Be sorption (coarse-grained sediment, high organic matter contents), or rapid erosion of the marsh surface. Instead, minimum mixing depths were derived from 234Thxs profiles. Thorium-234 is a lithogenic isotope that has widely been used to trace particle mixing on short time scales near that of its mean life (36 days). Penetration depths of 234Thxs ranged between 0.25 and 4.5 cm. Sediment accumulation rates will be determined using 210Pb, with verification from an independent tracer, 137Cs, in selected cores. Preliminary results from 210Pb profiles reveal thorough, long-term (decadal) sediment mixing to at least 40 cm at all sites

  3. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  4. Metabolic engineering for the production of hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Hye Mi; Cheon, Seungwoo

    2015-06-01

    Biofuels have been attracting increasing attention to provide a solution to the problems of climate change and our dependence on limited fossil oil. During the last decade, metabolic engineering has been performed to develop superior microorganisms for the production of so called advanced biofuels. Among the advanced biofuels, hydrocarbons possess high-energy content and superior fuel properties to other biofuels, and thus have recently been attracting much research interest. Here we review the recent advances in the microbial production of hydrocarbon fuels together with the metabolic engineering strategies employed to develop their production strains. Strategies employed for the production of long-chain and short-chain hydrocarbons derived from fatty acid metabolism along with the isoprenoid-derived hydrocarbons are reviewed. Also, the current limitations and future prospects in hydrocarbon-based biofuel production are discussed.

  5. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons, in particular oil spills, has attracted much attention in the past and recent decades. Oil spills influence natural microbial community, and physical and chemical properties of the affected sites. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by microorganisms is one of the primary ways by which oil spill is eliminated from contaminated sites. One such spill was that of the Russian tanker the Nakhodka that spilled heavy oil into the Sea of Japan on January 2, 1997. The impact of the Nakhodka oil spill resulted in a viscous sticky fluid fouling the shores and affected natural ecosystems. This paper describes the weathering of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (genus Pseudomonas) and crystallized organic compounds from the Nakhodka oil spill-polluted seashores after nine years. The Nakhodka oil has hardened and formed crust of crystalline paraffin wax as shown by XRD analysis (0.422, 0.377, and 0.250 nm d-spacing) in association with graphite and calcite after 9years of bioremediation. Anaerobic reverse side of the oil crust contained numerous coccus typed bacteria associated with halite. The finding of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and paraffin wax in the oil crust may have a significant effect on the weathering processes of the Nakhodka oil spill during the 9-year bioremediation.

  6. The Prestige oil spill. 2. Enhanced biodegradation of a heavy fuel oil under field conditions by the use of an oleophilic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Sabaté, Jordi; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M; Solanas, Anna M; Albaiges, Joan

    2006-04-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 10 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach of the Cantabrian coast (North Spain). The field survey showed that S200 significantly enhanced the biodegradation rate, particularly of high molecular weight n-alkanes, alkylcyclohexanes, and benzenes, and alkylated PAHs, paralleling the results previously found in vitro. The most significant molecular bioremediation indicators were the depletion of diasteranes and C-27 sterane components. Enhanced isomeric selectivity was also observed within the C1-phenanthrenes and dibenzothiophenes. Through the analysis of some target aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons a number of chemical indicators for assessing the efficiency of field bioremediation as well as identifying the source of highly weathered samples collected in the area after the spill are defined.

  7. Atmospheric emissions from the Deepwater Horizon spill constrain air-water partitioning, hydrocarbon fate, and leak rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, T. B.; Aikin, K. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.-S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Holloway, J. S.; Lack, D. A.; Lueb, R. A.; Meinardi, S.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Murphy, D. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Stark, H.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L. A.

    2011-04-01

    The fate of deepwater releases of gas and oil mixtures is initially determined by solubility and volatility of individual hydrocarbon species; these attributes determine partitioning between air and water. Quantifying this partitioning is necessary to constrain simulations of gas and oil transport, to predict marine bioavailability of different fractions of the gas-oil mixture, and to develop a comprehensive picture of the fate of leaked hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Analysis of airborne atmospheric data shows massive amounts (˜258,000 kg/day) of hydrocarbons evaporating promptly from the Deepwater Horizon spill; these data collected during two research flights constrain air-water partitioning, thus bioavailability and fate, of the leaked fluid. This analysis quantifies the fraction of surfacing hydrocarbons that dissolves in the water column (˜33% by mass), the fraction that does not dissolve, and the fraction that evaporates promptly after surfacing (˜14% by mass). We do not quantify the leaked fraction lacking a surface expression; therefore, calculation of atmospheric mass fluxes provides a lower limit to the total hydrocarbon leak rate of 32,600 to 47,700 barrels of fluid per day, depending on reservoir fluid composition information. This study demonstrates a new approach for rapid-response airborne assessment of future oil spills.

  8. The impact of Deepwater Horizon oil spill on petroleum hydrocarbons in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Gardner, Wayne S.; Shank, G. Christopher; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated impacts of the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill on petroleum hydrocarbons in surface waters of the Louisiana continental shelf in northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface water ( top 5 cm) without visible oil was collected from three cruises in May 2010 during the oil spill, August 2010 after the well was capped, and May 2011 one year after the spill. Concentrations of total dissolved n-alkanes (C9-C35) in surface seawater were more than an order of magnitude higher in May 2010 than August 2010 and May 2011, indicating contamination by the DWH oil spill. This conclusion was further supported by more abundant smaller n-alkanes (C9-C13), together with pristane and phytane, in May than August 2010 samples. In contrast, even carbon-numbered dissolved n-alkanes (C14-C20) dominated the May 2011 samples, and this distribution pattern of dissolved n-alkanes is the first documentation for water samples in the northern Gulf of Mexico. However, this pattern was not observed in May 2011 suspended particles except for Sta. OSS. This decoupling between dissolved and particle compositions suggests that either these even carbon-numbered n-alkanes originated from bacteria rather than algae, or that the alkanes in the shelf were transported from elsewhere. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suspended particles were 5 times higher on average in May 2010 (83-252 ng L-1) than May 2011 (7.2-83 ng L-1), also indicating contamination by the DWH oil spill. Application of a biomarker ratio of 17α(H),21β(H)-30-norhopane over 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane confirmed that suspended particles from at least two stations were contaminated by the DWH oil spill in May 2010. Taken together, these results showed that surface waters of the sampling area in May 2010 were contaminated by the oil spill, but also that rapid weathering and/or physical dilution quickly reduced hydrocarbon levels by August 2010.

  9. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. The Impact of a Ship Grounding and Associated Fuel Spill at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In October 1993, the Taiwanese longliner Jin Shiang fa ran aground at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, spilling 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel and other...

  12. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would be a feasible technology to clean up this MTBE-contaminated site.

  13. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  14. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro......The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future...... is electrolysis followed by conversion into synthetic hydrocarbons, alcohols or ethers. Several types of electrolysers exist. The various types are listed together with a short description of principle and status. It is argued that electrolysis will at least become part of large sustainable energy systems...

  15. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Nabi, Deedar; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Brussaard, Corina P D; Huisman, Johannes; van der Meer, Jan R; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-08-19

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitted, unrestrained 4.3 m(3) oil release conducted on the North Sea. Rapid mass transfers of volatile and soluble hydrocarbons were observed, with >50% of ≤C17 hydrocarbons disappearing within 25 h from this oil slick of 50% losses of ≤C16 hydrocarbons were observed after 1 h. We developed a mass transfer model to describe the evolution of oil slick chemical composition and water column hydrocarbon concentrations. The model was parametrized based on environmental conditions and hydrocarbon partitioning properties estimated from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) retention data. The model correctly predicted the observed fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the oil slick resulting from evaporation and dissolution. This is the first report on the broad-spectrum compositional changes in oil during the first day of a spill at the sea surface. Expected outcomes under other environmental conditions are discussed, as well as comparisons to other models.

  16. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Pavitran

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-speed diesel, a slow process, is attributed to an overall combinedeffect of physico-chemical and biological processes which take months for complete dispersion.History of marine oil spill bioremediation indicates limited laboratory studies. But experiencesfrom various oil spill management and field trials indicate important role of bioremediation, where,biodegradation of hydrocarbons through microbial mediators plays a major role in pollutant oildispersion. These microbial mediators such as bioemulsifiers and fimbrae, help in emulsification,dispersion, allowing attachment of bacteria to oil layers, followed by substrate-specific enzymaticbiodegradation in water.

  17. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  18. An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    If motor fuels are spilled from underground storage tanks, petroleum hydrocarbons can vaporize from the spill and move as a vapor through the unsaturated zone. If a building is sited above or near the spill, the hydrocarbons may intrude into the air space of the building. This ...

  19. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Non-Measured Hydrocarbons Downwind from the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    An extensively instrumented NOAA WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill that occurred in April-July of 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind from DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume of organic aerosol (OA) was attributed to secondary (SOA) formation from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide compelling evidence for the importance of SOA formation from less volatile hydrocarbons, which has been proposed as a significant source of OA in the atmosphere.

  20. Concentrations in human blood of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Stephan R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    During/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill, cleanup workers, fisherpersons, SCUBA divers, and coastal residents were exposed to crude oil and dispersants. These people experienced acute physiological and behavioral symptoms and consulted a physician. They were diagnosed with petroleum hydrocarbon poisoning and had blood analyses analyzed for volatile organic compounds; samples were drawn 5-19 months after the spill had been capped. We examined the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the blood. The aromatic compounds m,p-xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzene, o-xylene, and styrene, and the alkanes hexane, 3-methylpentane, 2-methylpentane, and iso-octane were detected. Concentrations of the first four aromatics were not significantly different from US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey/US National Institute of Standards and Technology 95th percentiles, indicating high concentrations of contaminants. The other two aromatics and the alkanes yielded equivocal results or significantly low concentrations. The data suggest that single-ring aromatic compounds are more persistent in the blood than alkanes and may be responsible for the observed symptoms. People should avoid exposure to crude oil through avoidance of the affected region, or utilizing hazardous materials suits if involved in cleanup, or wearing hazardous waste operations and emergency response suits if SCUBA diving. Concentrations of alkanes and PAHs in the blood of coastal residents and workers should be monitored through time well after the spill has been controlled.

  1. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  2. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  3. Chemical – thermodynamics description of oxidization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Л. Матвєєва

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  In theory it is grounded, that in the process of exploitation because of intensification of oxidizing processes worsening takes place of power properties of fuels, in particular warmth of combustion, due to reduction of thermal effects of reactions of combustion of the oxidized hydrocarbons.

  4. Identification of Oil Spills by GC/MS Fingerprinting in Relation to the Danish Maritime Oil Spill Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Avnskjold, J.

    2000-01-01

    From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000.......From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000....

  5. Identification of Oil Spills by GC/MS Fingerprinting in Relation to the Danish Maritime Oil Spill Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Avnskjold, J.;

    2000-01-01

    From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000.......From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000....

  6. Experimental Study on Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Chin; A.H.Lefebvre

    1992-01-01

    The-thermal stability characteristics of kerosine-type fuels are examined using a heated-tube apparatus which allows independent control of fuel pressure,fuel temperature,tube-wall temperature and fuel flow rate.This method is identified simply as a "constant wall temperature method”,It is different from a previous widely used method ,which is identified as a “Constant heat flux method”,It is a single-pass system.Rate of deposition on the tube walls are measured by weighing the test tube before and after each test.For a fuel temperature of 250℃,it is found that deposition rates increease continuously with increase in tubewall temperature.This finding contradicts the results of previous studies which had led to the conclusion that deposition rates increase with increase in wall temperature up to a certain value(around 650K) beyond which any further increase in wall temperature causes the rate of deposition to decline.The present results show clearly that the constant wall temperature method is more suitable for assessing the thermal stability of gas turbine fuels.

  7. Fates, Budgets, and Health Implications of Macondo Spill Volatile Hydrocarbons in the Ocean and Atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Barletta, B.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Bradley, E. S.; Meinardi, S.; Lehr, B.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rowland, F. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Macondo Oil Spill released unprecedented oil and gas to the ocean, estimated at 63000 bbl/day, which dispersed and dissolved during rise (Technical Flow Rate Team Report, 2010); yet, most of the oil reached the sea surface as oil slicks that then evolved due to weathering and dispersant application (Mass Balance Report, 2010). Remote sensing (near infrared imaging spectrometry) allowed quantification of thick surface oil, values of which were incorporated into an overall oil budget calculation. Remote sensing data, atmospheric samples, and numerical modeling, strongly suggest significant volatile loss during rise, yet measured atmospheric concentrations were high. Scaling atmospheric measurements to the total oil spill implies very high, extensive, and persistent levels of atmospheric petroleum hydrocarbon exposure with strong health implications to on-site workers and to coastal residents from wind advection.

  8. Deposit formation in hydrocarbon rocket fuels: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to study deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels under flow conditions that exist in high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. A high pressure fuel coking test apparatus was designed and developed and was used to evaluate thermal decomposition (coking) limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes for two hydrocarbon rocket fuels, RP-1 and commercial-grade propane. Tests were also conducted using JP-7 and chemically-pure propane as being representative of more refined cuts of the baseline fuels. A parametric evaluation of fuel thermal stability was performed at pressures of 136 atm to 340 atm, bulk fuel velocities in the range 6 to 30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures in the range 422 to 811K. In addition, the effect of the inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in selected tests which were conducted using nickel-plated tubes. The results of the tests indicated that substantial deposit formation occurs with RP-1 fuel at wall temperatures between 600 and 800K, with peak deposit formation occurring near 700K. No improvements were obtained when de-oxygenated JP-7 fuel was substituted for RP-1. The carbon deposition rates for the propane fuels were generally higher than those obtained for either of the kerosene fuels at any given wall temperature. There appeared to be little difference between commercial-grade and chemically-pure propane with regard to type and quantity of deposit. The results of tests conducted with RP-1 indicated that the rate of deposit formation increased slightly with pressure over the range 136 atm to 340 atm. Finally, plating the inside wall of the tubes with nickel was found to significantly reduce carbon deposition rates for RP-1 fuel.

  9. Deposit formation and heat transfer in hydrocarbon rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanetti, A. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.; Szetela, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to investigate the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of several hydrocarbon fuels under conditions that simulate high-pressure, rocket engine cooling systems. The rates of carbon deposition in heated copper and nickel-plated copper tubes were determined for RP-1, propane, and natural gas using a continuous flow test apparatus which permitted independent variation and evaluation of the effect on deposit formation of wall temperature, fuel pressure, and fuel velocity. In addition, the effects of fuel additives and contaminants, cryogenic fuel temperatures, and extended duration testing with intermittent operation were examined. Parametric tests to map the thermal stability characteristics of RP-1, commercial-grade propane, and natural gas were conducted at pressures of 6.9 to 13.8 MPa, bulk fuel velocities of 30 to 90 m/s, and tube wall temperatures in the range of 230 to 810 K. Also, tests were run in which propane and natural gas fuels were chilled to 230 and 160 K, respectively. Corrosion of the copper tube surface was detected for all fuels tested. Plating the inside of the copper tubes with nickel reduced deposit formation and eliminated tube corrosion in most cases. The lowest rates of carbon deposition were obtained for natural gas, and the highest rates were obtained for propane. For all fuels tested, the forced-convection heat transfer film coefficients were satisfactorily correlated using a Nusselt-Reynolds-Prandtl number equation.

  10. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of

  11. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylarde Christine C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.

  12. Monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment after the Prestige oil spill by means of seabird blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Oro, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    In this study we tested the use of seabird blood as a bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in the marine environment. Blood cells of breeding yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) were able to track spatial and temporal changes consistent with the massive oil pollution pulse that resulted from the Prestige oil spill. Thus, in 2004, blood samples from yellow-legged gulls breeding in colonies that were in the trajectory of the spill doubled in theirtotal PAH concentrations when compared to samples from unoiled colonies. Furthermore, PAH levels in gulls from an oiled colony decreased by nearly a third in two consecutive breeding seasons (2004 and 2005). Experimental evidence was gathered by means of an oil-ingestion field experiment. The total concentration of PAHs in the blood of gulls given oil supplements was 30% higher compared to controls. This strongly suggested that measures of PAHs in the blood of gulls are sensitive to the ingestion of small quantities of oil. Our study provides evidence that seabirds were exposed to residual Prestige oil 17 months after the spill commenced and gives support to the nondestructive use of seabirds as biomonitors of oil pollution in marine environments.

  13. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Institute of Investigation and Food Analysis, La Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S. [Area Nutrition and Bromatology, La Coruna (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  15. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing.

  16. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-09-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous annual monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.

  17. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K.; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the “Oil-Spill Snorkel”: a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The “Oil-Spill Snorkel” consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the “Oil-Spill Snorkel” potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify

  18. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  19. Soluble hydrocarbons uptake by porous carbonaceous adsorbents at different water ionic strength and temperature: something to consider in oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Chaparro, Carlos E; Ruiz, Luis Felipe Chazaro; Alfaro-De la Torre, Ma Catalina; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, petrochemical operations involve risks to the environment and one of the biggest is oil spills. Low molecular aromatics like benzene, toluene, and naphthalene dissolve in water, and because of their toxicological characteristics, these produce severe consequences to the environment. The oil spill cleanup strategies are mainly designed to deal with the heavy fractions accumulated on the water surface. Unfortunately, very limited information is available regarding the treatment of dissolved fractions.A commercial (Filtrasorb 400) and modified activated carbons were evaluated to remove benzene, toluene, and naphthalene from water, which are the most soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, at different ionic strengths (I) and temperatures (0-0.76 M and 4-25 °C, respectively). This allowed simulating the conditions of fresh and saline waters when assessing the performance of these adsorbents. It was found that the hydrocarbons adsorption affinity increased 12 % at a I of 0.5 M, due to the less negative charge of the adsorbent, while at a high I (≃0.76 M) in a synthetic seawater, the adsorption capacity decreased 21 % that was attributed to the adsorbent's pores occlusion by water clusters. Approximately, 40 h were needed to reach equilibrium; however, the maximum adsorption rate occurred within the first hour in all the cases. Moreover, the hydrocarbons adsorption and desorption capacities increased when the temperature augmented from 4 to 25 °C. On the other hand, thermally and chemically modified materials showed that the interactions between adsorbent-contaminant increased with the basification degree of the adsorbent surface.

  20. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  1. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  2. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  3. Presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in near-surface sediments of an oil spill area in Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuanglin; Zhang, Shengyin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Cao, Chunhui

    2015-11-15

    In order to determine the source of organic matter and the fingerprint of the oil components, 50 samples collected from the near-surface sediments of the oil spill area in Bohai Sea, China, were analyzed for grain size, total organic carbon, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of C15-35 n-alkanes and 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) priority pollutant PAHs were found in the ranges of 0.88-3.48μg g(-1) and 9.97-490.13ng/g, respectively. The terrestrial organic matters characterized by C27-C35 n-alkanes and PAHs, resulting from the combustion of higher plants, are dominantly contributed from the transportation of these plants by rivers. Marine organic matters produced from plankton and aquatic plants were represented by C17-C26 n-alkanes in AHs. Crude oil, characterized by C17-C21 n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with a mean response factor of C19 n-alkanes, low levels of perylene, and a high InP/(InP+BghiP) ratio, seeped into the oceans from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, as a result of geological faults.

  4. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D; Gagnon, M M

    2001-02-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated in juvenile Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, following exposure to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, chemically dispersed crude oil, and burnt crude oil. Each treatment was administered for 16 days either through the water column or through the diet (amphipod, Allorchestes compressa). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination was determined by measuring biliary benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and naphthalene-type metabolites. Biliary PAH-type metabolite concentrations varied with the type of oil spill remediation technique, route of exposure (food versus water), and exposure concentration. Fish exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil via the water exhibited the highest PAH-type biliary metabolite concentrations, relative to fish exposed to other treatments. In fish exposed via the diet, the highest concentration of both types of biliary metabolites also appeared in the dispersed oil-exposed individuals. The results suggest that chemically dispersing oil may have the greatest effect on bioavailability of hydrocarbons, both through waterborne and food chain exposures.

  5. Microchennel development for autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J.-M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doss, E.

    Fuel-processing is a bridging technology to assist the commercialization of fuel cell systems in the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure. The Argonne National Laboratory has been developing fuel-processing technologies for fuel cells, and has reported the development of novel catalysts that are active and selective for hydrocarbon-reforming reactions. It has been realized, however, that with pellets or conventional honeycomb catalysts, the reforming process is mass-transport limited. This study addresses the development of catalysts structures with microchannels that are able to reduce the diffusion resistance and, thereby, achieve the same production rate within a smaller reactor bed. The microchannel reforming catalysts are prepared and tested with natural gas and gasoline-type fuels in a microreactor (diameter: 1 cm) at space velocities of up to 250 000 h -1. The catalysts have also been used in engineering-scale reactors (10 kWe; diameter: 7 cm) with similar product qualities. Compared with pellet catalysts, the microchannel catalysts offer a nearly five-fold reduction in catalyst weight and volume.

  6. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  8. Weathering patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in submerged Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues when re-exposed to sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gerald F; Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2016-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event released a large amount of sweet crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An unknown portion of this oil that arrived along the Alabama shoreline interacted with nearshore sediments and sank forming submerged oil mats (SOMs). A considerable amount of hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were trapped within these buried SOMs. Recent studies completed using the oil spill residues collected along the Alabama shoreline have shown that several PAHs, especially higher molecular weight PAHs (four or more aromatic rings), are slowly weathering compared to the weathering levels experienced by the oil when it was floating over the GOM. In this study we have hypothesized that the weathering rates of PAHs in SOMs have slowed down because the buried oil was isolated from direct exposure to sunlight, thus hindering the photodegradation pathway. We further hypothesized that re-exposing SOMs to sunlight can reactivate various weathering reactions. Also, SOMs contain 75-95% sand (by weight) and the entrapped sand could either block direct sunlight or form large oil agglomerates with very little exposed surface area; these processes could possibly interfere with weathering reactions. To test these hypotheses, we completed controlled experiments to study the weathering patterns of PAHs in a field recovered SOM sample after re-exposing it to sunlight. Our experimental results show that the weathering levels of several higher molecular weight PAHs have slowed down primarily due to the absence of sunlight-induced photodegradation reactions. The data also show that sand particles in SOM material could potentially interfere with photodegradation reactions.

  9. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV; Haynes, Daniel [Morgantown, WV; Smith, Mark [Morgantown, WV; Spivey, James J [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  10. Endothermic Heat-Sink of Hydrocarbon Fuels for Scramjet Cooling AIAA 2002-3871

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, H

    2002-01-01

    Storable liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as JP-7, JP-8+ 100, and JP-10, that can undergo endothermic reactions may provide sufficient heat sink to enable hypersonic flight without having to resort to cryogenic fuels...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  12. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  13. Residual hydrocarbon toxicity in sediments impacted by the 1970 Arrow spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.D.; Tremblay, G.H. [Fisheries and Oceans. Inst. Maurice Lamontagne, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, J.H.; Mossman, D.C. [Fisheries and Oceans. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada. Environmental Science Centre, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R.C.; Garrett, R.M.; Haith, C.E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An assessment of the biological effects associated with a marine oil spill that occurred more than twenty years ago was presented. In 1970, 2,045 m{sup 3} of Bunker C crude oil impacted 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline when the tanker Arrow ran aground. Only 10 per cent of the contaminated shoreline was subjected to cleanup. The other 90 per cent was left to degrade naturally. In 1993 and 1997, samples of sediment and interstitial water were collected in areas where residual oil from the spill was still evident. Chemical analysis has shown that the oil has undergone substantial biodegradation. As a result of natural attenuation process for more than a 20 year period, the toxicity of the residual oil has been reduced. Substantial evidence of habitat recovery was also found. 43 res., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill: residual crude-derived hydrocarbons and potential AhR-mediated activities in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Choi, Kyungho; Ji, Kyunghee; Seo, Jihyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Park, Jeongim; Lee, Woojin; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Chan-Kook; Shim, Won Joon; Naile, Jonathan E; Giesy, John P

    2012-02-07

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in December 2007 approximately 10 km off the coast of Taean, South Korea, on the Yellow Sea. However, the exposure and potential effects remain largely unknown. A total of 50 surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected from 22 sampling locations at the spill site in order to determine the concentration, distribution, composition of residual crudes, and to evaluate the potential ecological risk after two years of oil exposure. Samples were extracted and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 alkyl-PAHs, 15 aliphatic hydrocarbons, and total petroleum hydrocarbons using GC-MSD. AhR-mediated activity associated with organic sediment extracts was screened using the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. The response of the benthic invertebrate community was assessed by mapping the macrobenthic fauna. Elevated concentrations of residual crudes from the oil spill were primarily found in muddy bottoms, particularly in subsurface layers. In general, the bioassay results were consistent with the chemistry data in a dose-dependent manner, although the mass-balance was incomplete. More weathered samples containing greater fractions of alkylated PAHs exhibited greater AhR activity, due to the occurrence of recalcitrant AhR agonists present in residual oils. The macrobenthic population distribution exhibits signs of species-specific tolerances and/or recolonization of certain species such as Batillaria during weathering periods. Although the Hebei Spirit oil spill was a severe oil exposure, it appears the site is recovering two years later.

  15. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  16. Development of direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Steven

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) that can operate with hydrocarbon fuels without the need for pre-reforming. The design of an active SOFC anode requires the consideration of a number of factors including the catalytic activity of the electrode towards fuel oxidation and electronic conductivity. This work focuses on a novel system for anode fabrication that allows the catalytically active and electronically conducting components of the anode to be easily varied. The catalytic properties of the SOFC anode were examined and a strong link between SOFC performance and oxidation activity demonstrated. Of the rare-earth catalysts investigated ceria was found to have the highest activity leading to the highest fuel cell power density. This activity was further improved, especially for methane fuel, by doping with a precious metal. Furthermore, it was shown that the catalyst not only increased the rate of reaction but increased the cell Open-Circuit Voltage (OCV) suggesting a change in mechanism that increased the cell efficiency. The necessity for high electronic conductivity and connectivity in the electrode was elucidated by studying the impact of anode copper content on cell performance. Low copper loading led to reduced cell performance due to a lack of conductive pathways from the active electrode region to the external circuit. It was observed that additional conductivity was provided by a thermally deposited carbonaceous phase formed upon exposure to hydrocarbon fuels. The electrochemical characterization of SOFC electrodes is a non-trivial problem. Literature reports on the properties of similar electrodes are inconsistent and often contradictory. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, significant problems were found with common experimental procedures used to separate the losses associated the cell cathode from those of the anode. By calculating the effect of test geometry on this separation, it

  17. In situ bioremediation of an underground diesel fuel spill: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, W. T.; Emerson, K. D.; Turner, D. W.

