WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon fuel gas

  1. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  2. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  3. Co-processing of standard gas oil and biocrude oil to hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Mante, O.; McClung, R.; Oyama, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The major obstacle in thermochemical biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using pyrolysis has been the high oxygen content and the poor stability of the product oils, which cause them to solidify during secondary processing. We have developed a fractional catalytic pyrolysis process to convert biomass feedstocks into a product termed “biocrude oils” (stable biomass pyrolysis oils) which are distinct from unstable conventional pyrolysis oils. The biocrude oils are stable, low viscosity liquids that are storable at ambient conditions without any significant increases in viscosity; distillable at both atmospheric pressure and under vacuum without char or solid formation. About 15 wt% biocrude oils containing 20–25% oxygen were blended with 85 wt% standard gas oil and co-cracked in an Advanced Catalyst Evaluation (ACE™) unit using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts to produce hydrocarbon fuels that contain negligible amount of oxygen. For the same conversion of 70% for both the standard gas oil and the biocrude oil/gas oil blends, the product gasoline yield was 44 wt%, light cycle oil (LCO) 17 wt%, heavy cycle oil (HCO) 13 wt%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 16 wt%. However, the coke yield for the standard gas oil was 7.06 wt% compared to 6.64–6.81 wt% for the blends. There appeared to be hydrogen transfer from the cracking of the standard gas oil to the biocrude oil which subsequently eliminated the oxygen in the fuel without external hydrogen addition. We have demonstrated for the first time that biomass pyrolysis oils can be successfully converted into hydrocarbons without hydrogenation pretreatment. -- Highlights: ► The co-processed product had less than 1% oxygen content and contained biocarbons determined by 14 C analysis. ► The co-processing did not affect the yields of gasoline, LCO, and HCO. ► First demonstration of direct conversion of pyrolysis oils into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  5. Some technical subjects on production of hydrocarbon fuel from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1987-06-20

    Since fuel oil meeting the requirements of current petroleum products can be produced by SASOL F-T synthetic process, the manufacturing process of hydrocarbon fuel oil from the coal-derived synthesis gas, downstream processes are being successively investigated. Mobile M-gasoline, MTG, process which produces gasoline from the natural gas-derived synthesis gas through methanol went into commercial operation in New Zealand in 1986. Although the gasoline suffices the quality of commercial gasoline by both fixed bed and fluidized bed systems, the price and service life of catalyst and control of by-product durene must be improved. Any STG processes have not been completed yet and the yield and quality of gasoline are inferior to those of gasoline produced by the MTG process. Applying two-stage process, the STG process will be more economically effective.(21 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs)

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  7. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  8. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  9. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multidimensional High-Resolution Gas Chromatographic Investigations of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Various Turbine Engine Fuel Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    time were spurious transits observed during the recording of the chromatographic output data. *Packaged gas purification filters supplied by Alltech ... Alltech ) that were needed for these unusual installations. When the column diameters were small and of comparable size, the assembly attach- ments at...into an MDGC system has definite advantages as separations can be made faster and with greater detectability. However, specific precautions must be

  11. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  12. Real Gas Effects on the Performance of Hydrocarbon-fueled Pulse Detonation Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results for a single-pulse detonation tube wherein the effects of high temperature dissociation and the subsequent recombination influence the sensible heat release available for providing propulsive thrust. The study involved the use of ethylene and air at equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 1.0. The real gas effects on the sensible heat release were found to be significantly large so as to have an impact on the thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of a PDE.

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-06-27

    Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis.

  15. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kurevija, Tomislav; Kukulj, Nenad; Rajković, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

  16. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Roberts, William L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.

    2012-01-01

    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C

  17. Hydrocarbon fuels from gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-01-01

    Gas phase decarboxylation of hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) from canola oil has beeninvestigated in two fix-bed reactors by changing reaction parameters such as temperatures,FFA feed rates, and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. FFA, which contains mostly C 18 aswell as a few C 16, C 20, C 22, and C 24 FFA, was fed into the boiling zone, evaporated, carriedby hydrogen flow at the rate of 0.5-20 ml/min, and reacted with the 5% Pd/C catalystin the reactor. Reactions were conducted atmospherically at 380-450 °C and the products,qualified and quantified through gas chromatography-flame ionization detector(GC-FID), showed mostly n-heptadecane and a few portion of n-C 15, n-C 19, n-C 21, n-C 23 as well as some cracking species. Results showed that FFA conversion increased withincreasing reaction temperatures but decreased with increasing FFA feed rates and H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. The reaction rates were found to decrease with higher temperatureand increase with higher H 2 flow rates. Highly selective heptadecane was achieved byapplying higher temperatures and higher H 2-to-FFA molar ratios. From the results, ascatalyst loading and FFA feed rate were fixed, an optimal reaction temperature of 415 °C as well as H 2-to-FFA molar ratio of 4.16 were presented. These results provided goodbasis for studying the kinetics of decarboxylation process. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  18. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  20. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  1. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  2. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  3. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  4. Natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, A I; Vasiliev, Y N; Jankiewicz, A [VPO ' Soyuzgastekhnologiya' All-Union Scientific Research Inst. of Natural gases (VNIIGAS) (SU)

    1990-02-01

    The review presented covers mass production of gas-petrol and gas-diesel automobiles in the USSR, second generation auto gas filling compressor stations, principal exhaust toxicants, and tests indicating natural gas fired autos emit >5 times less NO{sub x} and 10 times less hydrocarbons excluding methane. The switch over to gas as auto fuel and ensuing release of petrol and diesel for other uses are discussed. (UK).

  5. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  6. Flue gas corrosion through halogen compounds in fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, R

    1987-04-01

    The halogens of chlorine and fluorine greatly influence the corrosion speed of metal materials. If small quantities of chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are present in fuel gas like in landfill gas, they must not result in enhanced corrosion of gas appliances. Data from literature and the initial results of tests run by the author indicate that quantities at about 10 mg/cbm (in terms of chlorine) can be assumed not to cause any noticeable acceleration of corrosion speed.

  7. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel.

  8. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  9. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  10. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  11. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. Integration of direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells for highly efficient power generation from hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Choi, Pyoungho; Smith, Franklyn; Bokerman, Gary [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    In view of impending depletion of hydrocarbon fuel resources and their negative environmental impact, it is imperative to significantly increase the energy conversion efficiency of hydrocarbon-based power generation systems. The combination of a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor with a direct carbon and hydrogen fuel cells (FC) as a means for a significant increase in chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency is discussed in this paper. The data on development and operation of a thermocatalytic hydrocarbon decomposition reactor and its coupling with a proton exchange membrane FC are presented. The analysis of the integrated power generating system including a hydrocarbon decomposition reactor, direct carbon and hydrogen FC using natural gas and propane as fuels is conducted. It was estimated that overall chemical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the integrated system varied in the range of 49.4-82.5%, depending on the type of fuel and FC used, and CO{sub 2} emission per kW{sub el}h produced is less than half of that from conventional power generation sources. (author)

  14. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV; Haynes, Daniel [Morgantown, WV; Smith, Mark [Morgantown, WV; Spivey, James J [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  15. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles[1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H(sub 2) has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H(sub 2)[2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines[3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H(sub 2) from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H(sub 2) for large-scale manufacturing processes

  16. Oil-shale gasification for obtaining of gas for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation); Avakyan, T.; Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of qualified usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. Gasification with further processing of gaseous products is a one of possible ways of their use. Production of synthesis gas with H{sub 2}/CO ratio equal 2 is possible by gasification of oil-shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalyst at temperature from 160 to 210 C at atmospheric pressure. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. (orig.)

  17. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  18. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  19. Experimental study of the thermal stability of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteney, P. J.; Colket, M. B.; Vranos, A.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stability of two hydrocarbon fuels (premium diesel and regular diesel) was determined in a flow reactor under conditions representing operation of an aircraft gas turbine engine. Temperature was varied from 300 to 750 F (422 to 672 K) for fuel flows of 2.84 to 56.8 liters/hr (corresponding to 6.84 x 0.00010 to 1.63 x 0.010 kg/sec for regular diesel fuel and 6.55 x 0.00010 to 1.37 x 0.010 kg/sec for premium diesel fuel); test times varied between 1 and 8 hr. The rate of deposition was obtained through measurement of weight gained by metal discs fixed along the channel wall. The rate of deposit formation is best correlated by an Arrhenius expression. The sample discs in the flow reactor were varied among stainless steel, aluminum and brass; fuels were doped with quinoline, indole, and benzoyl perioxide to yield nitrogen or oxygen concentrations of approximately 1000 ppm. The most substantial change in rate was an increase in deposits for brass discs; other disc materials or the additives caused only small perturbations. Tests were also conducted in a static reactor at temperatures of 300 to 800 F for times of 30 min to 2 1/2 hr. Much smaller deposition was found, indicating the importance of fluid transport in the mechanism.

  20. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  1. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  2. Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Natural-Gas Fueled Dual-Fuel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Masahiro; Ishiyama, Takuji; Ikegami, Makoto; Mitani, Shinichi; Shibata, Hiroaki

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, experiments were done for some operational parameters on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the pilot fuel quantity should be increased and its injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission in the middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. Unburned hydrocarbon emission and thermal efficiency are improved by avoiding too lean natural gas mixture by restricting intake charge air. However, the improvement is limited because the ignition of pilot fuel deteriorates with excessive throttling. It is concluded that an adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation.

  3. Fiber optic distributed chemical sensor for the real time detection of hydrocarbon fuel leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2015-09-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable hydrocarbon fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySense™) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySense™ system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, storage tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  4. Gas fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Environment protection is one of the major concerns for public and local authorities worldwide. Automotive transports are in a large part responsible of the daily pollution of urban areas. Gaseous fuels can notably contribute to a reduction of this pollution. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part analyses the reasons and components of pollution in the transport sector: increasing use of private cars with respect to public transport systems for short distance travels, preponderance of road transport for long distance goods delivery, increase of air traffic for passengers and freight transports. For the air pollution itself, three levels are considered: the local CO, VOC (volatile organic compounds), SO 2 , NOx and particulates concentration, the regional pollution which corresponds to spatially diluted pollutants over a wider zone (acid rain and photochemical pollution), and the worldwide pollution with the greenhouse effect and the high altitude ozone problem. The vehicles noise in another important source of urban pollution. The second part of the paper analyses the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels and compares the combustion properties and the pollutants and noise emissions from natural gas for vehicles and LPG with respect to the classical liquid fuels used for private cars and trucks. The third part of the paper is devoted to the US Clean Air Act which regroups the actions developed since 1970 to fight against the photochemical pollution and the 'smog' phenomena. Its historical evolution is summarized: the creation of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), the norms for air quality (NAAQS) and the 1990's eleven amendments about the classification of States pollution, the pollutants emission norms and the development of clean vehicles. (J.S.)

  5. NEW MATERIAL NEEDS FOR HYDROCARBON FUEL PROCESSING: Generating Hydrogen for the PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrauto, R.; Hwang, S.; Shore, L.; Ruettinger, W.; Lampert, J.; Giroux, T.; Liu, Y.; Ilinich, O.

    2003-08-01

    The hydrogen economy is fast approaching as petroleum reserves are rapidly consumed. The fuel cell promises to deliver clean and efficient power by combining hydrogen and oxygen in a simple electrochemical device that directly converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Hydrogen, the most plentiful element available, can be extracted from water by electrolysis. One can imagine capturing energy from the sun and wind and/or from the depths of the earth to provide the necessary power for electrolysis. Alternative energy sources such as these are the promise for the future, but for now they are not feasible for power needs across the globe. A transitional solution is required to convert certain hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen. These fuels must be available through existing infrastructures such as the natural gas pipeline. The present review discusses the catalyst and adsorbent technologies under development for the extraction of hydrogen from natural gas to meet the requirements for the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The primary market is for residential applications, where pipeline natural gas will be the source of H2 used to power the home. Other applications including the reforming of methanol for portable power applications such as laptop computers, cellular phones, and personnel digital equipment are also discussed. Processing natural gas containing sulfur requires many materials, for example, adsorbents for desulfurization, and heterogeneous catalysts for reforming (either autothermal or steam reforming) water gas shift, preferential oxidation of CO, and anode tail gas combustion. All these technologies are discussed for natural gas and to a limited extent for reforming methanol.

  6. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  7. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  8. Properties of plasma flames sustained by microwaves and burning hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-01-01

    Plasma flames made of atmospheric microwave plasma and a fuel-burning flame were presented and their properties were investigated experimentally. The plasma flame generator consists of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The plasma flames are sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The microwave plasma torch in the plasma flame system can burn a hydrocarbon fuel by high-temperature plasma and high atomic oxygen density, decomposing the hydrogen and carbon containing fuel. We present the visual observations of the sustained plasma flames and measure the gas temperature using a thermocouple device in terms of the gas-fuel mixture and flow rate. The plasma flame volume of the hydrocarbon fuel burners was more than approximately 30-50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 868 K at a measurement point, that of the diesel microwave plasma flame with the addition of 0.019 lpm diesel and 30 lpm oxygen increased drastically to about 2280 K. Preliminary experiments for methane plasma flame were also carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions. Finally, we investigated the influence of the microwave plasma on combustion flame by observing and comparing OH molecular spectra for the methane plasma flame and methane flame only

  9. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2018-04-03

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  10. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-09-26

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuels and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  12. Ignition behavior of aviation fuels and some hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, F.

    1975-01-01

    Air relighting of jet engines is an important contribution to the operation safety of aircraft engines. Reignition is influenced by fuel properties in addition to the engine design. A survey is presented on the problems, considering the specific fuel properties. Investigations were made on the ignition behavior of aviation fuels and hydrocarbons in a simplified model combustion chamber. Air inlet conditions were 200 to 800 mbar and 300 to 500 K. Correlation between physical and chemical properties and ignitability is discussed.

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  16. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  17. Characterization of the vadose zone above a shallow aquifer contaminated with gas condensate hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublette, K.; Duncan, K.; Thoma, G.; Todd, T.

    2002-01-01

    A gas production site in the Denver Basin near Ft. Lupton, Colorado has leaked gas condensate hydrocarbons from an underground concrete tank used to store produced water. The leak has contaminated a shallow aquifer. Although the source of pollution has been removed, a plume of hydrocarbon contamination still remains for nearly 46 m from the original source. An extensive monitoring program was conducted in 1993 of the groundwater and saturated sediments. The objective was to determine if intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurred at the site at a rate that would support remediation. Geochemical indicators of hydrogen biodegradation by microorganisms in the saturated zone included oxygen depletion, increased alkalinity, sulfate depletion, methane production and Fe2+ production associated with hydrogen contamination. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens was also much higher in the contaminated sediments. Degraded hydrocarbon metabolites were found in contaminated groundwater. An extensive characterization of the vadose zone was conducted in which the vadose zone was sample in increments of 15 cm from the surface to the water table at contaminated and non contaminated sites. The samples were tested for individual C3+ hydrocarbons, methane, CO2, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The vadose zone consisted of an active and aerobic bioreactor fueled by condensate hydrocarbons transported into the unsaturated zone by evaporation of hydrocarbons at the water table. It was concluded that the unsaturated zone makes an important contribution to the natural attenuation of gas condensate hydrocarbons in the area. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  18. Electrochemical Routes towards Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    The potential of renewable energy and possible solution to the intermittency problem of renewable energy sources like sun and wind are explained. The densest storage of energy is in the form of hydrocarbons. The most suitable method of conversion and storage within a foreseeable future is electro...... in the future. In spite of this, it is important to research and develop as many viable sustainable energy technologies as economical possible. © 2012 ECS - The Electrochemical Society  ...

  19. Conversion of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Kammer Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, a number of papers about direct oxidation of methane and hydrocarbon in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at relatively low temperatures (about 700degreesC) have been published. Even though the conversion of almost dry CH4 at 1000degreesC on ceramic anodes was demonstrated more than 10 years...

  20. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  1. Volatile Fuel Hydrocarbons and MTBE in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I. M.; Baehr, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons that result from petroleum products such as oil, gasoline, or diesel fuel) are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. Volatile hydrocarbons are the lighter fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons and, together with fuel oxygenates, are most often released from crude oil and liquid petroleum products produced from crude oil. The demand for crude oil stems from the world's ever-growing energy need. From 1970 to 1999, primary energy production of the world grew by 76% (Energy Information Administration, 2001), with fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) accounting for ˜85% of all energy produced worldwide (Figure 1). World crude oil production reached a record 68 million barrels (bbl) per day (1.08×1010 L d-1) in 2000. The world's dependence on oil as an energy source clearly is identified as contributing to global warming and worsening air and water quality. (7K)Figure 1. World primary energy production by source from 1970 to 1999 (Energy Information Administration, 2001). Petroleum products are present in Earth's subsurface as solids, liquids, or gases. This chapter presents a summary of the environmental problems and issues related to the use of liquid petroleum, or oil. The focus is on the sources of volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates and the geochemical behavior of these compounds when they are released into the environment. Although oxygenates currently in commercial use include compounds other than methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), such as ethanol (ETOH), most of the information presented here focuses on MTBE because of its widespread occurrence. The environmental impact of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons that also originate from petroleum products is described in (Chapter 9.13, Abrajano et al.).Crude oil occurs within the Earth and is a complex mixture of natural compounds composed largely of hydrocarbons containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms. The minor

  2. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H [Morgantown, WV; Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  3. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  5. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  6. Possibilities of rationalizing gas storage in hydrocarbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker; Gilch; Kretzschmar

    1990-01-01

    A number of criteria on the utilization of gas fields for storage and major methods for rationalizing such storage reservoirs (such as pressure optimization and increase of well performance) are indicated. The pressure reduction/ pressure increase conducted in phases and the investigations involved are discussed in detail. In particular, experiences and results for fixing the maximum allowable storage pressures are analyzed critically. Problems of gas blending in case of different compositions of residual gas and storage gas are dealt with. Finally, some recommendations are given for the necessary investigations to increase efficiency in the conversion of depleted hydrocarbon deposits to gas storage. 3 figs

  7. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  8. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  9. Risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel hydrocarbons at a major airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemeier, T.H.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a risk-based approach for bioremediation of fuel-hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and ground water at a major airport in Colorado. In situ bioremediation pilot testing, natural attenuation modeling, and full-scale remedial action planning and implementation for soil and ground water contamination has conducted at four airport fuel farms. The sources of fuel contamination were leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) or pipelines transporting Jet A fuel and aviation gasoline. Continuing sources of contamination were present in several small cells of free-phase product and in fuel residuals trapped within the capillary fringe at depths 15 to 20 feet below ground surface. Bioventing pilot tests were conducted to assess the feasibility of using this technology to remediate contaminated soils. The pilot tests included measurement of initial soil gas chemistry at the site, determination of subsurface permeability, and in situ respiration tests to determine fuel biodegradation rates. A product recovery test was also conducted. ES designed and installed four full-scale bioventing systems to remediate the long-term sources of continuing fuel contamination. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected in ground water at concentrations slightly above regulatory guidelines

  10. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  11. Hydrocarbon fuel processing of micro solid oxide fuel cell systems[Dissertation 17455

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    The scope of this thesis is the numerical and experimental investigation of the fuel processing of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) running on hydrocarbon fuel. The goal is to enhance the overall system efficiency by optimization of the reforming process in the steady state and the improvement of the start-up process. Micro SOFC are a potential alternative to the currently used batteries in portable devices. Liquid butane in a cartridge could be the energy source. This dissertation is focused on the fuel processing of the system, namely the reforming and post-combusting processes. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon fuel to a hydrogen rich gas that can be utilized by the SOFC. The post-combustor depletes the toxic and/or explosive gases before leaving the exhaust. Chapter One presents a short introduction to the field of hydrocarbon fuel processing in micro solid oxide fuel cell systems, the next three chapters deal with computational modeling of the transport phenomena inside a micro-reformer, which leads to a better understanding of the chemistry and the physics therein, hence progress in the design and operation parameters. The experimental part (i.e. Chapter Five) of this thesis focuses on the feasibility of a novel hybrid start-up method of a fuel cell system that employs existing components as an additional heat source. In Chapter Two the effect of wall heat conduction on the syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) production of a micro-reformer, representing micro-fabricated channels or monoliths, is investigated. Methane is used as a model hydrocarbon fuel since its heterogeneous reaction path on rhodium is known and validated. The simulations demonstrate that the axial wall conduction strongly influences the performance of the micro-reformer and should not be neglected without a careful a priori investigation of its impact. Methane conversion and hydrogen yield are strongly dependent of the wall inner surface temperature, which is influenced by the

  12. Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2008-08-01

    A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were irradiated by UV or fluorescent light in the absence or presence of a photocatalyst, TiO(2). As a result of the treatment, under various scenarios, up to 80-98% of the originally applied n-hexadecane was removed, within a wide range of contaminant concentrations (4-250 mg/g wood). The essential treatment time increased from 1-7 days for low concentrations to several weeks for high concentrations. Mass balance experiments showed that the only product formed from (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane in detectable amounts was (14)CO(2). For low amounts of applied hydrocarbon (4-20 mg/g wood), the overall process rate was limited by the contaminant transport/mobility whereas for high n-hexadecane concentrations (150-250 mg/g, corresponding to 50-80% filling of wood pores), the key factor was the photochemical reaction. Photodegradation experiments conducted with standard heating fuel oil #2 (a representative real-world contaminant) resulted in a significant (up to 80%) photochemical removal of mid-size hydrocarbons (C(13)-C(17)) in 3 weeks whereas heavier hydrocarbons (> C(17)) were not affected; light hydrocarbons (evaporation. These results point toward a promising technique to reclaim wooden and concrete structures contaminated with semi-volatile chemicals.

  13. Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    distribution unlimited Hydrocarbon Fuel Thermal Performance Modeling based on Systematic Measurement and Comprehensive Chromatographic Analysis Matthew...vital importance for hydrocarbon -fueled propulsion systems: fuel thermal performance as indicated by physical and chemical effects of cooling passage... analysis . The selection and acquisition of a set of chemically diverse fuels is pivotal for a successful outcome since test method validation and

  14. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Method for depth referencing hydrocarbon gas shows on mud logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identifying hydrocarbon formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: a. measuring hydrocarbon gas in the entrained formation cuttings obtained during drilling operations in which a drilling mud is continually circulated past a drill bit to carry the cuttings to the earth's surface, b. simultaneously measuring natural gamma radiation in the cuttings, c. identifying the depths at which the cuttings were obtained within the borehole, d. measuring natural gamma radiation within the borehole following completion of the drilling operations, e. correlating the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d), and f. identifying the depths within the borehole from which the entrained cuttings containing hydrocarbon gas were obtained during drilling operations when there is correlation between the natural gamma radiation measurements in steps (b) and (d)

  17. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  18. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  19. Performance and exhaust emissions in a natural-gas fueled dual-fuel engine; Tennen gas dual fuel kikan no seino oyobi haiki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M.; Ishiyama, T.; Shibata, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Ikegami, M. [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-07-25

    In order to establish the optimum fueling in a natural gas fueled dual fuel engine, tests were made for some operational parameters and their combination on the engine performances and the exhaust emissions. The results show that the gas oil quantity should be increased and gas oil injection timing should be advanced to suppress unburned hydrocarbon emission at middle and low output range, while the quantity should be reduced and the timing should be retarded to avoid onset of knock at high loads. The unburned hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency are improved at the same load avoiding too lean natural gas premixture by restriction of intake charge air. However the improvement is limited because the ignition and initial combustion of pilot diesel fuel is deteriorated when the cylinder pressure is excessively lowered by throttling. The increase in pilot gas oil amount is effective for low-load operation and the adequate combination of throttle control and equivalence ratio ensures low hydrocarbon emission and the thermal efficiency comparable to diesel operation. (author)

  20. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  1. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content

  2. Process and catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. [high antiknock motor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-14

    High anti-knock motor fuel is produced from hydrocarbons by subjecting it at an elevated temperature to contact with a calcined mixture of hydrated silica, hydrated alumina, and hydrated zirconia, substantially free from alkali metal compounds. The catalyst may be prepared by precipitating silica gel by the acidification of an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate, intimately mixing hydrated alumina and hydrated zirconia therewith, drying, purifying the composite to substantially remove alkali metal compounds, again drying, forming the dried material into particles, and finally calcining. The resultant conversion products may be fractionated to produce gasoline, hydrocarbon oil above gasoling boiling point range, and a gaseous fraction of olefins which are polymerized into gasoline boiling range polymers.

  3. Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shankar L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels derived from algae biomass and algae lipids might reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents. Results In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS. Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. The freely available software tools AMDIS and SpectConnect enables straightforward data processing. In Botryococcus samples, we identified fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and fatty acid esters and several long chain hydrocarbons. The algae species C. reinhardtii, B. braunii race A and B. braunii race B were readily discriminated using their hydrocarbon phenotypes. Substructure annotation and spectral clustering yielded network graphs of similar components for visual overviews of abundant and minor constituents. Conclusion Pyrolysis-GC-MS facilitates large scale screening of hydrocarbon phenotypes for comparisons of strain differences in algae or impact of altered growth and nutrient conditions.

  4. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  5. Subsurface biogenic gas rations associated with hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrin, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring the in situ bioreclamation of organic chemicals in soil is usually accomplished by collecting samples from selected points during the remediation process. This technique requires the installation and sampling of soil borings and does not allow for continuous monitoring. The analysis of soil vapor overlying hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater has been used to detect the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) and to locate low-volatility hydrocarbons that are not directly detected by more conventional soil gas methods. Such soil vapor sampling methods are adaptable to monitoring the in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater contamination. This paper focuses on the use of biogenic gas ratio in detecting the presence of crude oil and gasoline in the subsurface

  6. Investigation of the ignition of liquid hydrocarbon fuels with nanoadditives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Velikodnyi, V. Yu.; Levin, Yu. K.; Popov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    During our experimental studies we showed a high efficiency of the influence of nanoparticle additives on the stability of the ignition of hydrocarbon fuels and the stabilization of their combustion in a highfrequency high-voltage discharge. We detected the effects of a jet deceleration, an increase in the volume of the combustible mixture, and a reduction in the inflammation delay time. These effects have been estimated quantitatively by digitally processing the video frames of the ignition of a bubbled kerosene jet with 0.5% graphene nanoparticle additives and without these additives. This effect has been explained by the influence of electrodynamic processes.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......, and outlet gas composition. For methane production, low temperature and high pressure operation could improve the system efficiency, but might lead to a higher capital cost. For DME production, high pressure SOEC operation necessitates higher operating temperature in order to avoid carbon formation at higher...

  8. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz; Gersh, Michael E.; Goldstein, Neil

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution.

  9. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  10. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5 wt. % Fs) are presented. (The symbol 'Fs' designates fissium, a 'pseudo-element' which, in reality, is an alloy whose composition is representative of fission products that remain in reprocessed fuel). The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations with the measurements shows quantitative agreement in both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content. (orig.)