    1989-05-01

    In the winter months of 1983, approximately 1000 gallons of diesel fuel had flowed along an asphalt parking lot of a commercial establishment towards a surface drain near an open creek. Investigations led to the discovery of an underground storage tank leaking diesel fuel. Exploratory borings showed that contamination was near the surface horizon and the capillary zone of the water table. Hydrocarbon quantities ranged up to 1500 mg/kg of soil. The plume continued to move in an eastward direction toward the surface water of the creek. A laboratory study indicated relatively high numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing organisms relative to glucose-utilizing microorganisms in the unsaturated vadose zone. Bioreclamation was initiated in April 1984 by injecting nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and hydrogen peroxide and terminated in October 1984 upon no detection (<1 mg/kg) of hydrocarbons. A verification boring within the vicinity of the contaminated plume confirmed that residual contamination had attained background levels. The monitoring program was terminated in January 1987.

  18. How copper catalyzes the electroreduction of carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels.......Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels....

  19. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m(3) of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  20. A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria Chimica; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-03

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

  1. Growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill site in Ibeno, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuk, C U; John, R C; Ekong, U E; Akpan, M M

    2012-10-01

    The growth study and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from aviation fuel spill sites at Inua-eyet Ikot in Ibeno, Nigeria were examined using standard microbiological methods. The results of the analysis revealed that the viable plate count of microorganisms in the polluted soil ranged from 2.2 ± 0.04 × 10(3) to 3.4 ± 0.14 × 10(6) cfu/g for bacteria and 1.4 ± 0.5 × 10(2) to 2.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cfu/g for fungi while count of biodegraders ranged from 1.2 ± 0.4 × 10(3) to 2.1 ± 0.8 × 10(5) cfu/g. A total of 11 microbial isolates comprising of Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Saccharomyces and Fusarium were characterized. The ability of the selected isolates to utilize the pollutant (aviation fuel) as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and noticed to vary in growth profiles between the isolates. The results of their degradability after 28 days of incubation shows that species of Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Penicillium were the most efficient Aviation fuel degraders with percentage weight loss of 86.2, 78.4, 78, 56, 53 and 50.6 respectively. Flavobacterium, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus exhibited moderate growth with percentage weight loss of 48, 45.8 and 43.4 respectively while Klebsiella and Fusarium species showed minimal growth with percentage weight loss of 20 and 18.5 respectively. The results imply that the most efficient biodegraders like Cladosporium, Pseudomonas, Candida, Bacillus and Microoccus could tolerate and remove aviation fuel from the environment.

  2. Radical recombination in a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the radical recombination process in the scramjet nozzle flow and study the effects of various factors of the recombination, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO schemes are applied to solve the decoupled two-dimensional Euler equations with chemical reactions to simulate the hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow. The accuracy of the numerical method is verified with the measurements obtained by a shock tunnel experiment. The overall model length is nearly 0.5 m, with inlet static temperatures ranging from 2000 K to 3000 K, inlet static pressures ranging from 75 kPa to 175 kPa, and inlet Mach numbers of 2.0 ± 0.4 are involved. The fraction Damkohler number is defined as functions of static temperature and pressure to analyze the radical recombination progresses. Preliminary results indicate that the energy releasing process depends on different chemical reaction processes and species group contributions. In hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet nozzle flow, reactions with H have the greatest contribution during the chemical equilibrium shift. The contrast and analysis of the simulation results show that the radical recombination processes influenced by inflow conditions and nozzle scales are consistent with Damkohler numbers and potential dissociation energy release. The increase of inlet static temperature improves both of them, thus making the chemical non-equilibrium effects on the nozzle performance more significant. While the increase of inlet static pressure improves the former one and reduces the latter, it exerts little influence on the chemical non-equilibrium effects.

  3. Extractable hydrocarbons, nickel and vanadium contents of Ogbodo-Isiokpo oil spill polluted soils in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Leo C; Adesiyan, Samuel O

    2005-11-01

    An oil spill polluted site at Ogbodo-Isiokpo in Ikwere Local Government Area of Rivers State in southern Nigeria, was identified for study following three successive reconnaissance surveys of oil fields in the Agbada west plain of Eastern Niger Delta. A sampling area of 200 m x 200 m was delimited at the oil spill impacted site using the grid technique and soils were collected at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths from three replicate quadrats. A geographically similar, unaffected area, located 50 m adjacent to the polluted site, was chosen as a control (reference) site. Total extractable hydrocarbon contents of the polluted soils ranged from 3.02-4.54 and 1.60-4.20 mg/kg (no overlap in standard errors) at surface and subsurface depths respectively. The concentrations of two "diagnostic" trace heavy metals, nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V), which are normal constituents of crude oil, were also determined in the soils by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method after pre-extraction of cations with dithionite-citrate carbonate. Ni varied from 0.15 to 1.65 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.18 to 0.82 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots; vanadium varied from 0.19 to 0.70 mg/kg in the polluted plots and from 0.14 to 0.38 mg/kg in the unpolluted plots. Ni and V were more enhanced (p vanadium via the injection and availability of the petroleum hydrocarbons that might have increased the activities of biodegradation on site, the physico-chemical properties of the soils and inherent mobility of metals, as well as the intense rainfall and flooding that characterized the period of study, may have also contributed, at least in part, to these enhanced concentrations. Such levels of Ni and V may result to enhanced absorption by plants, which may bring about possible bioaccumulation in such plants and the animals that depend on them for survival and all of these may lead to toxic reactions along the food chain.

  4. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  5. Conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in thermal protection reactors of hypersonic aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A. L.; Mikhaylov, A. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal protection of heat-stressed surfaces of a high-speed vehicle flying in dense layers of atmosphere is one of the topical issues. Not of a less importance is also the problem of hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a supersonic air flow. In the concept under development, it is supposed that in the most high-stressed parts of airframe and engine, catalytic thermochemical reactors will be installed, wherein highly endothermic processes of steam conversion of hydrocarbon fuel take place. Simultaneously with heat absorption, hydrogen generation will occur in the reactors. This paper presents the results of a study of conversion of hydrocarbon fuel in a slit reactor.

  6. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  7. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  8. Mutagenic assessment of Prestige fuel oil spilled on the shore and submitted to field trials of bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Manuel Joaquín; Araujo, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    The mutagenicy of the slightly weathered fuel oil from the Prestige oil spill and the effects of different bioremediation products (nutrients and/or microorganisms and biodiesel) on the potential mutagenic activity of this heavy fuel oil spilled on the shore were evaluated for a period of 1 year using the Ames Salmonella assay with strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 in the absence and presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 fraction from rat liver). The in situ bioremediation experiment was performed using tiles located in the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach seriously affected by the fuel oil spill. The results obtained showed the mutagenic activity of the slightly weathered fuel oil extracts at the beginning of the experiment in strain TA98 that persisted for more than 150 days in both the untreated control and treated tiles independently of the zone of the beach considered. However, after 360 days neither the control nor the treated tiles in the intertidal zone showed mutagenic activity and a weak positive response in strain TA98 was detected for the control fuel oil extracts from supra-littoral tiles. The application of biodiesel to accelerate the biodegradation of this type of fuel oil may constitute a further genotoxic hazard to the environment, since the mutagenic response achieved from the biodiesel-fuel oil mixture in the first samplings (days 0 and 30) was more potent than that obtained from the control tiles. The mutagenic activity was detected along the study with S. typhimurium TA98 in both the presence and absence of S9 microsomal fraction, but the addition of S9 fraction in the assay always increased the number of revertants induced. In general, these findings suggest that the bioremediation strategies used were not effective in eliminating the genotoxic hazard associated with this heavy fuel oil attached to rocky substrate since they did not achieve a decrease in the mutagenic response with respect to the untreated control

  9. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  10. Robust hydrocarbon degradation and dynamics of bacterial communities during nutrient-enhanced oil spill bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röling, Wilfred F M; Milner, Michael G; Jones, D Martin; Lee, Kenneth; Daniel, Fabien; Swannell, Richard J P; Head, Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Degradation of oil on beaches is, in general, limited by the supply of inorganic nutrients. In order to obtain a more systematic understanding of the effects of nutrient addition on oil spill bioremediation, beach sediment microcosms contaminated with oil were treated with different levels of inorganic nutrients. Oil biodegradation was assessed respirometrically and on the basis of changes in oil composition. Bacterial communities were compared by numerical analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Nutrient amendment over a wide range of concentrations significantly improved oil degradation, confirming that N and P limited degradation over the concentration range tested. However, the extent and rate of oil degradation were similar for all microcosms, indicating that, in this experiment, it was the addition of inorganic nutrients rather than the precise amount that was most important operationally. Very different microbial communities were selected in all of the microcosms. Similarities between DGGE profiles of replicate samples from a single microcosm were high (95% +/- 5%), but similarities between DGGE profiles from replicate microcosms receiving the same level of inorganic nutrients (68% +/- 5%) were not significantly higher than those between microcosms subjected to different nutrient amendments (63% +/- 7%). Therefore, it is apparent that the different communities selected cannot be attributed to the level of inorganic nutrients present in different microcosms. Bioremediation treatments dramatically reduced the diversity of the bacterial community. The decrease in diversity could be accounted for by a strong selection for bacteria belonging to the alkane-degrading Alcanivorax/Fundibacter group. On the basis of Shannon-Weaver indices, rapid recovery of the bacterial community diversity to preoiling levels of diversity occurred. However, although

  11. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  12. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  13. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04 January 2016 - 31 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  14. Spatial and temporal trends of petroleum hydrocarbons in wild mussels from the Galician coast (NW Spain) affected by the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, J.A.; Vinas, L.; Franco, M.A.; Gonzalez, J.J. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, Cabo Estai- Canido. 36200 Vigo (Spain); Ortiz, L.; Bayona, J.M.; Albaiges, J. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, CID-CSIC, Jordi Girona Salgado, 18-26, 08034-Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tissues of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Galicia coast (NW Spain) in order to assess the extent of the environmental impact caused by the Prestige oil spill (November 13, 2002). Three sampling campaigns were carried out in February, June and November 2003 at 24 stations along the Galicia coast, from La Guardia (Pontevedra) to Ribadeo (Lugo). The spatial distribution of PAHs found in the first sampling period, clearly revealed the central area (Costa da Morte) as the most affected by the oil spill. In these stations, concentrations up to 7780 {mu}g/kg dw of the sum of 13 parent PAHs were found 2-3 months after the spill. Molecular parameters within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions confirmed the presence of the Prestige oil in these samples. The levels markedly decreased at most of the stations in the second sampling and recovered to levels found before the spill in November 2003, 1 year after the accident (29-279 {mu}g/kg dw, av. 133+/-83 {mu}g/kg dw). However, a certain increase was observed in some sites which could be related to the remobilization of oil residues from still unclean intertidal spots or sediments due to the winter marine weather conditions. (author)

  15. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H [Morgantown, WV; Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  16. Migracija dizel goriva izlivenog u slojeve zemljišta / Migration of diesel fuel spilled in subsurface layers of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vuruna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane osnovne fizičko-hemijske karakteristike dizel goriva i zemljišta. Objašnjena je migracija izlivenog naftnog zagađivača kroz vertikalni profil zemljišta. U eksperimentalnom delu ispitivane su koncentracije dizel goriva i relativne koncentracije n-alkana u površinskim slojevima peska, u koje gorivo dospeva kao posledica akcidentnog izlivanja. Utvrđeno je da se koncentracije dizel goriva menjaju sa vremenom nakon izlivanja u svim ispitivanim slojevima. Takođe, utvrđeno je da se dizel gorivo, kao potencijalni zagađivač, u prvih šest nedelja, uglavnom, zadržava u površinskom sloju dubine 30 cm, a objašnjene su i mogućnosti sanacije zagađenog zemljišta. / The basic physical and chemical properties of both diesel fuel and soil have been given in this article and oil pollutants migration through vertical soil profile have been explained as well. In the experimental part of the paper both the concentrations of diesel fuel and relative concentrations of n-alkynes spilled in sandy soil by accident have been investigated. It has been proven that the concentrations of diesel fuel have changed in all layers of soil depending on the time after spill. Diesel fuel as possible pollutant has been retained 30 cm deep in sandy soil during six weeks after spill. Finally, cleanup techniques of polluted soil have been explained.

  17. Remediation of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons by in situ landfarming at an arctic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.; Bartel, J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, economical landfarming operation was implemented to treat 3600 m3 of soil at a site just northeast of Barrow, AK (latitude 71.3 ??N). Prior to landfarming, diesel-range organics (DRO) and trimethylbenzenes (TMB) were present in the soil at concentrations more than an order of magnitude greater than the established cleanup goals, and moderate levels of gasoline-range organics (GRO) and BTEX compounds were also present. The landfarming operation included application of a commercial fertilizer mix at a rate designed to approach, but not exceed, soil concentrations of 100 mg N/kg soil and 50 mg P/kg soil, and an aggressive schedule of soil tilling using heavy equipment that was readily available from a local source. The operation was designed to continue through the brief thaw season-a scheduled duration of 70 days-but was successfully completed more than 2 weeks ahead of schedule. This work demonstrates that even in extremely harsh climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be effectively and economically remediated within reasonable time frames via landfarming. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of hydrocarbon fuel properties by means of Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Martin W.

    The project is focused on the determination of Raman spectra of hydrocarbon fuel samples using a spectrometer employing a silicon linear array detector which has a spectral range of 400 nm to 1.1 mum. The spectra are processed using chemometric techniques in order to determine the concentrations of the tracked blend components and analytical values that are used to ensure that desired specifications are achieved. The verification is based on the American Standard Testing Methods procedures for the determination of the motor, research, and road octane numbers, simulated distillation and Reid vapour pressure. Blending is one of the most important steps in the final production of hydrocarbon fuels; as many as ten complex components are mixed to achieve the desired properties of the final product. Traditionally, blending relies on well-established analytical methods such as gas chromatography for component and simulated distillation analysis, knock engines and near infrared spectroscopy for octane analysis. All of these methods are reliable and accurate, but their results are not available in real time but rather with a substantial delay, since it is in the nature of the methods that the sample must be transported from a test site to the site where the instrument is located. Additional time is required for performing the analytical procedure; e.g. the results of a gas chromatography analysis are only available from minutes to hours after the sample has been introduced into the instrument. Consequently, the results, although accurate, become only available after the process of blending has been completed. The thesis describes an implementation of a Raman spectroscopic method, which is novel in the given context, since it allows monitoring and control of the blending process online, in real time. A Raman spectrometer was designed, using a solid state laser for excitation (785 nm, 800 mW), a blazed grating for the diffraction (600 lines-per-millimeter, 750 nm blaze, 635

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on hydrocarbon processing mixing and scale-up problems. [Fuels processing for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J. D. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization of the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Particulate and Multiphase Process Program of the National Science Foundation to identify needs for fundamental engineering support for the design of chemical reactors for processing heavy hydrocarbon liquids. The problems associated with dispersing liquid hydrocarbons in a reacting gas and mixing within the gas phase are of primary concern. The transactions of the workshop begin with an introduction to the immediate goals of the Department of Energy. Fuel cell systems and current research and development are reviewed. Modeling of combustion and the problems of soot formation and deposits in hydrocarbon fuels are next considered. The fluid mechanics of turbulent mixing and its effect on chemical reactions are then presented. Current experimental work and process development provide an update on the present state-of-the-art.

  20. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10 June 2016 - 27 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on...The Johns Hopkins University Energetics Research Group (JHU/ERG), Columbia, MD and University of Washington, Seattle, WA 14. ABSTRACT Ensuring fuel ...is a common requirement for aircraft, rockets, and hypersonic vehicles. The Aerospace Fuels Quality Test and Model Development (AFQTMoDev) project

  1. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  2. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p PAHs were also significantly reduced (p PAH concentrations and the reduction of BaP-TEQs and MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event.

  3. Meiofauna communities in exposed sandy beaches on the Galician coast (NW Spain, six months after the Prestige oil spill: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Veiga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on Galician sandy beach ecosystems, six months after the Prestige oil spill, was evaluated using the meiobenthos at a higher taxon level as an indicator. Meiobenthos community structure, environmental variables and sediment PAH content from six affected exposed beaches were studied and compared with three reference sites. They were also compared with data from polluted beaches obtained during the first days of the spill. Significant amounts of PAHs were found in affected beach sediments and both univariate and multivariate analyses showed differences between affected and reference beaches. Correlation analyses between PAH content and the meiobenthos community structure showed that 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (C2-NAPH and 1-methylphenanthrene (C-PHEN affected both the community structure and the abundance of the main taxa. These two PAHs seem to be responsible for the low meiofauna density values, which suggests that there is a relationship between the oil spill and the differences between affected and reference localities.

  4. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. The new additive to improve the stability of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.О. Чугуй

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The antimicrobial PGMG is offered as biocyde additive for defence of aviation fuels from microbial contamination. The bactericidal concentrations of PGMG are set up for some bacteria separate from a contamination fuel. Influencing of bringing of different concentrations of PGMG in different solvents on the high-quality indexes of fuel is studied.

  6. 多环芳烃油指纹应用于船舶溢油鉴别研究%Oil fingerprinting of polyaromatic hydrocarbons applied to the identification study of oil spill from ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佩瑜; 陈畅曙; 胡平; 叶剑军; 上官茂森; 刘景钦; 吴玲玲; 方宏达; 黄楚光

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the nature of fuel oil and crude oil which are main oil types in marine oil spill determine the different identification methods,so it is significative to seek a suitable method for oil spill identification from the ship.The comparative oil fingerprinting characteristic analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons between the spilled oil samples and the suspected oils from ships had been carried on using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS)as a primary analysis method after the samples were separated by the column chromatography method,and the oil source was traced successfully in the oil spill from the ship took place in Pearl River estuary by inner component triangular diagram and cluster analysis based on aromatic hydrocarbon parameters.The results showed that the ar-omatic oil fingerprinting of the sample from the fourth ship was the most similar with the spilled oil sample,so the oil spill was caused by the fourth ship.The characteristic of aromatic compounds is the main evidence of these weathered oil spill identification because the aromatics were of higher levels and richer variety than saturated hydro-carbons.The key was that the different behavior performed by the organic molecules in oils after undergoing weathering should be fully considered when using oil fingerprinting parameters for the oil spill identification.So, the oil fingerprinting of polyaromatic hydrocarbons are effective for identification of oil spill from the ship.%溢油种类主要包括船舶燃料油和原油,二者性质的差异决定了鉴别方法也相应不同,寻求适合于船舶溢油的鉴别方法具有重要意义。在使用柱色谱层析方法对样品进行分离前处理的基础上,以气相色谱/质谱方法(GC-MS)为主要分析手段,对溢油样品和可疑船舶溢油源样品的多环芳烃油指纹特征进行对比,并在多环芳烃油指纹参数的基础上进一步进行多环芳烃内组成三角图分布特征与聚类

  7. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  8. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving Fstat>Fcritical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  10. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  11. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  12. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica. I. A chemical approach using GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Harvey, Paul McA; Ferguson, Susan H; Rayner, John L; Revill, Andrew T

    2005-12-01

    Little effort has been devoted to differentiating between hydrocarbon losses through evaporation and biodegradation in treatability studies of fuel-contaminated Antarctic soils. When natural attenuation is being considered as a treatment option, it is important to be able to identify the mechanism of hydrocarbon loss and demonstrate that rates of degradation are sufficient to prevent off-site migration. Similarly, where complex thermally enhanced bioremediation schemes involve nutrient addition, water management, air stripping and active heating, it is important to appreciate the relative roles of these mechanisms for cost minimisation. Following the loss of hydrocarbons by documenting changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons offers little insight into the relative contribution of evaporation and biodegradation. We present a methodology here that allows identification and quantification of evaporative losses of diesel range organics at a range of temperatures using successively less volatile compounds as fractionation markers. We also present data that supports the general utility of so-called biodegradation indices for tracking biodegradation progress. We are also able to show that at 4 degrees C indigenous Antarctic soil bacteria degrade Special Antarctic Blend fuel components in the following order: naphthalene and methyl-napthalenes, light n-alkanes, then progressively heavier n-alkanes; whereas isoprenoids and the unresolved complex mixture are relatively recalcitrant.

  13. Multifractal analysis of slacken surface in hydrocarbon molecules through fuel additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arockia Prabakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of organic fuel additives (Bio-Glycerol on fuel savings, emission reduction and extend engine life. Using this enzyme, a motor cycle is tested five times. The test report shows the reduction in the release of carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon upto 60%. The use of organic fuel additives in diesel vehicles for different periods of time reveals the reduction in air pollution by 55%. Finally, we have experimented scanning electron microscope (SEM test for organic fuel additives with biodiesel. The SEM image shows the existence of molecules of hydrocarbons. The analysis elucidated the complex morphology of molecules of hydrocarbons in fuel additives with biodiesel. The hydrocarbon molecules are slackened and irregular as it refers to the fractal form. SEM Photograph images are analyzed by multifractal analysis. MFA (multifractal analysis is carried out according to the method of moments, i.e., the probability distribution is estimated for moments which differ from -150

  14. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  15. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon o

  16. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  17. Transcriptomic evaluation of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, deployed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Evidence of an active hydrocarbon response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Matthew J; Walton, William C; Payton, Samantha L; Powers, John M; Findlay, Robert H; O'Shields, Britton; Diggins, Kirsten; Pinkerton, Mark; Porter, Danielle; Crane, Daniel M; Tapley, Jeffrey; Cunningham, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Estuarine organisms were impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill which released ∼5 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico in the spring and summer of 2010. Crassostrea virginica, the American oyster, is a keystone species in these coastal estuaries and is routinely used for environmental monitoring purposes. However, very little is known about their cellular and molecular responses to hydrocarbon exposure. In response to the spill, a monitoring program was initiated by deploying hatchery-reared oysters at three sites along the Alabama and Mississippi coast (Grand Bay, MS, Fort Morgan, AL, and Orange Beach, AL). Oysters were deployed for 2-month periods at five different time points from May 2010 to May 2011. Gill and digestive gland tissues were harvested for gene expression analysis and determination of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. To facilitate identification of stress response genes that may be involved in the hydrocarbon response, a nearly complete transcriptome was assembled using Roche 454 and Illumina high-throughput sequencing from RNA samples obtained from the gill and digestive gland tissues of deployed oysters. This effort resulted in the assembly and annotation of 27,227 transcripts comprised of a large assortment of stress response genes, including members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, Phase I and II biotransformation enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. From this assembly several potential biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure were chosen for expression profiling, including the AHR, two cytochrome P450 1A genes (CYP1A-like 1 and CYP1A-like 2), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), glutathione S-transferase theta (GST theta) and multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3). Higher expression levels of GST theta and MRP3 were observed in gill tissues from all three sites during the summer to early fall 2010 deployments. Linear regression analysis indicated a

  18. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  19. Fuel supply of direct carbon fuel cells via thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons inside a porous Ni anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Hak Gyu; Li, Cheng Guo; Jalalabadi, Tahereh; Lee, Dong Geun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study offers a novel method for improving the physical contact between the anode and fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC): a direct generation of carbon in a porous Ni anode through the thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons. Three kinds of alkane hydrocarbons with different carbon numbers (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8) are tested. From electron microscope observations of the carbon particles generated from each hydrocarbon, we confirm that more carbon spheres (CS), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were identified with increasing carbon number. Raman scattering results revealed that the carbon samples became less crystalline and more flexible with increasing carbon number. DCFC performance was measured at 700 degree Celsius with the anode fueled by the same mass of each carbon sample. One-dimensional carbon fuels of CNT and CNF more actively produced and had power densities 148 and 210 times higher than that of the CS, respectively. This difference is partly attributed to the findings that the less-crystalline CNT and CNF have much lower charge transfer resistances than the CS.

  20. Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso at Arthur Harbor, Antarctica. 1. Distribution and fate of oil spill related hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennicutt, M.C. II; Sweet, S.T. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA)); Fraser, W.R.; Culver, M. (Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA (USA)); Stockton, W.L. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1991-03-01

    In January to March 1989 water, organisms, and sediments within a 2-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated with an estimated 600,000 L of petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso. All components of the ecosystem were contaminated to varying degrees during the spill, including birds, limpets, macroalgae, clams, bottom-feeding fish, and sediments. The high-energy environment, the relatively small volume of material released, and the volatility of the released product all contributed to limiting toxic effects in time and space. The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill several areas still exhibited contamination. Subtidal sediments and the more distant intertidal locations were devoid of detectable PAH contaminants whereas sediments near the docking facility at Palmer Station continued to reflect localized nonspill-related activities in the area. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso.

  1. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  2. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  3. Installation Restoration Program Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification Stage 2. Bulk Fuel Storage Area Fuel Spill Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    characterized by low dissected nills and broad sandy plains, occurs in a narrow belt 10 to 20 miles wide and extends north- easterly along the...the floating hydrocarbons will be facilitated by using low-production pumping systems, e.g., the automatic bailing system or the jack pump system...The automatic bailing and jack pump systems are amenable to selectively removing floating hydrocarbons in groundwater. The advantages of this

  4. Emergency response diesel fuel spill: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Annada District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the cleanup of a diesel fuel leak on Mark Twin NWR. Water and soil samples from the contaminated area were analyzed, and the water/fuel...

  5. Accounting for water formation from hydrocarbon fuel combustion in life cycle analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, E. L.; Davidson, F. T.; Glazer, Y. R.; Beagle, E. A.; Webber, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel production and utilization are considered water intensive processes due to the high volumes of water used in source development and fuel processing. At the same time, there is significant water formed during combustion. However, this water is not currently widely harvested at the site of production. Instead, it is added to the hydrologic cycle, often in a different location from the fuel production site. This study quantifies the water formed from combustion of these fuels and analyzes the magnitudes of formation in the context of other hydrologic sources and sinks in order to facilitate future assessments of water harvesting technology and/or atmospheric impacts of combustion. Annual water formation from stoichiometric combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, oil- and natural gas liquid-derived products, and coal, in the United States and worldwide are presented and compared with quantities of water sequestered, evaporated, and stored in the atmosphere. Water production factors in terms of mass and energy of fuel consumed, WPFm and WPFe, respectively, are defined for the comparison of fuels and incorporation into future life cycle analyses (LCAs). Results show that water formation from combustion has increased worldwide from 2005 to 2015, with the largest increase coming from growth in combustion of natural gas. Water formation from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels equals or exceeds water sequestered from the hydrologic cycle through deep well injection in the US annually. Overall, water formation is deemed significant enough to warrant consideration by LCAs of water intensity in fuel production and use, and should be included in future analyses.

  6. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  7. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  8. Microplasma reforming of hydrocarbons for fuel cell power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, R. S.; Lindner, P. J.

    The implementation of a microplasma approach for small scale reforming processes is explored as an alternative to more standard catalyst-based processes. Plasmas are a known approach to activating a chemical reaction in place of catalysts, and microplasmas are particularly attractive owing to their extremely high electron and power densities. Their inherent compactness gives them appeal for portable applications, but their modularity leads to scalability for higher capacity. We describe the realization of experimental microplasma reactors based on the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) structure by silicon micromachining for device fabrication. Experiments were carried out with model hydrocarbons methane and butane in the reactors within a microfluidic flow and analytical setup. We observe several key phenomena, including the ability to liberate hydrogen from the hydrocarbons at temperatures near ambient and sub-Watt input power levels, the tendency toward hydrocarbon decomposition rather than oxidation even in the presence of oxygen, and the need for a neutral carrier to obtain conversion. Mass and energy balances on these experiments revealed conversions up to nearly 50%, but the conversion of electrical power input to chemical reaction enthalpy was only on the order of 1%. These initial, exploratory results were recorded with devices and at process settings without optimization, and are hence promising for an emerging, catalyst-free reforming approach.