  11. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jordan T; Shan, Chin Wei; Budsberg, Erik; Morgan, Hannah; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure compatible hydrocarbon biofuel proposed to qualify as renewable transportation fuel under the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) is evaluated. The process uses a hybrid poplar feedstock, which undergoes dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugars are fermented to acetic acid, which undergoes conversion to ethyl acetate, ethanol, ethylene, and finally a saturated hydrocarbon end product. An unfermentable lignin stream may be burned for steam and electricity production, or gasified to produce hydrogen. During biofuel production, hydrogen gas is required and may be obtained by various methods including lignin gasification. Both technical and economic aspects of the biorefinery are analyzed, with different hydrogen sources considered including steam reforming of natural gas and gasification of lignin. Cash operating costs for jet fuel production are estimated to range from 0.67 to 0.86 USD L -1 depending on facility capacity. Minimum fuel selling prices with a 15 % discount rate are estimated to range from 1.14 to 1.79 USD L -1 . Capacities of 76, 190, and 380 million liters of jet fuel per year are investigated. Capital investments range from 356 to 1026 million USD. A unique biorefinery is explored to produce a hydrocarbon biofuel with a high yield from bone dry wood of 330 L t -1 . This yield is achieved chiefly due to the use of acetogenic bacteria that do not produce carbon dioxide as a co-product during fermentation. Capital investment is significant in the biorefinery in part because hydrogen is required to produce a fully de-oxygenated fuel. Minimum selling price to achieve reasonable returns on investment is sensitive to capital financing options because of high capital costs. Various strategies, such as producing alternative, intermediate products, are investigated with the intent to reduce risk in building the proposed facility. It appears that producing and selling these

  12. How copper catalyzes the electroreduction of carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Studt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels.......Density functional theory calculations explain copper's unique ability to convert CO2 into hydrocarbons, which may open up (photo-)electrochemical routes to fuels....

  13. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  14. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  15. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  16. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fission gas release behaviour in MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Anantharaman, S.; Sahoo, K.C.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of plutonium recycling programme MOX (U,Pu)O 2 fuels will be used in Indian boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR). Based on successful test irradiation of MOX fuel in CIRUS reactor, 10 MOX fuel assemblies have been loaded in the BWR of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Some of these MOX fuel assemblies have successfully completed the initial target average burnup of ∼16,000 MWD/T. Enhancing the burnup target of the MOX fuels and increasing loading of MOX fuels in TAPS core will depend on the feedback information generated from the measurement of released fission gases. Fission gas release behaviour has been studied in the experimental MOX fuel elements (UO 2 - 4% PuO 2 ) irradiated in pressurised water loop (PWL) of CIRUS. Eight (8) MOX fuel elements irradiated to an average burnup of ∼16,000 MWD/T have been examined. Some of these fuel elements contained controlled porosity pellets and chamfered pellets. This paper presents the design details of the experimental set up for studying fission gas release behaviour including measurement of gas pressure, void volume and gas composition. The experimental data generated is compared with the prediction of fuel performance modeling codes of PROFESS and GAPCON THERMAL-3. (author)

  18. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  20. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  1. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  2. Fission gas behaviour in water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During irradiation, nuclear fuel changes volume, primarily through swelling. This swelling is caused by the fission products and in particular by the volatile ones such as krypton and xenon, called fission gas. Fission gas behaviour needs to be reliably predicted in order to make better use of nuclear fuel, a factor which can help to achieve the economic competitiveness required by today's markets. These proceedings communicate the results of an international seminar which reviewed recent progress in the field of fission gas behaviour in light water reactor fuel and sought to improve the models used in computer codes predicting fission gas release. State-of-the-art knowledge is presented for both uranium-oxide and mixed-oxide fuels loaded in water reactors. (author)

  3. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  4. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman, Gabriel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Arthur W. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Worton, David R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kimmel, Joel R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Nah, Theodora [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hohaus, Thorsten [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gonin, Marc [Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Goldstein, Allen H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  5. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  6. Recycling Carbon Dioxide into Sustainable Hydrocarbon Fuels: Electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher Ronald

    Great quantities of hydrocarbon fuels will be needed for the foreseeable future, even if electricity based energy carriers begin to partially replace liquid hydrocarbons in the transportation sector. Fossil fuels and biomass are the most common feedstocks for production of hydrocarbon fuels. However, using renewable or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into sustainable hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. The purpose of this work was to develop critical components of a system that recycles CO2 into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The concept is examined at several scales, beginning with a broad scope analysis of large-scale sustainable energy systems and ultimately studying electrolysis of CO 2 and H2O in high temperature solid oxide cells as the heart of the energy conversion, in the form of three experimental studies. The contributions of these studies include discoveries about electrochemistry and materials that could significantly improve the overall energy use and economics of the CO2-to-fuels system. The broad scale study begins by assessing the sustainability and practicality of the various energy carriers that could replace petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuels, including other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and storage of electricity on-board vehicles in batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels. Any energy carrier can store the energy of any energy source. This sets the context for CO2 recycling -- sustainable energy sources like solar and wind power can be used to provide the most energy-dense, convenient fuels which can be readily used in the existing infrastructure. The many ways to recycle CO2 into hydrocarbons, based on thermolysis, thermochemical loops, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H 2O, are critically reviewed. A process based on high temperature co

  7. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  8. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  9. Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel Additives and a Dense Chlorinated Solvent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guven, O

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a description of the work done at Auburn University for the research project 'Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel additives and a Chlorinated Solvent', supported by Armstrong...

  10. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamarainen, J.; Knoop, H.; Stanford, N.; Guerrero, F.; Akhtar, M. K.; Aro, E. M.; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2012), s. 67-74 ISSN 0168-1656 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * Hydrocarbon * Fuel * Toxicity * Stoichiometric potential Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.183, year: 2012

  11. Natural gas and quality of fuels for the reduction of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Occhio, L.; Andreetto, B.

    1998-01-01

    The production of atmospheric pollutants in combustion processes depends on plant characteristic, combustion conditions and fuel quality. The influence of fuel quality on the emission of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dust and carbon dioxide and on the emission of some toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is analysed. The comparison between the emission limits, fixed by the Italian legislation, and the uncontrolled pollutant emissions, produced by fossil fuel combustion in power plants and industrial use, shows that, in order to comply with the limits, a reduction of pollutant emissions is required through the use of abatement systems and cleaner fuels where natural gas has a primary role. The use of cleaner fuels is particularly required in heating plants and appliances for the residential sector, where the development of new gas technologies further increases the environmental advantages of natural gas in comparison with other fuels [it

  12. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  13. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  14. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were exploration and occurs in a forearc basin. Each of these hydrate-bearing systems overlies and is likely supported by the presence and possible migration of gas from deeper gas-prone petroleum

  15. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-07-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements.

  16. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered during the 'Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor fuel development and spent fuel treatment' were as follows: Selection of constructions and materials, fuel element development concepts; Fabrication of spherical coated fuel particles and fuel element on their base; investigation of fuel properties; Spent fuel treatment and storage; Head-end processing of HTGR fuel elements; investigation of HTGR fuel regeneration process; applicability of gas-fluorine technology of regeneration of spent HTGR fuel elements

  17. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The landfill gas extraction in Sweden 2008 was 370 GWh. Mainly because of lack of available technologies for landfill gas upgrading and high assessed upgrading costs, landfill gas has so far only been used for heating and cogenerations plants (CHP). In recent years, interest has been brought to upgrade landfill gas and this study highlights the possibility of using landfill gas as fuel for vehicles. A decision in investment in an upgrading installation requires a forecast of future gas production and landfill gas extraction. From 2005, dispose of organic waste is prohibited, reducing the number of active landfills and the landfill gas production will go down. Factors such as moisture content, design of the final coverage and landfill gas collection system have a major impact on the extraction. It is therefore difficult to make appropriate predictions of the future gas production. Today's landfill gas extraction is approximately 35% of the landfill gas production and in the light of this, extraction can be in a level comparable to today's at least ten years ahead, provided that the extraction system is being expanded and that measurements are taken to so that landfills should not dry out. In comparison with biogas from anaerobic digestion in a dedicated digester, landfill gas has a high percentage of nitrogen and a content of many contaminants such as organic silicon compounds (siloxanes) and halogenated hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing the halogens chlorine, fluorine and bromine). This often requires more treatment and a further separation step. A common method for purification of landfill gas is regenerative adsorption on a dedicated adsorption material. Carbon dioxide is separated by conventional techniques like PSA, water scrubber and membranes. The main barrier to use landfill gas as vehicle fuel is a cost-effective separation of nitrogen that does not generate high methane losses. Nitrogen is separated by PSA or distillation technique (cryogenic

  18. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  19. History of gas fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizing the history of gas fuels in France consist essentially in the description of an economic and tax adventure with shortage constraints. The technology itself was developed long time ago and its principle do not raise any problem except for its optimization. The first LPG car was built in 1912 in the USA and fixed engines using town-gas as fuel were developed earlier. The French experience started during the second World War liquid fuels shortage and with the discovery of the Saint-Marcet gas field. The following history is directly related to the geopolitical fluctuations of energy supplies such as the independence of Algeria and the successive petroleum crashes. This short paper describes separately the evolution of natural gas for vehicles (NGV) and LPG fuels. The development of LPG fuels for public use vehicles started in 1979 but did not reached its expected impact due to the single-fuel constraint for vehicle design, applied until 1985, and to an unfavourable tax policy. Only public companies were capable to develop their own LPG vehicles fleet. The tendency of LPG development has recently changed as a consequence of the reinforcement of the environmental and economical policies initiated during the 70's. (J.S.)

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  1. Hydrogen generation from natural gas for the fuel cell systems of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Andrew L.

    In most cases hydrogen is the preferred fuel for use in the present generation of fuel cells being developed for commercial applications. Of all the potential sources of hydrogen, natural gas offers many advantages. It is widely available, clean, and can be converted to hydrogen relatively easily. When catalytic steam reforming is used to generate hydrogen from natural gas, it is essential that sulfur compounds in the natural gas are removed upstream of the reformer and various types of desulfurisation processes are available. In addition, the quality of fuel required for each type of fuel cell varies according to the anode material used, and the cell temperature. Low temperature cells will not tolerate high concentrations of carbon monoxide, whereas the molten fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes contain nickel on which it is possible to electrochemically oxidise carbon monoxide directly. The ability to internally reform fuel gas is a feature of the MCFC and SOFC. Internal reforming can give benefits in terms of increased electrical efficiency owing to the reduction in the required cell cooling and therefore parasitic system losses. Direct electrocatalysis of hydrocarbon oxidation has been the elusive goal of fuel cell developers over many years and recent laboratory results are encouraging. This paper reviews the principal methods of converting natural gas into hydrogen, namely catalytic steam reforming, autothermic reforming, pyrolysis and partial oxidation; it reviews currently available purification techniques and discusses some recent advances in internal reforming and the direct use of natural gas in fuel cells.

  2. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  3. Recovery of perchloroethylene scrubbing medium generated in the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, M.S.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    During the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel, perchloroethylene (C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/) is used as the nonmoderating scrubbing medium to remove condensable hydrocarbons, carbon soot, and uranium-bearing particulates from the off-gas streams. The process by which the contaminated perchloroethylene is recycled is discussed.

  4. Recovery of perchloroethylene scrubbing medium generated in the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, M.S.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.

    1976-11-01

    During the refabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel, perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ) is used as the nonmoderating scrubbing medium to remove condensable hydrocarbons, carbon soot, and uranium-bearing particulates from the off-gas streams. The process by which the contaminated perchloroethylene is recycled is discussed

  5. Gas fuels Taiwan's expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    The volume of liquid natural gas (LNG) imported into Taiwan is expected to double over the next ten years as the use of natural gas for power generation increases significantly. The Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) expects to import 4.5 million tonnes of LNG in 2000 compared with 4 million tonnes in 1999. CPC is building an undersea, offshore pipeline from the Yung An LNG terminal in the south of Taiwan up the western coastline to the north. The pipeline will supply gas to power stations in the north and city gas companies in Taipei. Combined cycle power plant units at Tungshiao power station are converting to gas and a new power plant at Changsheng will burn LNG. More LNG power plants are planned. LNG is imported from Indonesia and Malaysia to supplement Taiwan's dwindling reserves of natural gas. As well as expanding the existing terminal at Yung An, the CPC is considering the need for a second import terminal. This would probably be financed and operated by the private sector

  6. A method of estimating the knock rating of hydrocarbon fuel blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Newell D

    1943-01-01

    The usefulness of the knock ratings of pure hydrocarbon compounds would be increased if some reliable method of calculating the knock ratings of fuel blends was known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a method of predicting the knock ratings of fuel blends.

  7. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  8. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  9. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  10. Gas blanket fueling of a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a speculative investigation of the potential of fueling a Tokamak by introducing a sufficiently large quantity of gaseous deuterium and tritium at the vacuum wall boundary. It is motivated by two factors: current generation tokamaks are, in a manner of speaking, fueled from the edge quite successfully as is evidenced by pulse lengths that are long compared to particle recycling times, and by rapid plasma density increase produced by gas puffing, alternative, deep penetration fueling techniques that have been proposed possess severe technological problems and large costs

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  12. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3

  13. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  14. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    ) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages—CO2 capture, H2O and CO2...... by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis...

  15. National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 offshore India; gas hydrate systems as revealed by hydrocarbon gas geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, Thomas; Collett, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) targeted gas hydrate accumulations offshore of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The primary objectives of coring were to understand the geologic and geochemical controls on the accumulation of methane hydrate and their linkages to underlying petroleum systems. Four areas were investigated: 1) the Kerala-Konkan Basin in the eastern Arabian Sea, 2) the Mahanadi and 3) Krishna-Godavari Basins in the western Bay of Bengal, and 4) the Andaman forearc Basin in the Andaman Sea.Upward flux of methane at three of the four of the sites cored during NGHP-01 is apparent from the presence of seafloor mounds, seismic evidence for upward gas migration, shallow sub-seafloor geochemical evidence of methane oxidation, and near-seafloor gas composition that resembles gas from depth.The Kerala-Konkan Basin well contained only CO2 with no detectable hydrocarbons suggesting there is no gas hydrate system here. Gas and gas hydrate from the Krishna-Godavari Basin is mainly microbial methane with δ13C values ranging from −58.9 to −78.9‰, with small contributions from microbial ethane (−52.1‰) and CO2. Gas from the Mahanadi Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of C2-C5 hydrocarbons (C1/C2 ratios typically >1000) and CO2. Carbon isotopic compositions that ranged from −70.7 to −86.6‰ for methane and −62.9 to −63.7‰ for ethane are consistent with a microbial gas source; however deeper cores contained higher molecular weight hydrocarbon gases suggesting a small contribution from a thermogenic gas source. Gas composition in the Andaman Basin was mainly methane with lower concentrations of ethane to isopentane and CO2, C1/C2 ratios were mainly >1000 although deeper samples were compositions range from −65.2 to −80.7‰ for methane, −53.1 to −55.2‰ for ethane is consistent with mainly microbial gas sources, although one value recorded of −35.4‰ for propane

  16. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  17. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  18. Combustion of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Fuels and JP-8 at Moderate Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-26

    1. Introduction Fundamental knowledge of mechanisms of autoignition of condensed hydrocarbon fuels at elevated pressures is essential for accurate...particular JP-8) and surrogates of jet-fuels in laminar non-uniform flows at elevated pressures upto 2.5 MPa. Experimental and kinetic modeling studies...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Combustion, Jet Fuels, JP-8, Elevated

  19. Electrode design for low temperature direct-hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Zhao, Fei; Liu, Qiang

    2015-10-06

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  20. Management reporting in gas and fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.L.; Foot, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Gas and Fuel is the sole supplier of reticulated natural gas to 1.3 m customers in the State of Victoria, Australia. Reporting is performed monthly and is tailored to satisfy the requirements of the Board, executive management and business units. The reports include profit and cash statements, gas sales data, capital expenditure, benchmarks, operational data and human resources information. The reports are a mixture of written commentary, accounting statements and graphical presentations. The reports are used at monthly Board and executive meetings to review performance and manage the business. (au)

  1. Toxicological aspects of fuel and exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Some aspects concerning fuels (gasoline) and gas exhaust vehicle emissions toxicology are briefly examined in light of the results reported in recent literature on this argument. Many experimental studies carried out on animals and men turn out incomplete and do not allow thorough evaluations, for every aspect, of the risk to which men and the environment are subjected

  2. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs

  3. Specifically agricultural fuel: manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducellier, G; Isman, M

    1947-01-01

    By means of an appropriate succession of thermogenic, neutralizing, and CH/sub 4/-producing fermentations, 1 ton dry straw can produce up to 300 m/sup 3/ of combustible gas containing 60 to 70% CH/sub 4/ and 30 to 40% CO/sub 2/, and having a calorific value of 6000 cal per m/sup 3/. It has the advantage of being nontoxic, as it contains no CO, and of being only slightly explosive at ordinary pressure. Its advantages on the farm are briefly discussed.

  4. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  5. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  6. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  8. Gas fueling system for SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip; Semwal, Pratibha; George, Siju; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Thankey, Prashant; Khan, Mohammad Shoaib; Pradhan, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 Tokamak, the first Indian Steady-state Superconducting experimental device is at present under operation in Institute for Plasma Research. For plasma break down and initiation, the piezoelectric valve based gas feed system is implemented as primary requirement due to its precise control, easy handling, low costs for both construction and maintenance and its flexibility in working gas selection. The main functions of SST-1 gas feed system are to feed the required amount of ultrahigh purity hydrogen gas for specified period into the vessel during plasma operation and ultrahigh helium gas for glow discharge cleaning. In addition to these facilities, the gas feed system is used to feed a mixture gas of hydrogen and helium as well as other gases like nitrogen and Argon during divertor cooling etc. The piezoelectric valves used in SST-1 are remotely driven by a PXI based platform and are calibrated before the plasma operation during each SST-1 plasma operation with precise control. This paper will present the technical development and the results of gas fueling in SST-1. (author)

  9. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D K [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  10. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  11. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  12. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  13. Combustion Chamber Deposits and PAH Formation in SI Engines Fueled by Producer Gas from Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Investigations were made concerning the formation of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) in SI gas engines fueled by producer gas. The main objective was to determine and characterise CCD and PAH formation caused by the presence of the light tar compounds phenol and guaiacol in producer gas from...... on filters and a sorbent was used for collection of vapour phase aromatic compounds. The filters and sorbent were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formed during combustion. The measurements showed that there was no significant increase in particulate PAH emissions due to the tar compounds...

  14. Hydrodeoxygenation processes: advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sudipta; Saha, Basudeb; Luque, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via C-C coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  16. Microbial Bioremediation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Pavitran; C.B. Jagtap; S. Bala Subramanian; Susan Titus; Pradeep Kumar; P.C. Deb

    2006-01-01

    Pollution in marine environment due to heavier petroleum products such as high-speeddiesel is known to take from days to months for complete natural remediation owing to its lowvolatility. For the survival of marine flora and fauna, it is important to control pollution causedby such recalcitrant and xenobiotic substances. Several petroleum hydrocarbons found in natureare toxic and recalcitrant. Therefore, pollution due to high-speed diesel is a cause of concern.The natural dispersion of high-...

  17. Gas turbines with complete continuous combustion of the fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, C

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns a gas turbine plant with complete continuous combustion of the fuel. The fuel is taken to a gas generator in which the preheated fuel is catalytically converted at high temperature in a fuel mixture using an oxygen carrier. Heating of the fuel takes place in a heat exchanger which is situated in the outlet pipe of the turbine. The efficiency is increased and the emission of noxious gas is kept as low as possible using the heat exchanger as a fuel evaporator and by using part of the waste formed in the combustion chamber to carry oxygen to the gas generator via an outlet pipe.

  18. Microplasma reforming of hydrocarbons for fuel cell power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, R. S.; Lindner, P. J.

    The implementation of a microplasma approach for small scale reforming processes is explored as an alternative to more standard catalyst-based processes. Plasmas are a known approach to activating a chemical reaction in place of catalysts, and microplasmas are particularly attractive owing to their extremely high electron and power densities. Their inherent compactness gives them appeal for portable applications, but their modularity leads to scalability for higher capacity. We describe the realization of experimental microplasma reactors based on the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) structure by silicon micromachining for device fabrication. Experiments were carried out with model hydrocarbons methane and butane in the reactors within a microfluidic flow and analytical setup. We observe several key phenomena, including the ability to liberate hydrogen from the hydrocarbons at temperatures near ambient and sub-Watt input power levels, the tendency toward hydrocarbon decomposition rather than oxidation even in the presence of oxygen, and the need for a neutral carrier to obtain conversion. Mass and energy balances on these experiments revealed conversions up to nearly 50%, but the conversion of electrical power input to chemical reaction enthalpy was only on the order of 1%. These initial, exploratory results were recorded with devices and at process settings without optimization, and are hence promising for an emerging, catalyst-free reforming approach.

  19. Improving the performance of dual fuel engines running on natural gas/LPG by using pilot fuel derived from jojoba seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, UAE University, Jimmi, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 17555, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radwan, M.S.; Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-06-15

    The use of jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel was investigated for almost the first time as a way to improve the performance of dual fuel engine running on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at part load. The dual fuel engine used was Ricardo E6 variable compression diesel engine and it used either compressed natural gas (CNG) or LPG as the main fuel and jojoba methyl ester as a pilot fuel. Diesel fuel was used as a reference fuel for the dual fuel engine results. During the experimental tests, the following have been measured: engine efficiency in terms of specific fuel consumption, brake power output, combustion noise in terms of maximum pressure rise rate and maximum pressure, exhaust emissions in terms of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, knocking limits in terms of maximum torque at onset of knocking, and cyclic variability data of 100 engine cycles in terms of maximum pressure and its pressure rise rate average and standard deviation. The tests examined the following engine parameters: gaseous fuel type, engine speed and load, pilot fuel injection timing, pilot fuel mass and compression ratio. Results showed that using the jojoba fuel with its improved properties has improved the dual fuel engine performance, reduced the combustion noise, extended knocking limits and reduced the cyclic variability of the combustion. (author)

  20. Influence of performance characteristic of a gaseous fuel supply system on hydrocarbon emissions of a dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Zhong, H.; Hao, S.H. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Dept. of Automobile Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of the gaseous fuel supply and its influence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of dual-fuel engines have been investigated. A new design of manifold respirators with mixers is also presented in the paper. The design of the gaseous fuel supply system has a great influence on HC emissions in the dual-fuel engine at light load. The problem of scavenging is discussed and solved by using the manifold respirators in the dual-fuel engine. It performs the function of retarding the gaseous fuel entry timing from the moment of intake valve opening, and its delaying effects have been measured and tested. Experimental results show that the manifold respirator gives the best performance in reducing HC emissions compared with a common pipe mixer and a respirator with bo miser. In addition, the mixing effects are sensitive to the mixer configuration. (Author)

  1. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  2. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  3. Method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.J.; Pritchard, F.R.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a method and apparatus for continuously detecting and monitoring the hydrocarbon dew-point of a gas. A gas sample is supplied to a dew-point detector and the temperature of a portion of the sample gas stream to be investigated is lowered progressively prior to detection until the dew-point is reached. The presence of condensate within the flowing gas is detected and subsequently the supply gas sample is heated to above the dew-point. The procedure of cooling and heating the gas stream continuously in a cyclical manner is repeated.

  4. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.K.; Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  5. Hydrocarbon-Fuel/Combustion-Chamber-Liner Materials Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Grains, Leaving a Rough, Highly Pitted Surface 13 V (a) (b) ALA " I~ 4~ (0) (d) Figure 7. Cooling Channel Surface Features Resulting From the Overall...Canada or Terrell County, Texas as compared to natural gas from Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Thus, the viability of using field gas feedstock...possible source of higher volumes in the more distant future. TABLE.14 COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS NATURAL GAS FIELDS Rio Olds Cliffside Arriba Terrel

  6. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  7. Advanced gas-emission anode design for microfluidic fuel cell eliminating bubble accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi; Leung, Dennis Y C; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a low cost, easily fabricated energy device and is considered a promising energy supplier for portable electronics. However, the currently developed microfluidic fuel cells that are fed with hydrocarbon fuels are confronted with a bubble problem especially when operating at high current density conditions. In this work, a gas-emission anode is presented to eliminate the gas accumulation at the anode. This gas-emission anode is verified as a valid design for discharging gaseous products, which is especially beneficial for stable operation of microfluidic fuel cells. The electrochemical performance of a counter-flow microfluidic fuel cell equipped with a gas-emission anode was measured. The results indicate that the specific design of the gas-emission anode is essential for reducing the oxygen reduction reaction parasitic effect at the anode. Fuel utilization of 76.4% was achieved at a flow rate of 0.35 µ l min −1 . Current–voltage curves of single electrodes were measured and the parasitic effect at the anode was identified as the main performance limiting factor in the presented anode design. (paper)

  8. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  9. Multidimensional gas chromatography for the characterization of permanent gases and light hydrocarbons in catalytic cracking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Cortes, H J; Shellie, R A

    2013-01-04

    An integrated gas chromatographic system has been successfully developed and implemented for the measurement of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbons in one single analysis. These analytes are frequently encountered in critical industrial petrochemical and chemical processes like catalytic cracking of naphtha or diesel fuel to lighter components used in gasoline. The system employs a practical, effective configuration consisting of two three-port planar microfluidic devices in series with each other, having built-in fluidic gates, and a mid-point pressure source. The use of planar microfluidic devices offers intangible advantages like in-oven switching with no mechanical moving parts, an inert sample flow path, and a leak-free operation even with multiple thermal cycles. In this way, necessary features such as selectivity enhancement, column isolation, column back-flushing, and improved system cleanliness were realized. Porous layer open tubular capillary columns were employed for the separation of hydrocarbons followed by flame ionization detection. After separation has occurred, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were converted to methane with the use of a nickel-based methanizer for detection with flame ionization. Flow modulated thermal conductivity detection was employed to measure oxygen and nitrogen. Separation of all the target analytes was achieved in one single analysis of less than 12 min. Reproducibility of retention times for all compounds were found to be less than 0.1% (n=20). Reproducibility of area counts at two levels, namely 100 ppm(v) and 1000 ppm(v) over a period of two days were found to be less than 5.5% (n=20). Oxygen and nitrogen were found to be linear over a range from 20 ppm(v) to 10,000 ppm(v) with correlation coefficients of at least 0.998 and detection limits of less than 10 ppm(v). Hydrocarbons of interest were found to be linear over a range from 200 ppb(v) to 1000 ppm(v) with correlation

  10. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  11. Hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel from bioconversion of poplar biomass: life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsberg, Erik; Crawford, Jordan T; Morgan, Hannah; Chin, Wei Shan; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Bio-jet fuels compatible with current aviation infrastructure are needed as an alternative to petroleum-based jet fuel to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Cradle to grave life cycle analysis is used to investigate the global warming potential and fossil fuel use of converting poplar biomass to drop-in bio-jet fuel via a novel bioconversion platform. Unique to the biorefinery designs in this research is an acetogen fermentation step. Following dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, poplar biomass is fermented to acetic acid and then distilled, hydroprocessed, and oligomerized to jet fuel. Natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification are proposed to meet hydrogen demands at the biorefineries. Separate well to wake simulations are performed using the hydrogen production processes to obtain life cycle data. Both biorefinery designs are assessed using natural gas and hog fuel to meet excess heat demands. Global warming potential of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from CO2 equivalences of 60 to 66 and 32 to 73 g MJ(-1), respectively. Fossil fuel usage of the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet fuel scenarios range from 0.78 to 0.84 and 0.71 to 1.0 MJ MJ(-1), respectively. Lower values for each impact category result from using hog fuel to meet excess heat/steam demands. Higher values result from using natural gas to meet the excess heat demands. Bio-jet fuels produced from the bioconversion of poplar biomass reduce the global warming potential and fossil fuel use compared with petroleum-based jet fuel. Production of hydrogen is identified as a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use in both the natural gas steam reforming and lignin gasification bio-jet simulations. Using hog fuel instead of natural gas to meet heat demands can help lower the global warming potential and fossil fuel use at the biorefineries.