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbon-induced injury to subtidal marine sediment resources. Subtidal study number 1a. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    To determine the distribution of oil in subtidal sediments after the Exxon Valdez oil spill we sampled sediments at six depths (0, 3, 6, 20, 40 and 100 m) at 53 locations in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska from 1989 to 1991. Results are based on 1278 sediment samples analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In 1989, the oil concentration was greatest in the Sound at 0 m. Outside the Sound, Exxon Valdez oil occurred at Chugach Bay, Hallo Bay, Katmai Bay, and Windy Bay in 1989. Hydrocarbons often matched Exxon Valdez oil less closely, oil was more patchily distributed, and the oil concentration decreased in sediments after 1989.

  10. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  11. Fuel spill identification using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. 1. Aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, B K; Brzozowski, D M; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Mayfield, H T

    2001-12-01

    The water-soluble fraction of aviation jet fuels is examined using solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. Gas chromatographic profiles of solid-phase extracts and solid-phase microextracts of the water-soluble fraction of kerosene- and nonkerosene-based jet fuels reveal that each jet fuel possesses a unique profile. Pattern recognition analysis reveals fingerprint patterns within the data characteristic of fuel type. By using a novel genetic algorithm (GA) that emulates human pattern recognition through machine learning, it is possible to identify features characteristic of the chromatographic profile of each fuel class. The pattern recognition GA identifies a set of features that optimize the separation of the fuel classes in a plot of the two largest principal components of the data. Because principal components maximize variance, the bulk of the information encoded by the selected features is primarily about the differences between the fuel classes.

  12. Evaluation of Suppression of Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuel Fires with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    FIRES WITH AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ...performance of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam ( AFFF ) on synthetic fuel fires to aid Air Force firefighters’ response to an incident. Results show that AFFF can...hydrocarbons. Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) is used by Air Force fire departments to extinguish fuel spill fires involving jet fuel (JP-8), diesel,

  13. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with thermal efficiency is

  14. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    . The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what......) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high...

  15. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is reported herein. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. The work was done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in.) to 55.9 cm (22 in.). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by 'reaming' each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  16. Design and evaluation of high performance rocket engine injectors for use with hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using a heavy hydrocarbon fuel as a rocket propellant is examined. A method of predicting performance of a heavy hydrocarbon in terms of vaporization effectiveness is described and compared to other fuels and to experimental test results. Experiments were done at a chamber pressure of 4137 KN/sq M (600 psia) with RP-1, JP-10, and liquefied natural gas as fuels, and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Combustion length effects were explored over a range of 21.6 cm (8 1/2 in) to 55.9 cm (22 in). Four injector types were tested, each over a range of mixture ratios. Further configuration modifications were obtained by reaming each injector several times to provide test data over a range of injector pressure drop.

  17. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerun, S Khodijah; Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed the inside building and the outside building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  18. Bioremediation of coastal areas 5 years after the Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan: isolation and characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaerun, S. Khodijah [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa (Japan); Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa (Japan); Kogure, Kazuhiro [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Nakano, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Five years after the 1997 Nakhodka oil spill in the Sea of Japan, seven bacterial strains capable of utilizing the heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker were isolated from three coastal areas (namely Katano Seashore of Fukui Prefecture, Osawa and Atake seashores of Ishikawa Prefecture) and the Nakhodka Russian oil tanker after a 5-year bioremediation process. All bacterial strains isolated could utilize long-chain-length alkanes efficiently, but not aromatic, and all of them were able to grow well on heavy oil. Using 16S rDNA sequencing, most of the strains were affiliated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparing between the year 1997 (at the beginning of bioremediation process) and the year 2001 (after 5 years of bioremediation), there was no significant change in morphology and size of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during the 5-year bioremediation. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed that a large number of hydrocarbon- degrading bacteria still existed in the sites consisting of a variety of morphological forms of bacteria, such as coccus (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and bacillus (Streptobacillus). On the application of bioremediation processes on the laboratory-scale, laboratory microcosm experiments (containing seawater, beach sand, and heavy oil) under aerobic condition by two different treatments (i.e., placed inside the building and outside the building) were established for bioremediation of heavy oil to investigate the significance of the role of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on them. There was no significant bacterial activity differentiation in the two treatments, and removal of heavy oil by hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the outside building was slightly greater than that in the inside building. The values of pH, Eh, EC, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in two treatments indicated that the bioremediation process took place under aerobic conditions (DO: 1-6 mg/l; Eh: 12-300 mV) and neutral

  19. Research of some marks contemporary hydrocarbon fuel surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Бойченко

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The  surface  tension  of  some  marks  domestic  and  foreign  gasoline’s  and  jet  fuels  is  investigated  depending  on  distillation. Dependences  of  surface  tension,  composition,  boiling  points  liquid  fuel  experimentally  are  received.

  20. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  1. Application of fluorescence and PARAFAC to assess vertical distribution of subsurface hydrocarbons and dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Wilson G; Riemer, Daniel D; Zika, Rod G

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the use of excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) modeling techniques for monitoring crude oil components in the water column. Four of the seven derived PARAFAC loadings were associated with the Macondo crude oil components. The other three components were associated with the dispersant, an unresolved component and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The fluorescence of the associated benzene and naphthalene-like components of crude oil exhibited a maximum at ∼1200 m. The maximum fluorescence of the component associated with the dispersant (i.e., Corexit EC9500A) was observed at the same depth. The plume observed at this depth was attributed to the dispersed crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results demonstrate the application of EEM and PARAFAC to simultaneously monitor selected PAH, dispersant-containing and humic-like fluorescence components in the oil spill region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  3. Biodegradation of Spilled Diesel Fuel in Agricultural Soil: Effect of Humates, Zeolite, and Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kuráň

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible enhancement of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in agricultural soil after tank truck accident (~5000 mg/kg dry soil initial concentration by bioaugmentation of diesel degrading Pseudomonas fluorescens strain and addition of abiotic additives (humates, zeolite was studied in a 9-month pot experiment. The biodegradation process was followed by means of analytical parameters (hydrocarbon index expressed as content of C10–C40 aliphatic hydrocarbons, ratio pristane/C17, and total organic carbon content and characterization of soil microbial community (content of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA as an indicator of living microbial biomass, respiration, and dehydrogenase activity. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons (C10–C40 was successfully reduced by ~60% in all 15 experiment variants. The bioaugmentation resulted in faster hydrocarbon elimination. On the contrary, the addition of humates and zeolite caused only a negligible increase in the degradation rate. These factors, however, affected significantly the amount of PLFA. The humates caused significantly faster increase of the total PLFA suggesting improvement of the soil microenvironment. Zeolite caused significantly slower increase of the total PLFA; nevertheless it aided in homogenization of the soil. Comparison of microbial activities and total PLFA revealed that only a small fraction of autochthonous microbes took part in the biodegradation which confirms that bioaugmentation was the most important treatment.

  4. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  5. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ort, Donald R; Yuan, Joshua S

    2015-02-01

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced 'drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to 'disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  6. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  7. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  8. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  9. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Zuijdgeest

    Full Text Available After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater.

  10. Evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds, including gasoline and diesel fuel, on heated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardad, D.; Ladommatos, N. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was carried out on the evaporation of various hydrocarbon liquids on heated surfaces. Single and multicomponent hydrocarbon compounds were used, including hexane, heptane, octane, a hexane-octane mixture, gasoline and diesel fuel. The heated surface included aluminium, mild steel, cast iron and copper. Tests were also carried out with different surface textures and surface coatings. The motivation for this work was a desire to improve understanding of the evaporation processes taking place in the inlet port and, to a lesser extent, within the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. The hydrocarbon compounds were released on the heated surfaces as individual small droplets, and the subsequent evaporation was recorded using a CCD (charge coupled device) camera. These observations were then used to ascertain the effects of material, surface temperature, surface textures, surface coating and liquid composition on the heat flux and other aspects of droplet behaviour. (Author)

  11. Hydrocarbon group type determination in jet fuels by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for the analysis of some jet and diesel fuel samples which were prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes. Thirty-two samples of varying chemical composition and physical properties were obtained. Hydrocarbon types in these samples were determined by fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA) analysis, and the results from three laboratories are presented and compared. Recently, rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been proposed for hydrocarbon group type analysis, with some suggestion for their use as a replacement of the FIA technique. Two of these methods were used to analyze some of the samples, and these results are also presented and compared. Two samples of petroleum-based Jet A fuel are similarly analyzed.

  12. Investigation of bubble-point vapor pressures for mixtures of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiyun Sun; Wenjun Fang; Yongsheng Guo; Ruisen Lin [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Chemistry, Molecular Thermodynamics

    2005-05-01

    Bubble-point vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures for several mixtures with different mass fractions of a kerosene based endothermic hydrocarbon fuel (EHF) and ethanol were measured by comparative ebulliometry with inclined ebulliometers. Correlation between vapor pressures and equilibrium temperatures by the Antoine equation was given with satisfactory precision. The bubble-point lines of pressure versus composition at different temperatures and temperature versus composition at different pressures were obtained. The pseudo binary systems of EHF+ethanol appear with very large positive deviations from Raoult's law. It follows that the addition of ethanol had a critical effect on the vapor pressure of fuels. Ethanol may be an effective oxygenated hydrocarbon additive to adjust the volatility of EHF. 17 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  14. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination. Field activities were conducted under the Addendum to the CR to collect sufficient data to determine the rate of biodegradation for TPH contamination at CAU 329 to support closure requirements. Reconstruction of the monitoring system at the site and quarterly soil-gas sampling were conducted to collect the required data. Because existing Wells DRA-0 and DRA-3 were determined to be insufficient to provide adequate data, soil-gas monitoring Wells DRA-10 and DRA-11 were installed. Two soil-gas sampling events were conducted to establish a baseline for the site, and subsequent quarterly sampling was conducted as part of the quarterly soil-gas sampling program. In addition, soil samples were collected during well drilling activities so comparisons might be made between the initial soil contamination levels in 2000 and the concentrations present at the time of the well installation.

  15. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  16. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: Early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Würz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitte

  17. First Day of an Oil Spill on the Open Sea: Early Mass Transfers of Hydrocarbons to Air and Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Wu¨rz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman , J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a permitte

  18. First Day of an Oil Spill on the Open Sea: Early Mass Transfers of Hydrocarbons to Air and Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Wu¨rz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman , J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a

  19. First day of an oil spill on the open sea: Early mass transfers of hydrocarbons to air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Würz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    During the first hours after release of petroleum at sea, crude oil hydrocarbons partition rapidly into air and water. However, limited information is available about very early evaporation and dissolution processes. We report on the composition of the oil slick during the first day after a

  20. n-Hexadecane Fuel for a Phosphoric Acid Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine fuel cells as a possible alternative to the diesel fuel engines currently used in railway locomotives, thereby decreasing air emissions from the railway transportation sector. We have investigated the performance of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC reactor, with n-hexadecane, C16H34 (a model compound for diesel fuel, cetane number = 100. This is the first extensive study reported in the literature in which n-hexadecane is used directly as the fuel. Measurements were made to obtain both polarization curves and time-on-stream results. Because deactivation was observed hydrogen polarization curves were measured before and after n-hexadecane experiments, to determine the extent of deactivation of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA. By feeding water-only (no fuel to the fuel cell anode the deactivated MEAs could be regenerated. One set of fuel cell operating conditions that produced a steady-state was identified. Identification of steady-state conditions is significant because it demonstrates that stable fuel cell operation is technically feasible when operating a PAFC with n-hexadecane fuel.

  1. Study of NOx Emissions of S.I. Engine Fueled with Different Kinds of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qahtan A. Abass

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, Natural gas (NG and hydrogen were used to operate spark ignition internal combustion engine Ricardo E6, to compare NOx emissions emitted from the engine, with that emitted from engine fueled with gasoline as a fuel.The study was done when engine operated at HUCR for gasoline, compared with its operation at HUCR for each fuel. Compression ratio, equivalence ratio and spark timing were studied at constant speed 25rps.The results appeared that NOx concentrations will be at maximum value in the lean side near the stoichiometric ratio, and reduced with moving away from this ratio for mixture at both sides, these concentrations were at its highest value when hydrogen used at CR=8:1, and got near to each other for the three hydrocarbon fuels used in the study, when the engine operated at HUCR for each fuel, but still hydrogen had maximum value, the main variable affect these concentrations was spark timing

  2. Recycling Carbon Dioxide into Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels: Electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher Ronald

    Great quantities of hydrocarbon fuels will be needed for the foreseeable future, even if electricity based energy carriers begin to partially replace liquid hydrocarbons in the transportation sector. Fossil fuels and biomass are the most common feedstocks for production of hydrocarbon fuels. However, using renewable or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into sustainable hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. The purpose of this work was to develop critical components of a system that recycles CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The concept is examined at several scales, beginning with a broad scope analysis of large-scale sustainable energy systems and ultimately studying electrolysis of CO 2 and H2O in high temperature solid oxide cells as the heart of the energy conversion, in the form of three experimental studies. The contributions of these studies include discoveries about electrochemistry and materials that could significantly improve the overall energy use and economics of the CO2-to-fuels system. The broad scale study begins by assessing the sustainability and practicality of the various energy carriers that could replace petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuels, including other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and storage of electricity on-board vehicles in batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels. Any energy carrier can store the energy of any energy source. This sets the context for CO2 recycling -- sustainable energy sources like solar and wind power can be used to provide the most energy-dense, convenient fuels which can be readily used in the existing infrastructure. The many ways to recycle CO2 into hydrocarbons, based on thermolysis, thermochemical loops, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H 2O, are critically reviewed. A process based on high temperature co

  3. Techno-Economic Basis for Coproduct Manufacturing To Enable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Humbird, David; Tao, Ling; Dowe, Nancy; Guarnieri, Michael T.; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Karp, Eric M.; Salvachua, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-06

    Biorefinery process development relies on techno-economic analysis (TEA) to identify primary cost drivers, prioritize research directions, and mitigate technical risk for scale-up through development of detailed process designs. Here, we conduct TEA of a model 2000 dry metric ton-per-day lignocellulosic biorefinery that employs a two-step pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce biomass-derived sugars, followed by biological lipid production, lipid recovery, and catalytic hydrotreating to produce renewable diesel blendstock (RDB). On the basis of projected near-term technical feasibility of these steps, we predict that RDB could be produced at a minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of USD $9.55/gasoline-gallon-equivalent (GGE), predicated on the need for improvements in the lipid productivity and yield beyond current benchmark performance. This cost is significant given the limitations in scale and high costs for aerobic cultivation of oleaginous microbes and subsequent lipid extraction/recovery. In light of this predicted cost, we developed an alternative pathway which demonstrates that RDB costs could be substantially reduced in the near term if upgradeable fractions of biomass, in this case hemicellulose-derived sugars, are diverted to coproducts of sufficient value and market size; here, we use succinic acid as an example coproduct. The coproduction model predicts an MFSP of USD $5.28/GGE when leaving conversion and yield parameters unchanged for the fuel production pathway, leading to a change in biorefinery RDB capacity from 24 to 15 MM GGE/year and 0.13 MM tons of succinic acid per year. Additional analysis demonstrates that beyond the near-term projections assumed in the models here, further reductions in the MFSP toward $2-3/GGE (which would be competitive with fossil-based hydrocarbon fuels) are possible with additional transformational improvements in the fuel and coproduct trains, especially in terms of carbon efficiency to both fuels and

  4. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  5. A novel layered perovskite as symmetric electrode for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Chen, Kongfa; Liu, Yuanxu; He, Beibei

    2017-02-01

    Layered perovskite oxides are well known to possess significant electronic, magnetic and electrochemical properties. Herein, we highlight a novel layered perovskite PrBaMn1.5Fe0.5O5+δ (PBMFO) as electrodes of symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFCs). The layered PBMFO shows high electrical conductivity of 112.5 and 7.4 S cm-1 at 800 °C in air and 5% H2/Ar, respectively. The single cell with PBMFO symmetric electrodes achieves peak power density of 0.54 W cm-2 at 800 °C using humidified hydrogen as fuel. Moreover, PBMFO electrodes demonstrate good redox stability and high coking tolerance against hydrocarbon fuel.

  6. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  7. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  8. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Decarboxylation of Sodium Oleate and Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunpu; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Rongsheng; Wen Pingwei; Wan Yiqin; Zhang Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    The carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate has a stronger polarity than that of oleic acid;this terminal is more likely to be dipole polarized and ionically conductive in a microwave ifeld. Sodium oleate was used as the model compound to study the decarboxylation of oleic acid leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology. The pyrolysis gas, liquid, and solid products were precisely analyzed to deduce the mechanism for decarboxylation of sodium oleate. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate. During decarboxylation, the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a p-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting p-πconjugated system was more stable and beneifcial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation, terminal allylation, isomeriza-tion, and aromatization). The physical properties of pyrolysis liquid were generally similar to those of diesel fuel, thereby demonstrating the possible use of microwaves for controlling the decarboxylation of sodium oleate in order to manufacture renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

  10. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU(FCV,43)). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU(FCV,43) values: no-risk (1 - 2 - 3 - 5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU(FCV,43) > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30 - <60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War.

  11. Natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in a cold climate fuel plume in groundwater, northern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickerton, G.; Van Stempvoort, D.; Millar, K. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    There is currently little published information on the role that anaerobic microorganisms can play in the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in groundwater at cold temperatures. This paper discusses a detailed field investigation conducted to determine the significance of intrinsic bioremediation at a diesel fuel plume in an aquifer located on a tank farm in Moose Factory, Ontario. Several lines of evidence were used: historic and spatial trends of contaminant concentrations; patterns of geochemical indicators in the groundwater consistent with the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and relevant microbial analyses. A network of 19 existing monitoring wells was used, with an additional 19 wells installed to fill in information gaps. Samples were placed on ice and stored prior to analyses. Probes with data loggers were installed to monitor water levels and temperatures. Total hydrocarbons were extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed. Results of the hydrocarbon plume, BTEX distribution, geochemical indicators as well as microbial analyses were discussed. Analysis indicated that the plume was stable, contrary to previous findings. Results indicated that natural attenuation has been effective for treating the existing plume. This finding expands the possible treatment technologies and management strategies available for remediation of dissolved phase contamination at this cold climate site, which is not considered a hindrance to intrinsic bioremediation. It was suggested that technologies based on enhancing biodegradation may be considered for application at this and similar cold climate sites. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  13. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim [Melbourne, FL

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  14. A new technology proposed to recycle waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Mohammed Molla, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis and environmental degradation by polymer wastes have been imperative to find and propose technologies for recovery of raw materials and energy from non-conventional sources like plastic wastes. A variety of methods and processes connected with global or national policies have been proposed worldwide. A new type of steel reactor is proposed for conversion of waste plastics to fuel like mixture of hydrocarbons. The results of the thermal degradation of waste plastics in the laboratory scale set-up based on this process in the paper. The melting and thermal cracking processes were carried out in a single batch process at the temperature range is 200–420 ºC. The final product consisted of light gas 6.3 % and liquid product 90%. 3.7% solid black products were produced. The light, ‘‘gas” fraction of the hydrocarbons mixture (C1–C4 and rest of liquid fuel made over 90% of the liquid product. It may be used for fuel production refinery or electricity generation.

  15. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-01

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary.

  18. Laser Spectrometric Measurement System for Local Express Diagnostics of Flame at Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtsev, V. D.; Kozlov, D. N.; Kostritsa, S. A.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stel'makh, O. M.; Tumanov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A laboratory laser spectrometric measurement system for investigation of spatial distributions of local temperatures in a flame at combustion of vapors of various liquid hydrocarbon fuels in oxygen or air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The system incorporates a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer with high spatial resolution for local thermometry of nitrogen-containing gas mixtures in a single laser shot and a continuous operation burner with a laminar diffusion flame. The system test results are presented for measurements of spatial distributions of local temperatures in various flame zones at combustion of vapor—gas n-decane/nitrogen mixtures in air. Its applicability for accomplishing practical tasks in comparative laboratory investigation of characteristics of various fuels and for research on combustion in turbulent flames is discussed.

  19. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  20. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  2. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta; Roberto Núñez Moreira; Yoelvis Castro Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In tu...

  4. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhi; Cheng Zeyuan; Zhu Jianqin; Li Haiwang

    2016-01-01

    A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux rang-ing from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophys-ical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction per-formance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST) and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  5. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  6. Raman Gas Species Measurements in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Injector Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Trinh, Huu P.; Dobson, Chris C.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Rocket engine propellent injector development at NASA-Marshall includes experimental analysis using optical techniques, such as Raman, fluorescence, or Mie scattering. For the application of spontaneous Raman scattering to hydrocarbon-fueled flows a technique needs to be developed to remove the interfering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluorescence from the relatively weak Raman signals. A current application of such a technique is to the analysis of the mixing and combustion performance of multijet, impinging-jet candidate fuel injectors for the baseline Mars ascent engine, which will burn methane and liquid oxygen produced in-situ on Mars to reduce the propellent mass transported to Mars for future manned Mars missions. The Raman technique takes advantage of the strongly polarized nature of Raman scattering. It is shown to be discernable from unpolarized fluorescence interference by subtracting one polarized image from another. Both of these polarized images are obtained from a single laser pulse by using a polarization-separating calcite rhomb mounted in the imaging spectrograph. A demonstration in a propane-air flame is presented, as well as a high pressure demonstration in the NASA-Marshall Modular Combustion Test Artice, using the liquid methane-liquid oxygen propellant system

  7. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  8. Oxidative stress responses of gulf killifish exposed to hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Potential implications for aquatic food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Newton, Joseph C; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Calvin

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain under investigation following the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fundulus grandis, an established indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, was investigated because this species shares genes and biochemical pathways with higher trophic-level fish and plays an important role in the gulf food chain. Oxidative stress responses including hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and serum antioxidant capacity were evaluated in fish exposed to PAHs. Fish were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil (7.0  ± 0.10 mg/L C6-C28) after which solutions were diluted below the level of detection over 8 h using 15 ppt aerated artificial seawater. Before euthanasia, fish remained in aquaria for 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h. Three replicate experiments were conducted at each time point using unexposed fish as experimental controls. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in CYP1A induction were observed in exposed versus control fish at 24 h. Expression of CYP1A increased by 25%, 66%, and 23% in exposed fish at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. Significant increases were observed in antioxidant capacity of nonenzymatic antioxidants in exposed versus control fish at each time point. Given the activity of CYP1A, radicals formed during PAH detoxification likely resulted in increased oxidant load requiring elevated antioxidant defenses. Research is needed to determine the duration of oxidative stress responses considering the potential for lipid oxidation in exposed fish or species feeding on exposed fish.

  9. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved.

  10. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  11. Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

    2004-01-01

    The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis

  12. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; García Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  14. Emulsification of hydrocarbons by subsurface bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Thomas, J.M.; Raymond, R.L.; Ward, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been the dominant factor which selected for and encouraged growth of emulsifiers; exposure to hydrocarbon was also important. Biostimulated microorganisms were better emulsifiers of aviation fuel (the contaminant hydrocarbon) than of heavier hydrocarbon to which they were not previously exposed. By measuring surface tension changes of culture broths, 11 out of 41 emulsifiers tested were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reductions indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production.Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been

  15. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  16. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  17. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  18. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  19. REMEDIATION OF A MAJOR JET FUEL SPILL BY BIOSLURPER AND NATURAL BIOVENTING TECHNOLOGY ON AN ISLAND AIR BASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia has served as a base for B-52 bombers. In 1991 an underground transfer pipeline fracture was discovered after a spill exceeding 200,000 gallons occurred. The hydrogeology is fresh water at less than ten feet down overlying more dense salt...

  20. Biodegradation pattern of hydrocarbons from a fuel oil-type complex residue by an emulsifier-producing microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, M L; Commendatore, M G; Esteves, J L; Bucalá, V

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of a hazardous waste (bilge waste), a fuel oil-type complex residue from normal ship operations, was studied in a batch bioreactor using a microbial consortium in seawater medium. Experiments with initial concentrations of 0.18 and 0.53% (v/v) of bilge waste were carried out. In order to study the biodegradation kinetics, the mass of n-alkanes, resolved hydrocarbons and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) hydrocarbons were assessed by gas chromatography (GC). Emulsification was detected in both experiments, possibly linked to the n-alkanes depletion, with differences in emulsification start times and extents according to the initial hydrocarbon concentration. Both facts influenced the hydrocarbon biodegradation kinetics. A sequential biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC was found for the higher hydrocarbon content. Being the former growth associated, while UCM biodegradation was a non-growing process showing enzymatic-type biodegradation kinetics. For the lower hydrocarbon concentration, simultaneous biodegradation of n-alkanes and UMC were found before emulsification. Nevertheless, certain UCM biodegradation was observed after the medium emulsification. According to the observed kinetics, three main types of hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, biodegradable UCM and recalcitrant UCM) were found adequate to represent the multicomponent substrate (bilge waste) for future modelling of the biodegradation process.

  1. Waste management and contaminated site remediation practices after oil spill: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; da Rocha Calixto, Renata Oliveira; Felippe, Carlos Eduardo Cunha; de Franca, Francisca Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    A case study is presented on waste management practices implemented after a residual fuel oil spill from a steam-generating boiler in an industrial area, and on the technical feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a treatment option for a recently contaminated tropical soil. One day after contamination, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbons and phenanthrene concentrations varied from 3.1 to 7.9 g kg(-1) and 149 to 287 µg kg(-1), respectively. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decayed along the monitored time and after 90 days of processes the soil was considered rehabilitated for future industrial use.

  2. Impact of the Prestige oil spill on marsh soils: Relationship between heavy metal, sulfide and total petroleum hydrocarbon contents at the Villarrube and Lires marshes (Galicia, Spain); Impacto de la marea negra del Prestige en suelos de marisma: relacion entre los contenidos de metales pesados, sulfuros e hidrocarburos en las marismas de Villarrube y Lires (Galicia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, L.; Marcet, P.; Covelo, E.F.; Vega, F.A. [Department of Vegetable Biology and Soil Science, Vigo (Spain); Fernandez-Feal, L.; Fernandez-Feal, C. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Ferrol (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the Prestige oil spill on the total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metal contents of soils in two marshes (Lires and Villarrube, Galicia, Spain) and the relationship between their oxidation-reduction potential and the solubility of heavy metals with sulfide and sulfate contents. Soil samples were taken from polluted and unpolluted areas and their petroleum hydrocarbon contents, heavy metal contents and other chemical characteristics were measured. The soils affected by the oil spill show remarkable contents of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V. The Lires marsh soils are more affected by fuel oil than Villarrube marsh. The effects of the contaminating agents on the soils reach distances of up to 500 m from the coastline. In the first 400 m, there are important spatial variations because the fuel oil penetrated into the soils through tidal action and not directly. The Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V contents of polluted soils were between 50 and 200 times higher than those of their unpolluted counterparts and the background concentrations in Galician coastal sediments. In the case of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V, their origin through the fuel oil was corroborated by the high correlation (r > 0.90) between the concentrations of these metals and the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the polluted soils, which shows the combined addition of these metals through the fuel oil. [Spanish] Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar el efecto de la marea negra del buque tanque Prestige en el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados en suelos de dos marismas (Lires y Villarrube, Galicia, Espana) y la relacion entre el potencial de oxidacion-reduccion y la solubilidad de los metales pesados con los contenidos de sulfuros y de sulfatos. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de las zonas contaminadas y no contaminadas y se determinaron diversas caracteristicas quimicas, el contenido total de hidrocarburos y de metales pesados. Los

  3. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  4. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J. [Museum National d`Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, 12 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris (France); Morel, J. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires de Nancy, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, INRA, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, B.P. 172, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-03-09

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m{sup -2} contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation

  6. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  7. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2012-02-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels with the largest chemical species being pyrene (C 16H 10), this new mechanism is generated by adding PAH sub-mechanisms to account for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C 24H 12). The density functional theory (DFT) and the transition state theory (TST) have been adopted to evaluate the rate constants for several PAH reactions. The mechanism is validated in the premixed laminar flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, benzene and ethylene. The characteristics of PAH formation in the counterflow diffusion flames of iso-octane/toluene and n-heptane/toluene mixtures have also been tested for both the soot formation and soot formation/oxidation flame conditions. The predictions of the concentrations of large PAHs in the premixed flames having available experimental data are significantly improved with the new mechanism as compared to the base mechanism. The major pathways for the formation of large PAHs are identified. The test of the counterflow diffusion flames successfully predicts the PAH behavior exhibiting a synergistic effect observed experimentally for the mixture fuels, irrespective of the type of flame (soot formation flame or soot formation/oxidation flame). The reactions that lead to this synergistic effect in PAH formation are identified through the rate-of-production analysis. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  10. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S.; Tatani, T.; Yoshida, H.; Takizawa, H.; Miyoshi, K.; Ikebe, H. [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  12. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF FUEL CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A FIELD SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spill of gasoline occurred at an automobile service station in 1986. Oily phase residue in the subsurface has continued for the past 8 yr to release water soluble fuel hydrocarbons into the aquifer. The site was characterized for implementation of intrinsic remediation. The sub...

  13. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  14. Experimental investigations on active cooling thermal protection structure of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor in arc heated facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianqiang, Tu; Jinlong, Peng; Xianning, Yang; Lianzhong, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The active cooling thermal protection technology is the efficient method to resolve the long-duration work and reusable problems of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustor, where worst thermo-mechanical loads occur. The fuel is passed through coolant channels adjacent to the heated surfaces to absorb heat from the heating exchanger panels, prior to injection into the combustor. The heating exchanger both cooled down the wall temperature of the combustor wall and heats and cracks the hydrocarbon fuel inside the panel to permit an easier combustion and satisfying combustion efficiency. The subscale active cooling metallic panels, with dimensions of 100×100 mm and different coolant channel sizes, have been tested under typical combustion thermal environment produced by arc heated Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD). The heat exchange ability of different coolant channel sizes has been obtained. The big-scale active cooling metallic panel, with dimensions of 100 × 750 mm and the coolant channel sizes of better heating exchange performance, has been made and tested in the big-scale arc heated TFD facility. The test results show that the local superheated ablation is easy to happen for the cooling fuel assigned asymmetrically in the bigscale active cooling metallic panel, and the cooling fuel rate can reduce 8%˜10% after spraying the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) in the heating surface.

  15. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  16. Progress Toward Quality Assurance Standards for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels Based on Thermal Performance Testing and Chemometric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    analyses; (2) Identify class distinguishing features, i.e., chemical compounds in the chromatographic data, that contribute to a fuel’s group ...implemented primarily to identify distinguishing chemical compounds that contribute to a fuel’s group assignment. F-ratio analysis was performed using...hydrocarbon-fueled liquid rocket engines, combustion enthalpy is transferred at high rates to thrust chamber surfaces, which are maintained at acceptably

  17. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  18. Using sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatmand, Mohammad; Ng, How Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was explored to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water originated from soil. The results showed consistent power generations of 6.02±0.34 and 3.63±0.37 mW/m(2) under an external resistance of 1500 Ω by the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively. Although the power generations were low, they had relatively low internal resistances (i.e., 436.6±69.4 and 522.1±1.8 Ω for the aerobic and anaerobic SMFC, respectively) in comparison with the literature. Nevertheless, the significant benefit of this system was its bioremediation capabilities, achieving 41.7%, 31.4% and 36.2% removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively, in the aerobic environment and 76.9%, 52.5% and 36.8%, respectively, in the anaerobic environment. These results demonstrated the ability of SMFCs in stimulating microorganisms for bioremediation of complex and recalcitrant PAHs.

  19. Hydrocarbon fuels from brown grease: Moving from the research laboratory toward an industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Lawrence M.; Strothers, Joel; Pinnock, Travis; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Bacolod, Beatrice; Cai, Zhuo Biao; Sim, Yoke-Leng

    2017-04-01

    Brown grease is a generic term for the oily solids and semi-solids that accumulate in the sewer system and in sewage treatment plants. It has previously been shown that brown grease undergoes pyrolysis to form a homologous series of alkanes and 1-alkenes between 7 and 17 carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of higher hydrocarbons and ketones up to about 30 carbon atoms. The initial study was performed in batch mode on a scale of up to 50 grams of starting material. However, continuous processes are usually more efficient for large scale production of fuels and commodity chemicals. This work describes the research and development of a continuous process. The first step was to determine the required reactor temperature. Brown grease consists largely of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and they react at different rates, and produce different products and intermediates. Intermediates include ketones, alcohols, and aldehydes, and Fe(III) ion catalyzes at least some of the reactions. By monitoring the pyrolysis of brown grease, its individual components, and intermediates, it was determined that a reactor temperature of at least 340 °C is required. A small scale (1 L) continuous stirred tank reactor was built and its performance is described.

  20. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  1. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  2. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  3. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  4. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  5. Rocket-Plume Spectroscopy Simulation for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.

    2010-01-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic system for plume diagnostics monitors rocket engine health by using several analytical tools developed at Stennis Space Center (SSC), including the rocket plume spectroscopy simulation code (RPSSC), to identify and quantify the alloys from the metallic elements observed in engine plumes. Because the hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engine is likely to contain C2, CO, CH, CN, and NO in addition to OH and H2O, the relevant electronic bands of these molecules in the spectral range of 300 to 850 nm in the RPSSC have been included. SSC incorporated several enhancements and modifications to the original line-by-line spectral simulation computer program implemented for plume spectral data analysis and quantification in 1994. These changes made the program applicable to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Diagnostic Testbed Facility Thruster (DTFT) exhaust plume spectral data. Modifications included updating the molecular and spectral parameters for OH, adding spectral parameter input files optimized for the 10 elements of interest in the spectral range from 320 to 430 nm and linking the output to graphing and analysis packages. Additionally, the ability to handle the non-uniform wavelength interval at which the spectral computations are made was added. This allowed a precise superposition of wavelengths at which the spectral measurements have been made with the wavelengths at which the spectral computations are done by using the line-by-line (LBL) code. To account for hydrocarbon combustion products in the plume, which might interfere with detection and quantification of metallic elements in the spectral region of 300 to 850 nm, the spectroscopic code has been enhanced to include the carbon-based combustion species of C2, CO, and CH. In addition, CN and NO have spectral bands in 300 to 850 nm and, while these molecules are not direct products of hydrocarbon-oxygen combustion systems, they can show up if nitrogen or a nitrogen compound is present

  6. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from ... oil spills to both terrestrial and aquatic environments in the past 5 decades of crude ... One of the major reasons for prolonged negative impact of oil spill on the .... in Gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  7. Oil spill model development and application for emergency response system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces systematically the developing principle ofCWCM 1.0 oil spill model based on Lagrange system and oil spill fate processes in environment, reviews two oil spill incidents of "East Ambassador" in Jiaozhou Bay and "Min Fuel 2" in the mouth of Pearl River, and designs the predict system simulating oil spill applied in contingency plans. It is indicated that CWCM 1.0 has met preliminarily the demands for functions of precision simulating and oil spill predicting, and can plan an important role to support oil spill response.

  8. Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon:Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Subtask: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon: Kerosenes and Blends Clifford...AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub...Acronym Description AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory APFEERD Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development

  9. Assessment of molecular marker compounds as an index of the biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voos, G.; Mills, G.; O`Neill, J.; Jones, W. [Savannah River Ecology Labortory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The weathering of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil environment is the sum of biological, physical and chemical processes. It is often difficult to clearly discern microbial from abiotic contributions to the overall process. This is especially important in assessing the effectiveness of various in-situ bioremediation technologies. We examined molecular marker compounds, including pristane, phytane, diterpenoid hydrocarbons, farnesane and norpristane, and the ratios n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane to evaluate their use as an index of biodegradation of diesel fuel in contaminated soil. The study was conducted using microcosms containing 200 g of contaminated soil. Microcosms were destructively sampled on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 33 and 64 of the experiment. The soil was analyzed for straight-chained, branched-chained, and alicyclic petroleum hydrocarbons using high-resolution gas chromatography. Results indicate that by day 33 of the experiment, pristane and phytane were present at significantly greater concentrations than their corresponding n-alkanes and the other marker compounds analyzed. There is a strong correlation between the amount of pristane and phytane present in the soil and the amount of total extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (TEPH) measured during the course of the experiment.

  10. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  11. Thermodynamic study of characteristics of the converter with separated supply of hydrocarbon fuel for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassina, I. A.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Molchanov, O. N.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2014-04-01

    Thermodynamic studies of the converter characteristics were performed to produce hydrogen-containing syngas from hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene) with its separated supply for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming. It is demonstrated that the optimal conditions of the converter performance correlate with the oxidant ratio of α > 0.5 at the heattransfer wall temperature of 1200 K. Hydrogen content in the final syngas reaches 60 % by volume, free carbon (soot) deposition in reforming products is excluded, and there is no need to apply walls water cooling in the converter.

  12. Diversity of ndo Genes in Mangrove Sediments Exposed to Different Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pollution▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Newton C. Marcial; Borges, Ludmila R.; Paranhos,Rodolfo; Pinto, Fernando N.; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants originating from oil spills and wood and fuel combustion are pollutants which are among the major threats to mangrove ecosystems. In this study, the composition and relative abundance in the sediment bacterial communities of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes which are important for bacterial adaptation to environmental PAH contamination were investigated. Three urban mangrove sites which had characteristic compositions and levels of PAH compo...

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 2A. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR A SUITE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS - THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, VOLATILIZATION, AND ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are used in oil spill response operations to enhance the dispersion of oil slicks at sea as small oil droplets in the water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, US EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Object...

  14. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  15. High atmosphere-ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Méjanelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piña, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 102-103 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr-1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake.

  16. Trials of bioremediation on a beach affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido-Fernández, J M; Grifoll, M; Lema, J M

    2006-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of several bioremediation products in accelerating the in situ biodegradation of the heavy fuel oil spill of the Prestige. Trials of bioremediation were conducted in sand, rocks and granite tiles on the beach of Sorrizo (A Coruña, NW Spain) that was polluted by the spill. Neither the added microorganisms nor the nutrients significantly enhanced the degradation rate of the fuel oil in rocks, granite tiles or sand. PAH degradation up to 80% was determined in sand and tiles. In tiles the oxygen content of the residual oil increased from 1.6% up to 8% in 90 days, which could be explained by the accumulation of products coming from the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons. Eighteen months after the spill, the rocks of the beach were still coated by a black layer of weathered fuel oil. For this reason an oleophilic product, sunflower biodiesel was tested on a rock. The application of biodiesel accelerated the gradually clean-up of the polluted surface and could also accelerate the degradation of the residual oil.

  17. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  18. Influence of fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of in-service passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan

    The composition of exhaust emissions from eight in-service passenger cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and unleaded petrol (ULP) were measured on a chassis dynamometer at two driving speeds (60 and 80 km h -1) with the aims of evaluating their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and investigating the effects of the type of fuel on vehicle performance, ambient air quality and associated health risks. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most prominent PAHs emitted by both ULP and LPG powered cars. The total emission factors of PAHs from LPG cars were generally lower than (but statistically comparable with) those of ULP cars. Similarly, the total BAP eq of the PAHs emitted by LPG cars were lower than those from ULP cars. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods showed that cars powered by LPG fuel performed better than those powered by ULP fuel in term of PAH levels. The implications of these observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using ULP and LPG fuels are discussed.

  19. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  20. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  1. Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Analytical Methods, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment Research: Seafood Safety after a Petroleum Spill as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Wickliffe, Jeffrey; Overton, Edward; Frickel, Scott; Howard, Jessi; Wilson, Mark; Simon, Bridget; Echsner, Stephen; Nguyen, Daniel; Gauthe, David; Blake, Diane; Miller, Charles; Elferink, Cornelis; Ansari, Shakeel; Fernando, Harshica; Trapido, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant and widespread environmental chemicals. They are produced naturally and through man-made processes, and they are common in organic media, including petroleum. Several PAHs are toxic, and a subset exhibit carcinogenic activity. PAHs represent a range of chemical structures based on two or more benzene rings and, depending on their source, can exhibit a variety of side modifications resulting from oxygenation, nitrogenation, and a...

  2. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - biocell treatment of petroleum contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Biocells are engineered systems that use naturally occurring microbes to degrade fuels and oils into simpler, nonhazardous, and nontoxic compounds. Biocells are able to treat soils contaminated with petroleum based fuels and lubricants, including diesel, jet fuel, and lubricating and hydraulic oils. The microbes use the contaminants as a food source and thus destroy them. By carefully monitoring and controlling air and moisture levels, degradation rates can be increased and total treatment time reduced over natural systems.

  3. Environmental forensics evaluation of sources of sediment hydrocarbon contamination in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David I; Galperin, Yakov; Bullimore, Blaise; Camplin, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Current and historic petroleum-related activities in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW; Wales, UK) contribute to hydrocarbon contamination of surficial sediments. Three main hydrocarbon components of sediments were analyzed: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbons of predominantly biogenic origin, representing about 5-15% of total hydrocarbons (THC); (2) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from recent petrogenic and mainly older pyrogenic sources, representing about 2-6% of THC; (3) unresolved complex mixture from spill-related and heavily-weathered petrogenic sources, representing as much as 70-85% of THC. Environmental forensics evaluation of the data demonstrate that although 72,000 tonnes (t) crude oil spilled from the Sea Empress in 1996, the Forties blend cargo was not identified in 2010. However, using biomarkers, heavy fuel oil (HFO) from Sea Empress' bunkers (480 t spilled) was detected further upstream and more widely than previously. Iranian crude (100 t) spilled by the El Omar in 1988 and fuel (130,000 t) lost during bombing in 1940 also were tentatively identified. The PAH source ratios demonstrate that the historic pyrogenic PAHs come mainly from biomass and coal combustion. The distribution pattern of PAHs appeared more pyrogenic in 2012 than in 1996, as if recovering from the more petrogenic signature, in places, of the Sea Empress. The heavier PAH distributions were pyrogenic at most stations, and similar to those in sediments from oil terminal berths up to 2006, when dredging operations peaked. Partly as a result of this, in 2007 the concentrations of PAHs peaked throughout the waterway. Apart from effluent, atmospheric and runoff inputs, most of the identified inputs to the surficial sediments are historic. Therefore, likely processes include disturbance by construction (e.g. pile-driving) and dredging of contaminants sequestered in sediments, followed by their wide redistribution via suspended sediment transport.

  4. Hydrocarbon raw emission characterization of a direct-injection spark ignition engine operated with alcohol and furan-based bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thewes, Matthias [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Mauermann, Peter; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Combustion Engines; Bluhm, Kerstin; Hollert, Henner [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Research, Dept. of Ecosystem Analysis

    2013-06-01

    Within the Cluster of Excellence ''Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass'' the impact of various potential bio fuels on engine combustion is studied. Besides alcohols, furan-based bio fuels have come into the focus with novel production routes to transform biomass into 2-Methylfuran or 2,5-Dimethylfuran. In the present study, the influence of these and other bio fuels on the hydrocarbon raw emission spectrum of a direct-injection spark-ignition single cylinder engine is studied experimentally by means of gas chromatographic and mass spectroscopic analysis of exhaust gas samples. The results obtained are compared to operation with conventional EN 228 gasoline fuel. This fuel showed slip of partially carcinogenic aromatic fuel molecule(s) in warm and in cold engine conditions. For the bio fuels, slip was found to be significant for the alcohol fuels. The carcinogenic molecule 1,3-Butadiene was present in the exhaust gas of all fuels. Furan as another possibly carcinogenic molecule was found at significantly higher concentrations in the exhaust gas of the furan-based bio fuels compared to conventional gasoline fuel but not in the exhaust gas of the alcohol fuels. (orig.)

  5. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  6. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  7. Atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures. Pt. 3. Fuels for combustion engines; Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische. T. 3. Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, H.G. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The justification paper atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures, part 3 - ``fuels for combustion engines`` (gasolines, diesel fuel and kerosene) is currently in preparation. This third part gives information on industrial hygiene regarding the different fuels and describes the application of atmospheric limiting values for fuels. The article offers information on industrial hygiene regarding Otto engine fuel and aviation fuel, which needs to be taken into account in discussions concerning the laying down of atmospheric limiting values. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Das Begruendungspapier Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische Teil 3 `Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren` (Gasoline, Dieselkraftstoff und Kerosin) ist z.Z. in Vorbereitung. In diesem dritten Teil werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu den verschiedenen Kraftstoffen gegeben und die Anwendung der Luftgrenzwerte fuer Kraftstoffe beschrieben. Im folgenden werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu Ottokraftstoff und Avgas gegeben, die es bei den Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich der Festlegung eines Luftgrenzwertes zu beruecksichtigen gilt. (orig./ABI)

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source an

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269224742; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source

  10. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  11. Understanding of Electrochemical Mechanisms for CO2 Capture and Conversion into Hydrocarbon Fuels in Transition-Metal Carbides (MXenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Neng; Chen, Xingzhu; Ong, Wee-Jun; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Zhao, Xiujian; Cheetham, Anthony K; Sun, Chenghua

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal (groups IV, V, VI) carbides (MXenes) with formulas M3C2 have been investigated as CO2 conversion catalysts with well-resolved density functional theory calculations. While MXenes from the group IV to VI series have demonstrated an active behavior for the capture of CO2, the Cr3C2 and Mo3C2 MXenes exhibit the most promising CO2 to CH4 selective conversion capabilities. Our results predicted the formation of OCHO(•) and HOCO(•) radical species in the early hydrogenation steps through spontaneous reactions. This provides atomic level insights into the computer-aided screening for high-performance catalysts and the understanding of electrochemical mechanisms for CO2 reduction to energy-rich hydrocarbon fuels, which is of fundamental significance to elucidate the elementary steps for CO2 fixation.

  12. Numerical heat transfer analysis of transcritical hydrocarbon fuel flow in a tube partially filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon fuel has been widely used in air-breathing scramjets and liquid rocket engines as coolant and propellant. However, possible heat transfer deterioration and threats from local high heat flux area in scramjet make heat transfer enhancement essential. In this work, 2-D steady numerical simulation was carried out to study different schemes of heat transfer enhancement based on a partially filled porous media in a tube. Both boundary and central layouts were analyzed and effects of gradient porous media were also compared. The results show that heat transfer in the transcritical area is enhanced at least 3 times with the current configuration compared to the clear tube. Besides, the proper use of gradient porous media also enhances the heat transfer compared to homogenous porous media, which could help to avoid possible over-temperature in the thermal protection.

  13. Dilution effects on the controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion of hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, A.; Zhao, H.; Ma, T.; Ladommatos, N

    2001-01-01

    Copyright © 2001 SAE International. This paper is posted on this site with permission from SAE International. Further use of this paper is not permitted without permission from SAE This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This wor...

  14. Study of the Effect of Hydrocarbon Type Biodegradation on Fuel Specification Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    storage tanks, pipelines, and aircraft wing tanks. JP-8, Jet A-1, Jet A, and F-76, are kerosene or diesel distillate products that can serve as a...conditions since additives are replaced when a tank is refilled with fuel. 5) trace contamination of jet fuel with fatty acid methyl esters or FAMEs...in pumps and at other high friction surfaces (Stamper et al., 2012). Because kerosene and diesel distillate products may serve as food and energy

  15. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    reaction pathways for hydrotreating [3]. Adsorptive desulfurizing units can provide low sulfur fuel for sulfur intolerant systems such as fuel...considered to be an alternative to process intensification of hydrotreating processes to cope with tightening sulfur regulations which calls for higher...remove the sulfur species that represent the hardest species to hydrotreat may be operated in tandem to traditional hydrotreating units. Large scale

  16. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun, E-mail: o.adelaja@my.westminster.ac.uk; Keshavarz, Tajalli, E-mail: t.keshavarz@westminster.ac.uk; Kyazze, Godfrey, E-mail: g.kyazze@westminster.ac.uk

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m{sup 2} maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m{sup 2}, 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  17. Catalytic conversion of palm oil over mesoporous aluminosilicate MCM-41 for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twaiq, Farouq A.; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, SPS, Pinang (Malaysia); Zabidi, Noor Asmawati M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Sri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2003-11-15

    The catalytic cracking of palm oil to liquid hydrocarbon fuels was studied in a fixed bed micro-reactor operated at atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 723 K and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2.5 h{sup -1} over the synthesized mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 materials. Mesoporous aluminosilicate with Si/Al ratio of 50 was synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Different pore sizes were obtained by changing the type of template and organic directing agent (ODA) used. The synthesized materials were characterized using various analytical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, inductive coupled plasma (ICP), MAS NMR, FTIR and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The materials exhibit a crystalline structure of MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves with surface area varying from 550 to 1200 m{sup 2}/g and an average pore size (APS) ranging from 1.8 to 2.8 nm. The synthesized MCM-41 catalysts show high activity for palm oil cracking. The conversion of palm kernel oil, lower-molecular-weight oil, was higher as compared to higher-molecular-weight, palm olein oil. MCM-41 materials were selective for the formation of linear hydrocarbons, particularly, C{sub 13} when palm kernel oil was used and C{sub 17} when palm olein oil was fed. The yield of liquid product decreased with the increase of surface area of the catalyst. The gasoline selectivity increased whereas diesel selectivity decreased with the conversion of palm oil.

  18. Natural Attenuation of Fuel Hydrocarbon Contaminants:Correlation of Biodegradation with Hydraulic Conductivity in a Field Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-ping; ZHENG Chun-miao

    2004-01-01

    Two biodegradation models are developed to represent natural attenuation of fuel-hydrocarbon contaminants as observed in a comprehensive natural-gradient tracer test in a heterogeneous aquifer on the Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi, USA. The first, a first-order mass loss model, describes the irreversible losses of BTEX and its individual components, i.e., benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E), and xylene (X). The second, a reactive pathway model, describes sequential degradation pathways for BTEX utilizing multiple electron acceptors, including oxygen, nitrate, iron and sulfate, and via methanogenesis. The heterogeneous aquifer is represented by multiple hydraulic conductivity (K) zones delineated on the basis of numerous flowmeter K measurements. A direct propagation artificial neural network (DPN) is used as an inverse modeling tool to estimate the biodegradation rate constants associated with each of the K zones. In both the mass loss model and the reactive pathway model, the biodegradation rate constants show an increasing trend with the hydraulic conductivity. The finding of correlation between biodegradation kinetics and hydraulic conductivity distributions is of general interest and relevance to characterization and modeling of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in other petroleum-product contaminated sites.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  20. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-11-04

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Predicting fuel research octane number using Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectra of neat hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Shane R; Cannella, William J; Hagen, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Liquid transportation fuels require costly and time-consuming tests to characterize metrics, such as Research Octane Number (RON) for gasoline. If fuel sale restrictions requiring use of standard Cooperative Fuel Research testing procedures do not apply, these tests may be avoided by using multivariate statistical models to predict RON and other quantities. Here we show that an accurate statistical model for the RON of gasoline and gasoline-like fuels can be constructed by ensuring the representation of key functional groups in the spectroscopic data set are used to train the model. We found that a principal component regression model for RON based on IR absorbance and informed using neat and 134 mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol, methylcyclohexane, and 1-hexene could predict RON for the 10 Coordinating Research Council Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) gasolines and 12 FACE gasoline blends with ethanol within 34.8+/-36.1 on average and 51.2 in the worst case. We next studied the ef...

  2. Understanding the role of multifunctional nanoengineered particulate additives on supercritical pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyung Sub

    This dissertation aims to understand the fundamental effects of colloidal nanostructured materials on the supercritical pyrolysis, injection, ignition, and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels/propellants. As a fuel additive, functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) without or with the decoration of metal catalysts, such as platinum (Pt) or polyoxometalates (POM) nanoparticles, were examined against conventional materials including nanometer sized fumed silica and aluminum particles. Supercritical pyrolysis experiments were performed as a function of temperature, residence time, and particle type, using a high pressure and temperature flow reactor designed to provide isothermal and isobaric flow conditions. Supercritical pyrolysis results showed that the addition of FGS-based particles at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw increased the conversion rates and reduced apparent activation energies for methylcyclohexane (MCH) and n-dodecane (n-C12H26) fuels. For example, conversion rates, and formations of C1-C5 n-alkanes and C2-C6 1-alkenes were significantly increased by 43.5 %, 59.1 %, and 50.0 % for MCH decomposition using FGS 19 (50 ppmw) at a temperature of 820 K and reduced pressure of 1.36. In addition, FGS decorated with 20 wt % Pt (20wt%Pt FGS) at a loading concentration of 50 ppmw exhibited additional enhancement in the conversion rate of n-C12H26 by up to 24.0 % compared to FGS. Especially, FGS-based particles seem to alter initiation mechanisms, which could result in higher hydrogen formation. Hydrogen selectivities for both MCH and n-C12H26 decompositions were observed to increase by nearly a factor of 2 and 10, respectively. Supercritical injection and combustion experiments were conducted using a high pressure and temperature windowed combustion chamber coupled to the flow reactor through a feed system. Supercritical injection/combustion experiments indicated that the presence of a small amount of particles (100 ppmw) in the fuel affected the injection, ignition

  3. Gaseous Surrogate Hydrocarbons for a Hifire Scramjet that Mimic Opposed Jet Extinction Limits for Cracked JP Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes, first, the top-down methodology used to define simple gaseous surrogate hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures for a hypersonic scramjet combustion subtask of the HiFIRE program. It then presents new and updated Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) extinction-limit Flame Strength (FS) data obtained from laminar non-premixed HC vs. air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm, which follow from earlier investigations. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. FS uniquely characterizes a kinetically limited fuel combustion rate. More generally, Applied Stress Rates (ASRs) at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or t) can directly be compared with extinction limits determined numerically using either a 1-D or (preferably) a 2-D Navier Stokes simulation with detailed transport and finite rate chemistry. The FS results help to characterize and define three candidate surrogate HC fuel mixtures that exhibit a common FS 70% greater than for vaporized JP-7 fuel. These include a binary fuel mixture of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, which is our primary recommendation. It is intended to mimic the critical flameholding limit of a thermally- or catalytically-cracked JP-7 like fuel in HiFIRE scramjet combustion tests. Our supporting experimental results include: (1) An idealized kinetically-limited ASR reactivity scale, which represents maximum strength non-premixed flames for several gaseous and vaporized liquid HCs; (2) FS characterizations of Colket and Spadaccini s suggested ternary surrogate, of 60% ethylene + 30% methane + 10% n-heptane, which matches the ignition delay of a typical cracked JP fuel; (3) Data showing how our recommended binary surrogate, of 64% ethylene + 36% methane, has an identical FS; (4) Data that characterize an alternate surrogate of 44% ethylene + 56% ethane with identical

  4. Specific features of ignition and flameholding of hydrocarbon fuels in high-speed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the results of experimental investigations of a supersonic combustion chamber with solid and discrete cavities at the entrance Mach numbers of 3 and 3.5. Kerosene and propane were used as fuel. The conditions required for self-ignition and intense combustion of the fuels were determined. The possibility of efficient combustion in a supersonic flow was demonstrated. Analysis of applicability of existing criteria predicting the conditions of self-ignition and extinction of combustion has been performed based on the experimental results obtained.