  12. A comparison of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbon compositions of vehicle fuels and urban air in Dublin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, B M; Marnane, I S [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Hourly roadside hydrocarbon concentrations were measured over a six-week period at a heavily trafficked junction in Dublin city centre. Samples of ten typical leaded and unleaded petrol fuels used in Irish vehicles were also collected and their hydrocarbon compositions determined. The measured ambient hydrocarbon concentrations are presented, as are the properties of each of the analysed fuels. Comparison of the ambient hydrocarbon concentrations and the fuel hydrocarbon composition reveals a strong correlation for most hydrocarbons, except those compounds that were wholly combustion derived (i.e. not present in the fuel). Different characteristics were noted for aromatics, alkanes and alkenes. The comparison of roadside ambient air and fuel hydrocarbon content agrees well with other studies that have compared fuel content and exhaust composition. The relative impacts of exhaust and evaporative emissions on roadside hydrocarbon concentrations are apparent. (Author)

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse

  15. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  16. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  17. Methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbjakina, A. V.; Dolotovskij, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the methodological aspects of fuel performance system analysis at raw hydrocarbon (RH) processing plants. Modern RH processing facilities are the major consumers of energy resources (ER) for their own needs. To reduce ER, including fuel consumption, and to develop rational fuel system structure are complex and relevant scientific tasks that can only be done using system analysis and complex system synthesis. In accordance with the principles of system analysis, the hierarchical structure of the fuel system, the block scheme for the synthesis of the most efficient alternative of the fuel system using mathematical models and the set of performance criteria have been developed on the main stages of the study. The results from the introduction of specific engineering solutions to develop their own energy supply sources for RH processing facilities have been provided.

  18. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot particles and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingxun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Tiefeng

    2014-01-01

    Besides gas species concentrations, soot volume fractions are also important data in the study of flames. This work describes the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of soot and gas species in light hydrocarbon flames by in situ sampling and mass spectrometry (MS).The reaction medium was frozen by sampling into a very low-pressure tube, and the soot selectivity (proportion of carbon atoms in the reactant converted to soot) was determined from the C and H mass balances using the measured concentrations of the gas species and the mass of soot present per unit gas volume. The H/C ratio of the soot was measured by a thermogravimetry–mass spectrometry combination. The soot volume fraction was calculated from the soot selectivity and density of the soot. The soot selectivity measured by this reduced pressure sampling mass spectrometry (RPSMS) method was verified by measurements using the gravimetric sampling technique where the mass of soot collected in a volume of gas was weighed by a high precision balance. For most of the measurements, the uncertainty in the soot volume fraction was ±5%, but this would be larger when the soot volume fractions are less than 1 ppm. For demonstration, the RPSMS method was used to study a methane fuel-rich flame where the soot volume fractions were 1–5 ppm. The simultaneous measurement of concentrations of soot and gas species is useful for the quantitative study of flames. (paper)

  20. Psychosocial risks and hydrocarbon leaks : an exploration of their relationship in the Norwegian oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, L.I.V.; Ringstad, A.J.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon leaks have a major accident potential in the oil and gas industry. Over the years the oil and gas industry in Norway has worked hard to find means to prevent hydrocarbon leaks and is today able to report significant progress. In this context, the exploration of accidents in light of

  1. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm 3 by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  2. Emissions deterioration for three alternative fuel vehicle types: Natural gas, ethanol, and methanol vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebrake, J.J.; Deaton, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Although there have been several studies examining emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about the deterioration of these emissions over vehicle lifetimes and how this deterioration compares with deterioration from conventional vehicles (CVs). This paper analyzes emissions data from 70 AFVs and 70 CVs operating in the federal government fleet to determine whether AFV emissions deterioration differs significantly from CV emissions deterioration. The authors conduct the analysis on three alternative fuel types (natural gas, methanol, and ethanol) and on five pollutants (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides). They find that for most cases they studied, deterioration differences are not statistically significant; however, several exceptions suggest that air quality planners and regulators must further analyze AFV emissions deterioration in order to properly include these technologies into broader air quality management schemes

  3. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Benjamin L., E-mail: bmcalexander@trihydro.com

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  4. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  5. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  6. A Monte Carlo simulation method for assessing biotransformation effects on groundwater fuel hydrocarbon plume lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, W.W. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Biotransformation of dissolved groundwater hydrocarbon plumes emanating from leaking underground fuel tanks should, in principle, result in plume length stabilization over relatively short distances, thus diminishing the environmental risk. However, because the behavior of hydrocarbon plumes is usually poorly constrained at most leaking underground fuel tank sites in terms of release history, groundwater velocity, dispersion, as well as the biotransformation rate, demonstrating such a limitation in plume length is problematic. Biotransformation signatures in the aquifer geochemistry, most notably elevated bicarbonate, may offer a means of constraining the relationship between plume length and the mean biotransformation rate. In this study, modeled plume lengths and spatial bicarbonate differences among a population of synthetic hydrocarbon plumes, generated through Monte Carlo simulation of an analytical solute transport model, are compared to field observations from six underground storage tank (UST) sites at military bases in California. Simulation results indicate that the relationship between plume length and the distribution of bicarbonate is best explained by biotransformation rates that are consistent with ranges commonly reported in the literature. This finding suggests that bicarbonate can indeed provide an independent means for evaluating limitations in hydrocarbon plume length resulting from biotransformation. (Author)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced

  8. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  9. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  10. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  11. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  12. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications.

  13. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  14. Catalytic Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbon Fuels to Hydrogen: Process Investigations with Regard to Auxiliary Power Units

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltschmitt, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the investigation of the catalytic partial oxidation on rhodium-coated honeycomb catalysts with respect to the conversion of a model surrogate fuel and commercial diesel fuel into hydrogen for the use in auxiliary power units. Furthermore, the influence of simulated tail-gas recycling was investigated.

  15. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  16. Natural gas treatment: Simultaneous water and hydrocarbon-dew point-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Rennemann, D. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Schulz, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    Natural gas is a multicomponent mixture of hydrocarbons. The condensation behavior of such mixtures is different from single component systems. The so-called retrograde behavior leads to the observations that saturated vapor (dew point curve) and saturated liquid curve (bubble point curve) are not identical. Between both is a region of saturated phases which even can exist above the critical point. Following this behaviour it is possible that condensation might occur at pressure decrease or at temperature increase, respectively. This phenomenon is undesired in natural gas pipeline networks. Selective removal of higher hydrocarbons by the means of adsorption can change the phase behavior in such a way that condensation does not occur at temperatures and pressures specified for gas distribution. (orig.)

  17. Broadly tunable mid-infrared VECSEL for multiple components hydrocarbon gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J. M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    A new sensing platform to simultaneously identify and quantify volatile C1 to C4 alkanes in multi-component gas mixtures is presented. This setup is based on an optically pumped, broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) developed for gas detection. The lead-chalcogenide VECSEL is the key component of the presented optical sensor. The potential of the proposed sensing setup is illustrated by experimental absorption spectra obtained from various mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons and water vapor. The sensor has a sub-ppm limit of detection for each targeted alkane in a hydrocarbon gas mixture even in the presence of a high water vapor content.

  18. H2-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, K. David; Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Waggoner, William M.; Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-01-01

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H 2 -rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H 2 may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 . Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H 2 in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically associated with proposed

  19. Origins of hydrocarbon gas seeping out from offshore mud volcanoes in the Nile delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzhofer, Alain; Deville, Eric

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the origin of gas seepages (free gas or dissolved gas in ground water or brine) sampled with the Nautile submarine during the Nautinil cruise at the seafloor of the deep water area of the Nile turbiditic system on different mud volcanoes and brine pools. Generally, the gas is wet and includes C1, C2, C3, iC4, nC4, CO2. These gas samples show no evidence of biodegradation which is not the case of the gas present in the deep hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. It indicates that the gas expelled by the mud volcanoes is not issued from direct leakages from deep gas fields. The collected gas samples mainly have a thermogenic origin and show different maturities. Some samples show very high maturities indicating that these seepages are sourced from great depths, below the Messinian salt. Moreover, the different chemical compositions of the gas samples reflect not only differences in maturity but also the fact that the gas finds its origin in different deep source rocks. Carbon dioxide has an organic signature and cannot result from carbonate decomposition or mantle fluids. The crustal-derived radiogenic isotopes show that the analyzed gas samples have suffered a fractionation processes after the production of the radiogenic isotopes, due either to oil occurrence at depth interacting with the flux of gas, and/or fractionation during the fluid migration.

  20. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  1. Thermodynamics of the fuel fragmentation gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.B.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of nuclear reactor safety studies, a program is in progress at ORNL whereby fuel-fragmentation situations are mocked up by the application of high-current capacitor discharges through solid UO 2 samples. The goal of the present work is to predict such quantities as the number of gas and liquid fragments and their energy distributions. The point of view adopted is that upon fragmentation, a cloud of UO 2 vapor is formed containing ''primeval'' liquid fragments which act as condensation centers. In the evolution of time, fragment growth is controlled by nucleation, coagulation and evaporation processes. Eventually, the vapor-droplet system will reach a situation in which clusters (fragments) of various sizes and UO 2 vapor will coexist in an ''association-disassociation'' equilibrium. Thus, the physical model considered here consists of the identification of the fragmentation gas with an ''imperfect'' vapor, made up of interacting UO 2 vapor and liquid fragments. The results of the study are presented

  2. Mechanism of hydrocarbon reduction using multiple injection in a natural gas fuelled/micro-pilot diesel ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklow, G.J.; Gong, W. [University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Research has shown that a large amount of natural gas (NG) is unburned at light loads in an NG fuelled/micro-pilot diesel compression ignition engine. A mechanism of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) reduction using multiple injections of micro-pilot diesel has been proposed in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for a dual-fuel engine based on a modified CAT3401 engine configuration. The computations show that a split injection with a small percentage (e.g. 30 per cent of diesel in the second injection pulse) can significantly reduce HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. Based on parax metric studies to optimize the timing of both of the injection pulses, HC emissions could be reduced by 90 per cent, with a reduction in CO emissions of 50 per cent and NO{sub x} emissions of 70 per cent in comparison to a singlex injection pulse-base case configuration. (author)

  3. Effects of Supercritical Environment on Hydrocarbon-fuel Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bongchul Shin; Dohun Kim; Min Son; Jaye Koo

    2017-01-01

    In this study,the effects of environment conditions on decane were investigated.Decane was injected in subcritical and supercritical ambient conditions.The visualization chamber was pressurized to 1.68 MPa by using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 653 K for subcritical ambient conditions.For supercritical ambient conditions,the visualization chamber was pressurized to 2.52 MPa by using helium at a temperature of 653 K.The decane injection in the pressurized chamber was visualized via a shadowgraph technique and gradient images were obtained by a post processing method.A large variation in density gradient was observed at jet interface in the case of subcritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions.Conversely,for supercritical injection in supercritical ambient conditions,a small density gradient was observed at the jet interface.In a manner similar to that observed in other cases,supercritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions differed from supercritical ambient conditions such as sphere shape liquid.Additionally,there were changes in the interface,and the supercritical injection core width was thicker than that in the subcritical injection.Furthermore,in cases with the same injection conditions,the change in the supercritical ambient normalized core width was smaller than the change in the subcritical ambient normalized core width owing to high specific heat at the supercritical injection and small phase change at the interface.Therefore,the interface was affected by the changing ambient condition.Given that the effect of changing the thermodynamic properties of propellants could be essential for a variable thrust rocket engine,the effects of the ambient conditions were investigated experimentally.

  4. Effects of supercritical environment on hydrocarbon-fuel injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Bongchul; Kim, Dohun; Son, Min; Koo, Jaye

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the effects of environment conditions on decane were investigated. Decane was injected in subcritical and supercritical ambient conditions. The visualization chamber was pressurized to 1.68 MPa by using nitrogen gas at a temperature of 653 K for subcritical ambient conditions. For supercritical ambient conditions, the visualization chamber was pressurized to 2.52 MPa by using helium at a temperature of 653 K. The decane injection in the pressurized chamber was visualized via a shadowgraph technique and gradient images were obtained by a post processing method. A large variation in density gradient was observed at jet interface in the case of subcritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions. Conversely, for supercritical injection in supercritical ambient conditions, a small density gradient was observed at the jet interface. In a manner similar to that observed in other cases, supercritical injection in subcritical ambient conditions differed from supercritical ambient conditions such as sphere shape liquid. Additionally, there were changes in the interface, and the supercritical injection core width was thicker than that in the subcritical injection. Furthermore, in cases with the same injection conditions, the change in the supercritical ambient normalized core width was smaller than the change in the subcritical ambient normalized core width owing to high specific heat at the supercritical injection and small phase change at the interface. Therefore, the interface was affected by the changing ambient condition. Given that the effect of changing the thermodynamic properties of propellants could be essential for a variable thrust rocket engine, the effects of the ambient conditions were investigated experimentally.

  5. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  6. A pathway to eliminate the gas flow dependency of a hydrocarbon sensor for automotive exhaust applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors will play an essential role in future combustion-based mobility to effectively reduce emissions and monitor the exhausts reliably. In particular, an application in automotive exhausts is challenging due to the high gas temperatures that come along with highly dynamic flow rates. Recently, a thermoelectric hydrocarbon sensor was developed by using materials which are well known in the exhausts and therefore provide the required stability. As a sensing mechanism, the temperature difference that is generated between a catalytically activated area during the exothermic oxidation of said hydrocarbons and an inert area of the sensor is measured by a special screen-printed thermopile structure. As a matter of principle, this thermovoltage significantly depends on the mass flow rate of the exhausts under certain conditions. The present contribution helps to understand this cross effect and proposes a possible setup for its avoidance. By installing the sensor in the correct position of a bypass solution, the gas flow around the sensor is almost free of turbulence. Now, the signal depends only on the hydrocarbon concentration and not on the gas flow. Such a setup may open up new possibilities of applying novel sensors in automotive exhausts for on-board-measurement (OBM purposes.

  7. Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Bulk Physical Properties of Synthesized Hydrocarbon:Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine Division CHARLES W. STEVENS, Lead Engineer Turbine Engine Division Aerospace Systems...evaluation concludes, based on fundamental physical chemistry , that all hydrocarbon kerosenes that meet the minimum density requirement will have bulk...alternative jet fuels; renewable jet fuel; fuel physical properties; fuel chemistry ; fuel properties 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  8. The effect of fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on a vapor phase carbon adsorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.J.; Cheney, J.L.; Taggart, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system installed at the South Tacoma Well 12A Superfund Site was designed to recover 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TCA) from the vadose zone. The basic system consisted of twenty-two extraction wells, three centrifugal blowers, and three carbon adsorbers. The carbon adsorbers were regenerated on site by steam stripping. The mixture of steam and stripped organics was condensed and then decanted to separate the water from the organic phase. The recovered water was air stripped to remove the dissolved organics prior to discharge to the city storm sewer. The recovered organic phase was then shipped off site for thermal destruction. Previous reports described operating difficulties with the decanter, and air strippers. Sampling and analyses were performed which identified the problem as the simultaneous recovery of unexpected fuel hydrocarbons in addition to the solvents. Recovery of fuels resulted in a light phase in the decanter in addition to the water and heavy solvent phases. This required redesign of the decanter to handle the third phase. The effectiveness of desorption of the carbon beds by steam stripping gradually decreased as the remediation progressed into the second year of operation. Samples were collected from the carbon beds to evaluate the effect of the fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on the activated carbon. This report describes the results of these analyses. The data indicated that both 1,1,2,2-TCA and fuel hydrocarbons in the C-9 to C-24 range remained in the carbon beds after steam regeneration in sufficient quantities to require replacing the carbon

  9. Investigation of an anti-knock index and hydrocarbon emissions of various natural gas blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The North American rail industry is examining the use of natural gas to reduce fuel costs for locomotives that are powered by dual : fuel engines. This report evaluates the ability of an existing methane number algorithm to predict rapid combustion i...

  10. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of bio-fuels: Excess functions for binary mixtures containing ETBE and hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, Jose J.; Villamanan, Rosa M.; Martin, M. Carmen; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    European energy policy is promoting the use of bio-fuels for transportation. Bioethers and bioalcohols are used as blending agents for enhancing the octane number. They make gasoline work harder, help the engine last longer and reduce air pollution. They also cause changes in the fuel properties. Development of renewable fuels needs both knowledge of new thermodynamic data and improvement of clean energy technologies. In this context, the use of ethanol of vegetable origin in its manufacture process, increases the interest of ETBE or bio-ETBE as an oxygenated additive. A complete study of the behaviour of ETBE + hydrocarbons mixtures is presented. Some experimental data concerning vapor-liquid equilibria and heats of mixing were determined in our laboratory. All the techniques have a high accuracy. The data were reduced by well-known models, such as NRTL and used to model the thermodynamic properties.

  12. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  13. Liquefied Petroleum Gas as Automotive Fuel in Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibilities of using liquefied petroleumgas (LPG as alternative fuel for propelling Olio enginesin passenger cars. The advantages of using LPG comparedto petrol are reflected in the reduced emission of harmfulgases, lower price. The disadvantages include the costs of installingthe gas equipment, occupying part of the boot, as well asfew gas filling stations. In spite of the disadvantages, liquefiedpetroleum gas is claimed to be the fuel of the future.

  14. Intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieg, L.M.; McInerney; Tanner, R.S.; Harris, S.H. Jr.; Sublette, K.L.; Suflita, J.M.; Kolhatkar, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    A study was designed to determine if the intrinsic bioremediation of gas condensate hydrocarbons represented an important fate process in a shallow aquifer underlying a natural gas production site. For over 4 yr, changes in the groundwater, sediment, and vadose zone chemistry in the contaminated portion of the aquifer were interpreted relative to a background zone. Changes included decreased dissolved oxygen and sulfate levels and increased alkalinity, Fe(II), and methane concentrations in the contaminated groundwater, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic respiration depleted oxygen reserves leaving anaerobic conditions in the hydrocarbon-impacted subsurface. Dissolved hydrogen levels in the contaminated groundwater indicated that sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were predominant biological processes, corroborating the geochemical findings. Furthermore, 10--1000-fold higher numbers of sulfate reducers and methanogens were enumerated in the contaminated sediment relative to background. Putative metabolites were also detected in the contaminated groundwater, including methylbenzylsuccinic acid, a signature intermediate of anaerobic xylene decay. Laboratory incubations showed that benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and each of the xylene isomers were biodegraded under sulfate-reducing conditions as was toluene under methanogenic conditions. These results coupled with a decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations in contaminated sediment confirm that intrinsic bioremediation contributes to the attenuation of hydrocarbons in this aquifer

  15. Preliminary study or RSG-GAS reactor fuel element integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejoedi, A.; Tarigan, A.; Sujalmo; Prayoga, S.; Suhadi

    1996-01-01

    After 8 years of operation, RSG-GAS was able to reach 15 cycles of reactor operation with 116 irradiated fuels, whereas 49 fuels were produced by NUKEM; and the other 67 were produced by PEBN-BATAN. At the 15 T h cycles, it have been used 40 standard fuels and 8 control fuels (Forty standard fuels and eight control fuels have been used in the 15 t h core cycles). Several activities have been performed in the reactor, to investigate the fuel integrity, among of them are: .fuel visual test with under water camera, which the results were recorder in the video cassette, primary water quality test during, reactor operation, fuel failure detector system examination and compared the PIE results in the Radiometallurgy Installation (RMI). The results showed that the fuel integrity, before and after irradiation, have still good performance and the fission products have not been released yet

  16. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  17. Modification of Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Fluid Hydrocarbons. Research of Gas-Dynamic Duct Cooling Using Planar and Framework Catalysts (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuranov, Alexander L

    2005-01-01

    .... One way of fuel conversion is the catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbon. This reaction has a large heat capacity and gives maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen among known reactions of hydrocarbons...

  18. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  19. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matti Maricq, M. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  20. Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigl, W.O.; Chladek, E.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

  1. Hydrogen condensation products of Turkmenistan gas fields as motor fuel components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul-dzhaev, B.A.; Sergienko, S.R.; Tsibrova, E.G.

    1985-07-01

    Technical data are provided in tabular form on the composition of hydrocarbon condensation products obtained from various gas fields in Turkmenia, with an analysis of their usefulness as gasoline and diesel fuels. For example, high-paraffin condensates are characterized by low octane numbers (30-50) of the gasoline fraction (150-180/sup 0/C). However, lowering the temperature at the end of distillation to 120-130/sup 0/C increased the octane number to 73, one point higher than required by State Standards for automobile gasoline A-72. The cetane number of diesel fuels in general exceed the State Standards, especially in the case of fractions 150/sup 0/C and 180/sup 0/C of the high-paraffin condensates obtained from the Shatlyk site. Summarized data are presented on the suitability of the products obtained from the different site for the different types of fuels. 4 references.

  2. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  3. Fundamentals of Hydrocarbon Upgrading to Liquid Fuels and Commodity Chemicals over Catalytic Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao

    Promising new technologies for biomass conversion into fuels and chemical feedstocks rely on the production of bio-oils, which need to be upgraded in order to remove oxygen-containing hydrocarbons and water. A high oxygen concentration makes bio-oils acidic and corrosive, unstable during storage, and less energetically valuable per unit weight than petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Although there are efficient processes for the production of bio-oils, there are no efficient technologies for their upgrading. Current technologies utilize traditional petroleum refining catalysts, which are not optimized for biomass processing. New upgrading technologies are, therefore, urgently needed for development of sustainable energy resources. Development of such new technologies, however, is severely hindered by a lack of fundamental understanding of how oxygen and oxygen-containing hydrocarbons derived from biomass interact with promising noble-metal catalysts. In this study, kinetic reaction measurements, catalyst characterization and quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory were combined for determining adsorption modes and reaction mechanisms of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen on surfaces of catalytic noble-metal nanoparticles. The results were used for developing improved catalyst formulations and optimization of reaction conditions. The addition of molybdenum to platinum catalysts was shown to improve catalytic activity, stability, and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid, which served as a model biomass compound. The fundamental results that describe interactions of oxygen and hydrocarbons with noble-metal catalysts were extended to other reactions and fields of study: evaluation of the reaction mechanism for hydrogen peroxide decomposition, development of improved hydrogenation catalysts and determination of adsorption modes of a spectroscopic probe molecule.

  4. Dynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel within the channel at supercritical and pyrolysis condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Weixing; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen

    2017-12-01

    Regenerative cooling with fuel as the coolant is used in the scramjet engine. In order to grasp the dynamic characteristics of engine fuel supply processes, this article studies the dynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel within the channel. A one-dimensional dynamic model was proved, the thermal energy storage effect, fuel volume effect and chemical dynamic effect have been considered in the model, the ordinary differential equations were solved using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The precision of the model was validated by three groups of experimental data. The effects of input signal, working condition, tube size on the dynamic characteristics of pressure, flow rate, temperature have been simulated. It is found that cracking reaction increased the compressibility of the fuel pyrolysis mixture and lead to longer responding time of outlet flow. The responding time of outlet flow can reach 3s when tube is 5m long which will greatly influence the control performance of the engine thrust system. Meanwhile, when the inlet flow rate appears the step change, the inlet pressure leads to overshoot, the overshoot can reach as much as 100%, such highly transient impulse will result in detrimental effect on fuel pump.

  5. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system examination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Woong Sup

    1999-02-01

    Fission gas products accumulated in irradiated fuel rod is 1-2 cm 3 in CANDU and 40-50 cm 3 in PWR fuel rod. Fuel rod puncturing and fission gas monitoring system can be used for both CANDU and PWR fuel rod. This system comprises puncturing device located at in cell part and monitoring device located at out cell part. The system has computerized 9 modes and can calculate both void volume and mass volume only single puncturing. This report describes techniques and procedure for operating fuel rod puncturing and gas monitoring system which can be play an important role in successful operation of the devices. Results obtained from the analysis can give more influence over design for fuel rods. (Author). 6 refs., 9 figs

  6. Generator gas as a fuel to power a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of gasification process of dried sewage sludge and use of generator gas as a fuel for dual fuel turbocharged compression ignition engine are presented. The results of gasifying showed that during gasification of sewage sludge is possible to obtain generator gas of a calorific value in the range of 2.15  2.59 MJ/m3. It turned out that the generator gas can be effectively used as a fuel to the compression ignition engine. Because of gas composition, it was possible to run engine with partload conditions. In dual fuel operation the high value of indicated efficiency was achieved equal to 35%, so better than the efficiency of 30% attainable when being fed with 100% liquid fuel. The dual fuel engine version developed within the project can be recommended to be used in practice in a dried sewage sludge gasification plant as a dual fuel engine driving the electric generator loaded with the active electric power limited to 40 kW (which accounts for approx. 50% of its rated power, because it is at this power that the optimal conditions of operation of an engine dual fuel powered by liquid fuel and generator gas are achieved. An additional advantage is the utilization of waste generated in the wastewater treatment plant.

  7. Optimization experiment of gas oil direct injection valve for CNG dual fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.Y. [Chonnam National University Graduate School, Jeonju (Korea); Park, C. K. [Chonnam National University, Jeonju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, we studied for a conversion from diesel engine to natural gas dual fuel engine. For this experimental, we tested about the injection quantity characteristics of pilot valve with the plunger diameter at the retraction volume and investigated to the engine performance and exhaust emissions with the nozzle hole number and injection nozzle diameter. As a result, when the plunger diameter is 7.5 mm at the retraction volume, 25 mm{sup 3}/st, the injection quantity characteristics develop. Also, when a nozzle type is 4*{phi} 0.24, total hydrocarbon(THC) emission reduce at low equivalence ratio. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Gas-fueling studies in the PDX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Budny, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Owens, D.K.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1982-08-01

    The characteristics of gas-fueling of high power discharges in the PDX tokamak have been investigated using gas-flow, neutral pressure, plasma density, and Hα emission measurements. The efficiency of gas-fueling was measured for various plasma configurations by comparison of the measured gas-influx rates to the particle exhaust rates inferred from particle decay time measurements. We observe that the fueling efficiency decreases significantly with increasing plasma density as the ionization length for thermal neutrals becomes shorter than the width of the boundary plasma. Gas fueling rates required to maintain a given plasma density are considerably higher (by factors of 5 to 10) for diverted discharges compared to limiter discharges. This result is attributed to a lower effective recycling coefficient for diverted plasmas. We discuss the dependence of the particle balance on the following experimentally measured parameters: the particle containment time, system-pumping speed, and neutral pressure in the vicinity of the active pumps

  9. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  10. Thermal soil desorption for total petroleum hydrocarbon testing on gas chromatographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, J.

    1995-01-01

    Testing for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is one of the most common analytical tests today. A recent development in chromatography incorporates Thermal Soil Desorption technology to enable analyses of unprepared soil samples for volatiles such as BTEX components and semi-volatiles such as diesel, PCBs, PAHs and pesticides in the same chromatogram, while in the field. A gas chromatograph is the preferred method for determining TPH because the column in a GC separates the individual hydrocarbons compounds such as benzene and toluene from each other and measures each individually. A GC analysis will determine not only the total amount of hydrocarbon, but also whether it is gasoline, diesel or another compound. TPH analysis with a GC is typically conducted with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Extensive field and laboratory testing has shown that incorporation of a Thermal Soil Desorber offers many benefits over traditional analytical testing methods such as Headspace, Solvent Extraction, and Purge and Trap. This paper presents the process of implementing Thermal Soil Desorption in gas chromatography, including procedures for, and advantages of faster testing and analysis times, concurrent volatile and semi-volatile analysis, minimized sample manipulation, single gas (H 2 ) operation, and detection to the part-per billion levels

  11. Guidelines for Constructing Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines Through Areas Prone to Landslide and Subsidence Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines provide recommendations for the assessment of new and existing natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines subjected to potential ground displacements resulting from landslides and subsidence. The process of defining landslide and s...

  12. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  13. Determination of catalyst residues in hydrocarbon fuels by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the determination of entrained catalytic cracking catalyst in hydrocarbon fuels. Aluminium is measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis and the amount of catalyst present is calculated from the amount of aluminium found and the known composition of the catalyst. Entrained catalyst may be determined at levels above 3 ppm with a precision of +-2%-25% according to sample composition. Only simple procedures are required. Vanadium may reduce sensitivity by dead time and pulse pile-up. No other interferences were observed. (author)

  14. Determination of Critical Properties of Endothermic Hydrocarbon Fuel RP-3 Based on Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The critical pressure and temperature of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel RP-3 were determined by flow visualization. The flow pattern images of RP-3 at different pressures and temperatures were obtained. The critical pressure is identified by disappearance of the phase change while the critical temperature is determined by appearance of the opalescence phenomenon under the critical pressure. The opalescence phenomenon is unique to the critical point. The critical pressure and temperature of RP-3 are determined to be 2.3 MPa and 646 K, respectively.

  15. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  16. Design and production of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the production of brown's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essuman, Samuel Pamford Kojo

    2017-07-01

    its high contribution to environmental pollution, this project also sought to improve emissions of internal combustion engines characteristics. This was performed by using oxyhydrogen gas produced in the laboratory. The results showed a drastic reduction in the concentration of CO, NOx, Total Hydrocarbon (THCs) and SO2 and a subsequent increase in engine performance and efficiency. The application of oxyhydrogen gas as a fuel supplement for Spark and Compression Internal Engines was considered to be one of the most desirable methods to ensuring green environment. Oxyhydrogen gas has many excellent combustion properties that can be used to improve hydrocarbon combustion and emission performance of automobile engines. (author)

  17. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat-straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp (50 kW) agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10% diesel oil and 90% producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present test results are not optimal for any of the fuels used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using approximately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  18. Non-mine technology of hydrocarbon resources production at complex development of gas and coal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginov, A.S.; Adilov, K.N.; Akhmetbekov, Sh.U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-mine technology of coal gas seams exploitation is new geological technological method of complex exploitation of coal gas deposits. The method allows sequentially to extract hydrocarbon resources in technological aggregative-mobile condensed states. According to natural methane content in seams the technology includes: methane extraction from sorption volume where it is bounded up with coal; gas output intensification of coal is due to structural changes of substance at the cost of physico-chemical treatment of seam; increase of seam permeability by the methods of active physical and physico-chemical actions on coal seam (hydro-uncovering, pneumatic hydro action etc.). Pilot testing shows efficiency of well mastering with help of depth pumps. In this case works of action of pumping out of operating liquid and gas extraction from coal seam are integrated

  19. Methods of making transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  20. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  1. Compressed Natural Gas Technology for Alternative Fuel Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujotomo, Isworo

    2018-02-01

    Gas has great potential to be converted into electrical energy. Indonesia has natural gas reserves up to 50 years in the future, but the optimization of the gas to be converted into electricity is low and unable to compete with coal. Gas is converted into electricity has low electrical efficiency (25%), and the raw materials are more expensive than coal. Steam from a lot of wasted gas turbine, thus the need for utilizing exhaust gas results from gas turbine units. Combined cycle technology (Gas and Steam Power Plant) be a solution to improve the efficiency of electricity. Among other Thermal Units, Steam Power Plant (Combined Cycle Power Plant) has a high electrical efficiency (45%). Weakness of the current Gas and Steam Power Plant peak burden still using fuel oil. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Technology may be used to accommodate the gas with little land use. CNG gas stored in the circumstances of great pressure up to 250 bar, in contrast to gas directly converted into electricity in a power plant only 27 bar pressure. Stored in CNG gas used as a fuel to replace load bearing peak. Lawyer System on CNG conversion as well as the power plant is generally only used compressed gas with greater pressure and a bit of land.

  2. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  3. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  4. Has the natural gas fueled bus any future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Helsinki City Transport has decided to operate public transport in the center of the city with tramways and gas-fuelled busses. The decision is that there will be about 100 natural gas fueled busses in Helsinki by the year 2003. European exhaust gas emission (NO x and particulates) regulations have tightened strongly during the past few years. The regulations have forced to search for new fuels by the side of development of diesel engines. Alcohols, in spite of favourable fuel properties, are too expensive, so the use of them needs large subsidies for transportation sector. Gaseous fuels, both LPG and natural gas are suitable fuels for Otto cycle-cycle engines. After the previous oil crisis the interest in gas-fuelled engines has steadily decreased, but at present it is increasing again because of the objectives to decrease emissions of heavy vehicles at the level of gasoline-fuelled vehicles, equipped with three-way catalyst. From the point of view of emissions natural gas and LPG are seen as equivalent alternatives. The price of LPG varies on the basis of demand and on the basis of the prices of other oil products. Refuelling of a vehicle and storage of LPG in liquid form in the tank of the vehicle is easier than refuelling and fuel storage of natural gas. Investments to refuelling equipment of LPG are only 20% of those of the natural gas refuelling systems. The problem of natural gas is also the fact that is not easy to carry in the vehicle. Even if natural gas is compressed to pressure of 200 bars, it requires six times larger tanks if the refuelling intervals are the same. Liquefaction of natural gas reduces the volume significantly, but this is complicated and hence expensive. The tank of a vehicle should be vacuum insulated because the temperature of the LNG is about 160 deg C. Tank volume of LPG is only about twice that of diesel oil. Safety of natural gas is high, because it is lighter than the air, nearly a half of the density of the air. Octane ratings

  5. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  6. Dry fuel store for advanced gas cooled reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.S.; Boocock, P.M.; Ealing, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fuel storage requirements in Scotland and the selection of a Dry Fuel Store of the Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) design developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GECA). A similar design of store has been selected and has been constructed in the USA by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation in collaboration with GECA

  7. Tailoring gas-phase CO2 electroreduction selectivity to hydrocarbons at Cu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Garcia, I.; Albo, J.; Irabien, A.

    2018-01-01

    Copper-based surfaces appear as the most active catalysts for CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons, even though formation rates and efficiencies still need to be improved. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the continuous gas-phase CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons (i.e. ethylene and methane) at copper nanoparticulated-based surfaces, paying attention to particle size influence (ranging from 25-80 nm) on reaction productivity, selectivity, and Faraday efficiency (FE) for CO2 conversion. The effect of the current density and the presence of a microporous layer within the working electrode are then evaluated. Copper-based gas diffusion electrodes are prepared by airbrushing the catalytic ink onto carbon supports, which are then coupled to a cation exchange membrane (Nafion) in a membrane electrode assembly. The results show that the use of smaller copper nanoparticles (25 nm) leads to a higher ethylene production (1148 μmol m-2 s-1) with a remarkable high FE (92.8%), at the same time, diminishing the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction in terms of FE. This work demonstrates the importance of nanoparticle size on reaction selectivity, which may be of help to design enhanced electrocatalytic materials for CO2 valorization to hydrocarbons.

  8. Distribution of trichloroethylene and selected aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons between ''weathered'' and ''unweathered'' fuel mixtures and groundwater: Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucette, W.J.; Dupont, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of trichloroethylene and several aliphatic and aromatic fuel components between 46 weathered and 11 unweathered fuel mixtures and groundwater was investigated using a slow stirring method. The weathered fuel mixtures were obtained from several contaminated field sites. Both unlabeled and 14C-labeled test compounds were used in the distribution experiments. Analyses of the test compound concentrations over time was performed by gas chromatograph or liquid scintillation counting. The time required to reach equilibrium varied from about 24 to 72 hours. Generally, the greater the hydrophobicity of the test compounds the longer time that was required to reach equilibrium. It was also observed that the fuel/water distribution coefficients were generally larger for the weathered fuels than those measured for the unweathered fuels, in some cases by a factor of 100. The weathered fuel mixtures obtained from the field site were depleted of the more water soluble compounds over time and became significantly more enriched in long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons. The ability of several models to describe the observed distribution behavior was examined

  9. The features of oil & gas complex's strategic management and hydrocarbon products transportation at developing marine oil & gas fields in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeev А. М.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical issues of strategic management of oil and gas complex at the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic offshore. The analysis of existing approaches in process and project management of oil and gas complex has been carried out taking into account characteristics of offshore projects in the Arctic zone. Considerable attention has been paid to the history and evolution of strategic management as an economic category, functional areas of strategic management at different levels of management have been proposed. The analysis of existing scientific works dedicated to the projects on the Arctic shelf, has shown insufficient development of the strategic management's theory and practice. In particular, the biggest part of the scientific studies is focused on studying issues of the management at the corporate level, at the same time questions at the level of the oil and gas complex are not considered. In existing studies, the project and process approaches to management are often opposed to each other, and according to the authors it is incorrect in relation to the management of the oil and gas complex on the Arctic shelf. The oil and gas complex is a complex and multilevel system that implements unprecedentedly difficult projects in terms of technology. The beginning of hydrocarbon production on the Arctic shelf is inextricably linked with the transportation of extracted raw materials to the processing and marketing sites; it complements the strategic management of the oil and gas complex by the features of organizing efficient transport and logistics solutions.

  10. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  11. Effect of turbulence models on predicting convective heat transfer to hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of turbulence models were used to perform numerical simulations of heat transfer for hydrocarbon fuel flowing upward and downward through uniformly heated vertical pipes at supercritical pressure. Inlet temperatures varied from 373 K to 663 K, with heat flux ranging from 300 kW/m2 to 550 kW/m2. Comparative analyses between predicted and experimental results were used to evaluate the ability of turbulence models to respond to variable thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon fuel at supercritical pressure. It was found that the prediction performance of turbulence models is mainly determined by the damping function, which enables them to respond differently to local flow conditions. Although prediction accuracy for experimental results varied from condition to condition, the shear stress transport (SST and launder and sharma models performed better than all other models used in the study. For very small buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration due to variations in density lead to the impairment of heat transfer occurring in the vicinity of pseudo-critical points, and heat transfer was enhanced at higher temperatures through the combined action of four thermophysical properties: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat. For very large buoyancy-influenced runs, the thermal-induced acceleration effect was over predicted by the LS and AB models.

  12. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  13. Electrochemical cell with integrated hydrocarbon gas sensor for automobile exhaust gas; Elektrochemische Zelle mit integriertem Kohlenwasserstoff-Gassensor fuer das Automobilabgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biskupski, D.; Moos, R. [Univ. Bayreuth (Germany). Bayreuth Engine Research Center, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionsmaterialien; Wiesner, K.; Fleischer, M. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT PS 6, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the future sensors will be necessary to control the compliance with hydrocarbon limiting values, allowing a direct detection of the hydrocarbons. Appropriate sensor-active functional materials are metal oxides, which have a hydrocarbon sensitivity but are also dependent on the oxygen partial pressure. It is proposed that the gas-sensing layer should be integrated into an electrochemical cell. The authors show that the integration of a resistive oxygen sensor into a pump cell allows a defined oxygen concentration level at the sensor layer in any exhaust gas.

  14. Axial transport of fission gas in LWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, M.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to fission gas transportation inside the fuel rod, the following three mechanisms are important: (1) a localized and time dependent fission gas release from UO 2 fuel to pellet/clad gap, (2) the consequent gas pressure difference between the gap and the plenum, and (3) the inter-diffusion of initially filled Helium and released fission gas such as Xenon. Among these three mechanisms, the 2nd mechanism would result in the one dimensional flow through P/C gap in the axial direction, while the 3rd would average the local fission gas concentration difference. In this paper, an attempt was made to develop a computerized model, LINUS (LINear flow and diffusion under Un-Steady condition) describing the above two mechanisms, items (2) and (3). The item (1) is treated as an input. The code was applied to analyse short length experimental fuel rods and long length commercial fuel rods. The calculated time evolution of Xe concentration along the fuel column shows that the dilution rate of Xe in commercial fuel rods is much slower than that in short experimental fuel rods. Some other sensitivity studies, such as the effect of pre-pressurization, are also presented. (author)

  15. Hydrocarbon and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Natural Gas Well Pad Soils and Surrounding Soils in Eastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Seth N; Watkins, Cody; Jones, Colleen P; Mansfield, Marc L; McKinley, Michael; Kenney, Donna; Evans, Jordan

    2017-10-17

    We measured fluxes of methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from natural gas well pad soils and from nearby undisturbed soils in eastern Utah. Methane fluxes varied from less than zero to more than 38 g m -2 h -1 . Fluxes from well pad soils were almost always greater than from undisturbed soils. Fluxes were greater from locations with higher concentrations of total combustible gas in soil and were inversely correlated with distance from well heads. Several lines of evidence show that the majority of emission fluxes (about 70%) were primarily due to subsurface sources of raw gas that migrated to the atmosphere, with the remainder likely caused primarily by re-emission of spilled liquid hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon fluxes during summer were only 39 (16, 97)% as high as during winter, likely because soil bacteria consumed the majority of hydrocarbons during summer months. We estimate that natural gas well pad soils account for 4.6 × 10 -4 (1.6 × 10 -4 , 1.6 × 10 -3 )% of total emissions of hydrocarbons from the oil and gas industry in Utah's Uinta Basin. Our undisturbed soil flux measurements were not adequate to quantify rates of natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Uinta Basin.

  16. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  17. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  18. Hydrocarbons in sediments adjacent to a gas and condensate development and production platform in northwestern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    In northwestern Australia during the period of 1983 to 1991, 23 wells were drilled from a gas/condensate production platform to the producing formation approximately 3000 m below the sea bed. Low toxicity water-based drilling muds formulated with hydrogenated kerosenes were used, with the resultant formation cuttings being legally discharged into the ocean. To study the fate of hydrocarbons associated with the cuttings, sea-floor samples were collected along two perpendicular transects from the platform. The first extended 10 km in the prevailing direction of the current and the other to 1.2 km. Subsequently, samples have been collected from one of these sites on two occasions, first one year and secondly two years after the initial collection. Samples collected from directly under the platform cuttings chute contained the highest hydrocarbon concentrations, determined gravimetrically, of 75000 mg/kg, decreasing to approximately 40 mg/kg within 800 m in the direction of the prevailing current. Concentrations in the more remote samples were determined by GC and decreased gradually to be barely discernible above background at less than 0.01 mg/kg at 10 km from the platform. This suite of samples provided an excellent opportunity to study the progress of hydrocarbon biodegradation as it occurs in the marine environment. Analysis by GC-FID, GC-MS and GC-FTIR revealed a number of features. For example, the extent of biodegradation and weathering with increasing distance from the platform, and the half life for biodegradation of total hydrocarbons appears to be approximately one year. The hydrocarbon components of the sediments are mainly from the drilling mud with minor contributions from the formation fluids

  19. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  20. Method for production of unsaturated gaseous hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene, and of aromatic hydrocarbons, adapted as motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-10-24

    A method is described for the production of unsaturated gaseous hydrocarbons, in particular of ethylene, and of aromatic hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon oils or from fractions of the same, characterized by the fact that the raw materials are brought into contact with porous, inert substances in the form of fine distribution or of pieces at a temperature of above 500 and in particular from 600 to about 700/sup 0/C and with a traversing speed of from 0.3 up to about 3.0 volumetric parts, preferably up to 1.5 volumetric parts of raw material per volumetric part of the chamber and per hour.

  1. Advanced fuels for gas turbines: Fuel system corrosion, hot path deposit formation and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Tine; Širok, Brane; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical feasibility analysis of alternative fuels requires a holistic approach. • Fuel, combustion, corrosion and component functionality are strongly related. • Used approach defines design constraints for microturbines using alternative fuels. - Abstract: To further expand the knowledge base on the use of innovative fuels in the micro gas turbines, this paper provides insight into interrelation between specific fuel properties and their impact on combustion and emission formation phenomena in micro gas turbines for stationary power generation as well as their impact on material corrosion and deposit formation. The objective of this study is to identify potential issues that can be related to specific fuel properties and to propose counter measures for achieving stable, durable, efficient and low emission operation of the micro gas turbine while utilizing advanced/innovative fuels. This is done by coupling combustion and emission formation analyses to analyses of material degradation and degradation of component functionality while interpreting them through fuel-specific properties. To ensure sufficiently broad range of fuel properties to demonstrate the applicability of the method, two different fuels with significantly different properties are analysed, i.e. tire pyrolysis oil and liquefied wood. It is shown that extent of required micro gas turbine adaptations strongly correlates with deviations of the fuel properties from those of the baseline fuel. Through the study, these adaptations are supported by in-depth analyses of impacts of fuel properties on different components, parameters and subsystems and their quantification. This holistic approach is further used to propose methodologies and innovative approaches for constraining a design space of micro gas turbine to successfully utilize wide spectra of alternative/innovative fuels.

  2. Combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated with mahua oil and liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Kapilan N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. To study the feasibility of using methyl ester of mahua oil as pilot fuel, it was used as pilot fuel and liquefied petroleum gas was used as primary fuel. In dual fuel mode, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure are the few variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine. Hence, in the present work, pilot fuel quantity and injector opening pressure were varied. From the test results, it was observed that the pilot fuel quantity of 5 mg per cycle and injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. Also the exhaust emissions such as smoke, unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are lower than other pressures and pilot fuel quantities. The higher injection pressure and proper pilot fuel quantity might have resulted in better atomization, penetration of methyl ester of mahua oil and better combustion of fuel.

  3. Prediction of Non-Equilibrium Kinetics of Fuel-Rich Kerosene/LOX Combustion in Gas Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jung Min; Lee, Chang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Gas generator is the device to produce high enthalpy gases needed to drive turbo-pump system in liquid rocket engine. And, the combustion temperature in gas generator should be controlled below around 1,000K to avoid any possible thermal damages to turbine blade by using either fuel rich combustion or oxidizer rich combustion. Thus, nonequilibrium chemical reaction dominates in fuel-rich combustion of gas generator. Meanwhile, kerosene is a compounded fuel with various types of hydrocarbon elements and difficult to model the chemical kinetics. This study focuses on the prediction of the non-equilibrium reaction of fuel rich kerosene/LOX combustion with detailed kinetics developed by Dagaut using PSR (Perfectly Stirred Reactor) assumption. In Dagaut's surrogate model for kerosene, chemical kinetics of kerosene consists of 1,592 reaction steps with 207 chemical species. Also, droplet evaporation time is taken into account in the PSR calculation by changing the residence time of droplet in the gas generator. Frenklach's soot model was implemented along with detailed kinetics to calculate the gas properties of fuel rich combustion efflux. The results could provide very reliable and accurate numbers in the prediction of combustion gas temperature,species fraction and material properties

  4. Change of odor characteristics of fuel gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    For safety reasons, very small amounts of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) are added to the natural gas distributed through pipelines in Switzerland. The aim is to give the naturally odorless gas a strong smell of mineral coal gas so that inhabitants will be warned of gas leaks. However, experts suspected that this typical smell would be lost when natural gas flows through soils that are polluted with mineral oils and that the nauseous odor would be replaced by a pleasant one. This suspicion was confirmed by flow tests carried out with different types of soil (organic substances' share: 6.6 - 11.4%; various pollutants). (author)

  5. Ethanol dehydration via azeotropic distillation with gasoline fractions as entrainers: A pilot-scale study of the manufacture of an ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend

    OpenAIRE

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Font, Alicia; Garcia-Cano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We establish experimentally and through simulations the economic and technical viability of dehydrating ethanol by means of azeotropic distillation, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer. The purpose of this is to manufacture a ready-to-use ethanol–hydrocarbon fuel blend. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposition, we have tested an azeotropic water–ethanol feed mixture, using a hydrocarbon as entrainer, in a semi pilot-plant scale distillation column. Four different hydrocarbons ...

  6. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  7. Microbial activities in hydrocarbon-laden wastewaters: Impact on diesel fuel stability and the biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Duncan, Kathleen E; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Davidova, Irene; Yakimov, Michail M; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-20

    Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation not only diminishes fuel quality, but also exacerbates the biocorrosion of the metallic infrastructure. While successional events in marine microbial ecosystems impacted by petroleum are well documented, far less is known about the response of communities chronically exposed to hydrocarbons. Shipboard oily wastewater was used to assess the biotransformation of different diesel fuels and their propensity to impact carbon steel corrosion. When amended with sulfate and an F76 military diesel fuel, the sulfate removal rate in the assay mixtures was elevated (26.8μM/d) relative to incubations receiving a hydroprocessed biofuel (16.1μM/d) or a fuel-unamended control (17.8μM/d). Microbial community analysis revealed the predominance of Anaerolineae and Deltaproteobacteria in F76-amended incubations, in contrast to the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the original wastewater. The dominant Smithella-like sequences suggested the potential for syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism. The general corrosion rate was relatively low (0.83 - 1.29±0.12mpy) and independent of the particular fuel, but pitting corrosion was more pronounced in F76-amended incubations. Desulfovibrionaceae constituted 50-77% of the sessile organisms on carbon steel coupons. Thus, chronically exposed microflora in oily wastewater were differentially acclimated to the syntrophic metabolism of traditional hydrocarbons but tended to resist isoalkane-laden biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas cooled fast breeder reactors using mixed carbide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1976-09-01

    The fast reactors being developed at the present time use mixed oxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and liquid sodium as coolant (LMFBR). Theoretical and experimental designing work has also been done in the field of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. The more advanced carbide fuel offers greater potential for developing fuel systems with doubling times in the range of ten years. The thermohydraulic and physics performance of a GCFR utilising this fuel is assessed. One question to be answered is whether helium is an efficient coolant to be coupled with the carbide fuel while preserving its superior neutronic performance. Also, an assessment of the fuel cycle cost in comparison to oxide fuel is presented. (Auth.)

  9. Performance Study of Dual Fuel Engine Using Producer Gas as Secondary Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Shaw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, development of producer gas fuelled 4 stroke diesel engine has been investigated. Producer gas from biomass has been examined and successfully operated with 4 stroke diesel engine. The effects of higher and lower loads were investigated on the dual fuel mode. The experimental investigations revealed that at lower loads dual fuel operation with producer gas shows lower efficiency due to lower combustion rate cause by low calorific value of the producer gas. Beyond 40% load the brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel operation improved due to faster combustion rate of producer gas and higher level of premixing. It can be observed that at lower load and 20% opening of producer gas the gaseous fuel substitution found to be 56% whereas at 100% opening of producer gas it reaches 78% substitution. The CO2 emission increased at high producer gas opening and high load because at 100% producer gas maximum atoms of carbons were there and at high load condition the diesel use increased. At 80% load and producer gas varying from 20% to 100. Power output was almost comparable to diesel power with marginal higher efficiency. Producer gas is one such technology which is environmentally benign and holds large promise for future.

  10. Fuel assembly for gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellowlees, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel assembly is described for gas-cooled nuclear reactor which consists of a wrapper tube within which are positioned a number of spaced apart beds in a stack, with each bed containing spherical coated particles of fuel; each of the beds has a perforated top and bottom plate; gaseous coolant passes successively through each of the beds; through each of the beds also passes a bypass tube; part of the gas travels through the bed and part passes through the bypass tube; the gas coolant which passes through both the bed and the bypass tube mixes in the space on the outlet side of the bed before entering the next bed

  11. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  12. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  13. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  14. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  15. Fuel upgrading and reforming with metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods for separating hydrocarbons on an internal combustion powered vehicle via one or more metal organic frameworks are disclosed. Systems and methods can further include utilizing separated hydrocarbons and exhaust to generate hydrogen gas for use as fuel. In one aspect, a method for separating hydrocarbons can include contacting a first component containing a first metal organic framework with a flow of hydrocarbons and separating hydrocarbons by size. In certain embodiments, the hydrocarbons can include alkanes.