  5. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  6. A quantum chemistry study on thermochemical properties of high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Hu-Jun; Yue, Lei; Lu, Xiao-Xing; Fang, Wen-Jun

    2014-04-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) level have been performed to explore the molecular structure, electronic structure, C-H bond dissociation enthalpy, and reaction enthalpies for five isodesmic reactions of a high energy-density endothermic hydrocarbon fuel JP-10. On the basis of the calculations, it is found that the carbonium ion C-6 isomer formed from the catalytic cracking at the C₆ site of JP-10 has the lowest energy, and the R-5 radical generated from the thermal cracking at the C₅ site of JP-10 is the most stable isomer. Furthermore, a series of hypothetical and isodesmic work reactions containing similar bond environments are used to calculate the reaction enthalpies for target compounds. For the same isodesmic reaction, the reaction enthalpy of each carbon site radical has also been calculated. The present work is of fundamental significance and strategic importance to provide some valuable insights into the component design and energy utilization of advanced endothermic fuels.

  7. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  8. Exploratory fuel-cell research: I. Direct-hydrocarbon polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. II. Mathematical modeling of fuel-cell cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A strong need exists today for more efficient energy-conversion systems. Our reliance on limited fuel resources, such as petroleum for the majority of our energy needs makes it imperative that we utilize these resources as efficiently as possible. Higher-efficiency energy conversion also means less pollution, since less fuel is consumed and less exhaust created for the same energy output. Additionally, for many industrialized nations, such as the United States which must rely on petroleum imports, it is also imperative from a national-security standpoint to reduce the consumption of these precious resources. A substantial reduction of U.S. oil imports would result in a significant reduction of our trade deficit, as well as costly military spending to protect overseas petroleum resources. Therefore, energy-conversion devices which may utilize alternative fuels are also in strong demand. This paper describes research on fuel cells for transportation.

  9. Indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterioflora in oil-polluted habitats in Kuwait, two decades after the greatest man-made oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, H; Al-Mailem, D; Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; Radwan, S

    2012-08-01

    Kuwaiti habitats with two-decade history of oil pollution were surveyed for their inhabitant oil-utilizing bacterioflora. Seawater samples from six sites along the Kuwaiti coasts of the Arabian Gulf and desert soil samples collected from seven sites all over the country harbored oil-utilizing bacteria whose numbers made up 0.0001-0.01% of the total, direct, microscopic counts. The indigenous bacterioflora in various sites were affiliated to many species. This was true when counting was made on nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free media. Seawater samples harbored species belonging predominantly to the Gammaproteobacteria and desert soil samples contained predominantly Actinobacteria. Bacterial species that grew on the nitrogen-free medium and that represented a considerable proportion of the total in all individual bacterial consortia were diazotrophic. They gave positive acetylene-reduction test and possessed the nifH genes in their genomes. Individual representative species could utilize a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as sole sources of carbon and energy. Quantitative determination showed that the individual species consumed crude oil, n-octadecane and phenanthrene, in batch cultures. It was concluded that the indigenous microflora could be involved in bioremediation programs without bioaugmentation or nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation would be the most important practice in bioremediation of the polluted soil desert areas.

  10. Effect of organic nutrient on microbial utilization of hydrocarbons on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (10), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of organic ... incident of oil spills occur in the mangrove swamp zones ..... methods for a number of residual fuel spill in Lee County, Florida.

  11. Combustion of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Fuels and JP-8 at Moderate Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    corresponding results for methane, ethane, and ethylene , were obtained as well the effects of different reaction rates on comparisons between... ethylene , as well as showing the effects of different reaction rates on comparisons between predictions and measurements for all of the fuels tested. There...displacement effects imply that however an oxidizer -side strain rate may be defined, any correct value will be significantly greater than could be

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems with integrated reforming or gasification of hydrocarbons; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)-Systeme mit integrierter Reformierung bzw. Vergasung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitzberger, Christian

    2012-07-01

    hydrocarbons as fuel are simulated. The simulation results serve as base for the final evaluation of the stack- and system-design concerning operation and feasibility and show the capability of the concept to meet the demands listed above as high electrical system-efficiencies up to 70% and nearly efficiency-neutral CO{sub 2}-separation. [German] In der Arbeit werden innovative Konzepte fuer baulich, thermisch und stofflich hochintegrierte oxidkeramische Brennstoffzellen (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC))-Systeme mit optionaler CO{sub 2}-Abscheidung entwickelt und untersucht. Zunaechst erfolgt die Ausarbeitung von Moeglichkeiten zur Wirkungsgradsteigerung, wie die Verschaltung der Gaserzeugungseinheit mit der Brennstoffzelle nach dem Prinzip der chemischen Waermepumpe oder die serielle elektrische Verschaltung der Einzelzellen. Diese Optionen werden anschliessend bezueglich ihrer thermodynamischen Grenzen, wie maximal erzielbare Wirkungsgrade oder maximal moeglicher interner Abwaermenutzung, evaluiert. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt unter Beachtung des Stands der Technik eine methodische Konzeption und Konstruktion eines SOFC-Systems, bei dem Reformierungsreaktor, Brennstoffzelle sowie die thermische Gaskonditionierung in einem Stack-Modul vereint sind. Diese Grundeinheit kann den Anwendungs-, Betriebs-und Brennstoffanforderungen angepasst werden und stellt aufgrund des hohen baulichen Integrationsgrades sowie der nur geringen Anzahl an zusaetzlich benoetigten peripheren Komponenten ein sehr kompaktes System dar. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt die mathematische Modeliierung der entsprechenden Systemkomponenten sowie die Modellimplementierung in das institutseigene, C++ basierte Kreislaufsimulationsprogramm ENBIPRO (Energie-Bilanz-Programm). Mittels der mathematischen Modelle werden SOFC-Systeme basierend auf dem entwickelten integrierten Stack-und System-Konzept fuer verschiedene Brennstoffe und Systemverschaltungen simuliert. Die Simulationsergebnisse dienen als Grundlage fuer

  13. Calculation of Free-Atom Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satyajit

    2006-01-01

    Free atom fractions (Beta) of nine elements are calculated in the exhaust plume of CH4- oxygen and RP-1-oxygen fueled rocket engines using free energy minimization method. The Chemical Equilibrium and Applications (CEA) computer program developed by the Glenn Research Center, NASA is used for this purpose. Data on variation of Beta in both fuels as a function of temperature (1600 K - 3100 K) and oxygen to fuel ratios (1.75 to 2.25 by weight) is presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Recommendation is made for the Beta value for a tenth element, Palladium. The CEA computer code was also run to compare with experimentally determined Beta values reported in literature for some of these elements. A reasonable agreement, within a factor of three, between the calculated and reported values is observed. Values reported in this work will be used as a first approximation for pilot rocket engine testing studies at the Stennis Space Center for at least six elements Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni - until experimental values are generated. The current estimates will be improved when more complete thermodynamic data on the remaining four elements Ag, Co, Mn and Pd are added to the database. A critique of the CEA code is also included.

  14. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20-50°C), salinity (0.5-2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40°C compared to MFC performance at 30°C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50°C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40°C was 1.15 mW/m(2) maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m(2), 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  15. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  16. Economic implications of incorporating emission controls to mitigate air pollutants emitted from a modeled hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery in the United States: Economic implications of air emission controls for a hydrocarbon-fuel biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-07-15

    The implementation of the US Renewable Fuel Standard is expected to increase the construction and operation of new biofuel facilities. Allowing this industry to grow without adversely affecting air quality is an important sustainability goal sought by multiple stakeholders. However, little is known about how the emission controls potentially required to comply with air quality regulations might impact biorefinery cost and deployment strategies such as siting and sizing. In this study, we use a baseline design for a lignocellulosic hydrocarbon biofuel production process to assess how the integration of emission controls impacts the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) of the biofuel produced. We evaluate the change in MFSP for two cases as compared to the baseline design by incorporating (i) emission controls that ensure compliance with applicable federal air regulations and (ii) advanced control options that could be used to achieve potential best available control technology (BACT) emission limits. Our results indicate that compliance with federal air regulations can be achieved with minimal impact on biofuel cost (~$0.02 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) higher than the baseline price of $5.10 GGE-1). However, if air emissions must be further reduced to meet potential BACT emission limits, the cost could increase nontrivially. For example, the MFSP could increase to $5.50 GGE-1 by adopting advanced emission controls to meet potential boiler BACT limits. Given tradeoffs among emission control costs, permitting requirements, and economies of scale, these results could help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing and mitigate risks associated with air permitting.

  17. Constraints on rates of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation of petroleum spills in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snape, I. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, S. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia)]|[Tasmania Univ., Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Revill, A. [CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Decades of polar exploration in Antarctica have resulting in land and shoreline pollution. The most environmentally damaging problem is associated with petroleum spills. Approximately 10 to 20 spills of 200 to 1000 litres are reported each year. Approximately 10 per cent are greater than 10,000 litres. This study examined if natural degradation is a remediation option for Antarctica. The origin, distribution and fate of terrestrial petroleum contaminants at Casey Station, East Antarctica was studied. The measured chemical parameters in the soil were extrapolated back to experimental evaporation data. The study showed that a 15 year old spill of Special Antarctic Blend diesel had degraded by up to 60 per cent, mostly through evaporation. Some biodegradation had also occurred. Soil at the spill site showed petroleum concentration of 20,000 mg of fuel per kg of soil, even after 15 years. Petroleum runoff still discharges each year into the nearby marine environment. It was concluded that natural attenuation is not a viable remediation option for Antarctica because the rate of natural breakdown is too slow and the rate of off-site migration is fast. Field trials have shown that faster degradation rates can be achieved using an in situ remediation method based on the controlled release of nutrients, with and without water addition and aeration. The landfarming experiments used indigenous microbial communities and the natural Antarctic summer freeze-thaw cycle. Each treatment promoted evaporation, but the greatest improvement was due to high rates of hydrocarbon degradation. The study showed that even old recalcitrant spills in the Antarctic can be remediated on site. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. Crosslinked structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids as stationary phases for the analysis of hydrocarbons in kerosene and diesel fuels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Park, Rodney A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-04-01

    Structurally-tuned ionic liquids (ILs) have been previously applied as the second dimension column in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and have demonstrated high selectivity in the separation of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from other aliphatic hydrocarbons. However, the maximum operating temperatures of these stationary phases limit the separation of analytes with high boiling points. In order to address this issue, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based stationary phases were prepared in this study using imidazolium-based IL monomers via in-column free radical polymerization. The IL monomers were functionalized with long alkyl chain substituents to provide the needed selectivity for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Columns were prepared with different film thicknesses to identify the best performing stationary phase for the separation of kerosene. The bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([NTf2](-))-based PIL stationary phase with larger film thickness (0.28μm) exhibited higher selectivity for aliphatic hydrocarbons and showed a maximum allowable operating temperature of 300°C. PIL-based stationary phases containing varied amount of IL-based crosslinker were prepared to study the effect of the crosslinker on the selectivity and thermal stability of the resulting stationary phase. The optimal resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was achieved when 50% (w/w) of crosslinker was incorporated into the PIL-based stationary phase. The resulting stationary phase exhibited good selectivity for different groups of aliphatic hydrocarbons even after being conditioned at 325°C. Finally, the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase was compared with SUPELCOWAX 10 and DB-17 columns for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuel. Better resolution of aliphatic hydrocarbons was obtained when employing the crosslinked PIL-based stationary phase as the second dimension column.

  19. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Peperzak, L.; Beggah, S.; Wick, L.Y.; Wuerz, B.; Weber, J.; Arey, J.S.; Van der Burg, B.; Jonas, A.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oildrilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented,more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gapin the assessment of

  20. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Peperzak, L.; Beggah, S.; Wick, L.Y.; Wuerz, B.; Weber, J.; Arey, J.S.; van der Burg, B.; Jonas, A.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oil drilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented, more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gap in the assessment

  1. Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Peperzak, L.; Beggah, S.; Wick, L.Y.; Wuerz, B.; Weber, J.; Arey, J.S.; Van der Burg, B.; Jonas, A.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are frequently exposed to oil spills as a result of transportation, oildrilling or fuel usage. Whereas large oil spills and their effects have been widely documented,more common and recurrent small spills typically escape attention. To fill this important gapin the assessment of

  2. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......, and outlet gas composition. For methane production, low temperature and high pressure operation could improve the system efficiency, but might lead to a higher capital cost. For DME production, high pressure SOEC operation necessitates higher operating temperature in order to avoid carbon formation at higher...

  4. A Simulator for a Hydrocarbon Ramrocket Fuel Gas Generator - First Phase Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Gas & Fuel Corporation of Vic., Manager Scientific Services SEC of Vic., Herman Research Laboratory...EXHAUST SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS 8 7.1 Solid Products 9 7.1.1 Probe System 9 7.1.2 Wet Filtering 9 7.1.3 Dry Filtering 10 7.2 Gaseous Products 10 7.2.1 Gas...Sampling System 10 7.2.2 Gas Chromatography 11 8. OBSERVATIONS OF TEST HARDWARE PERFORMANCE 11 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 13 9.1 Analysis of Zaccardi

  5. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Progress report, January-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The following materials were processed thru gasification: sugarcane bagasse, smooth sumac, coralberry, wild bergamot, pokeweed, cornstarch, Portugese oak cork and hog fuel. A data summary is given. The high H/sub 2//CO ratio at low temperature for pokeweed is of significance (>T, >H/sub 2/). Also the high olefin content of Portugese oak cork (commercial cork) is of major interest. The most promising feedstock to date with regard to synthesis gas composition has been guayule cork. A comparison of data for the two cork materials is given. A detailed breakdown for corn starch is given revealing an exceptionally high methane content (35.50 mole %). (MHR)

  6. Chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of paraffinic hydrocarbons needed for primary reference fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is described which simulates the oxidation of the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. The high temperature subset of these mechanisms is identified, and the extensions to deal with low temperature conditions are also explained. The algorithms used to assign reaction rates to elementary steps in the reaction mechanism are described, and the means of identifying the different chemical species and the relevant reactions are outlined. Finally, we show how interested kinetic modeling researchers can obtain copies of this reaction mechanism.

  7. Hydrocarbon contamination increases the liquid water content of frozen Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Schafer, Alexis N; Forgeron, Michelle A M; Snape, Ian

    2008-11-15

    We do not yet understand why fuel spills can cause greater damage in polar soils than in temperate soils. The role of water in the freezing environment may partly be responsible for why polar soils are more sensitive to pollution. We hypothesized that hydrocarbons alter the liquid water in frozen soil, and we evaluated this hypothesis by conducting laboratory and field experiments at Casey Station, Antarctica. Liquid water content in frozen soils (theta(liquid)) was estimated by time domain reflectometry in laboratory, field collected soils, and in situ field measurements. Our results demonstrate an increase in liquid water associated with hydrocarbon contamination in frozen soils. The dependence of theta(liquid) on aged fuel and spiked fuel were almost identical,with a slope of 2.6 x 10(-6) mg TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) kg(-1) for aged fuel and 3.1 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1) for spiked fuel. In situ measurements found theta(liquid) depends, r2 = 0.75, on fuel for silt loam soils (theta(liquid) = 0.094 + 7.8 x 10(-6) mg TPH kg(-1)) but not on fuel for silt clay loam soils. In our study, theta(liquid) doubled in field soils and quadrupled in laboratory soils contaminated with diesel which may have profound implications on frost heave models in contaminated soils.

  8. Oil spill contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kip, S.H. (Sarawak Shell Bhd/Saban Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. (MY))

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  9. Mechanisms for the formation of exhaust hydrocarbons in a single cylinder spark-ignition engine, fueled with deuterium-labeled ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.; Jackson, R.A. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science; Bennett, P.J. [BP Oil, Sunbury-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Combustion studies in engines have investigated the chemistry leading to the formation in the exhaust of aromatic hydrocarbons from deuterium-labeled isomeric xylenes. These fuels were: ortho-xylene-d{sub 0} and ortho-xylene=d{sub 10} (1:1); para-xylene-d{sub 0} and para-xylene-d{sub 10} (1:1); and meta-xylene-2,4,5,6-d{sub 4}. Isotopic distributions within the exhausted hydrocarbons establish the postflame chemistry involved. There is an isotope effect in the consumption of residual fuel in the postflame region. The residual fuel from each experiment exhibits minimal H-D exchange. Toluene is an intermediate in the formation of ethylbenzene, and is produced through X{sup {sm_bullet}} atom (X{sup {sm_bullet}} = H or D) displacement of methyl radicals from the xylene fuel. Benzene is formed by direct demethylation, but there are other routes. Styrene from o- and p-xylene fuels is formed intramolecularly, probably involving xylylene and methylcycloheptatetraene intermediates. Ethyltoluene is formed by combination of methyl and methylbenzyl radicals.

  10. Self-doped Ti(3+)-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-28

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti(3+) into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.

  11. Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald M; Hazen, Terry C

    2011-08-15

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills.

  12. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  13. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  14. Exposure and size distribution of nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among the population using different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derivatives like nitrated and oxygenated PAHs are of growing concerns because of considerably higher toxicity and important roles during atmospheric chemical reactions. Residential solid fuel combustion is likely to be one large primary source of these pollutants in developing countries. In this study, inhalation exposure to nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives was evaluated among rural residents using carried samplers. The exposure levels of individual nitrated PAHs ranged from 4.04 (9-nitrated phenanthrene) to 89.8 (9-nitrated anthracene) pg/m(3), and of oxy-PAHs were 0.570 (benzo[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione) to 7.99 (Benzanthrone) ng/m(3), generally higher in wood user than that in anthracite user. A majority of derivatives in particle presented in PM2.5 (80% for nitrated naphthalene and over 90% for other targets) and even fine PM1.0. Mass fractions of PAH derivatives in fine and ultra-fine particles were significantly higher than the fractions of corresponding parent PAHs, indicating more adverse health outcomes induced by these derivatives. The inhalation exposure levels for residents adopting wood gasifier burners was significantly lower than the documented results for those burning wood in typical built-in brick stoves, and comparable to those using LPG and electricity, which provided vital information for clean stove development and intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-04-01

    The development of an ``artificial photosynthetic system'' (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as ``architecture-directing agents'' for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle.

  16. Permeable bio-reactive barriers to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Terry, Deborah; Wilkins, Dan; Spedding, Tim; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    A reliance on diesel generated power and a history of imperfect fuel management have created a legacy of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at subantarctic Macquarie Island. Increasing environmental awareness and advances in contaminant characterisation and remediation technology have fostered an impetus to reduce the environmental risk associated with legacy sites. A funnel and gate permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in 2014 to address the migration of Special Antarctic Blend diesel from a spill that occurred in 2002, as well as older spills and residual contaminants in the soil at the Main Power House. The PRB gate comprised of granular activated carbon and natural clinoptilolite zeolite. Petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in the soil water were successfully captured on the reactive materials, with concentrations at the outflow of the barrier recorded as being below reporting limits. The nutrient and iron concentrations delivered to the barrier demonstrated high temporal variability with significant iron precipitation observed across the bed. The surface of the granular activated carbon was largely free from cell attachment while natural zeolite demonstrated patchy biofilm formation after 15 months following PRB installation. This study illustrates the importance of informed material selection at field scale to ensure that adsorption and biodegradation processes are utilised to manage the environmental risk associated with petroleum hydrocarbon spills. This study reports the first installation of a permeable bio-reactive barrier in the subantarctic.

  17. Spread and burning behavior of continuous spill fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Spill fire experiments with continuous discharge on a fireproof glass sheet were conducted to improve the understanding of spill fire spread and burning. Ethanol was used as the fuel and the discharge rate was varied from 2.8. mL/s to 7.6. mL/s. Three ignition conditions were used...... at the quasi-steady burning was lower than that of pool fires and the ratio of the spill fires' regression rate to the pool fires' regression rate was found to be approximately 0.89. With respect to the radiative penetration and the heat conduction between the fuel layer and the glass, a regression rate...... in the experiments; no ignition, instantaneous ignition and delayed ignition. The spread rate, regression rate, penetrated thermal radiation and the temperature of the bottom glass were analyzed. The experiments clearly show the entire spread process for spill fires. Further, the regression rate of spill fires...

  18. Determination of Hydrocarbon Group-Type of Diesel Fuels by Gas Chromatography with Vacuum Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brandon M; Walsh, Phillip; Harynuk, James J

    2016-06-07

    A GC-vacuum ultraviolet (UV) method to perform group-type separations of diesel range fuels was developed. The method relies on an ionic liquid column to separate diesel samples into saturates, mono-, di-, and polyaromatics by gas chromatography, with selective detection via vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy. Vacuum UV detection was necessary to solve a coelution between saturates and monoaromatics. The method was used to measure group-type composition of 10 oilsands-derived Synfuel light diesel samples, 3 Syncrude light gas oils, and 1 quality control sample. The gas chromatography (GC)-vacuum UV results for the Synfuel samples were similar (absolute % error of 0.8) to historical results from the supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) analysis. For the light gas oils, discrepancies were noted between SFC results and GC-vacuum UV results; however, these samples are known to be challenging to quantify by SFC-flame ionization detector (FID) due to incomplete resolution between the saturate/monoaromatic and/or monoaromatic/diaromatic group types when applied to samples heavier than diesel (i.e., having a larger fraction of higher molecular weight species). The quality control sample also performed well when comparing both methods (absolute % error of 0.2) and the results agreed within error for saturates, mono- and polyaromatics.

  19. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  20. Effect of strain rate on sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels: Sooting temperature index and sooting sensitivity index

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  2. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  3. 碳氢燃料低压裂解特性%Pyrolysis Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Fuel Under Low Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其翼; 魏微; 周灏; 文旭; 李象远

    2015-01-01

    针对主动冷却中利用碳氢燃料裂解吸热释放热沉的特性,研究分析了碳氢燃料在低压条件下的裂解反应特征,从产气率、气相组分与结焦等方面进行了对比研究.结果表明,在相同停留时间,压力降低,裂解的产气率更高,裂解气组分中烯烃含量大幅提升,表明低压裂解具有一定的反应定向性.通过吸光光度法半定量分析高温裂解残液,发现裂解压力降低,吸光度值降低,表明低压裂解可以明显抑制结焦反应发生.%This study focuses on the cracking reaction of hydrocarbon fuel under low pressure.The rate of pyrolysis gas yielding,pyrolysis gas composition and coke formation are studied and compared.The results demonstrate that during the same residence time,the rate of gas yielding increases while the pressure is reduced.A substantial rise of the olefin content in the pyrolysis gas indicates that the cracking reaction is directed.The semi-quantitative analysis of pyrolysis residue absorbance shows that absorbance values are reduced with the decrease of cracking pressure,and low pressure pyrolysis can significantly inhibit coking reaction.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  5. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.

  6. Original Paper Ecological effects of oil spill on water and sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri ... waters and sediment since hydrocarbon released into the environment sorb to the ..... could have affected the metabolic and .... performance of metal stressed major.

  7. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  8. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior Emergency Management: Oil Spills U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oil Spill Preparation and Response U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife ...

  9. Summary of the LLNL gasoline spill demonstration - dynamic underground stripping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-04-03

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons (solvents or fuels) can be difficult to clean up when the hydrocarbons are present both above and below the water table and are found in relatively impermeable clays. Years of groundwater pumping may not completely remove the contamination. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the College of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) have collaborated to develop a technique called Dynamic Underground Stripping to remove localized underground spills in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management has sponsored a full-scale demonstration of this technique at the LLNL gasoline spill site. When highly concentrated contamination is found above the standing water table, vacuum extraction has been very effective at both removing the contaminant and enhancing biological remediation through the addition of oxygen. Below the water table, however, these advantages cannot be obtained. For such sites where the contamination is too deep for excavation, there are currently no widely applicable cleanup methods. Dynamic Underground Stripping removes separate-phase organic contaminants below the water table by heating the subsurface above the boiling point of water, and then removing both contaminant and water by vacuum extraction. The high temperatures both convert the organic to vapor and enhance other removal paths by increasing diffusion and eliminating sorption. Because this method uses rapid, high-energy techniques in cleaning the soil, it requires an integrated system of underground monitoring and imaging methods to control and evaluate the process in real time.

  10. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  11. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  12. Chemical Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical spil

  13. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  14. Chemical Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  15. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  16. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  17. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  18. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  19. Self-doped Ti3+-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-01

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XPS, XRD and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02974k

  20. Soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for sub-Antarctic islands contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alexis Nadine; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Sub-Antarctic islands have been subjected to petroleum hydrocarbon spills, yet no information is available regarding the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to these subpolar soils. The purpose of the present study was to identify soil biogeochemical toxicity end points for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sub-Antarctic soil. Soil from Macquarie Island, a sub-Antarctic island south of Australia, was collected and exposed to 10 concentrations of Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel, ranging from 0 to 50,000 mg fuel/kg soil, for a 21-d period. The sensitivity of nitrification, denitrification, carbohydrate utilization, and total soil respiration to SAB fuel was assessed. Potential nitrification activity was the most sensitive indicator of SAB contamination assessed for nitrogen cycling, with an IC20 (concentration that results in a 20% change from the control response) of 190 mg fuel/ kg soil. Potential denitrification activity was not as sensitive to SAB contamination, with an IC20 of 950 mg fuel/kg soil for nitrous oxide production. Nitrous oxide consumption was unaffected by SAB contamination. Carbohydrate utilization (respiration caused by sucrose) was a more sensitive indicator (IC20, 16 mg fuel/kg soil) of SAB contamination than total respiration (IC20, 220 mg fuel/kg soil). However, total soil respiration was a more responsive measurement end point, increasing soil respiration over a 72-h period by 17 mg of CO2, compared to a change of only 2.1 mg of CO2 for carbohydrate utilization. Our results indicate that IC20s varied between 16 to 950 mg fuel/kg soil for Macquarie Island soil spiked with SAB diesel fuel. These results indicate that current cleanup levels derived from temperate zones may be too liberal for soil contamination in sub-Antarctic islands.