  16. Assessment of natural hydrocarbon bioremediation at two gas condensate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.; Trent, G.L.; Brown, D.R.; Sublette, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Condensate liquids are present in soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver-Julesburg Basin operated by Amoco. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores strongly suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction

  17. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M E [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M A [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  18. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  19. Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakianitis, T.; Namasivayam, A.M.; Crookes, R.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel that has been used and investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Compared with conventional gasoline engines, SI engines using natural gas can run at higher compression ratios, thus producing higher thermal efficiencies but also increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, while producing lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). These engines also produce relatively less power than gasoline-fueled engines because of the convergence of one or more of three factors: a reduction in volumetric efficiency due to natural-gas injection in the intake manifold; the lower stoichiometric fuel/air ratio of natural gas compared to gasoline; and the lower equivalence ratio at which these engines may be run in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. High NO{sub x} emissions, especially at high loads, reduce with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, EGR rates above a maximum value result in misfire and erratic engine operation. Hydrogen gas addition increases this EGR threshold significantly. In addition, hydrogen increases the flame speed of the natural gas-hydrogen mixture. Power levels can be increased with supercharging or turbocharging and intercooling. Natural gas is used to power CI engines via the dual-fuel mode, where a high-cetane fuel is injected along with the natural gas in order to provide a source of ignition for the charge. Thermal efficiency levels compared with normal diesel-fueled CI-engine operation are generally maintained with dual-fuel operation, and smoke levels are reduced significantly. At the same time, lower NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as well as higher HC and CO emissions compared with normal CI-engine operation at low and intermediate loads are recorded. These trends are caused by the low charge temperature and increased ignition delay, resulting in low combustion temperatures. Another factor is

  20. Near-critical and supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of soil by hazardous and toxic organic pollutants is an ever-growing problem facing the global community. One particular family of contaminants that are of major importance are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are the result of coal gasification and high-temperature processes. Sludges from these town gas operations were generally disposed of into unlined pits and left there for eventual biodegradation. However, the high levels of PAH contained in the pits prevented the occurrence of biodegradation. PAH contaminated soil is now considered hazardous and must be cleaned to environmentally acceptable standards. One method for the remediation is extraction with supercritical water. Water in or about its critical region exhibits enhanced solvating power toward most organic compounds. Contaminated soil containing 4% by mass of hydrocarbons was ultra-cleaned in a 300-cm 3 semicontinuous system to an environmentally acceptable standard of less than 200 ppm residual hydrocarbon concentration. The effects of subcritical or supercritical extraction, solvent temperature, pressure, and density have been studied, and the discerning characteristics of this type of fluid have been identified. The efficiencies of subcritical and supercritical extraction have been discussed from a process engineering standpoint

  1. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fate of diesel fuel hydrocarbon in composting bioremediation system using radio- labeled 14C phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesnawi, R. M.; McCartney, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the fate of fuel hydrocarbon in bioremediation composting system, diesel fuel, spiked with radio-labeled [9-1 4C ] phenanthrene at activity of 0.15μCi g - 1 of diesel fuel, was added to the soil to yield a contaminant load of 20,000 mg kg - 1 dry soil. The contaminated soil was amended with either fresh feedstock material (municipal sludge, leaves, and wood shaving) or mature compost and then incubated at thermophilic temperature pattern for 126 day. The mineralized, volatilized, and extractable fractions of 1 4C labeled phenanthrene were determined every two weeks over 126-days experimental period. The 1 4C data were used to predict the amount of removal due to biodegradation and sorption. In controls that were not amended with compost, no mineralization of 1 4C phenanthrene was detected, whereas treatments that received compost amendment showed significant release of phenanthrene as 1 4C O 2., ranging from 25% to 42% of initial radioactivity concentrations. The 1 4C extracted from the solids were decreasing with time. The total radioactivity extracted at the end of the experiment was less than 11% in the amended soil, whereas in the controls, more than 65% of the 1 4C was extracted. The 1 4C data indicated that bound residues formation was the major mechanism for the removal of pantherine or its metabolites. (author)

  3. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  4. Can hydrocarbons entrapped in seep carbonates serve as gas geochemistry recorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Schlömer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    The geochemistry of seep gases is useful for an understanding of the local petroleum system. Here it was tested whether individual light hydrocarbons in seep gases are representatively entrapped in authigenic carbonates that formed near active seep sites. If applicable, it would be possible to extract geochemical information not only on the origin but also on the thermal maturity of the hydrocarbon source rocks from the gases entrapped in carbonates in the past. Respective data could be used for a better understanding of paleoenvironments and might directly serve as calibration point for, amongst others, petroleum system modeling. For this approach, (sub)-recent seep carbonates from the Black Sea (Paleodnjepr region and Batumi seep area), two sites of the Campeche Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Venere mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea) were selected. These seep carbonates derive from sites for which geochemical data on the currently seeping gases exist. During treatment with phosphoric acid, methane and higher hydrocarbons were released from all carbonates, but in low concentrations. Compositional studies demonstrate that the ratio of methane to the sum of higher hydrocarbons (C1/(C2+C3)) is (partly strongly) positively biased in the entrapped gas fraction. δ13C values of C1 were determined for all samples and, for the samples from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, also of C2 and C3. The present dataset from six seep sites indicates that information on the seeped methane can be—although with a scatter of several permil—recorded in seep carbonate matrices, but other valuable information like the composition and δ13C of ethane and propane appears to be modified or lost during, for example, enclosure or at an early stage of diagenesis.

  5. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  6. Reduction of greenhouse gas emission on a medium-pressure boiler using hydrogen-rich fuel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-C.; Jou, Chih-Ju G.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuel is believed to be responsible for global warming. A study was carried out to probe the influence of replacing fuel gas with hydrogen-rich refinery gas (R.G.) on the reduction of gas emission (CO 2 and NO x ) and energy saving. Test results show that the emission of CO 2 can be reduced by 16.4% annually (or 21,500 tons per year). The NO x emission can be 8.2% lower, or 75 tons less per year. Furthermore, the use of refinery gas leads to a saving of NT$57 million (approximately US$1.73 million) on fuel costs each year. There are no CO 2 , CO, SO x , unburned hydrocarbon, or particles generated from the combustion of added hydrogen. The hydrogen content in R.G. employed in this study was between 50 and 80 mol%, so the C/H ratio of the feeding fuel was reduced. Therefore, the use of hydrogen-rich fuel has practical benefits for both energy saving and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission

  7. Fission gas induced fuel swelling in low and medium burnup fuel during high temperature transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of light water reactor fuel elements under postulated accident conditions is being studied by the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Thermal Fuels Behavior Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a part of this program, unirradiated and previously irradiated, pressurized-water-reactor type fuel rods were tested under power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). During these integral in-reactor experiments, film boiling was produced on the fuel rods which created high fuel and cladding temperatures. Fuel rod diameters increased in the film boiling region to a greater extent for irradiated rods than for unirradiated rods. The purpose of the study was to investigate and assess the fuel swelling which caused the fuel rod diameter increases and to evaluate the ability of an analytical code, the Gas Release and Swelling Subroutine - Steady-State and Transient (GRASS-SST), to predict the results

  8. Fission gas induced fuel swelling in low and medium burnup fuel during high temperature transients. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of light water reactor fuel elements under postulated accident conditions is being studied by the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Thermal Fuels Behavior Program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a part of this program, unirradiated and previously irradiated, pressurized-water-reactor type fuel rods were tested under power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) conditions in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). During these integral in-reactor experiments, film boiling was produced on the fuel rods which created high fuel and cladding temperatures. Fuel rod diameters increased in the film boiling region to a greater extent for irradiated rods than for unirradiated rods. The purpose of the study was to investigate and assess the fuel swelling which caused the fuel rod diameter increases and to evaluate the ability of an analytical code, the Gas Release and Swelling Subroutine - Steady-State and Transient (GRASS-SST), to predict the results.

  9. Tracing the External Origin of the AGN Gas Fueling Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Raimundo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared observations of the active galaxy MCG–6-30-15 provide strong evidence that its molecular gas fueling reservoir is of external origin. MCG–6-30-15 has a counter-rotating core of stars within its central 400 pc and a counter-rotating disc of molecular gas that extends as close as ~50–100 pc from the central black hole. The gas counter-rotation establishes that the gas reservoir in the center of the galaxy originates from a past external accretion event. In this contribution we discuss the gas and stellar properties of MCG–6-30-15, its past history and how the findings on this galaxy can be used to understand AGN fueling in S0 galaxies with counter-rotating structures.

  10. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  11. Direct Measurement of Trace Elemental Mercury in Hydrocarbon Matrices by Gas Chromatography with Ultraviolet Photometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim; Shellie, Robert A

    2015-11-17

    We introduce a technique for the direct measurement of elemental mercury in light hydrocarbons such as natural gas. We determined elemental mercury at the parts-per-trillion level with high precision [photometric detection (GC-UV) at 254 nm. Our approach requires a small sample volume (1 mL) and does not rely on any form of sample preconcentration. The GC-UV separation employs an inert divinylbenzene porous layer open tubular column set to separate mercury from other components in the sample matrix. We incorporated a 10-port gas-sampling valve in the GC-UV system, which enables automated sampling, as well as back flushing capability to enhance system cleanliness and sample throughput. Total analysis time is 98% over this range.

  12. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  13. Modern approach to the problem of fossil gas fuels replacement by alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, Boris [Gas Institute, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    New scientific and engineering fundamentals of fuels substitution have been developed instead of obsolete methodology “Interchangeability of Fuel Gases” developed in USA and existing from the middle of XX{sup th} century. To perform the complex prediction of total or partial substitution of given flow rate of natural gas NG for alternative gases AG the following parameters are to be predicted: plant utilization efficiencies – regarding fuel and energy utilization, the last in form of heat Ș{sub H} and exergy Ș{sub eff} efficiencies, saving or overexpenditure of the NG flow rate in the gas mixture with AG, specific fuel consumption b f and specific issue of harmful substances C{sub t} – pollutants in the combustion products (C{sub NO{sub x}} ) and greenhouse gases (C {sub CO{sub 2}} ). Certification of alternative gas fuels and fuel mixtures as a commodity products is carried out in frame of our approach with necessary set of characteristics, similar to those accepted in the world practice. Key words: alternative fuel, fuel replacement (substitution), natural gas, process gases, theoretical combustion temperature, thermodynamic equilibrium computations, total enthalpy.

  14. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  16. Simulation modelling for new gas turbine fuel controller creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendland, L. E.; Pribylov, V. G.; Borisov, Yu A.; Arzamastsev, M. A.; Kosoy, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    State of the art gas turbine fuel flow control systems are based on throttle principle. Major disadvantage of such systems is that they require high pressure fuel intake. Different approach to fuel flow control is to use regulating compressor. And for this approach because of controller and gas turbine interaction a specific regulating compressor is required. Difficulties emerge as early as the requirement definition stage. To define requirements for new object, his properties must be known. Simulation modelling helps to overcome these difficulties. At the requirement definition stage the most simplified mathematical model is used. Mathematical models will get more complex and detailed as we advance in planned work. If future adjusting of regulating compressor physical model to work with virtual gas turbine and physical control system is planned.

  17. Gas replacement system for fuel cell. Nenryo denchi no gas chikan hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T

    1990-02-14

    When stopping the operation of a fuel cell, the gas in the reaction gas system is purged using such an inert gas as nitrogen for inactivation. A gas source such as inert gas bomb must be prepared beforehand for the purpose. This invention relates to a method of production of inert gas from the air collected from atmosphere to use it as the purge gas. The air collected from the atmosphere is passed through an oxygen remover filled with oxidation catalyst to remove oxygen, and dehumidified by a dehumidifier filled with drying agent, the obtained inert drying gas with nitrogen as the main constituent being used as the purge gas. Copper system catalyst supported by silica is used as the oxidation catalyst, and silica gel as the drying agent. After the operation of the fuel cell is re-started, a part of the high temperature fuel gas extracted from the reaction gas system is introduced to the oxygen remover for the reduction of oxidation catalyst and for heat regeneration of dehumidifying agent by the contained hydrogen. 1 fig.

  18. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  19. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J.; Morel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m -2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  1. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  2. Heat removal in gas-cooled fuel rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1975-01-01

    For a thermo- and fluid-dynamic analysis of fuel rod cluster subchannels for gas-cooled breeder reactors, the following values must be verified: a) friction coefficient as flow parameter; b) Stanton number as heat transfer parameter; c) influence of spacers on friction coefficient and Stanton number; d) heat and mass exchange between subchannels with different temperatures. These parameters are established by combining results of single experiments and of integral experiments. Mention is made of further studies to be performed in order to determine the heat removal from gas-cooled fast breeder fuel elements. (HR) [de

  3. Refining fuels of the heavy gas--oil type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzac, J F.A.

    1930-01-28

    This invention has for its object the production of a new type of gas-oil fuel, obtained from crude petroleum, shale oil, and peat oil, according to the method of treatment mentioned, by means of which is obtained from gas oil, shale oil, lignite oil, and peat oil (deprived of asphaltic, and bituminous, resinous, and sulfur compounds), a fuel suitable for running Diesel, Junkers, and Clerget motors and all others of the same kind, by diminishing considerably the fouling and attack on the metal.

  4. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Unsupervised classification of petroleum Certified Reference Materials and other fuels by chemometric analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson Fortunato; Schantz, Michele M; Sheen, David A; Chu, Pamela M; Lippa, Katrice A

    2017-06-01

    As feedstocks transition from conventional oil to unconventional petroleum sources and biomass, it will be necessary to determine whether a particular fuel or fuel blend is suitable for use in engines. Certifying a fuel as safe for use is time-consuming and expensive and must be performed for each new fuel. In principle, suitability of a fuel should be completely determined by its chemical composition. This composition can be probed through use of detailed analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In traditional analysis, chromatograms would be used to determine the details of the composition. In the approach taken in this paper, the chromatogram is assumed to be entirely representative of the composition of a fuel, and is used directly as the input to an algorithm in order to develop a model that is predictive of a fuel's suitability. When a new fuel is proposed for service, its suitability for any application could then be ascertained by using this model to compare its chromatogram with those of the fuels already known to be suitable for that application. In this paper, we lay the mathematical and informatics groundwork for a predictive model of hydrocarbon properties. The objective of this work was to develop a reliable model for unsupervised classification of the hydrocarbons as a prelude to developing a predictive model of their engine-relevant physical and chemical properties. A set of hydrocarbons including biodiesel fuels, gasoline, highway and marine diesel fuels, and crude oils was collected and GC-MS profiles obtained. These profiles were then analyzed using multi-way principal components analysis (MPCA), principal factors analysis (PARAFAC), and a self-organizing map (SOM), which is a kind of artificial neural network. It was found that, while MPCA and PARAFAC were able to recover descriptive models of the fuels, their linear nature obscured some of the finer physical details due to the widely varying composition of the

  6. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation

  7. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  8. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  9. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  10. Sales gas hydrocarbon dew point control with a refrigeration plant; Konditionierung des Kohlenwasserstofftaupunktes im Verkaufsgas mittels einer Kaelteanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konieczny, J.; Scsepka, H. [OMV Aktiengesellschaft, Exploration and Production, Gaenserndorf (Austria)

    2004-11-01

    A new refrigeration plant was put on stream in the gas plant Aderklaa, Austria in the fall 2003. The quality criteria inherent to hydrocarbon dew point of the sales gas have already been accomplished. The contract (Allgemeinen Netzzugangsbedingungen) defines the hydrocarbon dew point at the value of 0 C with a pressure ranging 0-70 bar(g). Process facilities are a gas/gas-heat exchanger and a low-temperature-separator flanged to the chiller. A propane cycle produces the required cooling energy. The propane cycle consists of two propane compressors, one of them as back up, a condenser, an accumulator and an evaporator. About 50,000 m{sup 3} (V{sub n}) sales gas per hour are produced at a working pressure of 65 bar(g). Process gas coming from the sweetening plant Aderklaa I is lowered to a temperature of -14 C, where approx. 250 litres liquid hydrocarbons per hour are separated and saved. When the refrigeration plant was designed, attention was given to the operating costs to keep them low. This could be achieved by maximising surface area for heat transfer in the gas/gas-heat exchanger. After commissioning and start-up, full operability of the new plant was tested and documented. The pre-set project goals were accomplished, with respect to both the technical point of view and the economic aspects. (orig.)

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

  12. A natural-gas fuel processor for a residential fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Lee, S. H. D.; Papadias, D.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Bendert, J. C.; Kanner, S. A.; Yamazaki, Y.

    A system model was used to develop an autothermal reforming fuel processor to meet the targets of 80% efficiency (higher heating value) and start-up energy consumption of less than 500 kJ when operated as part of a 1-kWe natural-gas fueled fuel cell system for cogeneration of heat and power. The key catalytic reactors of the fuel processor - namely the autothermal reformer, a two-stage water gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor - were configured and tested in a breadboard apparatus. Experimental results demonstrated a reformate containing ∼48% hydrogen (on a dry basis and with pure methane as fuel) and less than 5 ppm CO. The effects of steam-to-carbon and part load operations were explored.

  13. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  15. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2012-02-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels with the largest chemical species being pyrene (C 16H 10), this new mechanism is generated by adding PAH sub-mechanisms to account for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C 24H 12). The density functional theory (DFT) and the transition state theory (TST) have been adopted to evaluate the rate constants for several PAH reactions. The mechanism is validated in the premixed laminar flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, benzene and ethylene. The characteristics of PAH formation in the counterflow diffusion flames of iso-octane/toluene and n-heptane/toluene mixtures have also been tested for both the soot formation and soot formation/oxidation flame conditions. The predictions of the concentrations of large PAHs in the premixed flames having available experimental data are significantly improved with the new mechanism as compared to the base mechanism. The major pathways for the formation of large PAHs are identified. The test of the counterflow diffusion flames successfully predicts the PAH behavior exhibiting a synergistic effect observed experimentally for the mixture fuels, irrespective of the type of flame (soot formation flame or soot formation/oxidation flame). The reactions that lead to this synergistic effect in PAH formation are identified through the rate-of-production analysis. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  16. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  17. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  18. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  19. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  20. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  1. Behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Behaviour of Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel under Accident Conditions was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the review of the development status and for the discussion on the behaviour of gas cooled reactor fuel under accident conditions and to identify areas in which additional research and development are still needed and where international co-operation would be beneficial for all involved parties. The meeting was attended by 45 participants from France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, CEC and the IAEA. The meeting was subdivided into five technical sessions: Summary of Current Research and Development Programmes for Fuel; Fuel Manufacture and Quality Control; Safety Requirements; Modelling of Fission Product Release - Part I and Part II; Irradiation Testing/Operational Experience with Fuel Elements; Behaviour at Depressurization, Core Heat-up, Power Transients; Water/Steam Ingress - Part I and Part II. 22 papers were presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was held on Directions for Future R and D Work and International Co-operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Fission gas release from fuel at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.O.; Beyer, C.E.; Voglewede, J.C.

    1978-03-01

    The release of fission gas from fuel pellets at high burnup is reviewed in the context of the safety analysis performed for reactor license applications. Licensing actions are described that were taken to correct deficient gas release models used in these safety analyses. A correction function, which was developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its consultants, is presented. Related information, which includes some previously unpublished data, is also summarized. The report thus provides guidance for the analysis of high burnup gas release in licensing situations

  3. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin

  4. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W.; Tertzakian, P.; Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J.; Graham, M.; Young, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  5. Natural gas : the green fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Harbinson, S.W. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tertzakian, P. [ARC Financial, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wall, T.; Wilkinson, J. [Apache Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Graham, M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Young, P.J. [DYAD Consulting, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the demand for crude oil exceeds supply and other energy sources are needed to met the shortfall. Natural gas and coal are the only 2 current energy sources that have the global capacity to, by themselves, address increased energy demand in a timely manner. Both these resources have been used primarily for power generation and heating. This paper discussed the transition that will likely occur in which natural gas and coal will be used increasingly as transportation fuels. It presented data comparing the environmental impact of using methane versus coal and proposed natural gas as the future green fuel. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the current Canadian natural gas market. The strengths include recent discoveries in the Horn River Basin and the Montney plays in British Columbia which are expected to triple natural gas production within the next decade. The weaknesses include an oversupply of gas compared to current demand; gas prices are currently in a range that are barely economic for many shale plays; and Canadian gas is disadvantaged for sales in the United States by additional pipeline transportation costs. The opportunities include global export opportunities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the proposed Kitimat LNG export facility and others off the west coast of Canada. The threat facing natural gas development is the strong competition for market share with coal. However, emissions data and energy efficiencies provide evidence to support the choice to use natural gas. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 26 figs.

  6. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel-derived 88 at.% uranium (approximately 9% 235 U) and 12 at.% plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44kW/m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48kW/m (685 0 C). Helium gas sweeps through any portion of the three regions of the fuel rod, namely: fuel, blanket, and charcoal trap. The charcoal trap is operated at about 300 0 C. An on-line Ge(Li) detector is used to analyse release rates of several gamma-emitting noble gas isotopes. Analyses are performed primarily on sweep gas flowing through the entire fuel rod, and for sweeps over the top of the charcoal trap. Sweep gas samples are analyzed for stable noble gas isotopes. Results in the form of ratios of release rate over birth rate (R/B) and venting rate over birth rate (V/B) are derived. R/B rates range from 10 -4 % to 30% while V/B ranges from 10 -6 % to 30%. Flow conductance in the capsule was monitored by recording the flow rate and pressure drop across the fuel rod and inlet sweep line. The flow conductance has been falling with increasing burnup, currently restricting the flow to about 20ml (s.t.p.)/min at a pressure difference of about 1.5MPa. Venting rates of the gaseous fission products as a function of gas pressure in the range 6.9 to 1.4MPa have also been measured. Planned future experiments include the monitoring of tritium release, venting and cladding permeation rates, and its molecular form. First measurements have been made. A simulated leak experiment will determine the mixture of fission gases as a function of flow rate and the most

  7. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  8. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  9. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport. Refs, figs, tabs.

  10. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  11. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R; Govers, Harrie A J

    2006-11-24

    A gas chromatographic method using Kováts retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P(i)), enthalpy of vaporization (DeltaH(i)) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (DeltaC(i)) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group consists of 19 unsubstituted, methylated and sulphur containing PAHs. Differences in log P(i) of -0.04 to +0.99 log units at 298.15K were observed between experimental values and data from effusion and gas saturation studies. These differences in log P(i) have been fitted with multilinear regression resulting in a compound and temperature dependent correction. Over a temperature range from 273.15 to 423.15K, differences in corrected log P(i) of a training set (-0.07 to +0.03 log units) and a validation set (-0.17 to 0.19 log units) were within calculated error ranges. The corrected vapour pressures also showed a good agreement with other GC determined vapour pressures (average -0.09 log units).

  12. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  13. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuels and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    At the third annual meeting of the technical working group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), held in Vienna, in 2004, it was suggested 'to develop manuals/handbooks and best practice documents for use in training and education in coated particle fuel technology' in the IAEA's Programme for the year 2006-2007. In the context of supporting interested Member States, the activity to develop a handbook for use in the 'education and training' of a new generation of scientists and engineers on coated particle fuel technology was undertaken. To make aware of the role of nuclear science education and training in all Member States to enhance their capacity to develop innovative technologies for sustainable nuclear energy is of paramount importance to the IAEA Significant efforts are underway in several Member States to develop high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) based on either pebble bed or prismatic designs. All these reactors are primarily fuelled by TRISO (tri iso-structural) coated particles. The aim however is to build future nuclear fuel cycles in concert with the aim of the Generation IV International Forum and includes nuclear reactor applications for process heat, hydrogen production and electricity generation. Moreover, developmental work is ongoing and focuses on the burning of weapon-grade plutonium including civil plutonium and other transuranic elements using the 'deep-burn concept' or 'inert matrix fuels', especially in HTGR systems in the form of coated particle fuels. The document will serve as the primary resource materials for 'education and training' in the area of advanced fuels forming the building blocks for future development in the interested Member States. This document broadly covers several aspects of coated particle fuel technology, namely: manufacture of coated particles, compacts and elements; design-basis; quality assurance/quality control and characterization techniques; fuel irradiations; fuel

  14. The Role of Post Flame Oxidation on the UHC Emission for Combustion of Natural Gas and Hydrogen Containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Kvist; Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    In-cylinder post flame oxidation of unburned hydro-carbons from crevices in a lean burn spark ignition engine has been examined for natural gas and mixtures of natural gas and a hydrogen containing producer gas. For this purpose a model was developed to describe the mixing of cold unburned...... reactants from crevices and hot burned bulk gas and to describe the oxidation of the unburned fuel. The post oxidation was described by a single step chemical reaction mechanism instead of detailed chemical kinetics in order to reduce the calculation time. However, the exploited Arrhenius expressions used...... to describe the chemical reactions were deduced from a detailed reaction mechanism. Different detailed reaction mechanisms were compared with results from combustion reactor experiments. Experiments and simulations were compared at different pressures and excesses of air similar to the conditions present...

  15. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  16. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  17. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  18. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused solica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silice capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (author). 3 figs., 17 refs

  19. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  20. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons; Separacion por cromatografia de gases de alta eficiencia de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos, (PAH) y alifaticos (AH) ambientales, empleado como fases estacionarias OV-1 y SE-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-07-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs.

  1. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  2. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  3. Increase in the efficiency of a high-speed ramjet on hydrocarbon fuel at the flying vehicle acceleration up to M = 6+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abashev, V. M.; Korabelnikov, A. V.; Kuranov, A. L.; Tretyakov, P. K.

    2017-10-01

    At the analysis of the work process in a ramjet, a complex consideration of the ensemble of problems the solution of which determines the engine efficiency appears reasonable. The main problems are ensuring a high completeness of fuel combustion and minimal hydraulic losses, the reliability of cooling of high-heat areas with the use of the fuel cooling resource, and ensuring the strength of the engine duct elements under non-uniform heat loads due to fuel combustion in complex gas-dynamic flow structures. The fundamental techniques and approaches to the solution of above-noted problems are considered in the present report, their novelty and advantages in comparison with conventional techniques are substantiated. In particular, a technique of the arrangement of an intense (pre-detonation) combustion regime for ensuring a high completeness of fuel combustion and minimal hydraulic losses at a smooth deceleration of a supersonic flow down to the sound velocity using the pulsed-periodic gas-dynamic flow control has been proposed. A technique has been proposed for cooling the high-heat areas, which employs the cooling resource of the hydrocarbon fuel, including the process of the kerosene chemical transformation (conversion) using the nano-catalysts. An analysis has shown that the highly heated structure will operate in the elastic-plastic domain of the behavior of constructional materials, which is directly connected to the engine operation resource. There arise the problems of reducing the ramjet shells depending on deformations. The deformations also lead to a significant influence on the work process in the combustor and, naturally, on the heat transfer process and the performance of catalysts (the action of plastic and elastic deformations of restrained shells). The work presents some results illustrating the presence of identified problems. A conclusion is drawn about the necessity of formulating a complex investigation both with the realization in model

  4. The analysis of semi-volatile and non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in a soil/sediment matrix by capillary column gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.E. III; Thoma, J.J.; Hastings, M.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis for semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons can be achieved by a solvent extraction/concentration techniques that will effectively extract these high molecular weight fractions from a soil matrix. The prepared extract is then injected directly into a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and flame ionization detector. This technique applies to the following types of commercially available petroleum hydrocarbons: Diesel Nos. 2,4,5, and 6, fuel oils and several grades of lubrication oil. The identification of a particular petroleum hydrocarbon is determined visually by comparison of the samples with known hydrocarbon standards. Accurate quantitation of the chromatograms is possible by using peak area summation and the presence of an internal standard. The practical quantitation limit for the method is 10 mg/Kg for most fuel types. This paper presents a method for determining the concentration of these fuel types in soil. Data will be presented only on 10W40 lubrication oil in terms of method validation, calibration, percent recovery, and method detection limits. A discussion of the quatitation techniques used will also be included

  5. Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as an Alternative Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), and Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used in buses. At present, there do not exist co...

  6. Improvement performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas; Tennen gas dual fuel diesel kikan no seino haishutsu gas tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S; Okamoto, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper deals with a study on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas. Dual fueling systems tend to emit high unburned fuel especially at low load, resulting in a decreased thermal efficiency. This is because natural gas-air mixtures are too lean for flame to propagate under low load conditions. Intake charge heating and uncooled EGR are very useful to improve emissions and thermal efficiency at low load. Such favorable effects are supported by NO kinetic simulations. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  8. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  9. Fission gas release in LWR fuel measured during nuclear operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Skattum, E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fuel behavior experiments are being conducted in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor in Halden, Norway, to measure the release of Xe, Kr, and I fission products from typical light water reactor design fuel pellets. Helium gas is used to sweep the Xe and Kr fission gases out of two of the Instrumented Fuel Assembly 430 fuel rods and to a gamma spectrometer. The measurements of Xe and Kr are made during nuclear operation at steady state power, and for 135 I following reactor scram. The first experiments were conducted at a burnup of 3000 MWd/t UO 2 , at bulk average fuel temperatures of approx. 850 K and approx. 23 kW/m rod power. The measured release-to-birth ratios (R/B) of Xe and Kr are of the same magnitude as those observed in small UO 2 specimen experiments, when normalized to the estimated fuel surface-to-volume ratio. Preliminary analysis indicates that the release-to-birth ratios can be calculated, using diffusion coefficients determined from small specimen data, to within a factor of approx. 2 for the IFA-430 fuel. The release rate of 135 I is shown to be approximately equal to that of 135 Xe

  10. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  11. Sustitución de fuel oil por gas natural en ANDERCOL Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Puerto, José Miguel; Ayala Mendoza, Miguel Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. This article shows the evaluation of the demand and the tendencies of fuel in the plant of ANDERCOL-Medellín, the current and future trends of the prices for the fuels available (fuel oil and natural gas) and also the operation costs, the investments required for their substitution and the limitations and benefits of substituting fuel oil with natural gas. Objective. To evaluate the impact of substituting fuel oil with natural gas in the ANDERCOL´s plant in Medell...

  12. Durability and degradation analysis of hydrocarbon ionomer membranes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells accelerated stress evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Tsuji, Junichi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Takano, Jun; Itami, Shunsuke; Kusakabe, Masato; Miyatake, Kenji; Iiyama, Akihiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    The chemical durabilities of two proton-conducting hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membranes, sulfonated benzophenone poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPK) semiblock copolymer and sulfonated phenylene poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPP) semiblock copolymer are evaluated under accelerated open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Post-test characterization of the membrane electrodes assemblies (MEAs) is carried out via gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These results are compared with those of the initial MEAs. The SPP cell shows the highest OCV at 1000 h, and, in the post-test analysis, the SPP membrane retains up to 80% of the original molecular weight, based on the GPC results, and 90% of the hydrophilic structure, based on the NMR results. The hydrophilic structure of the SPP membrane is more stable after the durability evaluation than that of the SPK. From these results, the SPP membrane, with its simple hydrophilic structure, which does not include ketone groups, is seen to be significantly more resistant to radical attack. This structure leads to high chemical durability and thus impedes the chemical decomposition of the membrane.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  14. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  15. Efficiency Analysis of Technological Methods for Reduction of NOx Emissions while Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels in Heat and Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kabishov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative efficiency analysis pertaining to application of existing technological methods for suppression of nitric oxide formation in heating boilers of heat generators. A special attention has been given to investigation of NOx  emission reduction while burning hydrocarbon fuel with the help of oxygen-enriched air. The calculations have demonstrated that while enriching oxidizer with the help of oxygen up to 50 % (by volume it is possible to reduce volume of NOx formation (while burning fuel unit by 21 %.

  16. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of oxygenates in middle distillates I. Determination of the nature of biodiesels blend in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Coupard, Vincent; Charon, Nadège; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2008-04-04

    In the current energetic context (increasing consumption of vehicle fuels, greenhouse gas emission etc.) government policies lead to mandatory introduction in fossil fuels of fuels resulting from renewable sources of energy such as biomass. Blending of fatty acid alkyl esters from vegetable oils (also known as biodiesel) with conventional diesel fuel is one of the solutions technologically available; B5 blends (up to 5%w/w esters in fossil fuel) are marketed over Europe. Therefore, for quality control as well as for forensic reasons, it is of major importance to monitor the biodiesel origin (i.e. the fatty acid ester distribution) and its content when it is blend with petroleum diesel. This paper reports a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) method that was developed for the individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in middle distillates matrices. Several first and the second dimension columns have been investigated and their performances to achieve (i) a group type separation of hydrocarbons and (ii) individual identification and quantitation of fatty acid ester blend with diesel are reported and discussed. Finally, comparison of quantitative GC x GC results with reference methods demonstrates the benefits of GC x GC approach which enables fast and reliable individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in one single run. Results show that under developed chromatographic conditions, quantitative group type analysis of hydrocarbons is also possible, meaning that simultaneous quantification of hydrocarbons and fatty acid esters can be achieved in one single run.

  17. Commercialization of residential fuel cell systems at Tokyo Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hisao; Kameyama, Hiromichi; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Nishizaki, Kunihiro

    2007-07-01

    Increased affluence at homes may inevitably bring about increased energy consumption with it and hence increased CO2 emission from the residential sector, which accounts for a substantial share in the overall CO2 emission. Technologies that can reduce CO2 emission without sacrificing comfort of living at home will be critically important to achieve economic prosperity and preservation of the global environment at the same time. The residential fuel cell system is one of those technologies. Tokyo Gas has been engaging in its development cooperating with the manufacturers and has been playing an important role in the design, development and promotion of fuel cell systems with its vast knowledge and experience of end users' energy consumption. The development, demonstration and promotion of fuel cell systems have been strongly supported by the Japanese Government. In 'the Large Scale Demonstration Project', more than 1000 units of polymer electrolyte fuel cells have been installed to existing homes and have demonstrated their energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential. This paper reports the status of the development of residential fuel cell systems in Japan and the role Tokyo Gas plays in it.

  18. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  19. adaptation of natural gas for motor fuels in nigeria transport system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, as a result of limiting reserve of crude oil and the clamour for the deregulation of the petroleum sector of the nation's economy, there is need to look beyond liquid fuel (gasoline, diesel) as vehicular fuels. The viability of adapting natural gas for motor fuels had been presented. Natural gas as automobile fuel ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania School Buses Run on Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center : Cities Make the Clean Switch to Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cities

  4. Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) fuel and In-Core Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.D.; Sterbentz, J.; Meyer, M.; Lowden, R.; Hoffman, E.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) has been chosen as one of six candidates for development as a Generation IV nuclear reactor based on: its ability to fully utilize fuel resources; minimize or reduce its own (and other systems) actinide inventory; produce high efficiency electricity; and the possibility to utilize high temperature process heat. Current design approaches include a high temperature (2 850 C) helium cooled reactor using a direct Brayton cycle, and a moderate temperature (550 C - 650 C) helium or supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) cooled reactor using direct or indirect Brayton cycles. These design choices have thermal efficiencies that approach 45% to 50%, and have turbomachinery sizes that are much more compact compared to steam plants. However, there are challenges associated with the GCFR, which are the focus of current research. This includes safety system design for decay heat removal, development of high temperature/high fluence fuels and materials, and development of fuel cycle strategies. The work presented here focuses on the fuel and preliminary in-core fuel management, where advanced ceramic-ceramic (cercer) dispersion fuels are the main focus, and average burnups to 266 M Wd/kg appear achievable for the reference Si C/(U,TRU)C block/plate fuel. Solid solution (pellet) fuel in composite ceramic clad (Si C/Si C) is also being considered, but remains as a backup due to cladding fabrication challenges, and high centerline temperatures in the fuel. (Author)

  5. Gas turbine with two circuits and intermediate fuel conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachl, H.

    1978-01-01

    The combination of a fuel conversion process with a thermal process saves coolant and subsequent separation plant, in order to achieve the greatest possible use of the mechanical or electrical energy. The waste heat of a thermal circuit is taken to an endothermal chemical fuel conversion process arranged before a second circuit. The heat remaining after removal of the heat required for the chemical process is taken to a second thermal circuit. The reaction products of the chemical process which condense out during expansion in the second thermal process are selectively separated from the remaining gas mixture in the individual turbine stages. (HGOE) [de

  6. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Riser drilling enabled sampling and real-time monitoring of drilling mud gas with an onboard scientific drilling mud gas monitoring system ("SciGas"). A second, independent system was provided by Geoservices, a commercial mud logging service. Both systems allowed the determination of (non-) hydrocarbon gas, while the SciGas system also monitored the methane carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)CCH4). The hydrocarbon gas composition was predominated by methane (> 1%), while ethane and propane were up to two orders of magnitude lower. δ(13)CCH4 values suggested an onset of thermogenic gas not earlier than 1600 meter below seafloor. This study aims on evaluating the onboard data and subsequent geological interpretations by conducting shorebased analyses of drilling mud gas samples. During shipboard monitoring of drilling mud gas the SciGas and Geoservices systems recorded up to 8.64% and 16.4% methane, respectively. Ethane and propane concentrations reached up to 0.03 and 0.013%, respectively, in the SciGas system, but 0.09% and 0.23% in the Geoservices data. Shorebased analyses of discrete samples by gas chromatography showed a gas composition with ~0.01 to 1.04% methane, 2 - 18 ppmv ethane, and 2 - 4 ppmv propane. Quadruple mass spectrometry yielded similar results for methane (0.04 to 4.98%). With δD values between -171‰ and -164‰, the stable hydrogen isotopic composition of methane showed little downhole variability. Although the two independent mud gas monitoring systems and shorebased analysis of discrete gas sample yielded different absolute concentrations they all agree well with respect to downhole variations of hydrocarbon gases. The data point to predominantly biogenic methane sources but suggest some contribution from thermogenic sources at depth, probably due

  7. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Zavyalik; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko; E. V. Fetisov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  8. Determination of C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water by purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Retention time data and 70 eV mass spectra were obtained for benzene and all 35 C7-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons. With optimized chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection, benzene and 33 of the 35 alkylbenzenes can be identified and measured in a 45-min run. Use of a flame ionization detector permits the simultaneous determination of benzene and 26 alkylbenzenes.

  9. And if France had oil, gas and ideas at the same time... Contribution to the debate on shale hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This report aims at gathering available information on shale hydrocarbons in order to show that shale gas exploitation is possible in France in order to meet energy needs. After a brief presentation of these hydrocarbons and of potential resources in the world and in France, the report addresses the different stages from exploration (how to obtain a research permit, to locate potential resources, assessment of available quantities and of the economic potential of an oil field), to production (drilling, stimulation, extraction, management on a large scale and on the long term), and to site restitution (industrial site rehabilitation, economic restructuring)

  10. Ambient Laboratory Coater for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, Duane D.; Counce, Robert M.; Lima Rojas, Irma D.

    2010-01-01

    This research is targeted at developing improved experimentally-based scaling relationships for the hydrodynamics of shallow, gas-spouted beds of dense particles. The work is motivated by the need to more effctively scale up shallow spouted beds used in processes such as in the coating of nuclear fuel particles where precise control of solids and gas circulation is critically important. Experimental results reported here are for a 50 mm diameter spouted bed containing two different types of bed solids (alumina and zirconia) at different static bed depths and fluidized by air and helium. Measurements of multiple local average pressures, inlet gas pressure fluctuations, and spout height were used to characterize the bed hydrodynamics for each operating condition. Follow-on studies are planned that include additional variations in bed size, particle properties, and fluidizing gas. The ultimate objective is to identify the most important non-dimensional hydrodynamic scaling groups and possible spouted-bed design correlations based on these groups.

  11. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  12. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  13. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Fission gas release from fuels at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Yves; Pointud, M.L.; Vignesoult, Nicole; Atabek, Rosemarie; Baron, Daniel.

    1982-04-01

    Determinations of residual gas concentrations by heating and by X microanalysis were respectively carried out on particles (TANGO program) and on sections of fuel rods, perfectly characterized as to fabrication and irradiation history. A threshold release temperature of 1250 0 C+-100 0 C was determined irrespective of the type of oxide and the irradiation history in the 18,000-45,000 MWdt -1 (U) specific burnup field. The overall analyses of gas released from the fuel rods show that, in the PWR operating conditions, the fraction released remains less than 1% up to a mean specific burnup of 35000 MWdt -1 (U). The release of gases should not be a limiting factor in the increase of specific burnups [fr

  15. Electron-beam synthesis of fuel in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.V.; Holodkova, E.M.; Ershov, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Tendencies of world development focus attention on a vegetative biomass as on the major raw resource for future chemistry and a fuel industry. The significant potential for perfection of biomass conversion processes is concentrated in the field of radiation-chemical methods. Both the mode of post-radiation distillation and mode of electron-beam distillation of biomass have been investigated as well as the mode of gas-phase synthesis of liquid engine fuel from of biomass distillation products. Synergistic action of radiation and temperature has been analyzed at use of the accelerated electron beams allowing to combine radiolysis with effective radiation heating of a material without use of additional heaters. At dose rate above 1 kGy/s the electron-beam irradiation results in intensive decomposition of a biomass and evaporation of formed fragments with obtaining of a liquid condensate (∼ 60 wt%), CO 2 and Co gases (13-18 wt%) and charcoal in the residue. Biomass distillation at radiation heating allows to increase almost three times an organic liquid yield in comparison with pyrolysis. The majority of liquid products from cellulose is represented by the furan derivatives considered among the very perspective components for alternative engine fuels. Distilled-off gases and vapors are diluted with gaseous C 1 -C 5 alkanes and again are exposed to an irradiation to produce liquid fuel from a biomass. This transformation is based on a method of electron-beam circulation conversion of gaseous C 1 -C 5 alkanes (Ponomarev, A.V., Radiat. Phys. Chem., 78, 48, 2009) which consists in formation and removal of liquid products with high degree of carbon skeleton branching. The isomers ratio in a liquid may be controlled by means of change of an irradiation condition and initial gas composition. The irradiation of gaseous alkanes together with vaporous products of biomass destruction allows to synthesize the fuel enriched by conventional

  16. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  17. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  18. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....

  19. Renewable energy based catalytic CH4 conversion to fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jansen, I.; Schuttlefield, J.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is envisioned as a primary source of hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future. With the abundance of shale gas, the main concerns have shifted from the limited hydrocarbon availability to the sustainable methods of CH4 conversion to fuels. This is necessitated by high costs of natural gas

  20. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  1. Fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of world fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert W. R.; Blanchard, Julia L.; Gardner, Caleb; Green, Bridget S.; Hartmann, Klaas; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg A.

    2018-04-01

    Food production is responsible for a quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Marine fisheries are typically excluded from global assessments of GHGs or are generalized based on a limited number of case studies. Here we quantify fuel inputs and GHG emissions for the global fishing fleet from 1990-2011 and compare emissions from fisheries to those from agriculture and livestock production. We estimate that fisheries consumed 40 billion litres of fuel in 2011 and generated a total of 179 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent GHGs (4% of global food production). Emissions from the global fishing industry grew by 28% between 1990 and 2011, with little coinciding increase in production (average emissions per tonne landed grew by 21%). Growth in emissions was driven primarily by increased harvests from fuel-intensive crustacean fisheries. The environmental benefit of low-carbon fisheries could be further realized if a greater proportion of landings were directed to human consumption rather than industrial uses.

  2. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternary Metal Chalcogenide Aerogels for Gas Separation and Volatile Hydrocarbon Adsorption

    KAUST Repository

    Edhaim, Fatimah A.

    2017-11-01

    In this dissertation, the metathesis route of metal chalcogenide aerogel synthesis was expanded by conducting systematic studies between polysulfide building blocks and the 1st-row transition metal linkers. Resulting materials were screened as sorbents for selective gas separation and volatile organic compounds adsorption. They showed preferential adsorption of polarizable gases (CO2) and organic compounds (toluene). Ion exchange and heavy metal remediation properties have also been demonstrated. The effect of the presence of different counter-ion within chalcogel frameworks on the adsorption capacity of the chalcogels was studied on AFe3Zn3S17 (A= K, Na, and Rb) chalcogels. The highest adsorption capacity toward hydrocarbons and gases was observed on Rb based chalcogels. Adopting a new building block [BiTe3]3- with the 1st-row transition metal ions results in the formation of three high BET surface area chalcogels, KCrBiTe3, KZnBiTe3, and KFeBiTe3. The resulting chalcogels showed preferential adsorption of toluene vapor, and remarkable selectivity of CO2, indicating the potential future use of chalcogels in adsorption-based gas or hydrocarbon separation processes. The synthesis and characterization of the rare earth chalcogels NaYSnS4, NaGdSnS4, and NaTbSnS4 are also reported. Rare earth metal ions react with the thiostannate clusters in formamide solution forming extended polymeric networks by gelation. Obtained chalcogels have high BET surface areas, and showed notable adsorption capacity toward CO2 and toluene vapor. These chalcogels have also been engaged in the absorption of different organic molecules. The results reveal the ability of the chalcogels to distinguish among organic molecules on their electronic structures; hence, they could be used as sensors. Furthermore, the synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 and Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2- chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3

  4. Performance analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine cycle: Application of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, Farshid; Fung, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Variation of the stream properties in the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle. • Detailed analysis of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle. • Investigate effects of inlet fuel type and composition on performance of cycle. • Comparison of system operation when operated with and without anode recirculation. - Abstract: In this paper, the hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) model was applied to investigate the effects of the inlet fuel type and composition on the performance of the cycle. This type of analysis is vital for the real world utilization of manufactured fuels in the hybrid SOFC–GT system due to the fact that these fuel compositions depends on the type of material that is processed, the fuel production process, and process control parameters. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that the results of a limited number of studies on the utilization of non-conventional fuels have been published in the open literature. However, further studies are required in this area to investigate all aspects of the issue for different configurations and assumptions. Then, the results of the simulation of the syngas-fueled hybrid SOFC–GT cycle are employed to explain the variation of the stream properties throughout the cycle. This analysis can be very helpful in understanding cycle internal working and can provide some interesting insights to the system operation. Then, the detailed information of the operation of the methane-fueled SOFC–GT cycle is presented. For both syngas- and methane-fueled cycles, the operating conditions of the equipment are presented and compared. Moreover, the comparison of the characteristics of the system when it is operated with two different schemes to provide the required steam for the cycle, with anode recirculation and with an external source of water, provides some interesting insights to the system operation. For instance, it was shown that although the physical

  5. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  6. Proton conducting hydrocarbon membranes: Performance evaluation for room temperature direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivobokov, Ivan M.; Gribov, Evgeniy N.; Okunev, Alexey G.

    2011-01-01

    The methanol permeability, proton conductivity, water uptake and power densities of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at room temperature are reported for sulfonated hydrocarbon (sHC) and perfluorinated (PFSA) membranes from Fumatech, and compared to Nafion membranes. The sHC membranes exhibit lower proton conductivity (25-40 mS cm -1 vs. ∼95-40 mS cm -1 for Nafion) as well as lower methanol permeability (1.8-3.9 x 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 vs. 2.4-3.4 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 for Nafion). Water uptake was similar for all membranes (18-25 wt%), except for the PFSA membrane (14 wt%). Methanol uptake varied from 67 wt% for Nafion to 17 wt% for PFSA. The power density of Nafion in DMFCs at room temperature decreases with membrane thickness from 26 mW cm -2 for Nafion 117 to 12.5 mW cm -2 for Nafion 112. The maximum power density of the Fumatech membranes ranges from 4 to 13 mW cm -1 . Conventional transport parameters such as membrane selectivity fail to predict membrane performance in DMFCs. Reliable and easily interpretable results are obtained when the power density is plotted as a function of the transport factor (TF), which is the product of proton concentration in the swollen membrane and the methanol flux. At low TF values, cell performance is limited by low proton conductivity, whereas at high TF values it decreases due to methanol crossover. The highest maximum power density corresponds to intermediate values of TF.

  7. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  8. The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M T; Abdel Hadi el-S; el-Samahy, S; Youssof, K

    2000-12-30

    The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected in mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity operated bakeries had an average of 320.6, 158.4, 317.3 and 25.5 microgkg(-1), respectively. Samples collected from mazot, solar and solid waste operated bakeries have had a wide spectrum of PAHs, in comparison to that detected in bread samples collected from electricity operated bakeries. Lead had the highest concentrations in the four groups of bread samples, followed by nickel, while the concentrations of zinc and cadmium were the least. The concentration of lead detected in bread samples produced from mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity fueled bakeries were 1375.5, 1114, 1234, and 257.3 microgkg(-1), respectively. Estimated daily intake of PAHs based on bread consumption were 48.2, 28.5, 80. 1, and 4.8 microg per person per day for bread produced in bakeries using mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene were 3.69, 2.65, 8.1, and 0.81 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The daily intake of lead, based on bread consumption was 291, 200.5, 222, and 46.31 microg per person per day for bread sample baked with mazot, solar, solid waste and electricity, respectively. The present work has indicated the comparatively high level of daily intake of benzo (a) pyrene and lead in comparison to levels reported from many other countries and those recommended by international regulatory bodies. It is probable that residues detected in bread samples are partially cereal-borne but there is strong

  9. Biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using the MixAlco™ process at a pilot-plant scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian; Dunkleman, John; Chaudhuri, Swades K.; Bond, Austin; Holtzapple, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Texas A and M University has built a MixAlco™ pilot plant that converts biomass to hydrocarbons (i.e., jet fuel, gasoline) using the following steps: fermentation, descumming, dewatering, thermal ketonization, distillation, hydrogenation, and oligomerization. This study describes the pilot plant and reports results from an 11-month production campaign. The focus was to produce sufficient jet fuel to be tested by the U.S. military. Because the scale was relatively small, energy-saving features were not included in the pilot plant. Further, the equipment was operated in a manner to maximize productivity even if yields were low. During the production campaign, a total of 6.015 Mg of shredded paper and 120 kg of chicken manure (dry basis) were fermented to produce 126.5 m 3 of fermentation broth with an average concentration of 12.5 kg m −3 . A total of 1582 kg of carboxylate salts were converted to 587 L of raw ketones, which were distilled and hydrogenated to 470 L of mixed alcohols ranging from C3 to C12. These alcohols, plus 300 L of alcohols made by an industrial partner (Terrabon, Inc.) were shipped to an independent contractor (General Electric) and transformed to jet fuel (∼100 L) and gasoline (∼100 L) byproduct. - Highlights: • We produce hydrocarbons from paper and chicken manure in a pilot-scale production using the MixAlco™ process. • About 100 L of jet fuel were produced for military testing. • High production rates and good product quality were preferred rather than high yields or energy efficiency. • The MixAlco™ process converted successfully lignocellulosic biomass to hydrocarbons and viable for commercial-scale production

  10. Coated particle fuel for high temperature gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl; Nabielek, Heinz [Research Center Julich (FZJ), Julich (Germany); Kendall, James M. [Global Virtual L1c, Prescott (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Roy Huddle, having invented the coated particle in Harwell 1957, stated in the early 1970s that we know now everything about particles and coatings and should be going over to deal with other problems. This was on the occasion of the Dragon fuel performance information meeting London 1973: How wrong a genius be{exclamation_point} It took until 1978 that really good particles were made in Germany, then during the Japanese HTTR production in the 1990s and finally the Chinese 2000-2001 campaign for HTR-10. Here, we present a review of history and present status. Today, good fuel is measured by different standards from the seventies: where 9 x 10{sup -4} initial free heavy metal fraction was typical for early AVR carbide fuel and 3 x 10{sup -4} initial free heavy metal fraction was acceptable for oxide fuel in THTR, we insist on values more than an order of magnitude below this value today. Half a percent of particle failure at the end-of-irradiation, another ancient standard, is not even acceptable today, even for the most severe accidents. While legislation and licensing has not changed, one of the reasons we insist on these improvements is the preference for passive systems rather than active controls of earlier times. After renewed HTGR interest, we are reporting about the start of new or reactivated coated particle work in several parts of the world, considering the aspects of designs/traditional and new materials, manufacturing technologies/ quality control/ quality assurance, irradiation and accident performance, modeling and performance predictions, and fuel cycle aspects and spent fuel treatment. In very general terms, the coated particle should be strong, reliable, retentive, and affordable. These properties have to be quantified and will be eventually optimized for a specific application system. Results obtained so far indicate that the same particle can be used for steam cycle applications with 700-750 .deg. C helium coolant gas exit, for gas turbine

  11. Coated particle fuel for high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Nabielek, Heinz; Kendall, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Roy Huddle, having invented the coated particle in Harwell 1957, stated in the early 1970s that we know now everything about particles and coatings and should be going over to deal with other problems. This was on the occasion of the Dragon fuel performance information meeting London 1973: How wrong a genius be! It took until 1978 that really good particles were made in Germany, then during the Japanese HTTR production in the 1990s and finally the Chinese 2000-2001 campaign for HTR-10. Here, we present a review of history and present status. Today, good fuel is measured by different standards from the seventies: where 9 x 10 -4 initial free heavy metal fraction was typical for early AVR carbide fuel and 3 x 10 -4 initial free heavy metal fraction was acceptable for oxide fuel in THTR, we insist on values more than an order of magnitude below this value today. Half a percent of particle failure at the end-of-irradiation, another ancient standard, is not even acceptable today, even for the most severe accidents. While legislation and licensing has not changed, one of the reasons we insist on these improvements is the preference for passive systems rather than active controls of earlier times. After renewed HTGR interest, we are reporting about the start of new or reactivated coated particle work in several parts of the world, considering the aspects of designs/traditional and new materials, manufacturing technologies/ quality control/ quality assurance, irradiation and accident performance, modeling and performance predictions, and fuel cycle aspects and spent fuel treatment. In very general terms, the coated particle should be strong, reliable, retentive, and affordable. These properties have to be quantified and will be eventually optimized for a specific application system. Results obtained so far indicate that the same particle can be used for steam cycle applications with 700-750 .deg. C helium coolant gas exit, for gas turbine applications at 850-900 .deg. C

  12. The genetic source and timing of hydrocarbon formation in gas hydrate reservoirs in Green Canyon, Block GC955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. T.; Darrah, T.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Phillips, S.; Whyte, C. J.; Lary, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although large volumes of gas hydrates are known to exist along continental slopes and below permafrost, their role in the energy sector and the global carbon cycle remains uncertain. Investigations regarding the genetic source(s) (i.e., biogenic, thermogenic, mixed sources of hydrocarbon gases), the location of hydrocarbon generation, (whether hydrocarbons formed within the current reservoir formations or underwent migration), rates of clathrate formation, and the timing of natural gas formation/accumulation within clathrates are vital to evaluate economic potential and enhance our understanding of geologic processes. Previous studies addressed some of these questions through analysis of conventional hydrocarbon molecular (C1/C2+) and stable isotopic (e.g., δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-CO2) composition of gases, water chemistry and isotopes (e.g., major and trace elements, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O), and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) of natural gas hydrate systems to determine proportions of biogenic and thermogenic gas. However, the effects from contributions of mixing, transport/migration, methanogenesis, and oxidation in the subsurface can complicate the first-order application of these techniques. Because the original noble gas composition of a fluid is preserved independent of microbial activity, chemical reactions, or changes in oxygen fugacity, the integration of noble gas data can provide both a geochemical fingerprint for sources of fluids and an additional insight as to the uncertainty between effects of mixing versus post-genetic modification. Here, we integrate inert noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and associated isotopes) with these conventional approaches to better constrain the source of gas hydrate formation and the residence time of fluids (porewaters and natural gases) using radiogenic 4He ingrowth techniques in cores from two boreholes collected as part of the University of Texas led UT-GOM2-01 drilling project. Pressurized cores were extracted from

  13. Magnetic solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometrical analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; NguyenVan, Manh; Wang, Lijia; Cai, Qingyun

    2015-08-07

    Fluorenyl functionalized superparamagnetic core/shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, Fe3O4@SiO2@Flu) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The MNPs having an average diameter of 200nm were then used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of 16 priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples designated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The main influencing parameters, including sorbent amount, desorption solvent, sample volume and extraction time were optimized. Analyses were performed on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels. Limit of detection ranging from 0.5 to 4.0ng/L were obtained. The repeatability was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 13.1%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in water samples with the recoveries in the range of 96.0-106.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A system for removing both oxygen and nitrogen from a rare gas-hydrocarbon mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made how to remove nitrogen from a mixture of a rare gas and a hydrocarbon in addition to the removal of oxygen, H 2 O and gaseous oxides. The purpose was to find a simple method for the purification of drift-chamber gases in a recirculation system. Such a method would reduce the operating costs of the large detectors presently constructed for LEP. A promising technique has been developed. First results of a chemical reactor using the novel technique are presented. The N 2 content of Ar/air mixtures containing up to 28% air could be reduced to a level of 20 ppm at a flow rate of 0.11 m 3 /h (200 ppm at 1.0 m 3 /h); and the O 2 content to 30 and 300 ppm respectively. Water and gaseous oxides concentrations were always below 5 ppm. Some of the practical problems still to be solved are discussed and suggestions are given for further development and applications. The method can in principle be of more general use. (orig.)