  1. Quantitative analysis of fuel-related hydrocarbons in surface water and wastewater samples by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, J J; Hawthorne, S B; Miller, D J

    1996-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) parameters were examined on water contaminated with hydrocarbons including benzene and alkylbenzenes, n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Absorption equilibration times ranged from several minutes for low molecular weight compounds such as benzene to 5 h for high molecular weight compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene. Under equilibrium conditions, SPME analysis with GC/FID was linear over 3-6 orders of magnitude, with linear correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.96. Experimentally determined FID detection limits ranged from ∼30 ppt (w/w hydrocarbon/sample water) for high molecular weight PAHs (e.g., MW > 202) to ∼1 ppb for low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons. Experimental distribution constants (K) were different with 100- and 7-μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, and poor correlations with previously published values suggest that K depends on the fiber coating thickness and the sorbent preparation method. The sensitivity of SPME analysis is not significantly enhanced by larger sample volumes, since increasing the water volume (e.g., from 1 to 100 mL) has little effect on the number of analyte molecules absorbed by the fiber, especially for compounds with K solids. Quantitative determinations of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g., in gasoline-contaminated water) can be performed using GC/MS with deuterated internal standard or standard addition calibration as long as the target components or standards had unique ions for quantitation or sufficient chromatographic resolution from interferences. SPME analysis gave good quantitative performance with surface waters having high suspended sediment contents, as well as with coal gasification wastewater which contained matrix organics at 10(6)-fold higher concentrations than the target aromatic hydrocarbons. Good agreement was obtained between a 45-min SPME and methylene chloride extraction for the determination of PAH concentrations in creosote

  2. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  3. Impacts of a fuel oil spill on seagrass meadows in a subtropical port, Gladstone, Australia--the value of long-term marine habitat monitoring in high risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Helen A; Rasheed, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    We used an established seagrass monitoring programme to examine the short and longer-term impacts of an oil spill event on intertidal seagrass meadows. Results for potentially impacted seagrass areas were compared with existing monitoring data and with control seagrass meadows located outside of the oil spill area. Seagrass meadows were not significantly affected by the oil spill. Declines in seagrass biomass and area 1month post-spill were consistent between control and impact meadows. Eight months post-spill, seagrass density and area increased to be within historical ranges. The declines in seagrass meadows were likely attributable to natural seasonal variation and a combination of climatic and anthropogenic impacts. The lack of impact from the oil spill was due to several mitigating factors rather than a lack of toxic effects to seagrasses. The study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring of critical habitats in high risk areas to effectively assess impacts.

  4. AFSC/ABL: Exxon Valdez Trustee Hydrocarbon Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This hydrocarbon database was initiated after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The first version was as an RBase database, PWSOIL(Short, Heintz et al. 1996). It...

  5. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to ... spills is enhanced by the 'continuous' input of nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) components. ... The net result is the increased recovery potential of this estuarine ...

  6. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Vapors in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current state of practice to estimate the risk from intrusion of vapors of petroleum hydrocarbons from spills of gasoline is to measure the concentration of the chemical of concern in ground water under the spill, use Henry’s Law to estimate a concentration of the chemical ...

  7. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.

  8. Effects of an oil spill on benthic community production and respiration on subtropical intertidal sandflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Hua; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2013-08-15

    This study determined effects of an oil spill on subtropical benthic community production and respiration by monitoring CO2 fluxes in benthic chambers on intertidal sandflats during emersion before and after an accidental spill. The oil spill decreased sediment chlorophyll a concentrations, altered benthic macrofaunal community, and affected ecological functioning by suppressing or even stopping microalgal production, increasing bacterial respiration, and causing a shift from an autotrophic system to a heterotrophic system. Effects of the oil spill on the macrofauna were more severe than on benthic microalgae, and affected sedentary infauna more than motile epifauna. Despite the oil spill's impact on the benthic community and carbon metabolism, the affected area appeared to return to normal in about 23 days. Our results suggest that the prompt response of benthic metabolism to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons can serve as a useful indicator of the impact of an oil spill.

  9. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  10. Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, W.M.; Dhaliwal, J.S.; Perera, S.K.; Baumann, F.J. [California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No. 2 diesel fuel and motor oil are C{sub 10{minus}} C{sub 21} and C{sub 21}-C{sub 38}, respectively, and these ranges define TPHs in diesel fuel (TPH-D) and motor oil (TPH-M). By this convention, less than 6% of No. 2 diesel is characterized as TPH-M, and less than 9% of motor oil is quantitated as TPH-D. Inlet discrimination was observed when motor oil was injected with a splitless injector. Accurate motor oil quantitation with splitless sample introduction requires calibration with the product or triacontane, which has a similar response factor. Detector response to motor oil (and other petroleum products) and a homologous series of n-alkanes was nearly constant when on-column injection was used. Instrument detection limit for motor oil was about 0.5 {mu}g (splitless injection, total area under the curve), and the widest linear range (up to 100 {mu}g) was obtained by subtracting the solvent chromatogram. Procedures for isolation of motor oil from oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are described. Method detection limits for diesel fuel and motor oil in purified water were 0.041 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of biodiesel as bioremediation agent for the treatment of the shore affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido, J M; Grifoll, M; Feijoo, G; Lema, J M

    2007-08-25

    The efficiency of different bioremediation products (nutrients, microorganisms and biodiesel) was tested using tiles located in both the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach that was affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige. Neither nutrients nor microorganisms meant an improvement with respect to the natural processes. The addition of biodiesel improved the appearance of the treated tiles and apparently accelerated the degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the residual fuel oil. Nevertheless, PAHs degradation was similar and very high in all the treatments (80-85% after 60 days). On the other hand, the evolution with time of the amount of vanadium was similar to that of 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-hopane, so it was concluded that vanadium could also be used to estimate the extent of oil degradation in the field. These results also suggested that the residual fuel oil mineralization was very low throughout 1 year in all the treatments. Moreover, the increase of the oxygen content of the residual oil from around 1% till 4-8% indicated that the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons took place, and that the hydrocarbon oxidation products accumulated in the polar fractions. In general, the results pointed out that bioremediation techniques were not suitable for the recovery of shores affected by heavy oil spills.

  12. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  13. Oil Spills Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  14. Survey of cotton (Gossypium sp.) for non-polar, extractable hydrocarbons for use as petrochemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ontogenetic study of a commercial cotton cultivar (FiberMax 1320), grown dryland, revealed that the dry weight (DW) of leaves reached a maximum at the 1st flower stage, and then declined as bolls opened. However, % pentane soluble hydrocarbon (HC) yield continued to increase throughout the growi...

  15. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  16. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  17. Simultaneous NOx and hydrocarbon emissions control for lean-burn engines using low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell at open circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ta-Jen; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Ying

    2012-02-21

    The high fuel efficiency of lean-burn engines is associated with high temperature and excess oxygen during combustion and thus is associated with high-concentration NO(x) emission. This work reveals that very high concentration of NO(x) in the exhaust can be reduced and hydrocarbons (HCs) can be simultaneously oxidized using a low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). An SOFC unit is constructed with Ni-YSZ as the anode, YSZ as the electrolyte, and La(0.6)Sr(0.4)CoO(3) (LSC)-Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) as the cathode, with or without adding vanadium to LSC. SOFC operation at 450 °C and open circuit can effectively treat NO(x) over the cathode at a very high concentration in the simulated exhaust. Higher NO(x) concentration up to 5000 ppm can result in a larger NO(x) to N(2) rate. Moreover, a higher oxygen concentration promotes NO conversion. Complete oxidation of HCs can be achieved by adding silver to the LSC current collecting layer. The SOFC-based emissions control system can treat NO(x) and HCs simultaneously, and can be operated without consuming the anode fuel (a reductant) at near the engine exhaust temperature to eliminate the need for reductant refilling and extra heating.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-12-16

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source and stove design affects exposure. Indoor and personal PAH exposure resulting from solid fuel combustion in Xuanwei and Fuyuan was investigated using repeated 24 h particle bound and gas-phase PAH measurements, which were collected from 163 female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan. 549 particle bound (283 indoor and 266 personal) and 193 gas phase (all personal) PAH measurements were collected. Mixed effect models indicated that PAH exposure was up to 6 times higher when burning smoky coal than smokeless coal and varied by up to a factor of 3 between different smoky coal geographic sources. PAH measurements from unventilated firepits were up to 5 times that of ventilated stoves. Exposure also varied between different room sizes and season of measurement. These findings indicate that PAH exposure is modulated by a variety of factors, including fuel type, coal source, and stove design. These findings may provide valuable insight into potential causes of lung cancer in the area.

  19. Study of the aromatic hydrocarbons poisoning of platinum cathodes on proton exchange membrane fuel cell spatial performance using a segmented cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; St-Pierre, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are produced and used in many industrial processes, which makes them hazardous air pollutants. Currently, air is the most convenient oxidant for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), and air quality is an important consideration because airborne contaminants can negatively affect fuel cell performance. The effects of exposing the cathode of PEMFCs to benzene and naphthalene were investigated using a segmented cell system. The introduction of 2 ppm C6H6 resulted in moderate performance loss of 40-45 mV at 0.2 A cm-2 and 100-110 mV at 1.0 A cm-2 due to benzene adsorption on Pt and its subsequent electrooxidation to CO2 under operating conditions and cell voltages of 0.5-0.8 V. In contrast, PEMFC poisoning by ∼2 ppm of naphthalene led to a decrease in cell performance from 0.66 to 0.13 V at 1.0 A cm-2, which was caused by the strong adsorption of C10H8 onto Pt at cell voltages of 0.2-1.0 V. Naphthalene desorption and hydrogenation only occurred at potentials below 0.2 V. The PEMFCs' performance loss due to each contaminant was recoverable, and the obtained results demonstrated that the fuel cells' exposure to benzene and naphthalene should be limited to concentrations less than 2 ppm.

  20. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  1. Maersk navigator oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  2. @iMaersk navigator@@ oil spill in the great channel (Andaman Sea) in January 1993 and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Shailaja, M.S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Observations on oil slicks, tar residues and dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPH) shortly after the oil spill resulting from the tanker accident in January 1993 showed negligible impact on the Indian EEZ of the Great Channel (Andaman Sea). DPH...

  3. Coral communities as indicators of ecosystem-level impacts of the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Cordes, Erik E.; Baums, Iliana B.; White, Helen K.; Bourque, Jill R.

    2014-01-01

    The Macondo oil spill released massive quantities of oil and gas from a depth of 1500 meters. Although a buoyant plume carried released hydrocarbons to the sea surface, as much as half stayed in the water column and much of that in the deep sea. After the hydrocarbons reached the surface, weathering processes, burning, and the use of a dispersant caused hydrocarbon-rich marine snow to sink into the deep sea. As a result, this spill had a greater potential to affect deep-sea communities than had any previous spill. Here, we review the literature on impacts on deep-sea communities from the Macondo blowout and provide additional data on sediment hydrocarbon loads and the impacts on sediment infauna in areas with coral communities around the Macondo well. We review the literature on the genetic connectivity of deep-sea species in the Gulf of Mexico and discuss the potential for wider effects on deep Gulf coral communities.

  4. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Sahir, A.; Tan, E.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Meyer, P.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructurecompatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis.

  6. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderately sensitive Kandeler et al. (1994) Batteries? of bioindicators Microbial bioluminescence, earthwormand seed germination Creosote, heavy, medium and light crude oils. Moderately sensitive. Earthworm4seed germination4 bioluminescence 25?17; 400 mggC01.... However, microbial bioluminescence, microbial biomass/counts and soil respiration have been evaluated as potential tools for monitoring of hydrocarbons (Delistraty, 1984; Kandeler et al., 1994; Steinberg et al., 1995; Van Beelen and Doelman, 1997; Phillips...

  7. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  8. Soil- and groundwater-quality data for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, David A.; Rowe, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Ellsworth Air Force Base is an Air Combat Command located approximately 10 miles northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota. Ellsworth Air Force Base occupies about 6,000 acres within Meade and Pennington Counties, and includes runways, airfield operations, industrial areas, housing, and recreational facilities. Fuels Area C within Ellsworth Air Force Base is a fuels storage area that is used to support the mission of the base. In fall of 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, Ellsworth Air Force Base, to estimate groundwater-flow direction, select locations for permanent monitoring wells, and install and sample monitoring wells for petroleum hydrocarbon compounds within Fuels Area C. Nine monitoring wells were installed for the study within Fuels Area C during November 4–7, 2014. Soil core samples were collected during installation of eight of the monitoring wells and analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene,m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. Groundwater samples were collected from seven of the nine wells (two of the monitoring wells did not contain enough water to sample or were dry) during November 19–21, 2014, and analyzed for select physical properties, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, naphthalene, m- and p-xylene, o-xylene, and gasoline- and diesel-range organic compounds. This report describes the nine monitoring well locations and presents the soil- and groundwater-quality data collected in 2014 for this study.

  9. The effects of oxygen on the yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during the pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation of catechol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiju Thomas; Mary J. Wornat [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    To better understand the effects of oxygen on the formation and destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the burning of complex solid fuels, we have performed pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation experiments in an isothermal laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in coal, wood, and biomass. The catechol pyrolysis experiments are conducted at a fixed residence time of 0.3 s, at nine temperatures spanning the range of 500-1000{sup o}C, and under varying oxygen ratios ranging from 0 (pure pyrolysis) to 0.92 (near stoichiometric oxidation). The PAH products, ranging in size from two to nine fused aromatic rings, have been analyzed by gas chromatography with flame-ionization and mass spectrometric detection, and by high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible absorbance detection. The quantified PAH products fall into six structural classes. A comparison of product yields from pyrolysis and fuel-rich oxidation of catechol reveals that at temperatures {lt}800{sup o}C, where only two-ring PAH are produced in significant quantities, increases in oxygen concentration bring about increases in yields of the two-ring aromatics indene and naphthalene. At temperatures {gt}800{sup o}C, increases in oxygen concentration bring about dramatic decreases in the yields of all PAH products, due to oxidative destruction reactions. The smaller-ring-number PAH are produced in higher abundance under all conditions studied, and the oxygen-induced decreases in the yields of PAH are increasingly more pronounced as the PAH ring number is increased. These observations fully support our finding from catechol pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen: that PAH formation and growth occur by successive ring-buildup reactions involving the C1-C5 and single-ring aromatic products of catechol's thermal decomposition. 51 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a model fuel representative of entities in tobacco, coal, and lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wornat, M.J.; Ledesma, E.B.; Marsh, N.D. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2001-10-09

    In order to better understand the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from complex fuels, we have performed pyrolysis experiments in a laminar-flow reactor, using the model fuel catechol (Ortho-dihydroxybenzene), a phenol-type compound representative of structural entities in tobacco, coal and wood. Employing high pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array ultraviolet-visible (UV) detection, we have unequivocally identified 59 individual species among the condensed-phase products of catechol pyrolysis at a temperature of 1000{degree}C and a residence time of 0.4 s. Also identified are two oxygen-containing compounds that are produced only at pyrolysis temperatures lower than 900{degree}C. Of the total 61 species, fifty have never before been identified as pyrolysis products of any pure phenol type compound. Two of the catechol pyrolysis products, 5-ethynylacenaphthylene and 3-ethynylphenanthrene, have never before been identified as products of any fuel. Ranging in size from one to eight fused aromatic rings, the catechol pyrolysis products comprise several compound classes: bi-aryls, indene benzologues, benzenoid PAH, alkylated aromatics, fluoranthene benzologues, cyclopenta-fused PAH, ethynyl-substituted aromatics, polyacetylenes, and oxygen-containing aromatics. The catechol pyrolysis products bear remarkable compositional similarity to the products of bituminous coal volatiles pyrolyzed at the same temperature - demonstrating the relevance of these catechol model compound experiments to the study of complex fuels such as coal, wood and tobacco. The UV spectra, establishing compound identity, are presented for several of the identified catechol product components. 70 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  12. Comparison of Practical Investigations for CO Emissions Emitted From Single Cylinder S. I. Engine Fueled With Different Kinds of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ibrahim Abaas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, Natural gas (NG and hydrogen were all used to operate spark ignition internal combustion engine Ricardo E6. A comparison of CO emissions emitted from each case, with emissions emitted from engine fueled with gasoline as a fuel is conducted.The study was accomplished when engine operated at HUCR for gasoline n(8:1, was compared with its operation at HUCR for each fuel. Compression ratio, equivalence ratio and spark timing were studied at constant speed 1500 rpm.CO concentrations were little at lean ratios; it appeared to be effected a little with equivalence ratio in this side, at rich side its values became higher, and it appeared to be effected by equivalence ratio highly, the results showed that CO emissions resulted from gasoline engine were higher than that resulted from using LPG and NG all the time; while hydrogen engine emitted extremely low CO concentrations.

  13. Lethal and behavioural impacts of diesel and fuel oil on the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-03-03

    Toxicity testing with Antarctic species is required for risk assessment of fuel spills in Antarctic coastal waters. The lethal and sub-lethal (movement behaviour) sensitivity of adults and juveniles of the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri to the water accommodated fractions (WAF) of three fuels were estimated in extended duration tests at -1°C to 21 d. Response of P. walkeri for lethal hydrocarbon concentrations was slow, with LC50s first able to be estimated at 7 d for adults exposed to Special Antarctic Blend diesel (SAB), which had the highest hydrocarbon concentrations of the three fuel WAFs. Juveniles showed greater response to marine gas oil (MGO) and intermediate residual fuel oil (IFO 180) at longer exposure durations and were most sensitive at 21 d to IFO 180 (LC50 = 12 µg/L). Adults were initially more sensitive than juveniles; however, at 21 d juveniles were more than twice as sensitive as adults to SAB (LC50 = 153 µg/L and 377 µg/L respectively). Significant effects on movement behaviour were evident at earlier time points and lower concentrations than was mortality in all three fuel WAFs, and juveniles were highly sensitive to sub-lethal effects of MGO. These first estimates of Antarctic amphipod sensitivity to diesel and fuel oils in seawater contribute to development of ecologically relevant water quality guidelines for management of hydrocarbon contamination in the region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhamnolipids enhance marine oil spill bioremediation in laboratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingguo; Bao, Mutai; Fan, Xiaoning; Liang, Shengkang; Sun, Peiyan

    2013-06-15

    This paper presents a simulated marine oil spill bioremediation experiment using a bacterial consortium amended with rhamnolipids. The role of rhamnolipids in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation was evaluated via GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Rhamnolipids enhanced total oil biodegradation efficiency by 5.63%, with variation in normal alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomakers biodegradation. The hydrocarbons biodegradation by bacteria consortium overall follows a decreasing order of PAHs>n-alkanes>biomarkers, while in different order of PAHs>biomarkers>n-alkanes when rhamnolipids was used, and the improvement in the removal efficiency by rhamnolipids follows another order of biomarkers>n-alkanes>PAHs. Rhamnolipids played a negative role in degradation of those hydrocarbons with relatively volatile property, such as n-alkanes with short chains, PAHs and sesquiterpenes with simple structure. As to the long chain normal alkanes and PAHs and biomakers with complex structure, the biosurfactant played a positive role in these hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  15. Microbial community analysis of a coastal salt marsh affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Beazley

    Full Text Available Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05 once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems.

  16. N-acetylglucosamine-based efficient, phase-selective organogelators for oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Shang, Congdi; Chen, Xiangli; Chang, Xingmao; Liu, Kaiqiang; Yu, Chunmeng; Fang, Yu

    2014-11-21

    Two simple, eco-friendly and efficient phase-selective gelators were developed for instant (oil (either commercial fuels or pure organic liquids) from an oil-water mixture at room temperature to combat marine oil spills.

  17. Probabilistic spill occurrence simulation for chemical spills management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weihua; Li, James; Joksimovic, Darko; Yuan, Arnold; Banting, Doug

    2013-11-15

    Inland chemical spills pose a great threat to water quality in worldwide area. A sophisticated probabilistic spill-event model that characterizes temporal and spatial randomness and quantifies statistical uncertainty due to limited spill data is a major component in spill management and associated decision making. This paper presents a MATLAB-based Monte Carlo simulation (MMCS) model for simulating the probabilistic quantifiable occurrences of inland chemical spills by time, magnitude, and location based on North America Industry Classification System codes. The model's aleatory and epistemic uncertainties were quantified through integrated bootstrap resampling technique. Benzene spills in the St. Clair River area of concern were used as a case to demonstrate the model by simulating spill occurrences, occurrence time, and mass expected for a 10-year period. Uncertainty analysis indicates that simulated spill characteristics can be described by lognormal distributions with positive skewness. The simulated spill time series will enable a quantitative risk analysis for water quality impairments due to the spills. The MMCS model can also help governments to evaluate their priority list of spilled chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of a Step-by-Step Fingerprinting Identification Method on a Spilled Oil Accident in the Bohai Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; GAO Zhenhui; CAO Lixin; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; ZHAO Yuhui; LI Guangmei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as szl) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as kyl) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as msl) collected from the port was significantly different from oil kyl and oil szl and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  19. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  20. Fertilization stimulates anaerobic fuel degradation of antarctic soils by denitrifying microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shane M; Ferguson, Susan H; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2006-03-15

    Human activities in the Antarctic have resulted in hydrocarbon contamination of these fragile polar soils. Bioremediation is one of the options for remediation of these sites. However, little is known about anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in polar soils and the influence of bioremediation practices on these processes. Using a field trial at Old Casey Station, Antarctica, we assessed the influence of fertilization on the anaerobic degradation of a 20-year old fuel spill. Fertilization increased hydrocarbon degradation in both anaerobic and aerobic soils when compared to controls, but was of most benefit for anaerobic soils where evaporation was negligible. This increased biodegradation in the anaerobic soils corresponded with a shift in the denitrifier community composition and an increased abundance of denitrifiers and benzoyl-CoA reductase. A microcosm study using toluene and hexadecane confirmed the degradative capacity within these soils under anaerobic conditions. It was observed that fertilized anaerobic soil degraded more of this hydrocarbon spike when incubated anaerobically than when incubated aerobically. We conclude that denitrifiers are actively involved in hydrocarbon degradation in Antarctic soils and that fertilization is an effective means of stimulating their activity. Further, when communities stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions are exposed to oxygen, hydrocarbon degradation is suppressed. The commonly accepted belief that remediation of polar soils requires aeration needs to be reevaluated in light of this new data.

  1. Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants in subantarctic soils: an effective management option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley-Alves, Jessica; Wasley, Jane; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane; Robinson, Sharon A

    2014-09-01

    Accidental fuel spills on world heritage subantarctic Macquarie Island have caused considerable contamination. Due to the island's high latitude position, its climate, and its fragile ecosystem, traditional methods of remediation are unsuitable for on-site clean up. We investigated the tolerance of a subantarctic native tussock grass, Poa foliosa (Hook. f.), to Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel fuel and its potential to reduce SAB fuel contamination via phytoremediation. Toxicity of SAB fuel to P. foliosa was assessed in an 8 month laboratory growth trial under growth conditions which simulated the island's environment. Single seedlings were planted into 1 L pots of soil spiked with SAB fuel at concentrations of 1000, 5 000, 10,000, 2000 and 40,000 mg/kg (plus control). Plants were harvested at 0, 2, 4 and 8 months and a range of plant productivity endpoints were measured (biomass production, plant morphology and photosynthetic efficiency). Poa foliosa was highly tolerant across all SAB fuel concentrations tested with respect to biomass, although higher concentrations of 20,000 and 40,000 mg SAB/kg soil caused slight reductions in leaf length, width and area. To assess the phytoremediation potential of P. foliosa (to 10 000 mg/kg), soil from the planted pots was compared with that from paired unplanted pots at each SAB fuel concentration. The effect of the plant on SAB fuel concentrations and the associated microbial communities found within the soil (total heterotrophs and hydrocarbon degraders) were compared between planted and unplanted treatments at the 0, 2, 4 and 8 month harvest periods. The presence of plants resulted in significantly less SAB fuel in soils at 2 months and a return to background concentration by 8 months. Microbes did not appear to be the sole driving force behind the observed hydrocarbon loss. This study provides evidence that phytoremediation using P. foliosa is a valuable remediation option for use at Macquarie Island, and may be

  2. Highly efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels by Cu-nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chang-Hui; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Jan-Kai; Wu, Chih-I; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-11-12

    The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (∼4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.

  3. Hindcast oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Following the expansion of the exploration and exploitation of the hydrocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin during the last 5 years, oil spill simulations for 20 existing offshore platforms/wells were carried out based on new and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The oil spill simulations were carried out using the well known MEDSLIK oil spill model, with the use of high temporal and spatial resolution data for 3D sea currents, winds and waves, provided by the CYCOFOS forecasting system, downscaled from the Copernicus Marine environment monitoring service (CMEMS). The hindcast oil spill simulations from the 20 potential oil spill sources have been prepared for a period of four years, presenting the movement of the spills and the area affected, the fate parameters, the first impact on the coast and the extend of the affected coastline from each location every week. The modeled oil spills took into account the oil spill scenario following the REMPEC MEDEXPOL 2013 experiment. Moreover, a qualitative analysis of the seabed morphology has been applied to examine the direction of the oil slick expansion, shown that the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. The oil spill simulations from the existing offshore wells/platforms, show a clear trend for east and northeast movement of the oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin, with the first impact at the coast in a time interval between 1 to 20 days after the first oil spilled at sea, depending on the location of the platforms/wells and of the intensity and direction of the meteo-ocean data.

  4. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices.

  5. Air quality implications of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, Ann M; Murphy, Daniel M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Atlas, Elliot L; Bahreini, Roya; Blake, Donald R; Brioude, Jerome; de Gouw, Joost A; Fehsenfeld, Fred C; Frost, Gregory J; Holloway, John S; Lack, Daniel A; Langridge, Justin M; Lueb, Rich A; McKeen, Stuart A; Meagher, James F; Meinardi, Simone; Neuman, J Andrew; Nowak, John B; Parrish, David D; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne E; Pollack, Ilana B; Roberts, James M; Ryerson, Thomas B; Schwarz, Joshua P; Spackman, J Ryan; Warneke, Carsten; Ravishankara, A R

    2012-12-11

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a wide range of gas and aerosol species were measured from an aircraft around, downwind, and away from the DWH site. Additional hydrocarbon measurements were made from ships in the vicinity. Aerosol particles of respirable sizes were on occasions a significant air quality issue for populated areas along the Gulf Coast. Yields of organic aerosol particles and emission factors for other atmospheric pollutants were derived for the sources from the spill, recovery, and cleanup efforts. Evaporation and subsequent secondary chemistry produced organic particulate matter with a mass yield of 8 ± 4% of the oil mixture reaching the water surface. Approximately 4% by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as soot particles. These yields can be used to estimate the effects on air quality for similar events as well as for this spill at other times without these data. Whereas emission of soot from burning surface oil was large during the episodic burns, the mass flux of secondary organic aerosol to the atmosphere was substantially larger overall. We use a regional air quality model to show that some observed enhancements in organic aerosol concentration along the Gulf Coast were likely due to the DWH spill. In the presence of evaporating hydrocarbons from the oil, NO(x) emissions from the recovery and cleanup operations produced ozone.

  6. Rapid method for hydrocarbon-type analysis of heavy oils and synthetic fuels by pyrolysis thin layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.A.; George, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This work describes a rapid method for hydrocargon-type analysis applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) to the pentane-soluble fraction *malthenes) of the petroleum and synthetic fuels boiling above 200/sup 0/C. The principal component types encountered in this paper are saturates (SA), aromatics (AR), (mono and di together) polynuclear aromatics (PNA) and polar material (PO). The method uses a Iatroscan TLC pyrolyzer which combines the resolution capabilities of TLC with the possibility of quantification by using a flame-ionization detector (FID). Comparison of the results with those obtained by the API-60 procedure is presented.

  7. Enhanced bioremediation of oil spills in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Eliora Z; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are ubiquitous in the sea, including hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria that utilize hydrocarbons almost exclusively as carbon and energy sources. However, the rates at which they naturally degrade petroleum following an oil spill appear to be too slow to prevent oil from reaching the shore and causing environmental damage, as has been documented in the Exxon Valdez and Gulf of Mexico disasters. Unfortunately, there is, at present, no experimentally demonstrated methodology for accelerating the degradation of hydrocarbons in the sea. The rate-limiting factor for petroleum degradation in the sea is availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. Oleophilic fertilizers, such as Inipol EAP 22 and urea-formaldehyde polymers, have stimulated hydrocarbon degradation on shorelines but are less effective in open systems. We suggest uric acid as a potentially useful fertilizer enhancing bioremediation at sea.

  8. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barenboim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  9. LDRD final report on "fundamentals of synthetic conversion of CO2 to simple hydrocarbon fuels" (LDRD 113486).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kemp, Richard Alan; Mavrikakis, Manos (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Miller, James Edward; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2009-11-01

    Energy production is inextricably linked to national security and poses the danger of altering the environment in potentially catastrophic ways. There is no greater problem than sustainable energy production. Our purpose was to attack this problem by examining processes, technology, and science needed for recycling CO{sub 2} back into transportation fuels. This approach can be thought of as 'bio-inspired' as nature employs the same basic inputs, CO{sub 2}/energy/water, to produce biomass. We addressed two key deficiencies apparent in current efforts. First, a detailed process analysis comparing the potential for chemical and conventional engineering methods to provide a route for the conversion of CO{sub 2} and water to fuel has been completed. No apparent 'showstoppers' are apparent in the synthetic route. Opportunities to improve current processes have also been identified and examined. Second, we have also specifically addressed the fundamental science of the direct production of methanol from CO{sub 2} using H{sub 2} as a reductant.

  10. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  11. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  13. Solution-chemical route to generalized synthesis of metal germanate nanowires with room-temperature, light-driven hydrogenation activity of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-01-06

    A facile solution-chemical route was developed for the generalized preparation of a family of highly uniform metal germanate nanowires on a large scale. This route is based on the use of hydrazine monohydrate/H2O as a mixed solvent under solvothermal conditions. Hydrazine has multiple effects on the generation of the nanowires: as an alkali solvent, a coordination agent, and crystal anisotropic growth director. Different-percentage cobalt-doped Cd2Ge2O6 nanowires were also successfully obtained through the addition of Co(OAc)2·4H2O to the initial reaction mixture for future investigation of the magnetic properties of these nanowires. The considerably negative conduction band level of the Cd2Ge2O6 nanowire offers a high driving force for photogenerated electron transfer to CO2 under UV-vis illumination, which facilitates CO2 photocatalytic reduction to a renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor at room temperature.

  14. New Insights into Benzene Hydrocarbon Decomposition from Fuel Exhaust Using Self-Support Ray Polarization Plasma with Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new insight into self-support ray polarization (SSRP of nonthermal plasma for benzene hydrocarbon decomposition in fuel exhaust was put forward. A wire-tube dielectric barrier discharge (DBD AC plasma reactor was used at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The catalyst was made of nano-TiO2 and ceramic raschig rings. Nano-TiO2 was prepared as an active component by ourselves in the laboratory. Ceramic raschig rings were selected for catalyst support materials. Then, the catalyst was packed into nonthermal plasma (NTP reactor. Six aspects, benzene initial concentration, gas flux, electric field strength, removal efficiency, ozone output, and CO2 selectivity on benzene removal efficiency, were investigated. The results showed SSRP can effectively enhance benzene removal efficiency. The removal efficiency of benzene was up to 99% at electric field strength of 12 kV/cm. At the same time, SSRP decreases ozone yield and shows a better selectivity of CO2 than the single technology of nonthermal plasma. The final products were mostly CO, CO2, and H2O. Our research will lay the foundation for SSRP industrial application in the future.

  15. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-07

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses.

  16. Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturve, Joachim; Balk, Lennart; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Förlin, Lars; Carney Almroth, Bethanie

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  17. Microbial transformation of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill – past, present, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole E. Kimes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon blowout, which occurred on April 20, 2010, resulted in an unprecedented oil spill. Despite a complex effort to cap the well, oil and gas spewed from the site until July 15, 2010. Although a large proportion of the hydrocarbons was depleted via natural processes and human intervention, a substantial portion of the oil remained unaccounted for and impacted multiple ecosystems throughout the Gulf of Mexico. The depth, duration and magnitude of this spill were unique, raising many questions and concerns regarding the fate of the hydrocarbons released. One major question was whether or not microbial communities would be capable of metabolizing the hydrocarbons, and if so, by what mechanisms and to what extent? In this review, we summarize the microbial response to the oil spill as described by studies performed during the past four years, providing an overview of the different responses associated with the water column, surface waters, deep-sea sediments, and coastal sands/sediments. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that the microbial response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was rapid and robust, displaying common attenuation mechanisms optimized for low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the lack of evidence for the attenuation of more recalcitrant hydrocarbon components suggests that future work should focus on both the environmental impact and metabolic fate of recalcitrant compounds, such as oxygenated oil components.

  18. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of a highly urbanized river system with special reference to energy consumption patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K.; Wang, J.Z.; Liang, B.; Zeng, E.Y. [Chinese Academy Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-06-15

    Sediment samples collected from downstream of the Dongjiang River, a highly urbanized river network within the Pearl River Delta of South China, were analyzed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of 28 PAHs, 16 priority PAHs designated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the seven carcinogenic PAHs classified by the USEPA ranged from 480 to 4600, 100 to 3400 and 10 to 1700 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Principal component analysis-based stepwise multivariate linear regression showed that sediment PAHs were predominantly derived from coal combustion, refined fossil fuel combustion and oil spills, accounting for 37%, 32% and 23%, respectively, of the total loading. The levels of sediment PAHs remained steady from 2002 to 2008, during which fossil fuel consumption had doubled, probably reflecting efforts to control PAH emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Finally, use of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in automobiles should be encouraged to improve environmental quality.

  19. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LEGACY OF THE IXTOC-I OIL SPILL IN CAMPECHE SOUND, SOUTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Gulf of Mexico constitutes an important subsystem within a Large Marine Ecosystem. Due to its high biodiversity, living resources and energy resources, this region is strategic in the national plans for social and economic development of Mexico. The discovery of fossil fuel reserves in the seabed of Campeche Sound in the 1970s promoted the rapid expansion of the national oil industry in offshore waters. Unfortunately, the accidental blowout of the most productive well (Ixtoc-I in June of 1979, caused the first–world massive oil spill in a tropical marine environment. More than 3.4 million of barrels of crude oil were liberated in an ecosystem formerly renowned for its pristine conditions. In the aftermath of this dreadful accident, an immediate concern emerged not only for the oil acute effects but also for the long-term environmental consequences derived from the residual hydrocarbon compounds accumulated in coastal environments of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The attempts to assess the magnitude of the environmental damage were strongly precluded by the lack of pre-spill information. Natural variability in the ecosystem and oil weathering-factors contributed to attenuate the acute pollution effects that lasted nine months. However, the post-spill environmental alterations caused by the Ixtoc-I blowout still remain unanswered. The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the deep-waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, in 2010 rekindled our concern for the great risk involved for human lives and the health of shallow and deep sea habitats. The authors of this contribution offer their views on this environmental riddle from their own perspective as direct witnesses of the Ixtoc-I environmental tragedy.

  20. Systèmes de surveillance et de contrôle des rejets d'hydrocarbures. Oléomètres Systems of Monitoring and Controlling Hydrocarbon Spills. Oleometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigues F.

    2006-11-01

    hydrocarbons in water discharged into the sea must necessarily be suitably adapted to the goal aimed at. The specifications for such equipmemt include ten main features 1 Measuring range :Oto 100 ppm of hydrocarbons(possibilityofgoingto 1,000 ppm; 2 Measurement frequency : continous sampling and analysis equipment; 3 Hydrocarbon quality : at present, heavy hydrocarbons, and future adaptability to refined products; 4 Respect for analysis specifications : physical measurement falling outside of specifications on account of the importance of making fast measurements; 5 Automatic, constant-sampling device : response time less than 40 seconds; 6 Respect for « intrinsec safety » conditions : 7 Equipment using no auxiliary solvent(to respect response time : 8 Measurement accuracy : ± 10 % of the entire measurement range; 9 Maintenance : reduced it is atmost simplicity; 10 Possibility of connecting a « black box » for making a posteriori checks. The article describes various types of equipment that have hod some degree of populority or that have enabled progress to be made in detecting the hydrocarbons contained in tanker deballasting water. The Ultra-Rapid Response Detector (DRUR is examined in particular detail because it meets the ten conditions listed above. The laboratory results obtained in control loops have now been confirmed by those obtained with tankers in service. The availability of such equipment should apparently create the conditionsr equired for enforcing the 1973 London Agreement and for making a significant contribution to the preservation of the marine environment while enabling maritime trade to continue to expand.

  1. Bioremediation of severely weathered hydrocarbons: is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J. R.; Villa, R.; Sierra, C.; Sotres, A.; Pelaez, A. I.; Sanchez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Weathering processes of spilled hydrocarbons promote a reduced biodegradability of petroleum compounds mixtures, and consequently bioremediation techniques are often ruled out within the selection of suitable remediation approaches. This is truly relevant wherever old spills at abandoned industrial sites have to be remediated. However it is well known most of the remaining fractions and individual compounds of weathered oil are still biodegradable, although at slow rates than alkanes or no and two-ring aromatics. (Author)

  2. 40 CFR 86.1221-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1221-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations. (a) Initial and...

  3. Bioremediating oil spills in nutrient poor ocean waters using fertilized clay mineral flakes: some experimental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Laurence N; Friese, André; Schwarz, Florian; Schauer, Frieder; Portier, Ralph J; Basirico, Laura M; Olson, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98%) of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  4. Bioremediating Oil Spills in Nutrient Poor Ocean Waters Using Fertilized Clay Mineral Flakes: Some Experimental Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence N. Warr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much oil spill research has focused on fertilizing hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria, but a primary limitation is the rapid dilution of additives in open waters. A new technique is presented for bioremediation by adding nutrient amendments to the oil spill using thin filmed minerals comprised largely of Fullers Earth clay. Together with adsorbed N and P fertilizers, filming additives, and organoclay, clay flakes can be engineered to float on seawater, attach to the oil, and slowly release contained nutrients. Our laboratory experiments of microbial activity on weathered source oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico show fertilized clay treatment significantly enhanced bacterial respiration and consumption of alkanes compared to untreated oil-in-water conditions and reacted faster than straight fertilization. Whereas a major portion (up to 98% of the alkane content was removed during the 1 month period of experimentation by fertilized clay flake interaction; the reduced concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons was not significantly different from the non-clay bearing samples. Such clay flake treatment could offer a way to more effectively apply the fertilizer to the spill in open nutrient poor waters and thus significantly reduce the extent and duration of marine oil spills, but this method is not expected to impact hydrocarbon toxicity.

  5. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Thermochemical Research Pathways with In Situ and Ex Situ Upgrading of Fast Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sahir, A. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Specifically, this report details two conceptual designs based on projected product yields and quality improvements via catalyst development and process integration. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. The two conversion pathways detailed are (1) in situ and (2) ex situ upgrading of vapors produced from the fast pyrolysis of biomass. While the base case conceptual designs and underlying assumptions outline performance metrics for feasibility, it should be noted that these are only two of many other possibilities in this area of research. Other promising process design options emerging from the research will be considered for future techno-economic analysis. Both the in situ and ex situ conceptual designs, using the underlying assumptions, project MFSPs of approximately $3.5/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE). The performance assumptions for the ex situ process were more aggressive with higher distillate (diesel-range) products. This was based on an assumption that more favorable reaction chemistry (such as coupling) can be made possible in a separate reactor where, unlike in an in situ upgrading reactor, one does not have to deal with catalyst mixing with biomass char and ash, which pose challenges to catalyst performance and maintenance. Natural gas was used for hydrogen production, but only when off gases from the process was not sufficient to meet the needs; natural gas consumption is insignificant in both the in situ and ex situ base cases. Heat produced from the burning of char, coke, and off-gases allows for the production of surplus electricity which is sold to the grid allowing a reduction of approximately 5¢/GGE in the MFSP.

  7. Bacterial and human cell mutagenicity study of some C[sub 18]H[sub 10] cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with fossil fuels combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, A.L.; Longwell, J.P.; Marr, J.A.; Monchamp, P.A.; Thilly, W.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Mulder, P.P.Y.; Boere, B.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Lugtenburg, J. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

    1993-06-01

    A number of isomeric C[sub 18]H[sub 10] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thought to be primarily cyclopenta-fused PAHs, are produced during the combustion and pyrolysis of fossil fuels. To determine the importance of their contributions to the total mutagenic activity of combustion and pyrolysis samples in which they are found, we characterized reference quantities of four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] CP-PAHs: benzol [ghi] fluoranthene (BF), cyclopenta [cd] pyrene (CPP), cyclopent [hi] acephenanthrylene (CPAP), and cyclopent [hi] acaenthrylene (CPAA). Synthesis of CPAA and CPAP is described. The availability of reference samples of these isomers also proved to be an essential aid in the identification of the C[sub 18]H[sub 10] species often found in combustion and pyrolysis samples. Chemical analysis of selected combustion and pyrolysis samples showed that CPP was generally the most abundant C[sub 18]H[sub 10] isomer, followed by CPAP and BF. CPAA was detected only in pyrolysis products from pure PAHs. We tested the four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] PAHs for mutagenicity in a forward mutation assay using S. typhimurium. CPP, BF, and CPAA were roughly twice as mutagenic as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), whereas CPAP was only slightly active. These PAHs were also tested for mutagenic activity in human cells. In this assay, CPP and CPAA were strongly mutagenic but less active than BaP, whereas CPAP and BF were inactive at the dose levels tested. Also, the bacterial and human cell mutagenicity of CPAA and CPAP were compared with the mutagenicity of their monocyclopenta-fused analogs, aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene. Although the mutagenicities of CPAP and acephenanthrylene are similar, the mutagenic activity of CPAA is an order of magnitude greater than that of aceanthrylene.

  8. HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves for the catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels: nano-ZSM-5 zeolites as the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yu; Jiao, Qingze; Li, Hansheng; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Sun, Kening

    2014-12-01

    A series of HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves (HZM-Ns ( x)) were prepared by employing nano-ZSM-5 zeolites with the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios ( x) of 50, 100 and 150 as the source. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels over the HZM-Ns with n-decane as model was evaluated at atmospheric pressure and 500 °C. The effect of the parent zeolite, mesopore and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure, acidity, and catalytic performance of HZM-Ns was investigated. The HZM-Ns exhibited a skeletal matrix with nano-sized HZSM-5 particles (200-300 nm) with a controllable acidity well dispersed in and microporous-mesoporous hierarchical pores. The mesoporous structure improved the diffusion of the reactants and products in the pores, and the HZSM-5 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the MCM-41 matrix supplied a proper acidity, shorter channels, and a higher specific surface area for reaction. These resulted in a high catalytic activity, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime for n-decane catalytic cracking. The HZM-N (150) exhibited the excellent conversion, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime due to low diffusion resistance, high specific surface area, and appropriate acid distribution and strength, with the increasing SiO2/Al2O3 ratio.

  9. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  10. Sand tank experiment of a large volume biodiesel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, K.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Although petroleum hydrocarbon releases in the subsurface have been well studied, the impacts of subsurface releases of highly degradable alternative fuels, including biodiesel, are not as well understood. One concern is the generation of CH4­ which may lead to explosive conditions in underground structures. In addition, the biodegradation of biodiesel consumes O2 that would otherwise be available for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons that may be present at a site. Until now, biodiesel biodegradation in the vadose zone has not been examined in detail, despite being critical to understanding the full impact of a release. This research involves a detailed study of a laboratory release of 80 L of biodiesel applied at surface into a large sandtank to examine the progress of biodegradation reactions. The experiment will monitor the onset and temporal evolution of CH4 generation to provide guidance for site monitoring needs following a biodiesel release to the subsurface. Three CO2 and CH4 flux chambers have been deployed for long term monitoring of gas emissions. CO2 fluxes have increased in all chambers over the 126 days since the start of the experiment. The highest CO2 effluxes are found directly above the spill and have increased from < 0.5 μmol m-2 s-1 to ~3.8 μmol m-2 s-1, indicating an increase in microbial activity. There were no measurable CH4 fluxes 126 days into the experiment. Sensors were emplaced to continuously measure O2, CO2, moisture content, matric potential, EC, and temperature. In response to the release, CO2 levels have increased across all sensors, from an average value of 0.1% to 0.6% 126 days after the start of the experiment, indicating the rapid onset of biodegradation. The highest CO2 values observed from samples taken in the gas ports were 2.5%. Average O2 concentrations have decreased from 21% to 17% 126 days after the start of the experiment. O2 levels in the bottom central region of the sandtank declined to approximately 12%.

  11. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  12. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  13. Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Warneke, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brioude, J.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Le Henaff, M.; Lueb, R. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Murphy, D. M.; Paris, C.; Parrish, D. D.; Perring, A. E.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Watts, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    A large fraction of atmospheric aerosols are derived from organic compounds with various volatilities. A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft made airborne measurements of the gaseous and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred from April to August 2010. A narrow plume of hydrocarbons was observed downwind of DWH that is attributed to the evaporation of fresh oil on the sea surface. A much wider plume with high concentrations of organic aerosol (>25 micrograms per cubic meter) was attributed to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around DWH. These observations provide direct and compelling evidence for the importance of formation of SOA from less volatile hydrocarbons.

  14. Challenges to Oil Spill Assessment for Seabirds in the Deep Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J Christopher; Jodice, Patrick G R; Montevecchi, William A; Evers, David C

    2017-07-01

    We synthesize impediments for evaluating effects to seabirds from open ocean hydrocarbon releases. Effects on seabirds from ship discharges, spills, and well blowouts often are poorly detected and monitored far from land. Regulatory regimes for ocean spills can result in monitoring efforts that are not entirely transparent. We illustrate how interdisciplinary technologies address deficits that hamper individual or population level assessments for seabirds, and we demonstrate where emerging technologies might be engaged to bridge gaps in oil spill monitoring. Although acute mortality from direct oil exposure poses the greatest risk to seabirds, other hazards from light-attraction, flaring, collisions, chronic pollution, and hydrocarbon inhalation around oil infrastructure also may induce bird mortality in the deep ocean.

  15. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahı´a las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  16. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  17. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  18. Air Quality Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Meinardi, S.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion led to a rupture of the wellhead underneath the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling platform. In addition to impacts on marine life and coasts, the resulting oil spill and cleanup operations also affected air quality. We measured a wide range of gas and aerosol species in the air close to and downwind of the DWH site. Among all of the measured species, the most important air quality concern for populations along the Gulf coast and inland was aerosols in respirable sizes. Since the measured gas-phase hydrocarbons were distributed in a fairly narrow plume evaporating from fresh surface oil and organic aerosol was measured in a much broader plume, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evidently formed from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around the site. Older surface oil near the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida had little effect on SOA formation. The SOA mass increased with distance downwind of the DWH site. Preliminary results indicate that at least a few percent by mass of the spilled oil is converted into SOA. From the flaring, surface recovery, and cleanup operations, initial calculations of emission ratios also indicate that a few percent by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as black carbon aerosols. These organic and black carbon aerosols from the DWH oil spill influence local visibility and radiation and have potential health effects. Furthermore, they likely occasionally reached populated areas at concentrations that were a significant fraction of air quality standards.

  19. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  20. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  1. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  2. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  3. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Scoma, Alberto; Michoud, Grégoire; Aulenta, Federico; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  5. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Ed L.

    1991-03-01

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated.

  6. Sustained deposition of contaminants from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Passow, Uta; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Asper, Vernon; Sweet, Julia; Pitiranggon, Masha; Diercks, Arne; Pak, Dorothy

    2016-06-14

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in 1.6-2.6 × 10(10) grams of petrocarbon accumulation on the seafloor. Data from a deep sediment trap, deployed 7.4 km SW of the well between August 2010 and October 2011, disclose that the sinking of spill-associated substances, mediated by marine particles, especially phytoplankton, continued at least 5 mo following the capping of the well. In August/September 2010, an exceptionally large diatom bloom sedimentation event coincided with elevated sinking rates of oil-derived hydrocarbons, black carbon, and two key components of drilling mud, barium and olefins. Barium remained in the water column for months and even entered pelagic food webs. Both saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source indicators corroborate a predominant contribution of crude oil to the sinking hydrocarbons. Cosedimentation with diatoms accumulated contaminants that were dispersed in the water column and transported them downward, where they were concentrated into the upper centimeters of the seafloor, potentially leading to sustained impact on benthic ecosystems.

  7. Effects of COREXIT EC9500A on bacterial communities influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, P. A.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are important to controlling the fate of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the marine environment and will be an important component to the natural attenuation of the Deepwater Horizon spill. The chemical dispersant COREXIT®EC9500A was widely deployed during the Deepwater Horizon response. Although toxicity tests confirm that COREXIT®EC9500A does not pose a significant threat to invertebrate and adult fish populations, there is limited information on its effect on microbial communities. Microbial community composition was determined in freshly deposited oil on a beach in Louisiana, resulting from the spill. Secondary heterotrophic production and viability in cultures obtained from oil samples was determined in the presence and absence of COREXIT®EC9500A . Vibrio isolates were abundant in length heterogeneity-PCR fingerprints of oil samples along with hydrocarbon-degrading isolates affiliated with Acinetobacter and Marinobacter. Significant reductions in Acinetobacter and Marinobacter production and viability in the presence of the dispersant compared to controls were observed. Marinobacter is most sensitive to the dispersant as evidenced by a near 100% reduction in viability and production as a result of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the dispersant. Significantly, at the same dispersant concentration, non-hydrocarbon-degrading Vibrio isolates proliferate. These data suggest that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are inhibited by this dispersants and that it’s use could potentially diminish the capacity of environmental microbial communities to bioremediate the spill.

  8. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No oil-induc

  9. Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of light crude oil on bacterial communities during an experimental oil spill in the North Sea and in mesocosms (simulating a heavy, enclosed oil spill), and to isolate and characterize hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from the water column. No

  10. Modulations in cell-mediated immunity of Mytilus edulis following the `Sea Empress` oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyrynda, E.A.; Dyrynda, P.E.J.; Ratcliffe, N.A. [University of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.; Graham, K.L. [MAFF Fisheries Lab., Burnham-on-Crouch (United Kingdom); Pipe, R.K. [Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    The `Sea Empress` oil tanker grounded outside Milford Haven (Wales, UK) in February 1996, spilling {approx} 70,000 tonnes of crude oil and contaminating over 100 km of coastline, causing mass mortalities and strandings of at least 11 mollusc species. Intensive field monitoring commenced after the spill, examining immunity and hydrocarbon levels in the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia), a commercially-harvested species which can accumulate contaminants. Comparisons of mussels from oiled and reference sites revealed significant modulations in cell-mediated immunity. Elevations in blood cell (haemocyte) numbers and decreases in superoxide generation and phagocytosis were identified in contaminated animals. The immune response of contaminated mussels gradually improved and generally showed no significant differences compared with clean mussels after 11 weeks. By then, total hydrocarbon content in contaminated mussels had declined by 70-90%, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content had decreased by over 90%. (author)

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  12. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary.

  13. Alternative Hydrocarbon Propulsion for Nano / Micro Launch Vehicle Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical innovation proposed here is the application of an alternative hydrocarbon fuel – densified propylene, in combination with liquid oxygen (LOX)...

  14. Microbial Responses to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: From Coastal Wetlands to the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico represents the largest marine accidental oil spill in history. It is distinguished from past spills in that it occurred at the greatest depth (1,500 m), the amount of hydrocarbon gas (mostly methane) lost was equivalent to the mass of crude oil released, and dispersants were used for the first time in the deep sea in an attempt to remediate the spill. The spill is also unique in that it has been characterized with an unprecedented level of resolution using next-generation sequencing technologies, especially for the ubiquitous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities that appeared largely to consume the gases and to degrade a significant fraction of the petroleum. Results have shown an unexpectedly rapid response of deep-sea Gammaproteobacteria to oil and gas and documented a distinct succession correlated with the control of the oil flow and well shut-in. Similar successional events, also involving Gammaproteobacteria, have been observed in nearshore systems as well.

  15. Microwave-assisted Pyrolysis of Swida wilsoniana Fruit Oil Soap for Preparing Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel via Selective Decarboxylation%微波裂解光皮树油皂化物脱羧制备烃类燃料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉环; 王允圃; 王应宽; 万益琴; 张锦胜; 阮榕生

    2012-01-01

    以光皮树果实油脂通过皂化反应获得的皂类为研究对象,利用微波裂解选择性加热优势开展皂类脱羧制备烃类燃料研究.通过气质联用等方法对裂解产物的分析表明,单纯钠皂微波裂解所得到液态产物一般都在皂类干质量的70%以上,裂解液态产物的密度为0.850~0.875 g/cm3,运动粘度为2.09 ~2.85 mm2/s,与柴油的性质基本相似.裂解液态产物中最高峰是十五碳烯,证实脱羧是皂类微波裂解的主要反应形式.%In order to prepare hydrocarbon fuel, sodium soap made from Swida wilsoniana fruit oil was chosen as a model compound with significant molecular polarity for preparing hydrocarbon fuel by microwave-assisted pyrolysis. The result showed that the hydrocarbon content were usually above 70% . In addition, its density and dynamic viscosity were 0. 850 ~ 0. 875 g/cm and 2. 09 ~ 2. 85 mm /s, respectively, similar with petroleum diesel. The highest peak in the GC - MS profile of liquid product was fifteen carbon alkenes, decarboxylation was proved to be main reaction in microwave-assisted pyrolysis.