  15. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  17. Shallow Gas Migration along Hydrocarbon Wells-An Unconsidered, Anthropogenic Source of Biogenic Methane in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielstädte, Lisa; Haeckel, Matthias; Karstens, Jens; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Steinle, Lea; Wallmann, Klaus

    2017-09-05

    Shallow gas migration along hydrocarbon wells constitutes a potential methane emission pathway that currently is not recognized in any regulatory framework or greenhouse gas inventory. Recently, the first methane emission measurements at three abandoned offshore wells in the Central North Sea (CNS) were conducted showing that considerable amounts of biogenic methane originating from shallow gas accumulations in the overburden of deep reservoirs were released by the boreholes. Here, we identify numerous wells poking through shallow gas pockets in 3-D seismic data of the CNS indicating that about one-third of the wells may leak, potentially releasing a total of 3-17 kt of methane per year into the North Sea. This poses a significant contribution to the North Sea methane budget. A large fraction of this gas (∼42%) may reach the atmosphere via direct bubble transport (0-2 kt yr -1 ) and via diffusive exchange of methane dissolving in the surface mixed layer (1-5 kt yr -1 ), as indicated by numerical modeling. In the North Sea and in other hydrocarbon-prolific provinces of the world shallow gas pockets are frequently observed in the sedimentary overburden and aggregate leakages along the numerous wells drilled in those areas may be significant.

  18. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  19. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  20. Toxicity of jet fuel aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on human epidermal Keratinocytes: evaluation based on in vitro cytotoxicity and interleukin-8 release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen-Hung (Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C); Lee, Chia-Hue; Tsang, Chau-Loong [National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan); Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Riviere, Jim E. [North Carolina State University, Center for Chemical Toxicology Research and Pharmacokinetics (CCTRP), Raleigh, NC (United States); Chou, Chi-Chung [National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan); National Chung-Hsing University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2006-08-15

    Jet fuels are complex mixtures of aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbons that vary significantly in individual cytotoxicity and proinflammatory activity in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In order to delineate the toxicological interactions among individual hydrocarbons in a mixture and their contributions to cutaneous toxicity, nine ALI and five ARO hydrocarbons were each divided into five (high/medium/low cytotoxic and strong/weak IL-8 induction) groups and intra/inter-mixed to assess for their mixture effects on HEK mortality and IL-8 release. Addition of single hydrocarbon to JP-8 fuel was also evaluated for their changes in fuel dermatotoxicity. The results indicated that when hydrocarbons were mixed, HEK mortality and IL-8 release were not all predictable by their individual ability affecting these two parameters. The lowest HEK mortality (7%) and the highest IL-8 production were induced with mixtures including high cytotoxic and weak IL-8 inductive ARO hydrocarbons. Antagonistic reactions not consistently correlated with ALI carbon chain length and ARO structure were evident and carried different weight in the overall mixture toxicities. Single addition of benzene, toluene, xylene or ethylbenzene for up to tenfold in JP-8 did not increase HEK mortality while single addition of ALI hydrocarbons exhibited dose-related differential response in IL-8. In an all ALI environment, no single hydrocarbon is the dominating factor in the determination of HEK cytotoxicity while deletion of hexadecane resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in IL-8 production. Overall, decane, undecane and dodecane were the major hydrocarbons associated with high cytotoxicity while tetradecane, pentadecane and hexadecane were those which had the greatest buffering effect attenuating dermatotoxicity. The mixture effects must be considered when evaluating jet fuel toxicity to HEK. (orig.)

  1. Problems of hydrocarbon resources development in new bedding zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.; Koszhanov, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exploring geological surveying works were carried out for revealing of fuel resources in South Kazakhstan. Number of complex gas deposits - Ajrakty, Amangel'dy, Kumyrly and others as well as Northern Usharly and Usharal-Kemirtobe deposits of nitrogen-helium gas are recovered. Introduction its into operation has significant importance in consequence of urgent fuel deficit in region. Basic way of guaranteed gas supply to industry and population of South Kazakhstan is connected with own hydrocarbon fields development

  2. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  3. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai

    2010-01-01

    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm oil mill effluent by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fairolzukry Ahmad Rasdy; Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Ahmedy Abu Naim

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from palm oil mill effluent based on gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Extraction of spiked PAHs (napthalene, fluorene phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in palm oil waste was carried out by Soxhlet extraction using hexane-dichloromethane (60:40 v/v) as the solvent. Excellent separations were achieved using temperature programmed GC on Ultra-1 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 250 μm ID), carrier gas helium at a flow rate of 1 mL/ min. (author)

  5. Gas to fuel and chemicals: from technology to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercialization of natural gas reserves via synthesis to liquid products is a particularly active area of research which could permit this energy carrier to penetrate new markets. This study provides a global perspective of developments in this area, the technology and its economic and environmental implications, completed by a full review of current projects. A number of research centres as well as engineering companies and oil and gas companies are engaged in significant research programmes to improve the processes employed in the gas to liquids chain. This section provides a complete picture of the recent technology developments and the areas for potential future improvement.The research activities of each organisation and the process scheme employed are described.The implications of the major differences in the technologies are reviewed. Each step in the GTL chain-feed preparation, syngas production, the Fischer-Tropsch process and product work up is covered. The relationship between the products from the process and the technology employed is discussed. Aside from the technological aspects, the economics of the GTL process remains the major hurdle to be overcome if this technology is to be more widely utilized.The key parameters affecting the economics of GTL developments are the cost of natural gas, capital investments and the impact of economies of scale.The key driver for the oil and gas companies is to provide a way of commercializing natural gas reserves when other means, such as pipeline transportation or LNG, are not viable. This section provides a review of the costs and economics of the GTL chain taking into account the process configuration and resulting capital costs, the products produced, the effect of scale and other relevant factors.The aim is to provide an understanding of the economic factors affecting the GTL chain. Middle distillate fuels produced from the GTL process are sulphur and aromatics free and will be attractive for use in the

  6. 29 CFR 1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting. 1910.253 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.253 Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting. (a) General requirements—(1) Flammable mixture. Mixtures of fuel gases...

  7. Fission gas behavior in mixed-oxide fuel during transient overpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randklev, E.H.; Treibs, H.A.; Mastel, B.; Baldwin, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Fission gas behavior can be important in determining fuel pin and core performance during a reactor transient. The results are presented of examinations characterizing the changes in microstructural distribution and retention of fission gas in fuel for a series of transient overpower (50 cents/s) tested mixed-oxide fuel pins and their steady state siblings

  8. Calculation of burnup and power dependence on fission gas released from PWR type reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edy-Sulistyono

    1996-01-01

    Burn up dependence of fission gas released and variation power analysis have been conducted using FEMXI-IV computer code program for Pressure Water Reactor Fuel During steady-state condition. The analysis result shows that the fission gas release is sensitive to the fuel temperature, the increasing of burn up and power in the fuel element under irradiation experiment

  9. Gas pressure and gas purity analyzing device in nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Chihiro; Hasegawa, Toru.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring and analyzing a pressure and a purity of a helium gas sealed in a BWR type nuclear fuel rod. Namely, a portion between a rotational shaft of an electromotive drill for perforating the fuel rod and a vacuum chamber is sealed with a magnetic fluid sealing material so that error factors can be recognized before and after the destruction detection (perforation) of a fuel rod. With such procedures, involving of an atmospheric air from the drill rotational shaft upon perforation can be eliminated. As a result, accuracy for the measurement can be improved. In addition, a filter is disposed to a pipeline connecting the vacuum chamber and the measuring system. With such a constitution, scattering of cutting dusts to the measuring system, troubles due to damages of a stop valve can be reduced. As a result, the efficiency of the measurement is improved. Further, a plurality kinds of gas collecting vessel having different capacities are connected in parallel to the pipeline of the measuring system. Then, the gas collecting vessels can be used selectively. As a result, the device can cope with a gas pressure over a wide range. (I.S.)

  10. Fuel composition effect on cathode airflow control in fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nana; Zaccaria, Valentina; Tucker, David

    2018-04-01

    Cathode airflow regulation is considered an effective means for thermal management in solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system. However, performance and controllability are observed to vary significantly with different fuel compositions. Because a complete system characterization with any possible fuel composition is not feasible, the need arises for robust controllers. The sufficiency of robust control is dictated by the effective change of operating state given the new composition used. It is possible that controller response could become unstable without a change in the gains from one state to the other. In this paper, cathode airflow transients are analyzed in a SOFC-GT system using syngas as fuel composition, comparing with previous work which used humidified hydrogen. Transfer functions are developed to map the relationship between the airflow bypass and several key variables. The impact of fuel composition on system control is quantified by evaluating the difference between gains and poles in transfer functions. Significant variations in the gains and the poles, more than 20% in most cases, are found in turbine rotational speed and cathode airflow. The results of this work provide a guideline for the development of future control strategies to face fuel composition changes.

  11. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  12. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Cleans up With Natural Gas Refuse Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Golden Eagle Delivers Beer With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  15. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(d) of the Act provides for a... proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary energy source; (2...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buses Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  17. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  18. Catalytic reduction of methane/unburned hydrocarbons in smoke from lean-burn gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, Jan de.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been: To describe the flue gas conditions of typical stationary gas engines for cogeneration; To evaluate the predominant causes of deactivation of oxidation catalysts under realistic operation conditions; To develop improved long-term stable oxidation catalysts; To evaluate alternative catalyst-based methane reduction technologies. Most gas engines for stationary purposes are efficient lean-burn gas engines. Both the high efficiency and the very lean operation lead to low exhaust temperatures. However, there is now a tendency to design engines with un-cooled exhaust manifolds. This leads to higher shaft efficiency and increases the exhaust temperature. Exhaust gas composition and temperatures during continuous operation and start/stops are given in this report. Analyses have been made of catalyst samples to find predominant causes for oxidation catalyst deactivation. The analyses have shown that the presence of sulphur dioxide in the flue gas causes sulphur poisoning on the active catalyst surface. This effect is dependent on both the catalyst formulation and the catalyst support material composition. Neither sintering, nor other poisoning components than sulphur have been on the examined catalyst samples. The sulphur dioxide in the exhaust is a result of the sulphur in the odorisation additive used in the natural gas (approx. 10 mg/n 3 m THT) and of the sulphur present in combusted lubrication oil. These sources leads to a level of approx. 0.3 - 0.6 ppm (vol) SO 2 in the exhaust gas. Based on a large number of laboratory tests, a new oxidation catalyst formulation has been developed and successfully tested over 5000 hours of operation at a commercial cogeneration plant. This long-term testing has been additionally supplemented by short-term testings at test sites to see performance under other operation conditions. It has been shown that a rise in flue gas temperature (from e.g. 450 deg. C) will significantly reduce the necessary

  19. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  20. Fossil Fuel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Taiwan Strait, China, and Fluxes across the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Xu, Li; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Zhao, Songhe; Wang, Xinhong

    2018-06-14

    On the basis of the application of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) and air-water exchange models, the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their air-water transport were elucidated. The results showed that fossil fuel-derived PAHs (an average contribution of 89%) presented the net volatilization process at the air-water interface of the Taiwan Strait in summer. Net volatile fluxes of the dominant fluorene and phenanthrene (>58% of the total PAHs) were 27 ± 2.8 μg m -2 day -1 , significantly higher than the dry deposition fluxes (average 0.43 μg m -2 day -1 ). The Δ 14 C contents of selected PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene plus anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) determined by CSRA in the dissolved seawater ranged from -997 ± 4‰ to -873 ± 6‰, indicating that 89-100% (95 ± 4%) of PAHs were supplied by fossil fuels. The South China Sea warm current originating from the southwest China in summer (98%) and the Min-Zhe coastal current originating from the north China in winter (97%) input more fossil fuel PAHs than the Jiulong River estuary (90%) and Xiamen harbor water (93%). The more radioactive decayed 14 C of fluoranthene (a 4-ring PAH) than that of phenanthrene and anthracene (3-ring PAHs) represented a greater fossil fuel contribution to the former in dissolved seawater.

  1. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  2. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  3. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P; Yang, Bin

    2018-01-10

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al 2 O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf) 4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote deoxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P.; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.

  5. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongliang [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA; Current address: Center of Biomass Engineering/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 PR China; Wang, Huamin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Kuhn, Eric [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Tucker, Melvin P. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Yang, Bin [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion (e.g. Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3) and noble metal catalysts (e.g. Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage via selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalysed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt% of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates via protonating hydroxyls and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalysed by super Lewis acids.

  6. A comparative study of fission gas behaviour in UO2 and MOX fuels using the meteor fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzik, C.; Garcia, Ph.; Noirot, L.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the fission-gas-related differences observed between MOX MIMAS AUC fuels and homogeneous UO 2 fuels. Under steady-state conditions, the apparently higher fractional release in MOX fuels is interpreted with the METEOR fuel performance code as a consequence of their lower thermal conductivity and the higher linear heat rates to which MOX fuel rods are subjected. Although more fundamental diffusion properties are needed, the apparently greater swelling of MOX fuel rods at higher linear heat rates can be ascribed to enhanced diffusion properties. (authors)

  7. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Hoeppel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14 CO 2 ) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  8. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi, E-mail: ysekine@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 65-301, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-13

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO{sub 2}/C{sub fuel} = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  9. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  10. Technical measurement of small fission gas inventory in fuel rod with laser puncturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Kim, Sung Ryul; Lee, Byoung Oon; Yang, Yong Sik; Baek, Sang Ryul; Song, Ung Sup

    2012-01-01

    The fission gas release cause degradation of fuel rod. It influences fuel temperature and internal pressure due to low thermal conductivity. Therefore, fission gas released to internal void of fuel rod must be measured with burnup. To measure amount of fission gas, fuel rod must be punctured by a steel needle in a closed chamber. Ideal gas law(PV=nRT) is applied to obtain atomic concentration(mole). Steel needle type is good for large amount of fission gas such as commercial spent fuel rod. But, some cases with small fuel rig in research reactor for R/D program are not available to use needle type because of large chamber volume. The laser puncturing technique was developed to solve measurement of small amount of fission gas. This system was very rare equipment in other countries. Fine pressure gage and strong vacuum system were installed, and the chamber volume was reduced at least. Fiber laser was used for easy operation

  11. Production and release of the fission gas in (Th U)O2 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio S.

    1982-06-01

    The volume, composition and release of the fission gas products were caculated for (Th, U)O 2 fuel rods. The theorectical calculations were compared with experimental results available on the literature. In ThO 2 + 5% UO 2 fuel rods it will be produced approximated 5% more fission gas as compared to UO 2 fuel rods. The fission gas composition or Xe to Kr ratio has showed a decreasing fuel brunup dependence, in opposition to that of UO 2 . Under the same fuel rod operational conditions, the (Th, U)O 2 fission gas release will be smaller as compared to UO 2 . This behaviour of (Th, U)O 2 fuel comes from smallest gas atom difusivity and higher activation energies of the processes that increase the fission gas release. (Author) [pt

  12. Origin and in situ concentrations of hydrocarbons in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersberg, Thomas; Schleicher, Anja M.; Horiguchi, Keika; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Erzinger, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exp. 319 of IODP was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud gas monitoring. • Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud. • Chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. • Absolute CH 4 concentrations in the formation reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment . - Abstract: NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) was the first cruise in the history of scientific ocean drilling with drilling mud circulation through a riser. Drilling mud was pumped through the drill string and returned to the drill ship through the riser pipe during drilling of hole C0009A from 703 to 1604 mbsf (meter below sea floor) and hole enlargement from 703 to 1569 mbsf. During riser drilling, gas from returning drilling mud was continuously extracted, sampled and analyzed in real time to reveal information on the gas composition and gas concentrations at depth. Hydrocarbons were the only formation-derived gases identified in drilling mud and reached up to 14 vol.% of methane and 48 ppmv of ethane. The chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons exhibit a microbial origin. Hydrocarbons released from drilling mud and cuttings correlate with visible allochthonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. At greater depth, addition of small but increasing amounts of hydrocarbons probably from low-temperature thermal degradation of organic matter is indicated. The methane content is also tightly correlated with several intervals of low Poisson’s ratio from Vp/Vs observed in sonic velocity logs, suggesting that the gas is situated in the pore space of the rock as free gas. The gas concentrations in the formation, determined from drilling mud gas monitoring, reaching up to 24 L gas /L sediment for methane in hole C0009A, in line with gas concentrations from interpreted downhole sonic logs

  13. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  14. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damphousse, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The first time use of a new electro-hydraulic liquid fuel injector was demonstrated to produce consistent atomization properties while allowing for varying fuel injection durations at frequencies up to 50 Hz...

  15. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... different measuring methods. Likewise, no particles were detected in the gas. Considerable amounts of NH3 were measured in the produced gas.An analysis of engine operation at varying load has been carried out. Standard emissions, load and efficiency have been measured at varying operating conditions ranging...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  16. The Influence of fuel Diversification Concerning Vapour and Gas Electric Power Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiral-Aziz; Panca-Porakusuma

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays consumption of electricity in Indonesia has increased. The oil fuel as the primary fuel for power plant installation has decreased the amount of resources and makes the oil fuel prices very high. In the recent years it has been developed the Combined Cycle technology with Fuel Diversification from the oil fuel (HSD) to natural gas in power plant installation. From the investigation it could be concluded that in the Combined Cycle power plant the production cost using natural gas for the primary fuel cheaper than HSD fuel. The production cost of the combined cycle with configuration of 1-1-1 for 199 MW load is Rp. 172/kWh for natural gas fuel and Rp 941/kWh for HSD fuel. (author)

  17. HOT CELL SYSTEM FOR DETERMINING FISSION GAS RETENTION IN METALLIC FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, D. A.; Baily, C. E.; Malewitz, T. J.; Medvedev, P. G.; Porter, D. L.; Hilton, B. A.

    2016-09-01

    A system has been developed to perform measurements on irradiated, sodium bonded-metallic fuel elements to determine the amount of fission gas retained in the fuel material after release of the gas to the element plenum. During irradiation of metallic fuel elements, most of the fission gas developed is released from the fuel and captured in the gas plenums of the fuel elements. A significant amount of fission gas, however, remains captured in closed porosities which develop in the fuel during irradiation. Additionally, some gas is trapped in open porosity but sealed off from the plenum by frozen bond sodium after the element has cooled in the hot cell. The Retained fission Gas (RFG) system has been designed, tested and implemented to capture and measure the quantity of retained fission gas in characterized cut pieces of sodium bonded metallic fuel. Fuel pieces are loaded into the apparatus along with a prescribed amount of iron powder, which is used to create a relatively low melting, eutectic composition as the iron diffuses into the fuel. The apparatus is sealed, evacuated, and then heated to temperatures in excess of the eutectic melting point. Retained fission gas release is monitored by pressure transducers during the heating phase, thus monitoring for release of fission gas as first the bond sodium melts and then the fuel. A separate hot cell system is used to sample the gas in the apparatus and also characterize the volume of the apparatus thus permitting the calculation of the total fission gas release from the fuel element samples along with analysis of the gas composition.

  18. [Simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Yibin; Wang, Weiwei; Ji, Houwei; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Fucheng; Liu, Jian

    2017-10-08

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[ a ]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b ]fluoranthene, benzo[ k ]fluoranthene, benzo[ a ]pyrene, dibenzo[ a,h ]anthracene, benzo[ g,h,i ]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- c,d ]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) ranged from 0.9914 to 0.9999. The average recoveries of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 81.6%-109.6% at low, middle and high spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%, except that the relative standard deviation of fluorene at the low spiked level was 19.2%. The limits of detection of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 0.02 to 0.24 ng/filter, and the limits of quantification were 0.04 to 0.80 ng/filter. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible. It is suitable for the quantitative analysis of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filters.

  19. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the combustion process at low loads of a diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu

    2016-01-01

    To construct an effective method to analyze the combustion process of dual fuel engines at low loads, effects of combustion boundaries on the combustion process of an electronically controlled diesel natural gas dual-fuel engine at low loads were investigated. Three typical combustion modes, including h, m and n, appeared under different combustion boundaries. In addition, the time-sequenced characteristic and the heat release rate-imbalanced characteristic were found in the dual fuel engine combustion process. To quantify these characteristics, two quantitative indicators, including the TSC (time-sequenced coefficient) and the HBC (HRR-balanced coefficient) were defined. The results show that increasing TSC and HBC can decrease HC (hydrocarbon) emissions and improve the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) significantly. The engine with the n combustion mode can obtain the highest BTE and the lowest HC emissions, followed by m, and then h. However, the combustion process of the engine will deteriorate sharply if boundary conditions are not strictly controlled in the n combustion mode. Based on the n combustion mode, advancing the start of diesel injection significantly, using large EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate and appropriately intake throttling can effectively reduce HC emissions and improve the BTE of dual fuel engines at low loads with relatively high natural gas PES (percentage energy substitution). - Highlights: • We reported three typical combustion modes of a dual-fuel engine at low loads. • Time-sequenced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • HRR-imbalanced characteristic was put forward and qualified. • Three combustion modes appeared as equivalence ratio/diesel injection timing varied. • The engine performance varied significantly with different combustion mode.

  20. A study on an electronically controlled liquefied petroleum gas diesel dual-fuel automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhua Zhang; Yaozhang Bian; Lizeng Si; Junzhi Liao; Odbileg, N. [Chang' an Univ., Automobile Faculty, Xi' an (China)

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the control scheme of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-diesel dual-fuel engine with electronic control is illustrated, the external characteristics and load characteristics of the LPG-diesel dual-fuel engine and the diesel engine are compared and analysed, and the results of automobile road tests are also given. The experimental results show that, compared with diesel, the output performance of dual fuel is not reduced, while smoke emission of dual fuel is significantly reduced, NO{sub x} emission of dual fuel is hardly changed, but HC emission and CO emission of dual fuel are increased and fuel consumption of dual fuel is reduced. (Author)

  1. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  2. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  3. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release

  4. A combined gas cooled nuclear reactor and fuel cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David J.

    Rising oil costs, global warming, national security concerns, economic concerns and escalating energy demands are forcing the engineering communities to explore methods to address these concerns. It is the intention of this thesis to offer a proposal for a novel design of a combined cycle, an advanced nuclear helium reactor/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant that will help to mitigate some of the above concerns. Moreover, the adoption of this proposal may help to reinvigorate the Nuclear Power industry while providing a practical method to foster the development of a hydrogen economy. Specifically, this thesis concentrates on the importance of the U.S. Nuclear Navy adopting this novel design for its nuclear electric vessels of the future with discussion on efficiency and thermodynamic performance characteristics related to the combined cycle. Thus, the goals and objectives are to develop an innovative combined cycle that provides a solution to the stated concerns and show that it provides superior performance. In order to show performance, it is necessary to develop a rigorous thermodynamic model and computer program to analyze the SOFC in relation with the overall cycle. A large increase in efficiency over the conventional pressurized water reactor cycle is realized. Both sides of the cycle achieve higher efficiencies at partial loads which is extremely important as most naval vessels operate at partial loads as well as the fact that traditional gas turbines operating alone have poor performance at reduced speeds. Furthermore, each side of the cycle provides important benefits to the other side. The high temperature exhaust from the overall exothermic reaction of the fuel cell provides heat for the reheater allowing for an overall increase in power on the nuclear side of the cycle. Likewise, the high temperature helium exiting the nuclear reactor provides a controllable method to stabilize the fuel cell at an optimal temperature band even during transients helping

  5. Gas Turbine High Temperature Gas (Helium) Reactor Using Pebble Bed Fuel Derived from Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Project goals: Build on the $1B investment spent during the NGNP Project for the only true Inherently Safe Small Modular Reactor Design – the only SMR design that can make this claim due to negative temperature coefficient of reactivity - no containment required – less construction cost. NPMC in Partnership with Pebble Bed Modular Group, a fully owned subsidiary of Eskom, RSA to Factory Build Complete Plant in Modular Sections at Factory Site in Oswego, NY for transport to site by rail or shipping for world wide export. NPMC will provide Project and Construction Management of all new builds from plant sites through construction, commissioning and startup using local labor. License and Construct ion of spent fuel processing facility in both NY and South Africa using Proven Technology. Ultimate goals of project: 1. Award of the 2013 US DOE Innovative SMR $452M cost share grant for US NRC License Certification 2.Build Full Scale Demonstration Plant at Koeburg, RSA with World Bank Funding managed by NPMC in collaboration with our legal firm, Haynes and Boone LLP 3. Take Plant Orders Immediately (10% Down Payment) 4. Form Strategic Alliance with Domestic and/or International Utility

  6. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  7. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  8. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  9. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  10. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  11. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  12. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  13. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  14. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied

  15. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  16. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shao, Lin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tsvetkov, Pavel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Wirth, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kennedy, Rory [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  17. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  18. Hydrate dissociation conditions for gas mixtures containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons using SAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaosen; Wu Huijie; Li Yigui; Feng Ziping; Tang Liangguang; Fan Shuanshi

    2007-01-01

    A new method, a molecular thermodynamic model based on statistical mechanics, is employed to predict the hydrate dissociation conditions for binary gas mixtures with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and hydrocarbons in the presence of aqueous solutions. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state is employed to characterize the vapor and liquid phases and the statistical model of van der Waals and Platteeuw for the hydrate phase. The predictions of the proposed model were found to be in satisfactory to excellent agreement with the experimental data

  19. Study of the Effect of Hydrocarbon Type Biodegradation on Fuel Specification Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    diesel fuel (F10428) before and after 1 month exposure to Pseudomonas or a control. Figure 12. QCM profiles at 140°C of mass accumulation (solid...DLA-13) Figure 32. Calibration curve for analysis of BHT in jet fuel. Figure 33. Growth of yeast in 20 mg/L concentrations of A and B. Figure...bladder materials. Some costly problems associated with microbial growth include tank corrosion, fuel pump failures, filter plugging, injector

  20. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  1. Confinement and gas fueling in LHD limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Kawahata, K.; Narihara, K.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Sakakibara, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma discharges in the Large Helical Device are normally open helical divertor discharges. To compare limiter discharges with open divertor discharges and to examine the role of the peripheral region, a radial movable limiter, whose head was made of carbon with high heat conductivity, was inserted into the plasma from the high field side (near the helical coil). The electron temperature was bounded well by the limiter. A high temperature gradient at the edge region was observed in both open divertor and limiter discharges. Formation of such a high temperature gradient led to good energy confinement even in the limiter discharges and an enhancement factor of 1.1±0.3 for International Stellarator Scaling 95 (ISS95) scaling was observed at every limiter position (0.75 ax =3.75 m prevents gas fueling by puffing

  2. Pulse radiolysis of alkanes in the gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions and neutralization mechanisms of hydrocarbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, P.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the fate of unreactive hydrocarbon ions in various selected gaseous systems. It is shown that experiments performed with the high radiation dose rates obtained in pulse radiolysis experiments have several advantages over conventional low dose rate experiments for the elucidation of the mechanism of homogeneous neutralization of unreactive hydrocarbon ions. This is so because the charged species has a much shorter lifetime with respect to neutralization under high dose rate (pulse radiolysis) conditions, so that the reaction of the ions with minor impurities or accumulated products is much less probable than in low dose rate experiments. It is further shown through a few examples, that quantitative information about the rate contants of neutralization events and ion-molecule reactions can be obtained when the dose rate is high enough for neutralization and chemical reaction to be in competition. Once reliable rate constants for neutralization and ion-molecule reactions are derived, one can obtain a quantitative evaluation of the products which will by formed in the pulse radiolysis of a hydrocarbon gas mixture from a computer calculation. (author)

  3. Microbiological studies on petroleum and natural gas. I. Determination of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, H; Komagata, K

    1964-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were isolated from oil-brine, soils etc. sampled in oil fields in Japan during 1956, and the following species were identified: Corynebacterium hydrocarboclastus nov. sp., 11 strains; Pseudomonas nitroreducens nov. sp., 1 strain; Pseudomonas maltophila Hugh and Ryschenkow, 5 strains: Brevibacterium lipolyticum (Huss) Breed, 2 strains; Pseudomonas desmolytica Gray and Thornton, 5 strains; Flavobacterium ferrugineum Sickles and Shaw, 1 strain; and Alcaligenes faecalis Chastellani and Chalmers, 1 strain. One difference between Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was described on the basis of the ability of assimilating hydrocarbons.

  4. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-09-25

    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  5. The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Linwei; Geng, Jia; Li, Weqi; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript aims to systematically review the development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China and to draw policy implications for decision making. This manuscript presents a brief overview of natural gas development and the potential of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China, followed by an introduction to the development of various technology pathways for using natural gas as an automotive fuel, including CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles, LNG (liquefied natural gas) vehicles, and others. This material suggests, a large potential to increase the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, especially for CNG and LNG vehicles. The following activities will promote the development of natural gas vehicles: prioritizing vehicle use in the utilization of natural gas, supporting the construction of natural gas filling stations, developing a favorable pricing policy for natural gas used in vehicles, and enhancing the research and development to further improve the technology performance, especially for the technology of LNG vehicles. -- Highlights: •An overview of the natural gas development in China. •A systematic introduction of the development of natural gas vehicles in China. •A review of the technological performance of natural gas vehicles. •Policy suggestions to promote the development of natural gas vehicles in China

  6. Preliminary Screening -- Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Dayton, D. C.

    2003-12-01

    In principle, syngas (primarily consisting of CO and H2) can be produced from any hydrocarbon feedstock, including: natural gas, naphtha, residual oil, petroleum coke, coal, and biomass. The lowest cost routes for syngas production, however, are based on natural gas, the cheapest option being remote or stranded reserves. Economic considerations dictate that the current production of liquid fuels from syngas translates into the use of natural gas as the hydrocarbon source. Nevertheless, the syngas production operation in a gas-to-liquids plant amounts to greater than half of the capital cost of the plant. The choice of technology for syngas production also depends on the scale of the synthesis operation. Syngas production from solid fuels can require an even greater capital investment with the addition of feedstock handling and more complex syngas purification operations. The greatest impact on improving the economics of gas-to liquids plants is through (1) decreasing capital costs associated with syngas production and (2) improving the thermal efficiency with better heat integration and utilization. Improved thermal efficiency can be obtained by combining the gas-to-liquids plant with a power generation plant to take advantage of the availability of low-pressure steam. The extensive research and development efforts devoted to syngas conversion to fuels and chemicals are documented in a vast amount of literature that tracks the scientific and technological advancements in syngas chemistry. The purpose of this report is to review the many syngas to products processes and summarize the salient points regarding the technology status and description, chemistry, catalysts, reactors, gas cleanliness requirements, process and environmental performances, and economics. Table 1 lists the products examined in this study and gives some facts about the technology as well as advantages and disadvantages. Table 2 summarizes the catalysts, process conditions, conversions, and

  7. Experimental studies on spray and gas entrainment characteristics of biodiesel fuel: Implications of gas entrained and fuel oxygen content on soot formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Nishida, Keiya; Zhu, Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed inside the constant volume vessel to simulate the real diesel engine conditions. The LIF–PIV (Laser Induced Florescence – Particulate Image Velocimetry) technique was used to characterize the spray and gas entrainment characteristics of the fuels while the OH-chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were applied to obtain information about the combustion processes. Biodiesel from palm oil (BDF (Biodiesel Fuel)) and the JIS #2 diesel fuel were utilized. It was observed that the SMD (Sauter mean diameter) obtained through an empirical equation decreased by increasing the injection pressure from 100 to 300 MPa and reducing the nozzle diameter from 0.16 to 0.08 mm. BDF has higher SMD values compared to diesel thus signifying inferior atomization. By increasing the injection pressure up to 300 MPa and reducing the nozzle diameter to 0.08 mm, the normal velocity and total mass flow rate of the entrained gas by the fuels increased. Due to higher viscosity and density properties, BDF possessed inferior atomization characteristics which made the normal velocity and total mass flow rate of the entrained gas lower compared to diesel. Due to inferior atomization which led to less gas being entrained upstream of the lift-off flame, the fuel oxygen content in BDF played a significant role in soot formation processes. - Highlights: • Spray and gas entrainment characteristics of biodiesel (BDF (Biodiesel Fuel)) and fuel were investigated. • Effect of injector parameters on BDF spray and gas entrainment characteristics was identified. • Higher viscosity and density of BDF yielded inferior spray atomization processes. • Gas entrainment velocity and mass flow rate of gas entrained by BDF lower. • Gas entrained had less effect on BDF's soot formation

  8. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zavyalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  9. Improvement on performance and efficiency of direct methanol fuel cells using hydrocarbon-based membrane electrode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon-Hee; Yang, Min-Jee; Park, Jun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) of DMFC MEAs are calculated based on mass balance measurements. • Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is generally improved over the Nafion-based MEAs. • Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of -2. • Low WTC of the HC-based MEAs indicates the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. • Performance of HC-based MEAs is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases, maintaining high Faradaic efficiency. - Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency (fuel efficiency and electrical power) of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), the hydrocarbon (HC) membrane-based membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are investigated under various operating conditions. The MEAs are then compared with the conventional Nafion-based MEA in terms of their efficiency and performance. The Faradaic efficiency and water transfer coefficient (WTC) are calculated based on mass balance measurements. The Faradaic efficiency of the HC-based MEAs is improved over the Nafion-based MEAs since methanol crossover decreased. The performance of HC-based MEAs shows strong dependency on the anode stoichiometry at high current densities probably because of the limited mass transport of fuel, which is not observed for the Nafion-based MEAs. The Nafion-based MEAs show a WTC of 3, whereas the HC-based MEAs show a very low WTC of −2, indicating the back-diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode. This may have limited mass transport by interrupting proton conduction at high current densities. The performance of HC-based MEAs at high current densities is improved as the fuel stoichiometry increases; High Faradaic efficiency is maintained by decreasing the cathode stoichiometry

  10. The effects of fission gas release on PWR fuel rod design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, W.J.; Kaiser, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of fission gas release on PWR fuel rod design and performance. Empirical models were developed from fission gas release data. Fission gas release during normal operation is a function of burnup. There is little additional fission gas release during anticipated transients. The empirical models were used to evaluate Westinghouse fuel rod designs. It was determined that fission gas release is not a limiting parameter for obtaining rod average burnups in the range of 50,000 to 60,000 MWD/MTU. Fission gas release during anticipated transients has a negligible effect on the margins to rod design limits. (author)

  11. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  12. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  13. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun, E-mail: o.adelaja@my.westminster.ac.uk; Keshavarz, Tajalli, E-mail: t.keshavarz@westminster.ac.uk; Kyazze, Godfrey, E-mail: g.kyazze@westminster.ac.uk

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m{sup 2} maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m{sup 2}, 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents.

  14. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. The effect of salinity, redox mediators and temperature on anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Oluwaseun; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures was achieved using MFC. • Adapted anaerobic microbial consortium was used as inoculum. • Bio-electricity generation was enhanced by 30-fold when riboflavin, was added. • Optimum MFC performance was obtained at mesophilic and moderately saline conditions. • Stable MFC performance was obtained during prolonged fed-batch MFC operation. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to be robust if they are to be applied in the field for bioremediation. This study investigated the effect of temperature (20–50 °C), salinity (0.5–2.5% (w/v) as sodium chloride), the use of redox mediators (riboflavin and anthraquinone-2-sulphonate, AQS) and prolonged fed-batch operation (60 days) on biodegradation of a petroleum hydrocarbon mix (i.e. phenanthrene and benzene) in MFCs. The performance criteria were degradation efficiency, % COD removal and electrochemical performance. Good electrochemical and degradation performance were maintained up to a salinity of 1.5% (w/v) but deteriorated by 35-fold and 4-fold respectively as salinity was raised to 2.5%w/v. Degradation rates and maximum power density were both improved by approximately 2-fold at 40 °C compared to MFC performance at 30 °C but decreased sharply by 4-fold when operating temperature was raised to 50 °C. The optimum reactor performance obtained at 40 °C was 1.15 mW/m 2 maximum power density, 89.1% COD removal and a degradation efficiency of 97.10%; at moderately saline (1% w/v) conditions the maximum power density was 1.06 mW/m 2 , 79.1% COD removal and 91.6% degradation efficiency. This work suggests the possible application of MFC technology in the effective treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated site and refinery effluents

  16. Development of Criteria for Flashback Propensity in Jet Flames for High Hydrogen Content and Natural Gas Type Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantari, Alireza [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sullivan-Lewis, Elliot [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); McDonell, Vincent [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. In fact, flashback is a key operability issue associated with low emission combustion of high hydrogen content fuels. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Hence, design tools to predict flashback propensity are of interest. Such a design tool has been developed based on the data gathered by experimental study to predict boundary layer flashback using non-dimensional parameters. The flashback propensity of a premixed jet flame has been studied experimentally. Boundary layer flashback has been investigated under turbulent flow conditions at elevated pressures and temperatures (i.e. 3 atm to 8 atm and 300 K to 500 K). The data presented in this study are for hydrogen fuel at various Reynolds numbers, which are representative of practical gas turbine premixer conditions and are significantly higher than results currently available in the literature. Three burner heads constructed of different materials (stainless steel, copper, and zirconia ceramic) were used to evaluate the effect of tip temperature, a parameter found previously to be an important factor in triggering flashback. This study characterizes flashback systematically by developing a comprehensive non-dimensional model which takes into account all effective parameters in boundary layer flashback propensity. The model was optimized for new data and captures the behavior of the new results well. Further, comparison of the model with the single existing study of high pressure jet flame flashback also indicates good agreement. The model developed using the high pressure test rig is able to predict flashback tendencies for a commercial gas turbine engine and can thus serve as a

  17. Analysis of reactivity accidents of the RSG-GAS core with silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiran

    2002-01-01

    The fuels of RSG-GAS reactor is changed from uranium oxide to uranium silicide. For time being, the fuel of RSG-GAS core are mixed up between oxide and silicide fuels with 250 gr of loading and 2.96 g U/cm 3 of density, respectively. While, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading is still under research. The advantages of silicide fuels are can be used in high density, so that, it can be stayed longer in the core at higher burn-up, therefore, the length of cycle is longer. The silicide fuel in RSG-GAS core is used in step-wise by using mixed up core. Firstly, it is used silicide fuel with 250 gr of loading and then, silicide fuel with 300 gr of loading (3.55 g U/cm 3 of density). In every step-wise of fuel loading must be analysed its safety margin. In this occasion, it is analysed the reactivity accident of RSG-GAS core with 300 gr of silicide fuel loading. The calculation was done by using POKDYN code which available at P2TRR. The calculation was done by reactivity insertion at start up and power rangers. From all cases which were have been done, the results of analysis showed that there is no anomaly and safety margin break at RSG-GAS core with 300 gr silicide fuel loading

  18. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  19. Gas sealing welding method and device for nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Motokuni; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Yagi, Eiji; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Kobogata, Sadao; Taniguchi, Jun-ichi; Uesugi, Yoshisaku.

    1995-01-01

    An end plug and a cladding tube are held by clamping, respectively, by opposing movable electrode and static electrode. The movable electrode is forwarded toward the static electrode. The end plug and the cladding tube are abutted and held at a slight gap between their end faces. A region to be welded is surrounded by a pressurizing chamber and the side of the chamber is evacuated and He gas is filled in the cladding tube. Then, one of the electrodes is forwarded, to seal the abutted end faces of the end plug and the cladding tube. Then, pressure and welding current required for welding are applied to the abutted ends, and He gas is sealed in the vessel. The displacement of pressurization caused by slipping when the required pressure is applied to the abutted ends is detected by a sensor, and the operation of the welding control device for starting current supply is terminated by the detection signals. Abutment accuracy between the abutment of the cladding tube and the end plug as a nuclear fuel rod can be ensured, to further improve and stabilize the welding quality. (N.H.)

  20. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  1. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  2. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  3. The application of precision gas chromatography to the identification of types of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramers, C.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Pacakova, V.; Ribeiro de Andrade, I.

    1970-01-01

    It appears that under precisely controlled conditions retention indices of apolar substances on apolar stationary phases can be reproduced to 0.03 units. This permits the accurate measurement of the temperature coefficients of the K index for different classes of hydrocarbons. In this way classes of

  4. Extending the basic function of lattice oxygen in lepidocrocite titanate - The conversion of intercalated fatty acid to liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol; Arsa, Pornanan; Sooknoi, Tawan

    2017-12-01

    We report herein the basicity of the external and internal lattice oxygen (OL) in lepidocrocite titanates with respect to CO2 and palmitic acid, respectively. Several compositions have been tested with different types of the metal M aliovalently (co)substituted for Ti, K0.8[MyTi2-y]O4 (M = Li, Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cu/Ni and Cu/Zn). The low CO2 desorption peak temperature (70-100 °C) suggests that the external OL sites are weakly basic similar to TiO2. However, the internal OL sites are sufficiently basic to deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the intercalated potassium palmitate at the interlayer spaces. The latter serves as a two-dimensional (2D) molecular reactor for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels via deoxygenation under atmospheric N2. A relationship has been observed between the yield of the liquid products vs the partial charge of the lattice oxygen (δO). Since the deoxygenation pathway is highly dependent on the metal substitution, the redox-active sites might also play some roles. The co-substituted K0.8[Cu0.2Ni0.2]Ti1.6O4 produced 68.0% yield of the liquid products, with 51% saturated and 15% unsaturated C15 hydrocarbons at 350 °C.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in household air pollution from solid fuel combustion among the female population of Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Portengen, Lutzen; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning "smoky" (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source

  6. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  7. Thermal ramp rate effects on mixed-oxide fuel swelling/gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, C.A.; Randklev, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    Macroscopic swelling behavior of PNL-10 was compared to that of PNL-2 fuel and it was found that the swelling-threshold behavior is similar for similar thermal conditions. Transient fission gas release for the PNL-10 fuel is very similar to that observed for the PNL-2 fuel for similar thermal conditions

  8. Fission gas induced deformation model for FRAP-T6 and NSRR irradiated fuel test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Sasajima, Hideo; Fuketa, Toyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hosoyamada, Ryuji; Mori, Yukihide

    1996-11-01

    Pulse irradiation tests of irradiated fuels under simulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) have been carried out at the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR). Larger cladding diameter increase was observed in the irradiated fuel tests than in the previous fresh fuel tests. A fission gas induced cladding deformation model was developed and installed in a fuel behavior analysis code, FRAP-T6. The irradiated fuel tests were analyzed with the model in combination with modified material properties and fuel cracking models. In Test JM-4, where the cladding temperature rose to higher temperatures and grain boundary separation by the pulse irradiation was significant, the fission gas model described the cladding deformation reasonably well. The fuel had relatively flat radial power distribution and the grain boundary gas from the whole radius was calculated to contribute to the deformation. On the other hand, the power density in the irradiated LWR fuel rods in the pulse irradiation tests was remarkably higher at the fuel periphery than the center. A fuel thermal expansion model, GAPCON, which took account of the effect of fuel cracking by the temperature profile, was found to reproduce well the LWR fuel behavior with the fission gas deformation model. This report present details of the models and their NSRR test simulations. (author)

  9. Numerical heat transfer analysis of transcritical hydrocarbon fuel flow in a tube partially filled with porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon fuel has been widely used in air-breathing scramjets and liquid rocket engines as coolant and propellant. However, possible heat transfer deterioration and threats from local high heat flux area in scramjet make heat transfer enhancement essential. In this work, 2-D steady numerical simulation was carried out to study different schemes of heat transfer enhancement based on a partially filled porous media in a tube. Both boundary and central layouts were analyzed and effects of gradient porous media were also compared. The results show that heat transfer in the transcritical area is enhanced at least 3 times with the current configuration compared to the clear tube. Besides, the proper use of gradient porous media also enhances the heat transfer compared to homogenous porous media, which could help to avoid possible over-temperature in the thermal protection.

  10. Performance analysis of a gas turbine for power generation using syngas as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jun; Cha Kyu Sang; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Joo, Yong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant converts coal to syngas, which is mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by the gasification process and produces electric power by the gas and steam turbine combined cycle power plant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of using syngas in a gas turbine, originally designed for natural gas fuel, on its performance. A commercial gas turbine is selected and variations of its performance characteristics due to adopting syngas is analyzed by simulating off-design gas turbine operation. Since the heating value of the syngas is lower, compared to natural gas, IGCC plants require much larger fuel flow rate. This increase the gas flow rate to the turbine and the pressure ratio, leading to far larger power output and higher thermal efficiency. Examination of using two different syngases reveals that the gas turbine performance varies much with the fuel composition

  11. Innovative Approaches to the Solution of Searching Hydrocarbons in Deep Horizons of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Trofimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to the problem of hydrocarbon exploration in deep horizons, which is especially important for the old oil and gas bearing provinces, in particular, for the Volga-Ural province. The example of Riphean-Vendian deposits shows that the solution of this problem is possible if we use not only data of the structural plans of the studied horizons, but also the presence in the immediate vicinity of the identified structures of the oil feeding channels (faults allocated by the high-depth CDP seismic survey. Based on a comparative analysis of the structure of the White Tiger field (Vietnam and Zhigulev arch, it was concluded that they are very similar and that it is expedient to set up, within the last tectonic element, purposeful studies to explore the prospects of oil and gas potential of the Precambrian basement.

  12. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  13. Short- and Long-Term Dynamics of Gas Hydrate at GC600: A Gulf of Mexico Hydrocarbon Seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Johansen, C.; Silva, M.; Daneshgar, S.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Shedd, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    The GC600 hydrocarbon seep is located at 1200 m in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Satellite data show it to be one of the most prolific sources of natural oil slicks in the entire GOM. We mapped its seafloor oil and gas vents with 3-D seismic, swath-bathymetry acoustics and submersible observations, documenting gas hydrate deposits, brine pools, benthic fauna, and authigenic carbonates. Geophysical profiles show subbottom locations of salt bodies and migration conduits. We deployed time-lapse imaging systems focused on individual vents to quantify release rates. Oil and gas flow upward along the flanks of an allochthonous salt body from source rocks at 10,000 m and migrate to the seafloor from faults emanating from the salt. Venting to the water column and surface consists of oily bubbles and occurs in two fields separated by ~1 km. The NW vent field (Megaplume) appears to be a more recent expression and hosts about three highly active vents; while the SE vent field (Birthday Candles) hosts more than 10 vents that are generally slower. We measured discharge rates of 2.6 cm3 s-1 and Megaplume and 0.09 cm3 s-1 at Birthday Candles. Although surface deposits of gas hydrate were evident at both vent fields, the Birthday Candles area featured dozens of conical mounds formed by gas hydrate that were dark brown due to large amounts of liquid oil perfused throughout the deposits. Large brine pools indicated gas hydrate formation at the seafloor. Venting occurred in horizontal fissures on the mounds, in which oil and hydrate combined to form short-lived chimneys and balloon-like structures. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola) were extremely abundant in burrows extending from the sediment into the gas hydrate. Proceeding farther to the SE, venting is reduced and absent, but surface carbonate deposits suggest relict gas hydrate mounds. We propose that the NW to SE trend at GC600 encompasses the progressive development of a biogeochemical filter that sequesters and

  14. Investigation of the gas formation in dissolution process of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinfen; Liao Yuanzhong; Chen Yongqing; Sun Shuyun; Fan Yincheng

    1987-12-01

    The gas formation in dissolution process of two kinds of nuclear fuels was studied. The results shows that the maximum volume flow released from dissolution system is composed of two parts. One of them is air remained in dissolver and pushed out by acid vapor. The other is produced in dissolution reaction. The procedure of calculating the gas amount produced in dissolution process has been given. It is based on variation of components of dissolution solution. The gas amount produced in dissolution process of spent UO 2 fuel elements was calculated. The condenser system and loading volume of disposal system of tail gas of dissolution of spent fuel were discussed

  15. Estimating Emissions of Toxic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Production Sites in the Barnett Shale Region of Northern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Lyon, David R; Tsai, Tracy R; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2016-10-04

    Oil and natural gas operations have continued to expand and move closer to densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples collected downwind of oil and gas sites revealed enhancements in several potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when compared to background values. Molar emissions ratios relative to methane were determined for hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX compounds). Using methane leak rates measured from the Picarro mobile flux plane (MFP) system and a Barnett Shale regional methane emissions inventory, the rates of emission of these toxic gases were calculated. Benzene emissions ranged between 51 ± 4 and 60 ± 4 kg h -1 . Hexane, the most abundantly emitted pollutant, ranged from 642 ± 45 to 1070 ± 340 kg h -1 . While observed hydrocarbon enhancements fall below federal workplace standards, results may indicate a link between emissions from oil and natural gas operations and concerns about exposure to hazardous air pollutants. The larger public health risks associated with the production and distribution of natural gas are of particular importance and warrant further investigation, particularly as the use of natural gas increases in the United States and internationally.

  16. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  17. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  18. Detection of gas-permeable fuel particles for highl 7490 temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, B.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) consists of uranium oxide-carbide and thoria microspheres coated with layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. The pyrolytic carbon coatings must be gas-tight to perform properly during irradiation. Therefore, particles must be carefully characterized to determine the number of defective particles (ie bare kernels, and cracked or permeable coatings). Although techniques are available to determine the number of bare kernels or cracked coatings, no reliable technique has been available to measure coating permeability. This work describes a technique recently developed to determine whether coatings for a batch of particles are gas-tight or permeable. Although most of this study was performed on Biso-coated particles, the technique applies equally well to Triso-coated particles. About 150 randomly selected Biso-particle batches were studied in this work. These batches were first subjected to an 18-hr chlorination at 15000C, and the volatile thorium tetrachloride released through cracked or very permeable coatings was measured versus chlorination time. Chlorinated batches were also radiographed to detect any thorium that had migrated from the kernel into the coatings. From this work a technique was developed to determine coating permeability. This consists of an 18-hr chlorination of multiple samples without measurement of the heavy metal released. Each batch is then radiographed and the heavy metal diffusion within each particle is examined so it can be determined if a particle batch is permeable, slightly permeable, or gas-tight. (author)

  19. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Marianne [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomich, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This case study explores the production and use of renewable compressed natural gas (R-CNG)—derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste—to fuel heavy-duty refuse trucks and other natural gas vehicles in Sacramento, California.

  20. Analytical method validation of GC-FID for the simultaneous measurement of hydrocarbons (C2-C4) in their gas mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Oman Zuas; Harry budiman; Muhammad Rizky Mulyana

    2016-01-01

    An accurate gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of light hydrocarbons (C2-C4) in their gas mixture. The validation parameters were evaluated based on the ISO/IEC 17025 definition including method selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), and ruggedness. Under the optimum analytical conditions, the analysis of gas mixture revealed that each target comp...