  16. Zinc concentrations in the water column influenced by the oil spill in the vicinity of the Prestige shipwreck; Concentraciones de zinc en la columna de agua influida por el derrame de fuel en los alrededores a la zona de naufragio del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Marine Biogeochemistry Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    Sixteen days after the Prestige tanker sank in the Northeast Atlantic (42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West), a sampling campaign in the neighbouring water column was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of zinc contamination due to the oil spill. Samples were taken in the water column (0-190 m) and in bottom waters -in the vicinity of the bow and stern- where the tanker lies (3520-3820 m). Total zinc concentrations found ranged from 14 to 571 nM, which are from one to two orders of magnitude higher than typical concentrations in these waters (0.2 - 3.2 nM). Therefore, a contamination by this metal, contained in the oil spilt from the tanks of the sunken ship, was detected. Zinc was also found to be a good tracer to detect the presence of fuel in those areas free of patches. [Spanish] Dieciseis dias despues del hundimiento del petrolero Prestige en el Atlantico Noreste (zona 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este) se llevo a cabo una campana de muestreo en la columna de agua adyacente para evaluar la posible contaminacion de zinc debido al fuel derramado al agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras en la columna de agua (0-190m) y en el fondo marino -en las proximidades de la proa y la popa- donde yace el petrolero (3530-3820 m). Las concentraciones totales de zinc obtenidas oscilaron entre 14 y 571 nM, esto es, de uno a dos ordenes de magnitud superiores a las normales en esas aguas (0.2-3.2 nM). Se detecta, pues, una contaminacion por este metal contenido en el fuel vertido procedente de los tanques del buque hundido. El zinc resulta, ademas, un buen trazador para detectar la presencia de fuel en zonas limpias de manchas.

  17. Dramatic shifts in benthic microbial eukaryote communities following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    Full Text Available Benthic habitats harbour a significant (yet unexplored diversity of microscopic eukaryote taxa, including metazoan phyla, protists, algae and fungi. These groups are thought to underpin ecosystem functioning across diverse marine environments. Coastal marine habitats in the Gulf of Mexico experienced visible, heavy impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, yet our scant knowledge of prior eukaryotic biodiversity has precluded a thorough assessment of this disturbance. Using a marker gene and morphological approach, we present an intensive evaluation of microbial eukaryote communities prior to and following oiling around heavily impacted shorelines. Our results show significant changes in community structure, with pre-spill assemblages of diverse Metazoa giving way to dominant fungal communities in post-spill sediments. Post-spill fungal taxa exhibit low richness and are characterized by an abundance of known hydrocarbon-degrading genera, compared to prior communities that contained smaller and more diverse fungal assemblages. Comparative taxonomic data from nematodes further suggests drastic impacts; while pre-spill samples exhibit high richness and evenness of genera, post-spill communities contain mainly predatory and scavenger taxa alongside an abundance of juveniles. Based on this community analysis, our data suggest considerable (hidden initial impacts across Gulf beaches may be ongoing, despite the disappearance of visible surface oil in the region.

  18. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  19. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  20. Tissue analysis of the oyster Crassostrea virginica after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, D.; Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Chung, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident (DWH) of April 20th, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) released crude oil into the ocean column for 4 months. An estimated 685,000 tons of crude oil was released, making DWH spill the largest accidental spill in maritime history. The immediate impacts of the spill were evident, including oil slicks, fouled beaches and fouled, often dead wildlife. Longer-term impacts are less understood, and reliance on studies of past spills, e.g. Exxon Valdez, may not be applicable given the substantially greater magnitude of DWH (Valdez spilled 37,000 tons) and different environmental settings (predominantly rocky shorelines vs. saltmarsh-dominated coastlines). Many molluscan species exhibit responses to oil spills or other hydrocarbon contamination. Bivalved molluscs are commonly used as bioindicator organisms in part because they concentrate both metals and organic contaminants in their soft tissues. We used the American oyster Crassostrea virginica to measure exposure to and impact of the spill as the abnormal transformation of soft-tissues, or metaplasia. Metaplasia is the reversible transformation of one cell type into another. Molluscan metaplasia has been associated with exposure to petroleum contamination. While oyster epithelium is normally stratified columnar and ciliated, experimental exposures often result in metaplasia of gill, digestive and renal tissues. The occurrence and frequency of metaplasia may also be an indication of the longevity of a spill's impact. For example, individuals of the mussel Mytilus trossulus in Prince William Sound continued to exhibit metaplasia of the digestive gland more than 5 years after the Exxon Valdez spill, with an occurrence directly related to concentrations of PAHs in the animals. We focused on the hypothesis that DWH spill exposure resulted in metaplasia of gill and digestive epithelial tissues, both during and after the spill. Those transformations are eventually reversible, although on an unknown

  1. Operational simulation and forecast of the Aige 2002 oil spill in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukouka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2003-07-01

    A quick-response oil spill prediction and analysis system has been developed in response to concerns about several oil spills from damaged tankers which have impacted the environment in the Sea of Japan in recent years. The system includes a meteorological data processing module, ocean circulation models for the Sea of Japan, and an oil spill fate and drift model. Physical changes resulting from the weathering process are also considered. This paper describes the application of the newly developed system in forecasting oil drifts following a spill of Bunker C fuel oil from the Belizean cargo ship Aige on March 31, 2002 near the Oki Islands. The model successfully predicted that the oil slick would drift south-east to the coast of Hyogo. It also successfully predicted that the oil leaking from the sunken vessel would spread by April 6-7 in the opposite direction and impact the shores of Dogo Island. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan; Solanas, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C(15)-C(27)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C(0)- to C(2)- naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C(28)-C(40)) and to 55-80% for the C(3) derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C(3)-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs.

  3. Polyphasic approach for assessing changes in an autochthonous marine bacterial community in the presence of Prestige fuel oil and its biodegradation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Nuria [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Vinas, Marc [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Guiu-Aragones, Celia; Solanas, Anna M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Bayona, Josep M.; Albaiges, Joan [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to identify key hydrocarbon degraders from a marine oil spill sample (Prestige fuel oil), to ascertain their role in the degradation of different hydrocarbons, and to assess their biodegradation potential for this complex heavy oil. After a 17-month enrichment in weathered fuel, the bacterial community, initially consisting mainly of Methylophaga species, underwent a major selective pressure in favor of obligate hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, such as Alcanivorax and Marinobacter spp. and other hydrocarbon-degrading taxa (Thalassospira and Alcaligenes), and showed strong biodegradation potential. This ranged from >99% for all low- and medium-molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 15}-C{sub 27}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (C{sub 0-} to C{sub 2-} naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and carbazole), to 75-98% for higher molecular-weight alkanes (C{sub 28}-C{sub 40}) and to 55-80% for the C{sub 3} derivatives of tricyclic and tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (e.g., C{sub 3}-chrysenes), in 60 days. The numbers of total heterotrophs and of n-alkane-, aliphatic-, and PAH degraders, as well as the structures of these populations, were monitored throughout the biodegradation process. The salinity of the counting medium affects the counts of PAH degraders, while the carbon source (n-hexadecane vs. a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons) is a key factor when counting aliphatic degraders. These limitations notwithstanding, some bacterial genera associated with hydrocarbon degradation (mainly belonging to {alpha}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, including the hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax and Marinobacter) were identified. We conclude that Thalassospira and Roseobacter contribute to the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas Mesorhizobium and Muricauda participate in the degradation of PAHs. (orig.)

  4. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  6. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 μm) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/VDeepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03–97.9 ng g−1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  7. Macondo-1 well oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mesozooplankton from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Kimmel, David G.; Snyder, Jessica; Scalise, Kimberly; McGlaughon, Benjamin D.; Roman, Michael R.; Jahn, Ginger L.; Pierson, James J.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Wong, Florence L.; Campbell, Pamela L.

    2012-01-01

    Mesozooplankton (>200 μm) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that distributions of PAHs extracted from mesozooplankton were related to the oil released from the ruptured British Petroleum Macondo-1 (M-1) well associated with the R/V Deepwater Horizon blowout. Mesozooplankton contained 0.03-97.9 ng g-1 of total PAHs and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene + pyrene less than 0.44, indicating a liquid fossil fuel source. The distribution of PAHs isolated from mesozooplankton extracted in this study shows that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill may have contributed to contamination in the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  8. Influence of liquid water and soil temperature on petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity in Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Alexis N; Snape, Ian; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Fuel spills in Antarctica typically occur in rare ice-free oases along the coast, which are areas of extreme seasonal freezing. Spills often occur at subzero temperatures, but little is known of ecosystem sensitivity to pollutants, in particular the influence that soil liquid water and low temperature have on toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in Antarctic soil. To evaluate PHC toxicity, 32 locations at an aged diesel spill site in Antarctica were sampled nine times to encompass frozen, thaw, and refreeze periods. Toxicity was assessed using potential activities of substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, nitrification, denitrification, and metabolic quotient as well as microbial community composition and bacterial biomass. The most sensitive indicator was community composition with a PHC concentration effecting 25% of the population (EC25) of 800 mg/kg, followed by nitrification (2,000 mg/kg), microbial biomass (2,400 mg/kg), and soil respiration (3,500 mg/kg). Despite changes in potential microbial activities and composition over the frozen, thaw, and refreeze period, the sensitivity of these endpoints to PHC did not change with liquid water or temperature. However, the variability associated with ecotoxicity data increased at low liquid water contents. As a consequence of this variability, highly replicated (n = 50) experiments are needed to quantify a 25% ecological impairment by PHCs in Antarctic soils at a 95% level of significance. Increases in biomass and respiration associated with changes in community composition suggest that PHC contamination in Antarctic soils may have irrevocable effects on the ecosystem.

  9. Damage to and recovery of coastlines polluted with C-heavy oil spilled from the Nakhodka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nomura, Maki; Nakagawa, Takuya; Oguri, Seiji; Kawanishi, Takuya; Toriba, Akira; Kizu, Ryoichi; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-03-01

    The damage to and recovery of the Japanese coastline from Suzu, Ishikawa Prefecture to Mikuni, Fukui Prefecture was investigated visually over three years after a C-heavy oil spill from the Russian tanker "Nakhodka" in the Japan Sea on January 2, 1997. The beached C-heavy oil tended to remain for a long time on coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble but it was removed rapidly from coasts of gravel/sand and man-made structures such as concrete tetrapods. On the coasts of the latter type, wave energy appeared to be the main force removing the oil. One year after the spill, C-heavy oil tended to remain strongly on the sheltered coasts of bedrock and boulder/cobble/pebble. Even on coasts of this type, the contamination was remarkably absent by 2 years after the spill. The concentration levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil lumps, sand and seawater were monitored during 3 years following the spill. The concentrations of PAHs having 2 or 3 rings decreased more quickly than did those of PAHs having 4 or more rings, suggesting that volatilization was the main cause of the decrease. On the other hand, the concentrations of PAHs having 4 to 6 rings did not start to decrease until 7 months after the spill. The main cause of the decrease seemed to be photolysis. The concentration of BaP in seawater off the polluted coasts was high 1 month after the spill and then decreased. Three years after the spill, the level fell to the sub ng/L level, which was as low as the level in seawater along unpolluted clean coasts in Japan. The concentration of BaP in greenling was higher than the normal level only during the first two months after the spill. These results suggest that the coastlines in Ishikawa and Fukui Prefectures that were polluted with C-heavy oil recovered in 3 years.

  10. Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Cold Environments: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-Zhong; JIN Hui-Jun; WEI Zhi; HE Rui-Xia; JI Yan-Jun; LI Xiu-Mei; YU Shao-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Oil spills have become a serious problem in cold environments with the ever-increasing resource exploitation,transportation,storage,and accidental leakage of oil.Several techniques,including physical,chemical,and biological methods,are used to recover spilled oil from the environment.Bioremediation is a promising option for remediation since it is effective and economic in removing oil with less undue environmental damages.However,it is a relatively slow process in cold regions and the degree of success depends on a number of factors,including the properties and fate of oil spilled in cold environments,and the major microbial and environmental limitations of bioremediation.The microbial factors include bioavailability of hydrocarbons,mass transfer through the cell membrane,and metabolic limitations.As for the environmental limitations in the cold regions,the emphasis is on soil temperatures,freeze-thaw processes,oxygen and nutrients availability,toxicity,and electron acceptors.There have been several cases of success in the polar regions,particularly in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.However,the challenges and constraints for bioremediation in cold environments remain large.

  11. Biological exposure models for oil spill impact analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oil spill impact analysis (OSIA) software system has been developed to supply a tool for comprehensive, quantitative environmental impact assessments resulting from oil spills. In the system, a biological component evaluates potential effects on exposed organisms based on results from a physico-chemieal fates component, including the extent and characteristics of the surface slick, and dissolved and total concentrations of hydrocarbons in the water column. The component includes a particle-based exposure model for migratory adult fish populations, a particle-based exposure model for spawning planktonic organisms (eggs and larvae), and an exposure model for wildlife species (sea birds or marine mammals). The exposure model for migratory adult fish populations simulates the migration behaviors of fish populations migrating to or staying in their feeding areas, over-wintering areas or spawning areas, and determines the acute effects (mortality) and chronic accumulation (body burdens) from the dissolved contaminant. The exposure model for spawning planktonic organisms simulates the release of eggs and larvae, also as particles, from specific spawning areas during the spawning period, and determines their potential exposure to contaminants in the water or sediment. The exposure model for wild species calculates the exposure to surrace oil of wildlife (bird and marine mammal ) categories inhabiting the contaminated area. Compared with the earlier models in which all kinds of organisms are assumed evenly and randomly distributed, the updated biological exposure models can more realistically estimate potential effects on marine ecological system from oil spill pollution events.

  12. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  13. Marine oil spill contingency planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation (PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  14. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil {number_sign}6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil {number_sign}2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills.

  15. Trace elements in the Prestige fuel-oil spill: Levels and influence on Laxe Ria sediments (NW Iberian Peninsula); Elementos traza en el combustible vertido por el Prestige: Niveles e impacto sobre el sedimento de la Ria de Laxe (noroeste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R; Cobelo-Garcia, A; Santos-Echeandia, J [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo, (Spain); Marmolejo-Rodriguez, J [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    Trace elements have been determined in sediments from the Laxe Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula) one year before and one year after the Prestige fuel-oil spill (November 2002; 42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West). The elements analyzed (Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se and V) were chosen because they appeared to represent a potential contaminant from the deposited oil in the sediments. Enrichment factors, based on Al-normalized background concentrations, did not indicate metal contamination in the sediments from most of the ria; however, a severe contamination by Cu, Mo, Ni and V was found in the area of Corme Inlet, where the fuel oil could have accumulated as a result of the ria's hydrodynamic pattern. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la concentracion de 19 elementos quimicos en el combustible pesado derramado al mar desde los tanques del petrolero Prestige (noviembre de 2002; 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este). Entre ellos, se investigo la presencia de Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se y V en el sedimento superficial de la Ria de Laxe (NO de Espana) en los anos anterior y posterior al vertido debido a que sus niveles son similares tanto en el fuel como en el sedimento. Los factores de enriquecimiento, obtenidos tras normalizacion de las concentraciones con el aluminio, no indican contaminacion del sedimento en la ria. No obstante, se detecto una severa contaminacion por Cu, Mo, Ni y V en la ensenada de Corme donde el vertido podria haberse acumulado como resultado de la hidrodinamica de la propia ria.

  16. The human health implications of crude oil spills in the Niger delta, Nigeria: An interpretation of published studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Ordinioha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health hazards created by oil exploration and exploitation are covert and slow in action. They are not given the deserved attention in official documents in Nigeria, even as they can be major contributors to the disease burden in oil-bearing communities. This study is an interpretation of the data reported in several published studies on crude oil spills in the Niger delta region, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A manual and Internet search was conducted to extract quantitative data on the quantity of crude oil spilled; the concentrations of the pollutants in surface water, ground water, ambient air and plant and animal tissue; and the direct impact on human health and household food security. Results: An average of 240,000 barrels of crude oil are spilled in the Niger delta every year, mainly due to unknown causes (31.85%, third party activity (20.74%, and mechanical failure (17.04%. The spills contaminated the surface water, ground water, ambient air, and crops with hydrocarbons, including known carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benxo (a pyrene, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and trace metals that were further bioaccumulated in some food crops. The oil spills could lead to a 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of reducing the ascorbic acid content of vegetables by as much as 36% and the crude protein content of cassava by 40%. These could result in a 24% increase in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition. Animal studies indicate that contact with Nigerian crude oil could be hemotoxic and hepatotoxic, and could cause infertility and cancer. Conclusions: The oil spills in the Niger delta region have acute and long-term effects on human health. Material relief and immediate and long-term medical care are recommended, irrespective of the cause of the spill, to ensure that the potential health effects of exposures to the spills are properly addressed.

  17. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deep-sea coral-associated sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda; Bourque, Jill R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Stamler, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals support distinct populations of infauna within surrounding sediments that provide vital ecosystem functions and services in the deep sea. Yet due to their sedentary existence, infauna are vulnerable to perturbation and contaminant exposure because they are unable to escape disturbance events. While multiple deep-sea coral habitats were injured by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the extent of adverse effects on coral-associated sediment communities is unknown. In 2011, sediments were collected adjacent to several coral habitats located 6 to 183 km from the wellhead in order to quantify the extent of impact of the DWH spill on infaunal communities. Higher variance in macrofaunal abundance and diversity, and different community structure (higher multivariate dispersion) were associated with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and contaminants at sites closest to the wellhead (MC294, MC297, and MC344), consistent with impacts from the spill. In contrast, variance in meiofaunal diversity was not significantly related to distance from the wellhead and no other community metric (e.g. density or multivariate dispersion) was correlated with contaminants or hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) provided the best statistical explanation for observed macrofaunal community structure, while depth and presence of fine-grained mud best explained meiofaunal community patterns. Impacts associated with contaminants from the DWH spill resulted in a patchwork pattern of infaunal community composition, diversity, and abundance, highlighting the role of variability as an indicator of disturbance. These data represent a useful baseline for tracking post-spill recovery of these deep-sea communities.

  18. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.

  19. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  20. Biomass Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels Using the MixAlcoTM Process Conversion de la biomasse en combustibles hydrocarbonés au moyen du procédé MixAlcoTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taco-Vasquez S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MixAlcoTM process converts biomass to hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline using the following generic steps: pretreatment, fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, oligomerization and saturation. This study describes the production of bio-gasoline from chicken manure and shredded office paper, both desirable feedstocks that do not require pretreatment. Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from marine soil, the biomass was fermented to produce a dilute aqueous solution of carboxylate salts, which were subsequently descummed and dried. The dry salts were thermally converted to raw ketones, which were distilled to remove impurities. Using Raney nickel catalyst, the distilled ketones were hydrogenated to mixed secondary alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. Using zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst, these alcohols were oligomerized to hydrocarbons in a plug -flow reactor. Finally, these unsaturated hydrocarbons were hydrogenated to produce a mixture of hydrocarbons that can be blended into commercial gasoline. Le procédé MixAlcoTM convertit la biomasse en hydrocarbures (par exemple, en essence selon les étapes génériques suivantes : prétraitement, fermentation, écumage, déshydratation, cétonisation thermique, distillation, hydrogénation, oligomérisation et saturation. Cette étude décrit la production de bioessence à partir de fumier de poulet et de papier en lambeaux, ces deux sources étant des matières premières convoitées ne nécessitant pas de prétraitement. À l’aide d’une culture mixte de microorganismes dérivés de sols marins, la biomasse a été soumise à une fermentation de manière à produire une solution aqueuse diluée de sels de carboxylates, ultérieurement écumés et séchés. Les sels séchés ont été thermiquement convertis en cétones brutes, ensuite distillées afin d’éliminer les impuretés. À l’aide du catalyseur à base de nickel de Raney, les c

  1. Quick stimulation of Alcanivorax sp. by bioemulsificant EPS2003 on microcosm oil spill simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cappello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill microcosms experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of bioemulsificant exopolysaccharide (EPS2003 on quick stimulation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Early hours of oil spill, were stimulated using an experimental seawater microcosm, supplemented with crude oil and EPS2003 (SW+OIL+EPS2003; this system was monitored for 2 days and compared to control microcosm (only oil-polluted seawater, SW+OIL. Determination of bacterial abundance, heterotrophic cultivable and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were carried out. Community composition of marine bacterioplankton was determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Data obtained indicated that bioemulsificant addition stimulated an increase of total bacterial abundance and, in particular, selection of bacteria related to Alcanivorax genus; confirming that EPS2003 could be used for the dispersion of oil slicks and could stimulate the selection of marine hydrocarbon degraders thus increasing bioremediation process.

  2. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  3. Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria: Isolation and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little information how to identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria for bioremediation of marine oil spills. We have used gravel which contaminated oil mousse from Beach Simulator Tank, in Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi, Japan, and grown on enrichment culture. Biostimulation with nutrients (N and P was done to analyze biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds: Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Trichlorodibenzofuran and Benzo[a]pyrene. Community of bacteria from enrichment culture was determined by DGGE. Isolating and screening the bacteria on inorganic medium contain hydrocarbon compounds and determination of bacteria by DAPI (number of cells and CFU. DNA was extracted from colonies of bacteria and sequence determination of the 16S rDNA was amplified by primers U515f and U1492r. Twenty nine strains had been sequence and have similarity about 90-99% to their closest taxa by homology Blast search and few of them have suspected as new species.

  4. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Maria; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Cappello, Simone; Russo, Daniela; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Modica, Alfonso; Smedile, Francesco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) in coastal sediments. Approximately 1000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6500 ppm). The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after 3 months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS) allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g., aeration. Aeration for 3 months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB), and after 1 month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus-, and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  5. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  6. Magnetic Susceptibility Analysis of Soil Affected by Hydrocarbon in Wonocolo Traditional Oil Field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, Melianna; Wijatmoko, Bambang; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soil affected by hydrocarbon was studied through cored soil samples in two zones (Zone One and Zone Two) of an oil field in Wonocolo Village, East Java. We also collected soil samples as the background from a residential area near the oil field (Zone Three). The Zone One, consisted two cores near producing well; the Zone Two consisted two cores obtained from near a dry hole well and a discontinued well; and the Zone Three consisted two cores to validate the initial soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. The hydrocarbon content measurement was also done for the upper part of each cores using distillation method to identify the correlation between magnetic susceptibility and hydrocarbon content. From magnetic susceptibility measurement in dual frequency, samples from the Zone One and Zone Two have magnetic susceptibility range from 6,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 160 × 10-8 m3kg-1 and 15,7 × 10-8 m3kg-1 - 417,9 × 10-8 m3kg-1, respectively. Whereas background samples from Zone Three have magnetic susceptibility range from 4,8 × 10-8 m3kg-1 to 81,1 × 10-8 m3kg-1. We found low χfd (%) in samples with high magnetic susceptibility values, shown that there was no indication of superparamagnetic minerals in the samples. The hydrocarbon content measurement shows the value range of 8% - 14% only exists in the upper part of all cores in Zone One and one core in Zone Two. From this analysis, we assume that other than the volume of the hydrocarbon content in soil, the period of petroleum hydrocarbon deposition in soil and the fossil fuel combustion generated in the study site could differently increase the soil magnetic susceptibility value in this area. Positive correlation between the two parameters hopefully could contribute to develop environmental magnetic methods for detecting oil spills in soil, especially to remediate former hydrocarbon exploration and production area.

  7. Phytotoxicity assay of diesel fuel-spiked substrates remediated with Pleurotus tuberregium using Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Ogbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum based compounds by white rot fungi is well documented.  In this study the ability of diesel fuel contaminated soils treated with the fungus Pleurotus tuber-regium to support plant growth was tested.  Pleurotus tuber-regium was grown in different levels (2.50, 5.00, 10.00% and control- no fungus for each level of contamination of diesel fuel contaminated soil and sawdust. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons was highest in the 5.00% level of contamination where 55.53% of the petroleum hydrocarbons were removed. The least reduction in hydrocarbons was in the 10.00% level of contamination where only 35.53% of the hydrocarbons were removed. After the remediation the toxicity of the soils were tested by growing Zea mays in the treated soils. There was reduction in the toxicity of the soils treated with Pleurotus tuber-regium. Germination of the seeds of the test plant in treated 2.50 and 5.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was higher than that in the control. Germination of seeds in the 10.00% diesel fuel contaminated substrates was less than that in the control. The continued growth of the plant in the treated soils however showed no significant difference between them and the control using leaf area, plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and root length indices. The formation of lateral roots was however adversely affected in the treated 10.00% contaminated soil only substrate. The fungus was able to reduce the toxicity of diesel fuel contaminated substrates when compared with control in which there was no remediation. Industrial relevance: Nigeria is an oil producing country with heavy or high reliance on diesel fuel for use in cars and electric power generating sets. The transportation of diesel fuel is by tankers and pipelines. There have been cases of spills which has adverse effect on the environment. The study aims to solve the process of amelioration of the environment

  8. Survey of the effects of the Seto Inland Sea oil spill in 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, Y.

    1979-01-01

    On 12/18/74, a fuel oil tank at the Mizushima Refinery of Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd. ruptured. Most of the spilled desulfurized fuel oil was retained in the grounds of the refinery and recovered but an estimated 47,175-59,755 bbl escaped to the sea, where there are intensive fisheries and heavy marine traffic among various industrial settlements. Coastal fisheries and the fish culture industry were disrupted, but marine life recovered by the summer of 1975. The effect of the oil on the natural environment was not as great as expected, mostly due to quick and energetic work to recover the spilled oil. A discussion of the accident and its influence on the marine environment is presented including: the Seto Inland Sea; the storage tank rupture; spreading of the spilled oil; cleanup operations; damage estimates; the environment of the Seto Inland Sea, including normal biological conditions and a biological survey of the affected area; and effects of the spill, including oil content of sea water and sediment, degradation and weathering of the spilled oil, and influences of the oil on the environment.

  9. Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) analysis in support of environmental impact assessment offshore Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Mark; Ekrol, Narve; Rye, Henrik; Turner, Liam [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    The work reported here encompasses analyses of specific potential spill scenarios for oil exploration activity planned offshore of Namibia. The analyses are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) 3-dimensional model systems. A spill scenario using 150 m{sup 3} of marine diesel demonstrates the rapidity with which such a spill will dissipate naturally, even in light winds. Vertical and horizontal mixing bring subsurface hydrocarbon concentrations to background levels within a few days. A hypothetical 10 day blowout scenario releasing 11,000 bbl per day of light crude oil is investigated in terms of the potential for delivering oil to selected bird and marine mammal areas along the Namibian coast. Worst case scenarios are selected to investigate the potential mitigating effects of planned oil spill response actions. Mechanical recovery significantly reduces, and in some cases eliminates, potential environmental consequences of these worst case scenarios. Dispersant application from fixed wing aircraft further reduces the potential surface effects. The analysis supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of the planned response strategies. (Author)

  10. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of a highly urbanized river system with special reference to energy consumption patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Kai [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Jizhong [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liang Bo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zeng, Eddy Y., E-mail: eddyzeng@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Sediment samples collected from downstream of the Dongjiang River, a highly urbanized river network within the Pearl River Del